Page 1

Photography, Digital Photography and Art & v8 – by Laurence Moss  2010

P

hotography, Digital Photography and the Art Dept

By Laurence Moss 2010

©Laurence Moss Ltd 2010

Contents / sections a. Introduction p2 b. Photography – p3 i. Cameras & Basic skills c. Digital photography p6 i. Digital cameras ii. Digital file formats iii. Practical camera tasks p10 iv. Storage of files p12 v. Printing p12 vi. Scanning p13 d. Photoshop manipulation p13 e. Photoshop tasks using CD pictures p24 f. Digital photography for Art teachers p27 g. Art and photography p30 h. Art Projects for students p32 i. Aesthetics – what is a good picture? P37 j. History of photography p37 k. Exam boards p38 l. What are examiners looking for? P40 m. Useful software / hardware p41 n. Addendum – A level topics p43 o. Photography topics on Wikipedia p47 p. Photography and Graphics p48 q. Darkroom checklist – processing p49 r. On the CD / contact p51

Booklet © Laurence Moss Ltd 2010 - no copying without written permission please

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.software-partners.co.uk

page 1 of 51


Photography, Digital Photography and Art & v8 – by Laurence Moss  2010

I

ntroduction

This booklet normally supports a one day introductory workshop for Art teachers wishing to introduce a Photographic element into their departmental repertoire. Some teachers, like me, started with the classical ‘wet’ photographic process and then converted to Digital and picked up enough of Photoshop to survive. In the 5 or 6 years that I have run the course I have met teachers who: • Knew nothing, but picked enough from the day to go on to run a department offering GCSE photography • Had previously learned Photoshop [or as one said “we watched a man doing it”] and needed a refresher course. • Wanted some ideas for an Art emphasis on photography. • We’re rebuilding a darkroom and offering a ‘wet’ classical photography course. Of the latter, when asked why, they answered that they wanted to offer a course where students learned ‘properly’ about cameras and printing. In these days of cheap mobile phone and dedicated digital cameras that just point and shoot, I can see that the skills of using a camera are being lost, but you do not have to return to old film cameras just to learn this. As for the merits of learning to print in a dark hot fumey room full of chemicals, I am glad to have left the darkroom. The darkroom is surely controlled on health and safety grounds and subject to the dubious antics of amorous adolescents. So you will not find anything about a darkroom processing or printing in this booklet. Modern devices offering to take photos have become progressively more high quality and automated and we could view ourselves as de-skilled as photographers. Some Art teachers might argue that they want to concentrate on the content of the photos rather than the technicalities, so they wouldn’t worry too much about the skills of using a camera. They can miss out the first few chapters. For the Art Teacher think of Digital Photography as process and product. The process of photography aids and motivates observation, and can facilitate planning and preparatory work, which then results in a Product which is in a more traditional medium. The creation of an ‘artistic’ digital product (printed on paper, fabric etc) also has merit. The Art teacher needs to know something of the digital process to analyse and evaluate student work fairly. At its simplest, a professional quality printout could just be the result of quick photo, application of a filter in one click, without any artistic effort or appreciation. Knowledge of the process enables the teacher to question the student to find out what input they have put into their final product. Examining Bodies take this aspect very seriously! The fact that you are on this course suggests that you are a bit of a beginner. The course introduces you to the concepts and the practice photographic skills. As an Art teacher with students getting into Digital photography, you should expect to: • Know the terminology • Anticipate the problems • Know about the equipment and the processes. • Discuss classroom solutions for saving and storage and display of student work. Booklet © Laurence Moss Ltd 2010 - no copying without written permission please

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.software-partners.co.uk

page 2 of 51


Photography, Digital Photography and Art & v8 – by Laurence Moss  2010

P

hotography – cameras and the basics

Traditionally Cameras capture their images onto plastic film, which then gets processed and printed. Traditional cameras were not all highly technical with knobs, dials and stop numbers, as there were many simple cameras like my Brownie 127 which was point and click and on the right occasion could produce amazing pictures. However there were many cameras that were technical, and my father-in-law spent many minutes working out the right combination with a light meter to get a [reasonable] picture [so no chance of an off the cuff picture]. If you want to know more about cameras and how to get the best out of them, you need to know some basics. What do you need to know?

Exposure Your eyes can see quite well in bright light and the dark. We have a sophisticated iris which opens and closes automatically to control the amount of light entering the eye. The manual camera has an iris but you have to set it to the right setting. [NB. In a camera we normally talk about the diaphragm, or the aperture – it’s a mechanical, adjustable iris] • Too much light – bright washed-out pictures • Too little light – dark, low contrast photos. The traditional camera controls the exposure in two ways: • The size of the iris/aperture – measured / calibrated in ‘f numbers’ or ‘stops’. Increasing the size of the aperture by one ‘stop’, doubled the amount of light passing onto the film. a. Low f number [eg. f1.4] = wide open aperture = maximum light b. High f number [eg. f22] = closed down aperture = minimum light • The speed of the shutter [and there is nothing in our eye to compare this with]. Usually measured in fractions of seconds, for example 1/30 of a second is twice as slow as 1/60 second, and therefore lets twice as much light enter onto the film. Difficult so far? Yes one control is bad enough, but we had to work with the two of them. Some cameras had built in light meters, some photographers had hand-held meters, and some of us had neither and had to guess. There are of course advantages in having two methods of controlling exposure, and this still has implications for the modern digital camera. • If the scene is dark, you could have a fully wide aperture, and make the final adjustment for correct exposure by speeding up/slowing down the shutter. • If the scene had a fast moving object [eg a car] you could choose your fastest shutter speed [to make it appear sharp / not blurred] and make the final adjustment for correct exposure by choosing the appropriate stop number.

Booklet © Laurence Moss Ltd 2010 - no copying without written permission please

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.software-partners.co.uk

page 3 of 51


Photography, Digital Photography and Art & v8 – by Laurence Moss  2010

A ‘old’ Nikon lens 35-80mm denotes it is a zoom – from wide to portrait. 1.4:5.6 minimum aperture This lens can be used manually or as an automatic lens where the camera’s computer will set it [aperture and focus] quickly when you take the photo.

Lenses Many traditional cameras had a fixed lens, but better cameras gave you the chance to buy different lenses to attach to the front of the camera. Zoom lenses came out later that gave you a choice of wide-angle or telephoto [and we take this for granted on modern digital cameras]. The choice of a lens affects your field of view – how much you can see, and how close you can get. There’s that old joke about telling a ‘friend’ to move back, and back and back until they fall over the cliff edge. We either moved towards/away from the subject or told them to. However if you were photographing a football match you don’t have that choice. Lenses were measured in millimetres [mm] and a standard less was about 55mm. A wide angle lens is from 20 -30mm and would show a wide field of view without much distortion A Portrait lens is about 135mm and is great for shooting heads and shoulders or views, without being too much like a telescope. It isn’t too big or heavy so it could be hand held and not have much camera shake [blurring cause by the camera moving]. A telephoto lens is about 400mm and is great for getting close to the action, but generally you would be advised to put it on a tripod. You pay more money for better optics [better glass etc]. You also consider the ‘f ‘ number of the lens, as cheap lenses have a high f number and couldn’t open up much in dark conditions – great on a sunny beach though.

Booklet © Laurence Moss Ltd 2010 - no copying without written permission please

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.software-partners.co.uk

page 4 of 51


Photography, Digital Photography and Art & v8 – by Laurence Moss  2010

Depth of field Whilst ‘field of view’ denoted how much of a scene you could see in the viewfinder, the concept of ‘depth of field’ denotes how much of the scene is in focus. It represents a zone in your picture where everything is in sharp focus. Generally: • Wide-angle lenses – everything in the scene, near the camera and distant is in focus. • Telephoto lenses – you have some control of depth of field by use of the focussing ring and f value, but only part of the scene is in focus [not near the camera and not distant from it. This is sometimes used for artistic effect. Depth of field really depends on the aperture [and focal length – above] you are using. Whatever the lens you are using, • small apertures [high f numbers] give you more depth of field and • big apertures [low f numbers] give you less depth of field On some manual cameras a simple indication of the amount of depth of field is found on a scale near the focussing ring. The explanation is confusing, but when you see the effect in pictures you take, you soon twig.

Film Apart from choosing colour or black and white, you had to choose the speed of the film. The notion of speed refers to how quickly the chemistry in the film emulsion can react to the light coming through the lens. • A fast film – 400ASA – is quite quick, and you would use it for dark, wintry conditions or when you wanted to photo a sports event when you would need fast shutter speeds. Unfortunately, what you gain in speed you lose in quality as fast film can be grainy. • A slow film – 50ASA or less – is slow to respond but great for summer holiday beach photos and the film quality is very sharp. [Even though a digital camera does not have film, there is still a notional setting for the film speed – now measured in Euro DIN – but most cameras do all of this automatically for you.

These are the basic concepts you need to get to grip with. Taking a set of photos which exploit these concepts, will make them much more concrete. See page 10

Booklet © Laurence Moss Ltd 2010 - no copying without written permission please

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.software-partners.co.uk

page 5 of 51


Photography, Digital Photography and Art & v8 – by Laurence Moss  2010

U

sing Digital cameras – what do we need to know?

The most common sort of digital camera is the ‘point and shoot’ automatic type. Who can blame people for spending less than £100 to get an 8 mega pixel camera which takes nice pictures, automatically. Why would they want to spend £500 on a Canon/Nikon with the same number of mega pixels? One reason is that the higher priced cameras allow you to buy extra lenses – telephoto or wide angle – and another is you get more control over the features of the camera – the dials settings and programmes. For a standard landscape photo, you may not be able to tell which camera has taken it, but with other photos – close-up, low light, action photos etc - you will. Having an expensive camera doesn’t guarantee good photos. All camera users can take better pictures if they practise with the camera and the settings The best way to understand the use of the features of a camera is to give users various tasks [take pictures] which use those features, and then view and compare the results. Some features are dependent on the settings of the camera. This may demand a reading of the camera manual! Even simple cameras have settings.

ISO settings – this relates to what was called film speed [ASA /DIN]. The human eye is incredibly sensitive to light levels though we are not too good in seeing in the dark. Film / Camera chips are not so sensitive and have to be manually set to bright or dark settings. With film, highest quality pictures were obtained with slow speed film in bright conditions [100 ISO]. For action pictures [fast shutter speeds] or low light conditions we used fast film [400 ISO] but the quality suffered [grain]. Digital cameras have some kind of setting for ‘film speed’. Often it is done automatically, and they may expect you to make improvements to poor picture quality with Photoshop skills. Other cameras a have some kind of quality or speed setting – find it and use it once you have anticipated the lighting conditions/ action you are facing.

File size and frame size, mega-pixel choice – this controls the size and quality of each frame. If you want to print high quality pictures, you need to choose the biggest frame size and quality. If you do this you won’t be able to store so many pictures on your memory card. If you want pictures to be used in a computer application, shown on a laptop or projected with a multimedia projector, you need to choose smaller lower quality frames. My 3.2 mp Canon Powershot offers me: Picture size: pixels 2048 x 1536 [=3.15 million] – I am told I can get 24 pictures on the memory card 1600 x 1200 [=1.9million], and get 39 pictures 1024 x 768 [=0.78million], and get 69 pictures 640 x 480 [=.3 million], and get 155 pictures

Booklet © Laurence Moss Ltd 2010 - no copying without written permission please

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.software-partners.co.uk

page 6 of 51


Photography, Digital Photography and Art & v8 – by Laurence Moss  2010 I am also offered Superfine quality [155 pictures] , fine [ 253 pictures] or normal [436 pictures]. So what do you choose? • If you want prints of highest quality/size, go for big pictures and highest quality – get a bigger memory card as you won’t get many pictures if they are this big. • If you want to put pictures on the internet, or a small digital photo frame you need small pictures. You can also choose lower quality since the average computer screen has poor image resolution. • If you use ‘digital zoom’ rather than the optical zoom, choose a higher quality setting than normal. Digital zoom is a cheat – it zooms in on the picture electronically. Don’t use it on low size/quality settings. • If you want to take pictures at night, in low light or of fast action subjects, try to choose a fast [high] ISO setting if offered. Simple cameras all record in a JPEG format – the most common format. Specialist cameras may ask you to make decisions about other formats – TIFFs and RAW etc. These other specialist formats record more information in the picture and therefore a higher quality. Note – these files will use more memory space on your flash card. [A note about memory cards – you should already know that they differ in their size which equates to the number of pictures they store. They also differ in the speed at which they store images – once you have pressed the shutter button – and users with fancy cameras taking high quality images will notice that they may have to wait several seconds before they are able to take another picture. These users need to get a memory card which has faster processing time – yes, they cost more]. Black and white / colour / enhanced colour – If you use Photoshop, you can convert your pictures to B&W or enhance them after taking them. If you know what you want [eg. B&W] you can choose this in advance [and save on memory space].

Programmes – AUTO – this is the default setting. The camera makes a decision to set the camera to take the best picture it can. It will not be the ‘best’ if your pictures are taken in low light conditions or you are taking fast action subjects. Aperture priority – this controls the aperture – which is the amount of light passing through the lens – it tries to give you as much light as possible. In dull conditions, you may want the shutter to open longer so that more light can pass through onto the chip, and therefore take better pictures in dull light. The problem is that a longer shutter speed leads to more camera shake – blurred pictures – and the need to use a tripod. Shutter priority – this controls the speed of the shutter and tries to give you the fastest speed possible. This makes pictures of moving objects sharper. The problem with this is that you need a bigger aperture to get enough light. This option is easy on a bright day but not easy in dull light. Your choice of programme / setting may effect the Depth of field – the amount of your picture which will be in focus, relative to distance from the camera. Wide apertures give smaller depth of field so accurate focussing will have to be more critical. Smaller apertures give greater depth of field.

Booklet © Laurence Moss Ltd 2010 - no copying without written permission please

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.software-partners.co.uk

page 7 of 51


Photography, Digital Photography and Art & v8 – by Laurence Moss  2010

Autofocus? By default all digital cameras are set for autofocus, and if you want manual focussing you’ll have to select that [why would you want to?]. There are different kinds of focussing. CAF – constant autofocus – with this on, your batteries will always be driving the focussing motor as it constantly re-adjusts the focus. It reads the focus of the area within the indicated area/s in the viewfinder. You will constantly be hearing the focus motor drive working every time you move the camera. S-AF – this will adjust the focus only when you press the shutter button lightly. This uses up your battery power less. Manual focus – you twist the lens, or press buttons yourself and view the effect in the viewfinder. Macro focus – this is for close ups. The icon is a tulip. A normal lens cannot focus very close to an object. Macro does something to make this possible. Read your manual to find how close you can focus. Technically you may be able to press buttons to adjust the macro zoom. Usually you focus by moving the lens/camera closer/further to the object. If you have a big bright viewfinder you will be able to see when the object is in focus. You will not have much depth of field in macro – you may have to decide which part of the object you want in/out of focus. A note about focus – depending on your camera. Automatic focussing does not always result in the correct part of your picture being sharp [in focus]. Generally speaking the camera selects the centre of the viewfinder for focus measurements, but what if your subject is not in the centre? Usually you can half press the shutter and the camera takes a reading – but not yet a picture – and then you move the camera lens to adjust the position of the subject. This trick works with focus and exposure values, and is extremely useful.

Exposure values Exposure is about getting the right amount of light onto the camera film/chip to give a perfect picture. People’s faces will not be too bright or too light. Some cameras claim to detect faces and measure their correct exposure, more than any other part of the picture. Correct exposure results from a combination of shutter speed and aperture settings. • Slow shutter / small aperture • Fast shutter / large aperture • Medium shutter / medium aperture. Exposure is measured, and then the shutter speed and aperture are calculated and set to give a perfectly exposed picture – not too light or dark. The camera measures the light values at various places in the viewfinder and sets shutter/aperture values appropriately. You need to know where these areas of the viewfinder are, so that you can ensure the important parts of the picture are correctly measured and exposed [ eg. Faces of people]. Usually, with most cameras, you can hold the shutter button down lightly so that the exposure values are measured in one part of the scene, and then move the camera lens to point at the general scene. Press the shutter button further to take the picture. Some cameras have ‘spot’ readings – an exposure reading at one specific spot in the centre of the lens. Some cameras have average readings, either taking various spot values and averaging them, or just taking a general/average value for the whole screen.

Booklet © Laurence Moss Ltd 2010 - no copying without written permission please

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.software-partners.co.uk

page 8 of 51


Photography, Digital Photography and Art & v8 – by Laurence Moss  2010

Bracketting – is the taking of several pictures at different exposure values to ensure that one of the pictures will be perfect. Typically bracketing takes 3 pictures – one too bright, one correct, and one too dark [called stops - +/-].

Zooming – digital cameras have 2 kinds of zoom. The first is based on optical zooming – the lenses move in and out to bring the action closer. The second is a kind of cheat – it’s called digital zooming and often starts when the optical zoom ends. It’s an electronic/digital zooming into the image on the chip. It loses quality [dependant on the quality of the chip]. Flash – flash is used to enhance dark picture environments. Fill-in flash is used when it may not be strictly necessary but will fill in some of the shadows – that’s why it’s sometimes used on sunny days. Red-eye is the result of flash bouncing back off the blood vessels in the rear of the eye. Clever flash gives several flashes – the first makes the aperture constrict, so that the second [main] flash does not result in red-eye. Auto flash – by default the flash comes on when the camera thinks it necessary.

Booklet © Laurence Moss Ltd 2010 - no copying without written permission please

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.software-partners.co.uk

page 9 of 51


Photography, Digital Photography and Art & v8 – by Laurence Moss  2010 Get your students to take these photos to see the effect of these settings on their camera. Take a notebook and try to record the camera settings for each picture. Print or view each of the photos to see the effects. You do not need to use a ‘fancy’ camera – most cheap digital cameras have a manual setting if you try to look for it. My advice is that you set the camera on a tripod wherever possible so that when comparing sets of photos [with differing exposure settings] you are eliminating other variables in your composition. If you are trying to concentrate on studying technical variables and their effect on photos, don’t worry about trying to take ‘pretty’ or nicely composed pictures. Try to take the photos on a day where light values do not change too much.

A. Focus and depth of field: take a photo of • • • •

Any view where most of the distant scene is in focus, eg. landscape a. one taken with wide angle lens b. one taken with standard / portrait lens with small aperture eg.f22 A view where a nearby object [person?] is in focus in the centre of the picture frame but the main background is out of focus. a. Use lens fully zoomed [portrait/telephoto]. A view where an object [person?] is in focus in the middle distance at the edge/side of the picture frame but the main foreground / background is out of focus. Use lens fully zoomed. As 2&3 above – but with the lens zoomed in [ie. Wide angle] so that you can compare with above.

Depth of field – set up a scene where some objects in the field of view are at different distances from the lens [something close-up, middle distance and at infinity]. Take pictures with different stages of zooming. Take pictures at varying exposure values [especially aperture – small, medium, wide]. It will help to make a note of any settings when you take these pictures. You may have to use manual settings to control the aperture. Some cameras record these settings when they take the picture.

Macro – take various pictures of a small flower bud using the macro function. This is often the tulip icon. You may have to focus by moving the camera towards/away from the subject until it looks sharp. Investigate how close you can get without the macro, on wide angle. Then zoom out/full and see how far away you need to be to get a sharp picture. [eg. my camera can focus to 6” / 15cm at wide angle but only 18” / 45cm at full zoom]

B. Exposure: • •

Take an ordinary scene where everything is at the correct exposure [as measured by your camera automatically] Take a picture with bracketed exposure – minus 1 stop, plus one stop. Some advanced cameras have a button which automatically makes the camera take 3 pictures. With a simpler camera, if you have a manual control you may be able to take a darker and lighter version of your picture. Take a picture of a person with a dark face/dark clothing standing in front of a light background. Don’t be too close to the person as we want a big light background. With a simple camera, just take a picture with auto exposure. Depending on the exposure system

Booklet © Laurence Moss Ltd 2010 - no copying without written permission please

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.software-partners.co.uk

page 10 of 51


Photography, Digital Photography and Art & v8 – by Laurence Moss  2010

on your camera you might also be able to concentrate the exposure calculation on just the person, rather than an average of the whole frame. Take a picture of a person with a light face/light clothing standing in front of a dark background. Don’t be too close to the person as we want a big dark background. With a simple camera, just take a picture with auto exposure. Depending on the exposure system on your camera you might also be able to concentrate the exposure calculation on just the person, rather than an average of the whole frame.

NB- with an automatic camera you must learn to sample the autofocus and auto exposure on part of the picture, by half pressing the shutter button. This locks the value into its computer. You then move the camera to point at the small point you are interested in and then finish pressing the shutter button fully to take the photo. This useful when the object of the picture is small compared to the whole scene, or not in the centre of the frame. This explains why you thought you were focussing on your object but the camera has measured the distance/focus and exposure of the background, leaving your object blurred.

C. Programmes: if your camera has them • • •

Aperture priority – take a picture when it’s getting a little dark, or indoors – without using the flash. Take one hand-held, and one on a tripod. You may want to try these pictures with different ISO settings to see the differences. Shutter priority – take a picture of a moving object crossing your path. Take one with the camera stationary, and another with the camera tracking the moving object. You may want to try these pictures with different ISO settings to see the differences. Manual settings – put your camera on a tripod and try a photo in near dark conditions [in bright moonlight, or bright lights of the city]. Set the manual exposure to a 15 second exposure [most family cameras can do this]. Some cameras have further time settings [it used to be the B button] and you may then need a cable release.

99% of all ordinary photos can successfully be taken on Automatic settings. Camera technology has developed sufficiently for the electronic part of the camera to calculate the best setting, so why do we need other controls? • If I want to take a photo with the foreground and background both in focus [ie great depth of field] the Automatic setting will not know this is what I want. I will have to use Aperture preference to select a small aperture [ie great depth of field]. • If I want to take a photo of a horse rider jumping over a fence, I will have to use Shutter preferences to select a fast shutter speed as the Automatic setting will not know this is what I want. The pragmatic way of taking photos, noting their exposure details and then assessing the results, is the tried and tested way of learning how to take better pictures in the future. Every camera works on the same principles but you have to tune in to the idiosyncrasies of each individual camera. Of course, you may get technically perfect photos but they are still rubbish – that’s all about composition, colour, subject matter etc!

Booklet © Laurence Moss Ltd 2010 - no copying without written permission please

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.software-partners.co.uk

page 11 of 51


Photography, Digital Photography and Art & v8 – by Laurence Moss  2010

Storage of Photographic images / files Most cameras will take photos in a JPEG format and store them on the camera’s memory card. Some more advanced cameras also give the option of more advanced formats –eg RAW – but in the end Photoshop will deal with all formats. After a shoot you will need to transfer the images from camera to computer. The easiest option is to buy a cheap card-reader, so you slot your card in and the computer will ask where you want them put. You may want a second storage area where original files can be stored – perhaps a USB memory stick or larger portable hard drive. Try always to manipulate copies of original files in case anything goes wrong. In school, students will always blame you for any lost image files, so as a teacher I would offer [but not guarantee] ‘safe’ or ‘backup’ storage on the departmental computer, but recommend / insist that students look after their own files on a USB stick. Files can be ‘dumped’ in a folder suitable labelled if you wish. Many people like the free software from Google – Picasa – which will upload, store and display photographic files on a computer Adobe Photoshop has a sub programme which tries to upload pictures from your camera, but I don’t like it – this is a personal matter.

Printing photos Ink jet printers, which basically blow fine droplets of coloured ink onto the surface of the printing medium, are wonderfully versatile. Many different printing papers are sold with a range of surfaces – matt, silk, glossy etc – and thicknesses of base paper. We have experimented with – fine cotton, newsprint, and some plastics with ‘absorbent’ surfaces. Laser printers can print onto some clear plastic films. It’s worth having an old ink jet printer to try out new printing experiments. Things can get messy when they go wrong. You can use ordinary printer paper for draft printing, or more special printing paper with a sealed surface, or pukka printing papers – it all depends on what quality you want and how much you have to spend. Laser printers use toner rather than ink. I use an OKI and am very pleased with the print and photo quality. The problem is always with the cost of toner [and ink] but the OKI prints colour at about 10p a page.

Booklet © Laurence Moss Ltd 2010 - no copying without written permission please

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.software-partners.co.uk

page 12 of 51


Photography, Digital Photography and Art & v8 – by Laurence Moss  2010

Scanning – text & 3D Scanners are traditionally used to capture the image of text or printed pictures, but with care, you can scan some 3dimensional objects too. Don’t scratch the glass plate! Even a cheap scanner can give great results if you use the software that ‘sets’ them, correctly. Scanners come with their own software, and owners often overlook how useful these can be. You need to tell the scanner what resolution [dots per inch] to scan and whether it is grey or B/W. Personally I access the scanner software from within Photoshop because usually I then continue to enhance the image. In P’Shop you go File> import > then choose your scanner. It will scan in the scanner software and send the image to P’Shop where you can do what you want. When scanning 3D objects, place a dark cloth over the image, as you won’t be able to close the lid and you don’t want light leaking in.

M

anipulation of images with Photoshop

Photoshop is the industry standard software, but there are others, and they all work more or less the same way. Before rushing out to get the full copy of the latest version of Photoshop, please consider Photoshop Elements. True it’s a cut down version but it’s good enough for most students doing KS3&4. Serif produce a nice suite of software including Photoplus. The Gimp is open source software and as such it is a free download. It is a sophisticated piece of software despite being free, but has few concessions for beginners – you have to know how Photoshop works. Digital photographs - concepts; PIXELS: Remember looking close up at photos in newspapers, or pictures on the +v - you can see the dots! Digital photographs are also made up of dots - pixels. The smaller the dots the more -millions of dots- you can cram in a photo, and therefore the sharper the picture Modern cameras try to outdo each other - currently about 6 million pixels is top of the range. If you want to print large photos, you need as many -dots per inch [dpi] as possible, but if you want to make photos which are going to appear on a computer monitor, you don't need so many dpi. Adjust your camera to a lower setting. SIZE OF IMAGE: A digital photo is a series of digital 1's and 0's as far as a computer is concerned - it doesn't have a size in one sense, because you can make it bigger and smaller We notice the -size- of the image when (a) we find it's big because the memory card can only contain a few pictures, and (b) the picture fills the screen when we load it into an application. That's great if you want to print a big A4 print. If you want to get (c) more pics on your memory card, and (d) only need smaller images for your PC, then adjust the camera for a smaller size image. The choice is yours. IMAGE FORMAT: Music exists as an entity, which is stored in different formats - LP, tape CD digital/analogue. Photos exist in different formats too. Some are high quality and some are low quality. Generally speaking, the highest quality formats take up large amounts of computer memory and are slow to load in applications. Low quality formats are economic in computer memory and are faster to load.

Booklet © Laurence Moss Ltd 2010 - no copying without written permission please

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.software-partners.co.uk

page 13 of 51


Photography, Digital Photography and Art & v8 – by Laurence Moss  2010 Digital cameras usually record in 'Jpeg' ,and sometimes you have a choice of other formats. After opening the photo in Elements and making alterations, you could save it in a number of formats: • Save to web - GIF or JPEG - suitable for a web page • Save as a PSD - an Adobe format which also saves details of all the layers and effects which you have edited, so that you can save it, and re-edit it later, with all the changes still available. PSD’s are large files but have all the information you need to continue with work, or go back to a previous stage [history]. In general, work with a copy of the original photo, and save the new version you want in a lower format JPEG. Do not alter the original - save it in a safe place. The following guide is based on Elements.

Adobe Photoshop Elements 2 [or 3/4/5] It is a world-class piece of software, at a budget price (~£50). This software will edit your photographs, and add special effects plus more. It is targeted at the user who doesn’t want the complexity and expense of Photoshop. And especially at the user who wants to put images on computer applications

What is/are the most common tasks that you'll want to carry out? CROP; this is the equivalent of cutting off the edges of a print until you get the smaller detail that you want. RESIZE'. You can make your photo any size, to fit the application of your choice. It's easy to make it smaller - you don't lose any quality. Be careful of trying to make a small picture bigger, because you'll start noticing the pixels getting bigger! ROTATING: You often need to turn the picture through 90 degrees to make it 'upright'.

UPPER TOOL BAR; Access to Rotate, Crop and Resize

Rotate – open the picture. IMAGE > ROTATE – choose the angle. Crop - open picture, choose crop tool, drag a ‘crop’ box on the picture – you can adjust size and position of this box using the grab handles. Double click in the centre to crop. Resize – choose IMAGE > RESIZE > IMAGE SIZE – insert new dimensions. Notice that as you change the width, the height alters automatically to keep the proportion the same.

Booklet © Laurence Moss Ltd 2010 - no copying without written permission please

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.software-partners.co.uk

page 14 of 51


Photography, Digital Photography and Art & v8 – by Laurence Moss  2010

RESIZE COMMANDS: Image Size - the size of the photo. Canvas Size - the size of the box that picture sits in

ROTATE COMMANDS

SIDE TOOL BAR

------------------------------------------------------------Next, you might want to: Add TEXT: you can add text onto your photos. Or you can make special text with graphic / photographic features. Add AUTOSHAPES: you can add a selection of ready made shapes either to add to your photos, or (more likely) you will want to create a graphic button with the shape, and fill it with a photographic feature / effect. FILL PAINT: You can fill shapes with colours, patterns and shading.

Booklet © Laurence Moss Ltd 2010 - no copying without written permission please

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.software-partners.co.uk

page 15 of 51


Photography, Digital Photography and Art & v8 – by Laurence Moss  2010

TEXT: horizontal or vertical?

Choose the text tool and place in position on the image and type – you can highlight and change. Look for the details of your text (font, size, colour etc) under the upper tool bar.

SHAPES:

Choose the shape and drag it onto your image. Note the properties under the upper tool bar where you can set the number of sides and the fill. PAINT FILL: now fix the colour!

FOREGROUND & BACKGROUND

These are the two chosen colours that you are using – the one on top is the foreground colour and the one below, the background colour. The little arrow icon will swap the colours over. The other little icon will choose default colours (usually B&W). Double click on the colours to open the colour choice swatch.

WINDOW > COLOUR SWATCHES:

Booklet © Laurence Moss Ltd 2010 - no copying without written permission please

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.software-partners.co.uk

page 16 of 51


Photography, Digital Photography and Art & v8 – by Laurence Moss  2010

COLOUR PICKER:

The more advanced and creative uses of Elements are: MAKE A SELECTION: which allows you to select or cut out parts of the image, so that you can apply effects to those parts. MAKE A LAYER: Layers are fundamental building blocks of graphic images. Imagine a series of celluloid sheets on top of each other; these are the layers. If you can select parts of the main photograph [even parts of other photos] and attach them to the transparent layers, you can easily move these components relative to each other to make your final creation’. APPLY LAYER EFFECTS or EFFECTS or FILTERS: There are a host of special graphic effects that can be applied to parts of an image, or to a whole layer. Effects and filters can be combined. Some effects are merely colour management techniques whilst others are distortion’ effects.

MARQUEE: this allows you to select or cut a regular shape. Select one and drag the cursor over your picture. Go> layer > new and then either layer via copy’ or ‘layer via cut’. Then you can manipulate it in the new layer.

MAGIC WAND: this allows you to select areas of similar colour. In the tool bar, adjust the tolerance. A low number - exactly the same colour. A higher number - more tolerance of similar shades. Then go> layer > new and then either ‘layer via copy’ or ‘layer via cut’. Then you can manipulate it in the new layer.

Booklet © Laurence Moss Ltd 2010 - no copying without written permission please

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.software-partners.co.uk

page 17 of 51


Photography, Digital Photography and Art & v8 – by Laurence Moss  2010

LASSO : this enables you to cut round irregular shapes (like scissors). The polygonal tool allows you to click on points, which the computer will connect. The magnetic tool automatically connects to a clear line on the picture. Go> layer > new and then either ‘layer via copy’ or ‘layer via cut’. Then you can manipulate it in the new layer.

SELECTION BRUSH: allows you to select an area by painting with various shapes of brush. On the tool bar, choose the brush and size. Paint the area you want to select with the brush. Go> layer > new and then either ‘layer via copy’ or ‘layer via cut’. Then you can manipulate it in the new layer

EFFECTS applies effects to your selections. Once you have selected an area click on the appropriate effect to apply it. • Frames - adds a picture frame • Image effects - apply to picture • Text effects - apply to selected text. • Textures — fills with texture

LAYER Window: this shows details of the layers that you have in use. You can make layers temporarily invisible so that you can concentrate on one layer at a time. This example has 3 layers. Click the eye’ to make the layer visible or invisible. You can lock the layer to stop changes happening to it. You can make the layer more or less opaque or transparent. Click on the layer to make it active - it turns blue/grey.

Booklet © Laurence Moss Ltd 2010 - no copying without written permission please

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.software-partners.co.uk

page 18 of 51


Photography, Digital Photography and Art & v8 – by Laurence Moss  2010

LAYER STYLES: you can apply various styles or effects to an individual layer. First select the layer you want to change with a style. You can add • Bevels • Drop shadows • Buttons • Photo effects • Others - chrome, neon, plastic

FILTERS: you can apply various artistic filters to selections and layers Try them and adjust the variables. Apply if you like them, and ‘Undo’ if you want to remove the filter. •

Artistic

Blur

Distortion

Noise

Others

Right hand – top menu

These tabs give you access to the effects and layers (above). You can undock them by clicking and grabbing on their names and dragging them into the screen. Important tabs are:

Hints – suggestions to help

How to – interactive recipes to aid your work

Booklet © Laurence Moss Ltd 2010 - no copying without written permission please

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.software-partners.co.uk

page 19 of 51


Photography, Digital Photography and Art & v8 – by Laurence Moss  2010 •

Navigator – shows a thumbnail of your work and a zoom bar below. Drag the bar from side to side to zoom in to your image. Note: when you look at your image, the name bar will tell you at what % size you are looking at it. By dragging the zoom bar here you can see your image at full size.

History – shows all the processes you have been through with this image, and from here you can go back and undo these processes until you arrive back at the original.

Layers – gives all the information about the layers in your picture. You can add or delete a layer. The active layer is the one you are currently working on. Click on the eye to temporarily remove that layer from view. Use the lock to protect a layer from accidental change. Change the opacity of the layer so that you can see it to the layer below.

Layer styles, effects and filters are described above.

WHAT ELSE CAN YOU DO WITH ELEMENTS? File>Print layouts •

>Contact sheets – an A4 sheet with small ‘thumbnails’ of all your photos

>Picture package – several copies of the same picture – all on one A4

File>Create web photo gallery •

Photo gallery – a series of web pages automatically created, showing thumbnails of your photos, easily viewed, and accessed in full size by clicking on them. The Gallery enables the teacher to catalogue pictures into logical groups (or galleries) and easily access them during a lesson. It also enables students to use the Gallery as a source of photo clip art – they can right click on the photo and copy & paste to their own application.

File>create photomerge •

Photo merge – stitches together several pictures to make a wide or long photo. For example, one can create a long photo of a line of houses / shops / offices in a street. Geography students can then make a survey of shops in an area and compare with another street in another town. History students can concentrate on the age of buildings and building materials. Art students can concentrate on architectural details not noticed in their first observation.

Saving: •

Whether you need big high quality photos, or small computer based images, it’s always good to save your work at the biggest size and quality [reducing size and quality at the last moment]. This takes up space!! You need to ensure that your students have sufficient file space to store all their images.

Saving as a PSD [photoshop data] stores at the best quality and saves all the information about layers and history. Your students need this information if they are to continue with a project the following week. If space permits, get your students to store sequential weeks work [PSD1, PSD2….. etc] to show the development of their work.

Booklet © Laurence Moss Ltd 2010 - no copying without written permission please

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.software-partners.co.uk

page 20 of 51


Photography, Digital Photography and Art & v8 – by Laurence Moss  2010 •

With coursework, insist that students take responsibility for their own coursework by using a flash memory stick. Tell them that you will try to store their work on the departmental computer / network, but you cannot guarantee it.

Digital photography notes • • •

- For the basic user

TAKE PICS UPLOAD TO COMPUTER PRINT

It’s very simple For those wishing to manipulate their photos – from cropping to adding special effects – you need a programme like Photoshop Elements. Open your photo – CROP and RESIZE where necessary. SELECT [that/those parts of the picture you want to alter] • CUT – removes parts of the photo • COPY o PASTE – you can either paste to a NEW LAYER in the same photo o Or paste into a NEW LAYER on a different photo The new selection can be changed by adding a: • FILTER • EFFECT • LAYER STYLE SELECTION TOOLS 1. Marquee – Square / Oval – has simple application. You can feather the edges if you want blurred edges. Default feathering 0px – type in more eg 20

The first button [Left] selects only one area at a time. The 2nd left button allows you to select several areas at a time. 2. Lasoo tools – you can be more selective, and cut around objects.

• •

‘ordinary’ lasoo – use mouse to cut around, and return to start. ‘polygonal’ lasoo – as above, but click to establish nodes – straight line selection are drawn in between.

Booklet © Laurence Moss Ltd 2010 - no copying without written permission please

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.software-partners.co.uk

page 21 of 51


Photography, Digital Photography and Art & v8 – by Laurence Moss  2010 •

‘magnetic’ lasoo – move mouse around, and the cursor finds the edge [where there is a boundary between 2 objects of different tonal value]. You may have to adjust the ‘edge contrast’.

Again you can select one or several ‘selections’ as above. 3. Magic wand – this selects on tonal value. It’s very useful but can be tricky to perfect. Click on a spot with the tonal range you want. You can adjust ‘tolerance’. Contiguous [adjoining] On/ticked – will select any pixel of the same tone, which adjoins the one you are on. Selects one area of tone. Off/unticked – will select any pixel on the screen – anywhere - which has the same tone. Selects lots of areas. Tolerance – controls the breadth of tonal value selected. Low value – specific tone exactly as chosen – eg – pure white – no cream High value – more variation in tone – cream includes whites and greys 4. Selection brush – the brush selects parts of the picture. Easy to use. Adjust the width of the brush to suit subject. Zoom into picture to assist.

Select all – selects all of the picture Deselect – undoes the selection you have made Inverse – after making a selection it drops the area you have selected and chooses the rest of the picture. Sometimes it is easier to select what you don’t want, and use inverse to give you the selection you do want. Now you’ve made a selection of an area of the picture, what do you do with it? CUT / COPY / PASTE From photo 1 to a new layer on photo 2 From photo 1 to a new layer on photo 1 CUT: removes the selection from the picture. [NB if you then use paste, that area will be pasted. If you don’t use paste it will be lost]. Cut can be used on any layer to remove a shape from that layer, so that you can see what’s on the layer below – a window.

Booklet © Laurence Moss Ltd 2010 - no copying without written permission please

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.software-partners.co.uk

page 22 of 51


Photography, Digital Photography and Art & v8 – by Laurence Moss  2010 COPY, followed by PASTE. 2 methods make a selection first Select > Edit > Copy ………….. then ……. Select > Edit > Paste. The area that is pasted will be pasted onto a new layer above the layer that is being copied. Select > Layer > New > Layer via copy. This makes a new layer above the one being copied, and automatically pastes the area onto it. When areas are copied to any new layer: You can move objects on different layer relative and independent of each other. You can apply special effects just to that layer/area alone. Individual layers can be: Dragged into the trash can for removal Dragged up and down the stack to put some objects in front/behind others Be changed in Opacity – transparency Be re-named – makes finding individual layers easier Can be locked / unlocked to prevent accidental changes. Now the area has been copied to a new layer, what can you do with it? FILTERS / EFFECTS & STYLES – available from drop down tabs – RH side. Some effect all of the picture – imagine looking at a photo through coloured glasses. Some effect just one layer alone – some parts are normal and some have an effect. Some EFFECTS only effect Text, or Frames, or Images, or Textures Some are Artistic or Deforming Many effects give you a preview window so that you can adjust the effect You just drag the filter/effect/style onto the photo – if you don’t like it use the undo icon. SAVING The default value when you Save, is a PSD – the native Photoshop format. This retains all History and Layer details as well as your picture at maximum quality. Use a PSD so that you can continue your work next week. A PSD is a big file because of all the information it stores. You can save as a JPEG- it is a variable quality format so you can save a picture as a low quality file [for a web page, small file size] or a high quality file for prints. The layers and history details are lost. The layers of the photo are flattened into one. I suggest that you make students ultimately responsible for the safe storage of their work, by using a flash memory stick. One can never guarantee the safety of work in school when saved on the network or on stand-alone computers. I like to make them responsible. When their work is on memory sticks, they can easily take work home to finish / develop it. This of course takes coursework out of your control / supervision, and for all you know they have someone else doing the work for them. That’s why you need to save various stages of their work and monitor the progress made over time.

Booklet © Laurence Moss Ltd 2010 - no copying without written permission please

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.software-partners.co.uk

page 23 of 51


Photography, Digital Photography and Art & v8 – by Laurence Moss  2010 The following is a workshop I do with learners, and refers to 4 photos which are on the CD. For those without the CD, don’t worry, they are not special pictures – any will do.

Tasks in Elements: Workshop 1 – basic techniques. 1. Open the picture – cliffs.jpg First rotate the image so that it is the right way up. Crop the picture to suit yourself Resize the image so that it is 400 pixels wide. Save it as mycliffs.jpg I can Rotate

I can use Crop

I can Resize an image

2. Open the picture – houses.jpg In the style of an advert – drag an autoshape – perhaps a start – onto the picture to bring attention to it. Fill the autoshape with a colour / gradient Add some text to the picture – eg House for sale. Make the font large enough to be noticed! Extension – with the text, use ‘warped text’ Save as myhouse.jpg I can use text

I can use Autoshapes

I can fill

3. Open the picture – seagull.jpg Click on the lasso tool (2nd down, on left of tool bar) and choose the magnetic lasso. Carefully move the cursor around the shape of the bird, holding the left button down. The magnetic lasso will find the edge for you. Be careful around the beak and tail – you might want to right click in places to fix the point. When you have made a complete circuit, ‘marching ants’ will surround the bird. You can now either: - copy and paste to another picture, or this one. Paste to the same image and have 2 birds side by side. - Go Layer>new layer> layer by Copy. The selected bird will be put onto a new layer, above the first picture. Look at the Layers tab (top right – drag down to view) and click on the eye by the lower layer to temporarily remove it from sight. You will only see that bird you have just cut around. Go to the tab Layer Styles and drag a style onto your picture – note the effect and experiment. I can use the magnetic lasso

I can make a new layer

I can apply layer styles

4. Open the picture – lock.jpg Click on the magic wand. Try to select the lock mechanism with the wand. Adjust the tolerance so that you only select the mechanism. Just to the left of the tolerance setting are 4 small icons ( L to R – new selection, add to selection…) if you use ‘add to selection’ you keep adding new areas to the main selection. When you feel you have selected what you want, go Layer>New>layer via copy so send this selection to a new higher layer. Check the Layer tab to see the 2 layers and click the eye on the lower photo to remove it Booklet © Laurence Moss Ltd 2010 - no copying without written permission please

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.software-partners.co.uk

page 24 of 51


Photography, Digital Photography and Art & v8 – by Laurence Moss  2010 temporarily. Look at the Layer Styles or Effects and choose a style / effect to drag onto the selected mechanism. When happy, unclick the eye on the lower layer so that you see everything. If you find the magic wand clumsy – try the selection brush. Make sure you adjust the size of the brush. When selected, go Layer>New>layer via copy as above. I can use the magic wand

I can use the magic brush

Tasks for the future, to try out: Cloning – this is very useful. You can clone part of an image from the existing image or from another image. This is how you can clean up old cracked B&W photos. Click on the clone stamp tool. Find the area you want to copy the colour/texture from. Hold ALT down and L click the mouse. Now go to the place where you want to copy to and hold the mouse L button down and paint. Watch the cross hairs – this is where and what you are copying from. Erase - Copy and past the whole of one picture on top of another – the copied picture will form a layer on top of the first picture. Use the eraser tool on the top picture and you will see the lower picture coming through. Can’t see what you’re doing – select the top layer and change the opacity so that it is easier to see through it to the lower picture. Graphics - though we usually associate Elements with photos, you don’t have to. Go File>New and create a new picture about 500 x 400 pixels. It’s up to you whether you want to put it onto a transparent background or a coloured one – try coloured for now. Add appropriate text and auto shapes, and give them graphic effects / layer styles. Other ideas: When it comes down to it, what can you do with digital photographs? • • • • • • •

Apply effects and filters – effects, filters, layer styles Remove parts of a picture – erase, clone Add parts to a picture – layers, cut & paste Transform a picture – size, distortion. Select part of a picture – crop Add text and textual features Add graphic shapes

Creative tasks: • Combine parts of two photos to make a surrealist product. • Scan a photo of a famous person and add an image of yourself next to them. • Using a portrait or landscape, make an Impressionist, or Pointillist version. Printing options: When it comes to printing, you are limited by the kind of printer you are connected to: • Laser B/W or colour • Ink jet colour or B/W • A3 or A4

Booklet © Laurence Moss Ltd 2010 - no copying without written permission please

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.software-partners.co.uk

page 25 of 51


Photography, Digital Photography and Art & v8 – by Laurence Moss  2010 And the software that comes with the printer, or as part of your operating system: • Sets the number of prints • Allows you to take a smaller picture and expand it to ‘fill’ the screen • Use Print Preview to view what you are likely to print before committing yourself • Sets the picture / paper to landscape or portrait format Use page setup or paper setup to define the size and format of the paper. Your printer may have an adjustment for the thickness of paper used – the envelope icon generally denotes thicker paper. If you want to print on thin flimsy paper or fabric, you might be advised to lightly attach it to a thicker paper (with pritt stick – not staples!) In the ideal circumstances, you will use the photo software to make the image an appropriate size for printing – make it A4 size for 1:1 printing. If you have a small image (eg. 200pixels square) and want to use the ‘expand to fit’ printing option, you will get a very pixillated print. If the cost of special paper is an issue – and special inkjet paper could cost you £1 a sheet, print draft copies on laser jet paper first. Photoshop Elements gives you printing options, which include a Contact sheet – small pictures of all the photos in a folder, and Photo package - multiple copies of 1 picture. Find out where the printer maintenance software is – occasionally you need to clean the nozzles of the printer and calibrate the head so that you avoid horizontal lines. Slideshows – are an automated sequence of displaying your photos at time intervals defined by yourself. Windows XP and Mac OS give you this option automatically when you view the pictures. There are other special examples of software which are aimed particularly at display slideshows. You could use PowerPoint, and set it to display pages automatically, but then you have to put the photos on each page first – but then you can add text / subtitles. Try Picasa from Google or Microsoft Photostory3 – both free. Storage of photos and transferring photos: - all computers eventually go wrong, crash and lose all your work. You need to be able to ‘back-up’ photos, but since they are often so large in size, you can quickly fill up a small computer. One solution is to burn a CD Rom – that can store 650mb, or put them onto a DVD – several gigabytes. Back up your work regularly. The other problem is to transfer pictures between computers – at school, or between home and school. Get a Flash memory stick - a USB memory ‘key-ring’ – it simply plugs into the USB port and acts just like another hard drive. You can plug the device into one computer, grab the picture, and then plug the device into another computer and download it. It will also capture pictures from a Mac, and download it to a Windows PC! You don’t need special software or drivers with the Mac or Windows XP. The devices are relatively cheap, and comprise a memory chip – no wires or moving parts.

Booklet © Laurence Moss Ltd 2010 - no copying without written permission please

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.software-partners.co.uk

page 26 of 51


Photography, Digital Photography and Art & v8 – by Laurence Moss  2010

Digital Photography – image manipulation - for Art Teachers Before you can change a picture you have to select part of the picture and move it to a place where you can alter it 1. SELECT – use the appropriate selection tool to define an area of the picture you wish to change • •

Marquee tools – squares and ovals – feathering? Lasso tools o Lasso – feathering? o Polygonal – feathering? o Magnetic – also frequency

• •

Selection brush – size of brush Magic wand – tolerance , contiguity

Selection –

a) new selection [one at a time] b) add to selection [ cumulative]

Note toolbar > selection: • • •

All – selects whole image Deselect – stops selecting [puts everything down] Inverse – selects everything else other than the area you have selected.

Once you have selected an area you can place that area somewhere else by using: 2. EDIT > CUT, .

EDIT > COPY

EDIT > PASTE.

EDIT > CUT – removes that selection

EDIT > COPY EDIT > PASTE – you have the choice of placing it in the current picture [ it will paste onto a new layer that it will create], or another / new picture that you have open.

3. You may wish to apply a change to that selection • • •

Transform size, rotation, shape Colour change, or B&White An effect, filter or layer style

4. You can make changes to the layers by: • • • • •

Change the order of the ‘stack’ – drag up/down Change opacity of layer Rename a layer Temporarily make layer invisible Apply layer style

Booklet © Laurence Moss Ltd 2010 - no copying without written permission please

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.software-partners.co.uk

page 27 of 51


Photography, Digital Photography and Art & v8 – by Laurence Moss  2010 • •

Change objects on layers relative to other objects You can delete layers – drag to bin

You can only work on one layer at a time – the active layer. 5. Simple colour corrections / alterations – try: •

Image > adjustments o Invert [like negative] o Posterise o Threshold – adjust slider

• •

Image > histogram > channel > reds etc. Image > Mode > o Bitmap o Greyscale o RGB – red green blue Enhance > o adjust lighting o colour > cast / hue & saturation / brightness & contrast

Exercises using images provided: Pictures > artists OR Pictures > downloaded - pick a picture and: o fauve it o Hockney montage it Photos > clip – colourise one of / part of a B&W picture Photos > objects > o signs – collage of busy modern driving o architecture – collage of ancient buildings

Photoshop reminders for ‘effects’: Basic editing techniques • sizing images, cropping and scaling Image> resize. Cropping tool • changing resolution Image> resize> image size • adjusting image colour attributes, saturation Enhance> adjust colour Sponge tool> adjust for saturate / desaturate, amount and size / shape. Levels - enhance> adjust lighting >levels – choose channel and adjust slider

Booklet © Laurence Moss Ltd 2010 - no copying without written permission please

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.software-partners.co.uk

page 28 of 51


Photography, Digital Photography and Art & v8 – by Laurence Moss  2010

• rotating, straightening Image> rotate - custom • brightness, contrast Enhance> adjust colour Enhance > adjust lighting > brightness/contrast • built-in effects eg embossing, pencil/charcoal sketches Filter> effects Window> filter / effects Choose, drag onto photo, adjust Advanced editing techniques: eg • adding effects, eg morphing, using filters, layers, masks, paths Image> transform – choose / drag corners Effects> layer styles – choose Filter> distort - choose Masks – can select and protect. Quick mask selects and removes the rest Selection brush> choose mask – paint over are to protect – Del to remove the rest Quickfix [tab]> draw over magic selection]. Return to full edit. • juxtaposition and superimposition of images and text Select with wand/selection tool – copy to layer above – resize, adjust position Keep all images / text on different layers to enable relative movement • multiple images All layers can be adjusted for opacity in the layer sub-menu • photo restoration eg noise removal, lasso, feathering, cloning, healing and correcting patches Clone stamp tool – alt-click to define source Feathering – adjust amount when choosing selection tool Healing tool / spot healing – alt-click to define spot/source • changing colour balance Enhance> adjust colour> colour variations • sharpening and softening Enhance> adjust sharpness Filter> sharpen • changing contrast Enhance > adjust lighting > brightness/contrast

Booklet © Laurence Moss Ltd 2010 - no copying without written permission please

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.software-partners.co.uk

page 29 of 51


Photography, Digital Photography and Art & v8 – by Laurence Moss  2010

W

orking in Art with Photography (Digital) Photography and the National Curriculum:

KS3 schemes - Art 7A self image 7B What’s in a building 7C Recreating landscapes 8A Objects and viewpoints 8B Animating art 8C Shared view 9A Life events 9B Change your style 9C Personal places, public spaces Photography needs to fit into the Process and the Product of Art work in school. At one level it merely aids observation and creates a visual record of an event or place that can assist the art process back in school. Further, it becomes incorporated into the Artwork, perhaps as a photographic element in a collage for example. Later it becomes integrated into the final product and may not even be recognisable as having originated as a photographic image. Looking at each of the schemes above, one can easily find ways of using photography and digital processes in each. 7A self image Make portraits of yourself and others. Bring in personal items to add to your own self portrait. You can add computer generated text to the image in Digital processing. 7B What’s in a building Take photographs of buildings, and details of building materials in your local area 7C Recreating landscapes Explore Viewpoints in local landscapes using your camera 8A Objects and viewpoints Photograph some still life compositions from different angles / viewpoints, and explore the effect of different lighting and shadow. You can draw lines and shapes on draft printouts to explore the perspective lines and compositional shapes. 8B Animating art Take sequences of movement to analyse movement and to model animation effects.

Booklet © Laurence Moss Ltd 2010 - no copying without written permission please

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.software-partners.co.uk

page 30 of 51


Photography, Digital Photography and Art & v8 – by Laurence Moss  2010 8C Shared view Superimpose photos or sketches of proposed constructions onto real photos of local sites. 9A Life events Take photographs of real life events, and/or bring in family photos and scan them. Explore the use of angles, viewpoints, close-ups and poses in the pictures. 9B Change your style Take photos of local places, buildings, cultures, fashions to show different artistic / historical / cultural style 9C Personal places, public spaces Research ‘Art’ in your local area by photographing statues, murals, natural and man-made patterns, religious artefacts, memorials and plaques.

Booklet © Laurence Moss Ltd 2010 - no copying without written permission please

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.software-partners.co.uk

page 31 of 51


Photography, Digital Photography and Art & v8 – by Laurence Moss  2010

P

ractical ‘Art’ projects:

1. Klimt – Magic Quilt – textiles 2. Picasso War – Observation 3. Personal Portraits – Express personal feelings about identity, through objects 4. Fun Portraits – celebrating our differences 5. Surrealism 6. Street Collage – Investigate the made environment in your local community 7. Andy Goldsworthy – investigating the natural environment 8. Natural objects – working from the imagination 9. Pop interiors – Patrick Caulfield, Richard Hamilton 10. Celebrations – made objects

1. Klimt’s Magic Quilt Group project or whole school, possibly textile oriented. Observation of the work of Klimt • Pattern for the Stocket frieze • The kiss • Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer • Hygneia – detail from Medicine Scan images – select parts of Klimt’s designs. Enlarge, crop, paste onto new page – to produce interwoven pattern/mosaic style pattern. Build up your own design using layers Print out onto paper suitable for sewing onto a softer rag paper – watercolour paper ideal. Use gold/silver thread to enhance the line work – beads, gold/silver graphic pens, feathers, buttons – to develop a beautiful magic carpet square. Development Print onto fabric or use image maker to transfer the image to fabric. Use with sewing machine, embroidery or appliqué, to produce a textile artefact. Put all the pieces together to make a quilt

Booklet © Laurence Moss Ltd 2010 - no copying without written permission please

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.software-partners.co.uk

page 32 of 51


Photography, Digital Photography and Art & v8 – by Laurence Moss  2010 2. Picasso War – Observation / game/ competition Guernica Observation of this work and discussion of the visual elements Picasso used to portray his feelings about war. Students zoom in close to find all the sharp shapes in the work. Copy and paste each of these shapes onto a new page and print out (evidence) – who found most? Using the eye-dropper tool, you can play a similar game on other works (Matisse for example), finding the colours used in the image – print out a swatch of the shades/colours used/found 3. Personal Portraits – Express personal feelings about identity, through objects Student asked to bring in personal items for the work – bus pass, home/family photos – that have meaning for them. Scan the objects / photos. Using each scan on a different layer, arrange the objects relative to each other. Text can be added - DOB, favourite people, places etc – which helps describe them. 4. Fun Portraits – celebrating our differences Students photograph each other (head & shoulders). Download all photos into one file with student names. Students select parts of each other’s faces to superimpose on theirs own photo – different eyes / hair etc. - yet still being able to recognise yourself. The emphasis is on fun & experiment, and is an ideal project to introduce ‘layers’. 5. Surrealism Look at the work of Rene Magritte. Either by taking your own photos or by scanning photos from magazines (or both), make a picture with superimposes or juxtaposes two everyday object ‘surrealistically’. Themes : people and portraits, holidays, food and drink, transport. 6. Street Collage – Investigate the made environment in your local community Take students into the local community to take photos of things that interest them in the street – broken pavement slabs, street furniture, grilles, road markings. 1. Take an existing object and change it – transform, colour, relative size – to make it more interesting. Development – 2. Rubbings of found textures can be made which can then be photographed or scanned 3. Combine object images into a collage of a street. 4. Combine images like Hockney to produce a photomontage.

Booklet © Laurence Moss Ltd 2010 - no copying without written permission please

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.software-partners.co.uk

page 33 of 51


Photography, Digital Photography and Art & v8 – by Laurence Moss  2010 7. Andy Goldsworthy – investigating the natural environment Students should understand how Goldsworthy worked sympathetically with the environment by only taking photographs. Students observe their surroundings looking for ways to produce their own response to the environment. Autumn is a particularly good time of year since there are many fallen natural objects. Temporary work can be produced on site by collecting & arranging objects selected for colour or shape etc, then photographed. The photos can be the inspiration for a textile design, or work in clay. 8. Natural objects – working from the imagination Scan / photograph twigs, shells, pebbles, sponge – any natural objects Create a new creature from the objects by using the lasso tool with cut & paste. Can the students create a fantasy background for their creature from the same objects by using the distort filters. The same project can be done using found man-made objects – wire, plugs, screws, spanners. The project can be done with magnified objects – using microscope images, or objects photo’d with macro, or scanned at high resolution/magnification. 9. Pop interiors – Patrick Caulfield, Richard Hamilton See work in the style of Patrick Caulfield (‘after lunch’) Look through magazines for a suitable ‘interior’ to work from, or provide some pictures of real ‘local’ rooms to work with – bedrooms, kitchens, bathrooms, dining rooms. Scan the images large. Using filters, find the edges, remove colour, and strip the image down to something like a line drawing. Experiment adding real objects/elements – picture on the wall , a real person . Apply colour filters to create mood. See Richard Hamilton – Interior 11 1964 Students can select a number of items cut out from ‘home’ magazines or brochures like Ikea – scan and add. Experiment with rotating, transforming, perspective objects relative to each other. Students will practise and learn a lot about perspective. 10. Celebrations – made objects Provide students with balloons, streamers, bright fabrics, party masks, religious artefacts, [Easter, Christmas, Birthday, Religious holiday, passing tests/exams..]. Arrange an ‘installation’ with one of these themes. Students observe and take photos. Crop creatively and add filters, effects, text – produce poster or celebration card.

Booklet © Laurence Moss Ltd 2010 - no copying without written permission please

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.software-partners.co.uk

page 34 of 51


Photography, Digital Photography and Art & v8 – by Laurence Moss  2010

Activities in Photography: • • • • • • • • • •

Realistic photos – in process of observation or as end product. Students given a topic or theme. Start with realistic print but add colour effects and styles Photo-collage/ montage – Copy elements from one photo and add to another. Thematic, naturalistic, expressionistic print. Repeats – repeated extract from one picture reshaped, resized. Abstract print made from an element of other pictures, or close-up of common object Sequence – of photos. Sequence of practical activity. Sequence of different views of same object from different points. Portraits – realistic, photo-collage of different views /details of the face. Software effects – a Van Gogh at the touch of a button. Mixed media – photo base with realistic objects placed above. Mix photos and graphics. Close ups – with the aid of appropriate lenses / attachments – even photo-micrography through a microscope or photo-astronomy through a telescope. Action photography.

Don’t see the print as the end result. Students should be encouraged to develop their work further than the print out. They can learn a great deal by printing onto different types of paper – incl. coloured paper, tissue, • Try recycling – use paper like newspaper, magazines (perhaps not most glossy paper ) – experiment ! • Print onto glossy paper and then use the ink that has not dried/absorbed by making a Monoprint, transferring the image onto another sheet. • Newspaper is interesting to print on especially when you look at the juxtaposition of the photographed overprint, and the existing text on the newspaper page. Students can write themselves into history. • Tissue paper can be printed on, but like other very flimsy bases, they often need to be ‘attached’ to a thicker ‘backing’. This is true for printing onto silk and flimsy fabrics. • Printouts can result in multi media collages. • Try “Image maker” which will transfer the prints onto any washable fabric • We have even experimented with transferring designs into glazes of ceramics, though there are now ‘expensive’ methods of heat transferring designs to mugs or even mouse mats. • Posters - control of the printing software can allow you to make a much larger ‘original’ from several A4 prints. You could try some interesting experiments on / with – Papyrus Blotting paper Sugar paper Watercolour paper Parcel / wrapping paper Silk / cotton Home-made paper or Tissue Transparencies – B/W colour, sticky film, foils Newspaper What do Artists expect to get from digital photography? •

Yet another source of an image which can be enhanced creatively

Booklet © Laurence Moss Ltd 2010 - no copying without written permission please

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.software-partners.co.uk

page 35 of 51


Photography, Digital Photography and Art & v8 – by Laurence Moss  2010 • • •

Manipulation of the type of images with which modern students are familiar, and are motivated to work with.[advertising, photographs, prints] A medium which is easily and creatively manipulated with an ICT solution; it can be easy, mistakes / decisions reversed speedily, distributed on disc or email. The manipulation can be speedy, clean, reproduced easily and in many copies – this may not be seen as a desirable advantage to some Art teachers but is probably appreciated more by their students.

But is it Art? That’s where the Art teacher needs to take control and exert some influence. One opinion: A computer can never replace the experience of working with paint, in drawing, printmaking and collage, but can complement and enhance students work, generate ideas, aid skills and observation. In order to achieve the best learning experience students should be encouraged to develop their ideas through experimentation- as they would do with any other medium. I believe there is no better experience than seeing artists work in galleries, but further observation tasks using software and a computer – zooming into detail, cropping elements and eye-dropping colour – add further insight into the study of a work of art. Students with little or no confidence normally, can achieve fantastic results very quickly. In the past we were limited to the study of art works through looking in books and postcards, and the occasional visit to a Gallery (all well and good if you live in London). The Digital solution adds another experience. Multimedia projectors allow us to view large images, access a wealth of art on the internet, and visit virtual art galleries around the world.”

Booklet © Laurence Moss Ltd 2010 - no copying without written permission please

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.software-partners.co.uk

page 36 of 51


Photography, Digital Photography and Art & v8 – by Laurence Moss  2010

A • • • • • •

esthetics – what makes a good picture?

We are often asked for our comments about photographs. Of course you may have a personal response which differs from everyone else, but you may want to consider these criteria: Technical merit – correct exposure , sharp focus, appropriate colour balance Composition – shape, line, detail, texture, close-up, appropriately cropped Moment in time – place/event, unique, caught something not usually seen. Aesthetically pleasing – personal response to design/colour, shape, fashion Content – unusual places, historical, photojournalism Emotion – fun, sympathy, anger

Your response is likely to take in a mixture of these. I recently watched some judging of photos and comparing two photos one judge said “this is a technically better picture, but this is a better photo”. You can only make a personal ‘educated’ response based on the above criteria. You and your students need to view and discuss your responses to photos.

H

istory of Photography

A review of the work of ‘famous’ photographers may help you and your students develop a more mature response to the assessment of photos, and help them create their own style. The following Photographers have had an influence: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Ansel Adams – US. B/W landscape photographer Eve Arnold – US. “Magnum” magazine photographer Richard Avedon – US. Herbert Bayer – Austrian photo-montage surrealist Cecil Beaton – UK. Celebrity photographer Bill Brandt – Germany/ UK. Robert Capa – Hungarian. War photographer Henri Cartier-Bresson – France. Philippe Halsman – Latvia. Associate of Dali Lewis Hine –US. Social documentarist David Hockney – UK. Pop art and photography, montages Yousef Karsh – Armenia – portraitist Jaques-Henri Lartigue – France. Social documentarist Annie Leibovitz – US portraitist Laszlo Moholy-Nagy – Hungary, photo-montages Man Ray – US. surrealist

I have included separately a booklet made in Wikipedia of some of the famous movements in Photography, and their exponents. It is not a complete list – it’s a personal list.

Booklet © Laurence Moss Ltd 2010 - no copying without written permission please

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.software-partners.co.uk

page 37 of 51


Photography, Digital Photography and Art & v8 – by Laurence Moss  2010

P

rojects & Exam boards

eg. GCSE Photography (Level 2)

GCSE photography is offered part-time during the day or evening at many colleges. The course provides a direct route onto AS/A2 (A-level) and develops students’ knowledge and understanding of; the use of light, view points, composition, depth-of-field, darkroom techniques. Work can be undertaken using tradition processes or digitally. GCSE Photography is 60% coursework and 40% takes the form of a supervised practical exam. This lasts up to 10 hours spread over two sessions. Students respond to one of several set briefs by shooting, processing, printing and presenting their own work. This could be working in areas such as portraiture, documentary and/or photojournalism, environmental photography and experimental photography. AQA offers short and full courses in Art & Design [Photography] From their 2007 syllabus – in italics “Areas of study Candidates are required to work in one or more area(s) of Photography such as those listed below. They may explore •

portraiture, documentary and/or photo-journalism

environmental photography

experimental photography

working from objects, still life and/or from the natural world

Candidates may use digital and/or chemical (silver halide) techniques to produce images. [ 4 areas within which to take photos. Note – you can use traditional or digital photography] Knowledge skills and understanding: Candidates should adopt an integrated approach to the critical, practical and theoretical study of art, craft and design which includes first-hand experience of original work. Candidates must show knowledge and understanding of: a. how ideas, feelings and meanings are conveyed in images and artefacts in their chosen area(s) of photography; [our responses to photographs] b.

a range of processes and variety of ways of working related to the chosen area(s) of photography , including, where appropriate, information and communication technology and the use of digital imaging; [ awareness of techniques including ICT and digital]

c.

how images and artefacts relevant to their chosen area(s) of study relate to their social, historical and cultural context; [historical and social context]

d.

a variety of approaches, methods and intentions and the contribution of contemporary practitioners and others from different times and cultures to continuity and change in their chosen area(s) of photography. [ Candidates will be expected to demonstrate skills in the context of their chosen area(s) of study:

Booklet © Laurence Moss Ltd 2010 - no copying without written permission please

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.software-partners.co.uk

page 38 of 51


Photography, Digital Photography and Art & v8 – by Laurence Moss  2010 their chosen area(s) of study: •

making appropriate use of colour, line, tone, shape, texture, pattern and form;

showing in their work appreciation of viewpoint, composition, depth of field and movement;

responding to an idea, issue, concept, theme or brief;

making appropriate use of the camera, lenses, filters and lighting, film and/or digital techniques;

using appropriate techniques related to developing and/or downloading, image manipulation, printing, presentation, layout and mounting;

Short course Areas of study: Candidates are required to work in one or more of the areas listed below. •

Fine

Textiles

Three-Dimensional Design

Photography

Knowledge skills and understanding Candidates should adopt an integrated approach to the critical, practical and theoretical study of art, craft and design which includes first-hand experience of original work. Candidates must show knowledge and understanding of: a.

how ideas, feelings and meanings are conveyed in images and artefacts in their chosen area(s) of study;

b.

an appropriate range of art, craft and design processes in two and/or three dimensions related to the chosen area(s) of study, including, where appropriate, information and communication technology;

c.

how images and artefacts relevant to their chosen area(s) of study relate to their social, historical and cultural context;

d.

an appropriate variety of approaches, methods and intentions and the contribution of contemporary practitioners and others from different times and cultures to continuity and change in their chosen area(s) of art, craft and design. Candidates will be expected to demonstrate skills in the context of their chosen area(s) of study. •

Fine Art: drawing, painting, sculpture, land art, installation, printmaking, film, video or mixed media.

Graphic Design: computer-aided design, illustration, advertising, packaging, digital imaging, film, video or animation.

T extiles: printed and/or dyed materials, domestic textiles, constructed and/or applied textiles, fashion and/or costume.

Booklet © Laurence Moss Ltd 2010 - no copying without written permission please

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.software-partners.co.uk

page 39 of 51


Photography, Digital Photography and Art & v8 – by Laurence Moss  2010 •

Three-Dimensional Design: ceramics, sculpture, theatre, television, film and/or exhibition design, jewellery , interior, product or environmental design.

Photography: portraiture, documentary and/or photo-journalism, environmental photography, experimental imagery , working from objects, still life and/or the natural world.”

W

hat are examiners looking for?

Whichever course your students are following, Examiners will eventually turn up for assessment. In a traditional Art course, you would expect to put up an exhibition of work and have coursework/ sketchbooks available. For a photography course you would similarly expect to put up an exhibition and have photogrpahic work available. As much of the coursework development exists as various Photoshop files, you might be tempted to provide a CDRom with all the files, and you can guess that this is inadequate. Examiners want to see the evidence of the development of skills, and preparation put into final prints. Thus a sketchbook / photobook is a good idea with draft or full quality prints illustrating a pathway towards the final product. This could also be mapped out in a kind of timeline / project development format to show where images fit in. Students need to carefully follow the Assessment Objectives and Grade descriptors supplied in the syllabus. For AQA – Assessment objectives “Candidates will be expected to demonstrate a response to all of the assessment objectives in each component of the examination. They are equally weighted. Candidates will be required to demonstrate their ability to: • AO1 record observations, experiences and ideas in forms that are appropriate to intentions; • AO2 analyse and evaluate images, objects and artefacts showing understanding of context; • AO3 develop and explore ideas using media, processes and resources, reviewing, modifying and refining work as it progresses; • AO4 present a personal response, realising intentions and making informed connections with the work of others.” AQA Grade descriptors – example [2007] “Grade A Candidates combine their knowledge, skills and understanding in resourceful, discriminating and purposeful ways and sensitively and skilfully record and interpret observations and experiences. They present ideas and the results of thorough research and enquiry in forms that clearly relate to and facilitate the realisation of intentions.

Booklet © Laurence Moss Ltd 2010 - no copying without written permission please

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.software-partners.co.uk

page 40 of 51


Photography, Digital Photography and Art & v8 – by Laurence Moss  2010 Candidates perceptively and effectively analyse and evaluate images, objects and artefacts. Responses, interpretations and subsequent developments are clearly informed by an understanding of context. Candidates creatively develop and explore ideas and sustain related activity. They confidently manipulate and exploit appropriate media, processes and resources. Significant relationships are established between process and product and work is subjected to continuing review, modification and refinement as it progresses. Candidates present imaginative and personal responses and intentions are realised in a coherent and competent manner. They make perceptive and informed connections between personal lines of enquiry and the work of others.”

S

oftware and hardware There are painting programmes and photographic programmes. All handle photos in some way.

Painting programmes allow you to ‘splash paint’ on the screen eg. Microsoft Paint or Art Rage [both available free]. There are more sophisticated painting programmes [Corel (Classic) Painter] which allow you to draw in a number of media.

There are ‘filtering’ programmes which allow you to use a particular photograph and get different effects by applying special effect filters to them – eg – Impressionist, Pointillist. Such is Dr Franklins – which can be downloaded from the internet Some programmes do a mixture of all these features. Then there are the Graphic packages, the CAD packages and the 3D packages. Google offer Sketchup which gives 3D views of designed objects / buildings. Serif supply Drawplus – an excellent graphics programme. Photographic programmes Paintshop Pro is excellent, but most experts say that Photoshop Elements is the best budget package. ‘Elements’ is sufficient for 95% of your student’s requirements for digital photography – you need only buy one or two copies of the full Photoshop if needed. The Gimp is freeware and is excellent but unfriendly – you need to understand Photoshop principles to use it. Photofiltre is freeware and has good features Paint.net is an excellent Microsoft product Serif Photoplus is an excellent budget programme approaching Photoshop standards. Organising photos. Picasa – free from Google – is an excellent way to display photos and create galleries. It has some photographic filters. It monitors all pictures on your computer

Booklet © Laurence Moss Ltd 2010 - no copying without written permission please

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.software-partners.co.uk

page 41 of 51


Photography, Digital Photography and Art & v8 – by Laurence Moss  2010

Screen capture: capturing images from your computer, your software, and the internet. With many pictures and text on computers and the internet, you can right click and save or copy. Often you cannot, and it is easier to use a Screen capture programme. This captures a picture of the area enclosed, and sends a picture of it, either to the clip board or to a filename. ScreenHunter is an excellent free product; all of the pictures in this booklet were captured with ScreenHunter.

On opening the programme:

The hotkey is the key – f6 in this example that initiates a capture. The cursor changes to a cross and [as ‘rectangular area’ is ticked in the ‘capture what’ section] you drag a rectangle around anything you want to copy. Nothing apparently happens, but the ‘picture’ is sent to:

Booklet © Laurence Moss Ltd 2010 - no copying without written permission please

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.software-partners.co.uk

page 42 of 51


Photography, Digital Photography and Art & v8 – by Laurence Moss  2010 Open the tab ‘To’ and tick either to clipboard or to file. If you choose clipboard (I usually do) you can then use the ‘paste’ command to place the image into your application. If you choose ‘file’, then the picture goes to that fileneame. Graphic pads Graphic pads are ‘electronic drawing boards’ available in various sizes – A5,A4,A3 – and are boards which connect to the USB computer connection, and use a special stylus to draw an image, instead of trying to draw with a mouse. The styli are often pressure sensitive, enabling you to get a thicker line. Drawing with a stylus is more intuitive than with a mouse; it’s almost like using a pencil or pen/paintbrush. Combine the graphpad and stylus with painting software, and you are set up for digital painting. Supporting students: software video tutorials When they are learning the software, students ask the same questions all the time. It’s possible to provide software videos on all the topics they are likely to have trouble with. You can then direct them to the appropriate video tutorial for assistance. I use Camstudio – it’s free. After turning it on you are asked to nominate an area of the screen, which it will then copy [as a video] including everything you do in that area and everything you say [into the microphone]. You then save it as a video file, which plays in Windows Media Player or Quicktime. The software video tutorials are easy to make and they will save you lots of classroom time.

Addendum AQA Art & Design AS and A2 Level Photography Pathway (Level 3) 22 July 2008 13:24 The AS/A2 courses aim to provide students with a thorough understanding of photography; camera controls, techniques, photographic materials, printing and presentation alongside a study of photography in a historical and social context. These courses are offered by many colleges part-time in the day and evening. This course requires students to work using both traditional silver-based darkroom processes and digital photography and manipulation. This could be working in areas such as portraiture, documentary and/or photojournalism, environmental photography and experimental photography. Silver-based darkroom processes – the relatively modern Black and white photographic process uses silver-based chemicals in the emulsions on celluloid film and impregnated in the gelatine coating of photographic papers. Silver is sensitive to daylight and blackens [which is why you have to regularly clean the family silver]. Film – expose to light in the camera Develop film to make it fixed, or not sensitive to light - 3 stages • Developer • Rinse / wash / stop bath – to cleanse • Fix – to make it permanently not sensitive

Booklet © Laurence Moss Ltd 2010 - no copying without written permission please

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.software-partners.co.uk

page 43 of 51


Photography, Digital Photography and Art & v8 – by Laurence Moss  2010 Prints Expose print to light passing through the negative in ‘contact’ or through an Enlarger, in a darkroom [with red safety lights]. • Developer – you see the print appear • Rinse / wash / stop bath – to cleanse • Fix – to make it permanently not sensitive Technically, in traditionally based photography, you judge the print on correct exposure and good contrast

Portrait photography or portraiture [from wikip] is the capture by means of photography of the likeness of a person or a small group of people (a group portrait), in which the face and expression is predominant. The objective is to display the likeness, personality, and even the mood of the subject. Like other types of portraiture, the focus of the photograph is the person's face, although the entire body and the background may be included. A portrait is generally not a snapshot, but a composed image of a person in a still position. A portrait often shows a person looking directly at the camera. Unlike many other photography styles, the subjects of portrait photography are often non-professional models. Family portraits commemorating special occasions, such as graduations or weddings, may be professionally produced or may be vernacular and are most often intended for private viewing rather than for public exhibition. However, many portraits are created for public display ranging from fine art portraiture, to commercial portraiture such as might be used to illustrate a company's annual report, to promotional portraiture such a might be found on a book jacket showing the author of the book.

Documentary photography [from wikip] usually refers to a popular form of photography used to chronicle significant and historical events. It is typically covered in professional photojournalism, but it may also be an amateur, artistic, or academic pursuit. The photographer attempts to produce truthful, objective, and usually candid photography of a particular subject, most often pictures of people. Photojournalism [from wikip] is a particular form of journalism (the collecting, editing, and presenting of news material for publication or broadcast) that creates images in order to tell a news story. It is now usually understood to refer only to still images, but in some cases the term also refers to video used in broadcast journalism. Photojournalism is distinguished from other close branches of photography (such as documentary photography, social documentary photography, street photography or celebrity photography) by the qualities of: •

Timeliness — the images have meaning in the context of a recently published record of events.

Objectivity — the situation implied by the images is a fair and accurate representation of the events they depict in both content and tone.

Narrative — the images combine with other news elements to make facts relatable to the viewer or reader on a cultural level.

Like a writer, a photojournalist is a reporter but he or she must often make decisions instantly and carry photographic equipment, often while exposed to significant obstacles (physical danger, weather, crowds).

Booklet © Laurence Moss Ltd 2010 - no copying without written permission please

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.software-partners.co.uk

page 44 of 51


Photography, Digital Photography and Art & v8 – by Laurence Moss  2010

Environmental photography – [from wikip] Environmental photography encompasses a wide variety of work by photographers who use the environment and all its many aspects as their subject. These photographers may document or record events of general or specific environmental interest, for example, the work of environmental pressure groups or the actions of companies or individuals that are having a negative (or indeed positive) impact on environments. Photography documenting natural disasters such as earthquakes, as well as of manmade disasters such as oil spills from tankers are also included within, what is a very broad category. Often the purpose behind this type of photography is not solely to record a news story, but also to broaden our understanding of our environment and of mankind's impact upon it. Many photographers working in this field believe that photographic imagery can be a powerful medium to challenge preconceptions and in so doing alter thinking and behaviour. Experimental photography - [from wikip] Experimental photography is a phrase that includes alternative process techniques, and broadly refers to any photographic process or product falling outside the realm of straight film or digital photography. Historical background Between the years of 1918 to 1945, the world was experiencing a great deal of change during the time of the World Wars. Photography was no exception to the rule, as it too was affected by the global happenings. Dada It was during this time period that Dada sprung to life. Dada artists Hannah Höch and Raoul Hausmann were pioneers of an experimental photographic technique which came to be known as photomontage. Photomontage is a process that involves making an image from the combination and composition of different photographs. It differs from the process of collage in that the material used for composition is primarily, if not exclusively, photographs. The works created by Höch and Hausmann, as well as other Dada artists such as George Grosz and John Heartfield, acted as visual representations of their environment. The way the images were composed, sometimes seemingly haphazardly, reflected the quick changes to life felt during the period after World War I.[1] Another Dada artist who made an impact on traditional photography was Christian Schad. He developed a photographic printing technique that was a "reinvention" of a process developed by William Henry Fox Talbot.[2] Tristan Tzara called Schad's work "schadography," for various speculated reasons, including the term being a reference to both Schad's name and the German word "schaden," which means "damaged." "Damaged" is an appropriate adjective to describe Schad's work, as he used scraps of paper and various other little bits of trash to create his compositions. Schad would arrange his findings on a piece of sensitized paper, put a plate of glass over them to keep them in place, and expose the whole thing to light, sometimes adjusting elements in the composition during the exposure process.[1] Constructivism Following in Schad's footsteps, László Moholy-Nagy created photographic prints by laying objects on sensitized paper and exposing the whole set-up to light. In line with constructivist notions of industry and the machine age, Moholy-Nagy's work was composed with pieces that had a very industrial feel or look to them.[3] His compositions, which he called photograms, were experiments with the boundaries of photography. Moholy-Nagy's work explored the abstract capabilities of photography, extending the medium beyond its typical use of reproducing literal images of the world.[1] He wished to show through his works that which the naked eye alone was not capable of seeing.[2] Surrealism Photography was an essential part of the Surrealist movement, as it could act as a visual method of free association. Many Surrealist photographers chose to work in this vein, literally shooting from the hip and taking photographs without framing the shot in the viewfinder first.[1] Man Ray's work was more calculated than that; instead he chose to keep with the trend of cameraless photography. Ray made

Booklet © Laurence Moss Ltd 2010 - no copying without written permission please

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.software-partners.co.uk

page 45 of 51


Photography, Digital Photography and Art & v8 – by Laurence Moss  2010 photographs following a similar process to that of Schad and Moholy-Nagy, but used different objects to form his compositions. Ray renamed the process once again, calling his works rayographs. Man Ray also experimented with the process of solarization. The technique of solarization involves briefly exposing a print to a light source during development, which then produces reversed tones in the photograph. Other Surrealist photographers experimented with making normal banal subjects look extraordinary, while still others took straight photographs whose subject matter dealt with the idiosyncrasies of life. Two artists that worked in the later fashion are André Kertész and Henri CartierBresson. Both Kertész and Cartier-Bresson looked to photograph moments in life when harmony existed, and Cartier-Bresson came to describe that critical time as "the decisive moment." Contact-Printing Techniques These photographic techniques are primarily historical in origin, and have been revisited by numerous contemporary photographers. The general processes of contact printing involves placing a negative, or other materials, on top of a piece of sensitized material, placing glass on top of the negative to force its contact with the material below, and exposing the whole set-up to light. They are listed below in alphabetical order. Cyanotypes The cyanotype process is a contact-printing technique that yields blue, or cyan, colored prints, hence their name. This process has been used by contemporary artists such as Clarissa Sligh,[4] Tatiana Parniakova[5] and Robin Hill.[6] Gum Prints Gum prints are made using negatives, and multiple coatings and exposures of the paper and negative to light. Finished gum prints are quite painterly, and the colors can be infinitely manipulated as per the artist's desires. Contemporary artists who produce gum print include Jacqueline and Jean-Louis Giudicelli,[7] and Stephen Livick.[8] Salted Paper Prints Calotypes, Van Dykes and kallitypes are three similar processes in which a paper is coated with a lightsensitive solution. These three processes all use sodium of some sort, hence their grouping as salted paper prints. Each of the three processes yields different colored prints, with both calotypes and Van Dykes being different shades of brown, and kallitypes ranging from warm black to ultra-black tones depending on the composition of the developer used on the prints. Also – Landscape photography – where the subject is landscape Still-life photography – where the subject/s is/are still and posed – people, animals, objects, advertising Fashion photography - where the subject is fashion

Booklet © Laurence Moss Ltd 2010 - no copying without written permission please

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.software-partners.co.uk

page 46 of 51


Photography, Digital Photography and Art & v8 – by Laurence Moss  2010

Photography - topics covered by Wikipedia [links should work in pdf version of this page] Technical terms Angle of view · Aperture · Circle of confusion · Color temperature · Depth of field · Depth of focus · Exposure · Exposure compensation · F-number · Film format · Film speed · Focal length · Hyperfocal distance · Metering mode · Perspective distortion · Photograph · Photographic printing · Photographic processes · Reciprocity · Red-eye effect · Science of photography · Shutter speed · Zone System Genres Aerial · Black-and-white · Commercial · Cloudscape · Documentary · Erotic · Fashion · Fine art · Forensic · Glamour · High speed · Landscape · Lomography · Nature · Nude · Photojournalism · Pornography · Portrait · Post-mortem · Senior · Social documentary · Sports · Still life · Stock · Street · Vernacular · Underwater · Wedding · Wildlife Techniques Afocal photography · Bokeh · Contre-jour · Cyanotype · Fill flash · Fireworks · Harris shutter · Holography · Infrared · Kite aerial · Long exposure · Macro · Multiple exposure · Night · Panning · Panoramic · Photogram (Kirlian) · Print toning · Rephotography · Rollout · Sabatier Effect · Stereoscopy · Stopping down · Sun printing · Tilt-shift · Time-lapse · Ultraviolet · Vignetting Composition Diagonal Method · Framing · Geometry and symmetry · Headroom · Lead room · Rule of thirds · Simplicity Equipment Camera (Pinhole · Rangefinder · SLR · Still · TLR · Toy · View) · Darkroom (Enlarger · Safelight) · Film (Base · Format · Holder · Stock) · Filter · Flash · Lens · Manufacturers · Movie projector · Slide projector · Tripod · Zone plate History Analog photography · Autochrome Lumière · Box camera · Calotype · Camera obscura · Daguerreotype · Dufaycolor · Heliography · Painted photography backdrops · Photography and the law · Timeline of photography technology · Visual arts Digital photography Digital camera (D-SLR · Comparison of D-SLRs · Digital camera back) · Digiscoping · Digital versus film photography · Film scanner · Image sensor (CMOS APS · CCD · Three-CCD camera · Foveon X3 sensor) · Photo sharing · Pixel Color photography Color · Color film (Print · Slide) · Color management (CMYK color model · Color space · Primary color · RGB color model) Photographic processing C-41 process · Cross processing · Developer · Dye coupler · E-6 process · Fixer · Gelatin silver process · Gum printing · K-14 process · Print permanence · Push processing · Stop bath List of most expensive photographs · List of photographers · Photography museums and galleries (category) · Portal · WikiProject

Booklet © Laurence Moss Ltd 2010 - no copying without written permission please

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.software-partners.co.uk

page 47 of 51


Photography, Digital Photography and Art & v8 – by Laurence Moss  2010

Photography and Graphics I am looking at a recent book on Street Art [V&A Publishing] and am reminded of the close connection of Photography and Graphics. Photographic images either form the basis of a graphic project, or images appear manipulated in the final product. Banksy’s Napalm, shows an iconic figure of a Vietnamese girl running away from a napalm bombing [classic photograph from the Vietnam war – Nick Ut 1972], but in this version is seen running hand in hand with Ronald McDonald and Mickey Mouse. Ronald and Mickey may or may not have originated with Banksy as photographs but the girl did. Like a lot of modern Art and Graphics, photographs are manipulated and juxtaposed into a new graphic product, either manually or through software. This is legitimate and our students will do it. Google ‘pop art’ images and you will see countless examples which are based on photographic images which have been manipulated. Hamilton’s What makes it so….., or his Shock and Awe portrait of Tony Blair as a cowboy, Warhol’s Marilyn , and even Lichtenstein’s graphics all show the influence of Photography and Digital manipulation. They are modern images and our students will want to copy these processes before moving onto more personal self expression. Photoshop is where most people start. It has many filters and effects and results in products which may belie their photographic origins. Most Graphic software can import photographic images and have more ‘graphic tools’ than Photoshop. • Adobe Illustrator • Corel Draw • Serif Drawplus • Et al Wikipedia lists at least a hundred commercial, freeware and open source vector and raster software programmes. From Wikipedia – “Vector editors vs raster graphics editors Vector editors are often contrasted with raster graphics editors, and their capabilities complement each other. Vector editors are better for graphic design, page layout, typography, logos, sharpedged artistic illustrations (e.g. cartoons, clip art, complex geometric patterns), technical illustrations, diagramming and flowcharting. Raster editors are more suitable for retouching, photo processing, photo-realistic illustrations, collage, and hand drawn illustrations using a pen tablet. Many contemporary illustrators use Corel Photo-Paint and Photoshop to make all kinds of illustrations. The recent versions of bitmap editors, such as GIMP and Photoshop support vector-like tools (e.g. editable paths), and vector editors such as CorelDRAW or Adobe Illustrator are gradually adopting tools and approaches that were once limited to bitmap editors (e.g. blurring).” In school you are restricted by your budget and your own personal knowledge of these programmes. The best software takes a lot of study. The cheapest is too simple but limited in Booklet © Laurence Moss Ltd 2010 - no copying without written permission please

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.software-partners.co.uk

page 48 of 51


Photography, Digital Photography and Art & v8 – by Laurence Moss  2010

scope. A Teacher can hope to know the basics, whilst the best students will always get free/pirate versions and obsessively spent lots of time learning them.

Darkroom checklist – processing the ‘old’ way Standardisation is key if you want consistent results especially regard: • Quality / dilution / temperature of chemical solutions • Exposure times measured accurately • Cleanliness and care. Prep Cleaned up from last time? – nothing on floor to trip up or bottles near edges which might be knocked over. Electrical check – no trailing cables. Safelight on / working – check room in dark for light leakage [under door etc]. Light leakage from enlarger. Trays – correct dilutions and temperatures, correct cleaned tongs in right tray, all in the correct order. Set up for continuous washing in running water. Timer – ready, accessible Paper – stored in light proof drawer Cleanliness – ability to clean / dry hands. The sink for washing should have previously been cleaned. Dust free environment – system to clean negs and paper prior to print Advanced – card/scissors for masks / shading ‘wands’ - accessible Session Test strips for negative / this paper – establish approx working time Test strips for aperture of enlarger lens [Note – assessment of correct exposure should be done in daylight and not under a safelight] System for accurate focussing of image onto paper. Suitable grades of paper for these negs / effect you want Contact sheets required? 3 baths – developer / rinse, stop / fix [minimum times] then wash in running water Drying system – initial wipe/tongs, hang to dry [curling] or drying trays.

Booklet © Laurence Moss Ltd 2010 - no copying without written permission please

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.software-partners.co.uk

page 49 of 51


Photography, Digital Photography and Art & v8 – by Laurence Moss  2010

Assessment / fault finding It’s either the negative or your printing • Negatives – Development – over/under exposed – check times and chemistry Incorrect temperatures Poor drying / rinsing Scratches – poor handling Chemistry – developers not mixed correct dilution, temperature or stale. Light leakage / low liquid levels / scratches / stress marks – dev. Tank issues • Prints Light leakage – poor paper storage before/during printing Old/cheap paper Sharpness – if it’s on the neg but not on the print, then check your focuser. Contrast – choice of paper Post Processing Cropping suitably Mounting and framing Safe storage of negatives Students to be encouraged to keep a log book of activity / exposure values and times. Treat darkroom processing as you would a science experiment.

Management issues Cleanliness – responsibility for clearing up after your session Behaviour – examples of unacceptable behaviour – messing about / sexual Rota – who is allowed in darkroom – when / how long? Numbers – number of people in darkroom Phones – the handsets light up! – use Bluetooth earpiece Costs – amount of film / paper used – quota? Safety – electrical and chemical safety – regular checks Security – lock on inside of door to prevent intruders What are the other students doing?

Booklet © Laurence Moss Ltd 2010 - no copying without written permission please

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.software-partners.co.uk

page 50 of 51


Photography, Digital Photography and Art & v8 – by Laurence Moss  2010

On the CD Photoshop Elements – a 30 day copy for you to install – if you like it, buy it. (£50/60 in PC World, but far cheaper from Educational License providers – Civica) Camstudio – free programme which enables you to make small ‘video’ tutorials of software – all you need is a cheap microphone. Font glancer – handy program which views / displays your fonts as they really appear. ScreenHunter – screen capture Start-here.htm – click here to view simple presentation of effects. Tasks folder – pictures used in the Tasks section Favourites – Art Internet links to use when you are online – various topics. Photos – photos for you to view / use / give ideas. Video tutorials – watch & listen how to use Photoshop Contact me : Want help and advice? Email is easiest - laurencemoss@hotmail.com – put Digital photography in the subject box, otherwise I will not open messages from ‘addresses’ I don’t know [virus’s, porn, spam etc]. You can write – Bearwood cottage, Coppett Hill, Goodrich, Ross on Wye, Herefordshire, HR9 6JF. I am available for presentations and Inset in many NC subjects, in your school.

Booklet © Laurence Moss Ltd 2010 - no copying without written permission please

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.software-partners.co.uk

page 51 of 51

art & digital photography  

booklet for INset course for school art dept.