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sup ply ing dem and

introduction

Purpose National Endowment for the Arts Grant Partners Key Organizations Involved

Designing Solutions for Baltimore’s Food Deserts Lauren P. Adams Aura Seltzer

research

Terms for Study Food Desert Definition Environment Food Deserts in Baltimore

Existing Partnership Model Baltimore’s Food & Faith Project

Initial Brainstorming Goal-oriented Initiatives Implementation

First Steps Direction for Action Promotion Week One March 1, 2011 Promotion Week Two March 8, 2011 Promotion Week Three March 15, 2011 Promotion Week Four March 22, 2011 Promotion Week Five March 29, 2011 Analysis Evaluation of the “Food of the Month” Promotion In the Supermarket Conceptual Design Approaches Conclusion

Recommendations Takeaways and Future Research Appendix

Baltimarket Design Materials Contributors Credits and Authors Etcetera Referenced Works and Typefaces 1


supplying demand Designing Solutions for Baltimore’s Food Deserts

Lauren P. Adams Aura Seltzer Center for Design Practice Maryland Institute College of Art Baltimore, Maryland July 2011 Š 2011


table of contents

introduction 11

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Purpose National Endowment for the Arts Grant Partners Key Organizations Involved

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41

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research 17

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21

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Terms for Study Food Desert Definition Environment Food Deserts in Baltimore Existing Partnership Model Baltimore’s Food & Faith Project Initial Brainstorming Goal-oriented Initiatives

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Conclusion 61

Implementation 27

29

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First Steps Direction for Action Promotion Week One March 1, 2011 Promotion Week Two March 8, 2011

Promotion Week Three March 15, 2011 Promotion Week Four March 22, 2011 Promotion Week Five March 29, 2011 Analysis Evaluation of the “Food of the Month” Promotion In the Supermarket Conceptual Design Approaches

Recommendations Takeaways and Future Research Appendix

64 73

75

Baltimarket Design Materials Contributors Credits and Authors Etcetera Referenced Works and Typefaces


Purpose Partners

intro duct ion

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introduction | Purpose

purpose National Endowment for the Arts Grant

In Spring 2011, the National Endowment for the Arts (nea) awarded Maryland Institute College of Art (mica) a grant supporting an interdisciplinary design studio that, through research and engagement with the Baltimore community, aimed to increase access to and demand for affordable, healthy food options in Baltimore. Regardless of neighborhood or income, all of Baltimore’s residents deserve fresh, healthy, and attainable food options. The Center for Design Practice (cdp) studio convened to identify and propose solutions in collaboration with the Baltimore City Health Department, the Center for a Livable Future at Johns Hopkins University, and Real Food Farm. The studio was led and managed by cdp Director Mike Weikert and supported by graduate students/research assistants Lauren P. Adams and Aura Seltzer (hereon “we”). This open-source book shares process notes, photographs, and conclusions from activities during the grant period. ■

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introduction | Partners

Partners Key Organizations Involved

Baltimore City Health Department In recent years, the Baltimore City Health Department has identified food access and food security as critical issues for the city. The Virtual Supermarket Program (vsp), branded with the assistance of mica as “Baltimarket,” partners with local grocer Santoni’s Super Market to allow residents who live more than a mile away from a grocery store to place and receive weekly grocery orders at their local library or school with no delivery cost. Baltimarket accepts cash, credit, debit, and ebt (food stamps) as methods of payment at its four locations: George Washington Elementary School and the Orleans Street, Washington Village, and Cherry Hill branches of the Enoch Pratt Free Library system. Baltimarket has encouraged healthy purchases thus far by distributing recipe books, holding healthy cooking demonstrations, and offering $10 incentives for healthy food purchases on first and fourth orders.

food and sustainability in Baltimore and beyond. clf communicates information specifically about the complex interrelationships among diet, food production, the natural environment, and human health. The Center and its staff have previously collaborated with faculty at mica on health communication initiatives on food systems.

Center for a Livable Future

During the period of this grant, cdp simultaneously worked with rff to produce branded collateral and a design for its mobile farmers’ market truck that will circulate nearby neighborhoods. ■

The Center for a Livable Future (clf) at Johns Hopkins University is at the forefront of research and community partnerships that proactively address issues of

Real Food Farm Real Food Farm (rff) is an urban agriculture project that grows fresh produce in high-tunnel hoop houses and on six acres of land in Clifton Park, northeast Baltimore. An economically viable and environmentally responsible model, rff works to increase access to fresh, healthy food to residents of its five adjacent neighborhoods. rff also provides job training for community residents and educational opportunities for students.

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Terms of Study Environment Existing Partnership Model Initial Brainstorming

re sea rch

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research | Terms of Study

Terms of Study Food Desert Definition

A food desert, as defined by the 2008 federal Farm Bill, Section 7527, is “a geographic area, particularly lower-income neighborhoods and communities, where access to affordable, quality, and nutritious foods is limited.” 1 Residents of food deserts tend to have limited access to large supermarkets and small grocery stores that provide a greater variety and less costly options for healthy food choices like fresh produce, low-fat dairy, whole grains, etc.

hood obesity and eliminate food deserts in seven years), many state and city health departments have mobilized to formulate their own task forces and initiatives to deal with this growing and urgent problem at the local level. ■

The issue of food deserts and the related social, public health, and economic problems has received serious national attention with the 2008 Farm Bill directing the U.S. Department of Agriculture “to undertake a study of food deserts in the United States to assess their incidence and prevalence, to identify characteristics and factors causing and influencing food deserts and their effect on local populations, and to provide recommendations for addressing the causes and effects.”2 In addition to several federal initiatives to better understand and tackle this problem (most recently, with First Lady Michelle Obama launching the “Let’s Move” campaign to fight child17


baltimore city

community food availability

Corner/Grocery Store Density

Corner/Grocery Store Density (per 10,000 residents) (Per (Per 10,000 10,000 Residents) Residents)

18.0–33.6 18.0–33.6 11.8–17.9 11.8–17.9 6.8–11.7 6.8–11.7 2.8–6.7 2.8–6.7 0.0–2.7 0.0–2.7 Supermarket Supermarket Elderly or Elderly orDisabled DisabledHousing Housing Store calculated Census Store density density calculated using using 2000 Census data. data. Store density is2000 calculated using 2000 Census data.

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research | Environment

Opposite: This map is a re-creation of the Community Food Availability data published by the Baltimore City Health Department (2009). It shows grocery store density in each Census statistical area in the county.

environment Food Deserts in Baltimore

According to a 2008 study, 65% of Baltimore’s neighborhoods have low or medium healthy food availability.3 Due to a lack of full-service supermarkets and low vehicle ownership in Baltimore’s food desert communities, many residents rely on fast food, carryout, and corner stores located within walking distance. In Baltimore City, the distribution of food store types varies enormously between predominantly AfricanAmerican neighborhoods and predominantly white neighborhoods. The clf’s fall 2010 “Baltimore City Food Environment” report reveals that of all food stores in African-American neighborhoods, 8% are supermarkets and just 1% are farmers’ markets or vendors in covered markets versus 13% and 7%, respectively, in white neighborhoods. Overall, in African-American neighborhoods, 90% of food stores are corner stores, convenience stores, and behind-glass stores—all sources for high-calorie, low-nutrient foods.

Baltimore City from a previous study (Glanz, Sallis, Saelens, & Frank, 2007), the clf produced a Healthy Food Availability Index where they found that 43% of predominantly African-American neighborhoods were in the worst category of healthy food availability (versus only 4% of predominantly white neighborhoods), and 68% of white neighborhoods were in the highest category of healthy food availability (versus 19% of African-American neighborhoods). ■

Offerings of healthy foods also differ within similar store types depending on the neighborhood. Using a sample of 78 neighborhoods and 177 food stores in 19


research | Existing Partnership Model

existing partnership model Baltimore’s Food & Faith Project

clf’s Baltimore Food and Faith Project works to raise awareness about and find solutions to problems with greater Baltimore’s current food system by partnering with faith communities, religious schools, farmers, and other organizations. We interviewed Project Director Angela Smith about the Community Supported Agriculture (csa) program she established between One Straw Farm and Knox Presbyterian Church that brought healthy, affordable produce to an area of Baltimore City without access and simultaneously helped local farmers yield a profit. The Knox Presbyterian Church csa was inspired by a similar model in southwest Baltimore started by Joyce Smith, now the Executive Director of Operation Reachout Southwest and co-chair of West Baltimore Maryland Area Regional Commuter (marc) TransitOriented Development/Transportation, Inc., who has also developed a farmers’ market at the West Baltimore marc Station. With grant money and a donation from Joan Smith, Angela Smith was able to purchase 12 – 13 shares of eight vegetables/week from One Straw Farm. An advisory committee member had suggested Knox Presbyterian as a partner for

the csa. In the past, Knox Presbyterian hosted free lunches on Fridays, and years ago there was even a co-op for church members. The csa shares were dropped off every Tuesday at Johns Hopkins University’s School of Public Health down the street from Knox Presbyterian. In the partnership’s first year (2009), the Baltimore Food and Faith Project created buzz with flyers and held an exciting kick-off event with an a capella group, face painting, cooking demonstrations, and a share giveaway. On average, the program served 5 – 15 customers/week, but the number of customers varied by the type of food available. The shares were viewed as too expensive and not customizable for different-sized families, and 75% of the customers came from outside the community to purchase the shares. Each week, any unsold produce was donated to a local senior center. In the second year of the program, volunteers tried to sell an equal amount of shares at a church farm stand, but there was limited awareness of the program. Church members from outside the 21


One Straw Farm is located in White Hall, Maryland. Knox Presbyterian Church is located at Eden and Preston Streets in East Baltimore.

community were still welcome to purchase from the farm stand, but produce was not set aside for them. Overall, the program faced many obstacles: it contradicted the church’s giving model (how could the program ask people to pay for food when food had been given away for free at the church in the past?); some vegetables were foreign to customers; the drop-off time was not conducive to bringing in customers who tended to shop on Saturday mornings; the program was technically considered a csa drop-off so it could not take ebt or wic (a federally-funded health and nutrition program for women, infants, and children); only 15% of congregation members actually lived in the community; the program could not connect with a population of non-cookers (ages 20 – 40); and when set up behind the building on a one-way street, business suffered from low visibility. Baltimore’s Food and Faith Project recognized that the partnership’s biggest success was that customers could select and purchase their own healthy food. As a result, Baltimore’s Food and Faith Project has since evolved its model to include a request for 22

proposal process for congregations to guarantee that the program will be actionable and supported by both the community and the congregation. Angela Smith hopes to re-launch the program in July 2011 and engage faith-based community gardens from the supply-side and as an outlet to teach entrepreneurial skills to local youth. ■


research | Initial Brainstorming

initial brainstorming Goal-oriented Initiatives

With our initial Baltimore food desert research in mind, we met with Baltimarket and rff to better understand how each organization positioned its brand and what potential benefits each perceived by partnering through our project. Baltimarket aimed to encourage more healthful eating at an affordable price and hoped that rff would help its flexible, transparent, and reputable program increase the presence of healthy food options in its food desert communities. rff anticipated that a partnership with Baltimarket would generate revenue by selling more produce and expanding its current product offerings. Limited staffing and money, unfamiliarity with each other’s audience, and a desire to maintain the organizations’ original goals ( food access vs. exclusively healthy food access) and geographic areas (food deserts vs. Clifton Park neighborhoods) surfaced as common concerns. After the meeting, we brainstormed ideas for initiatives that stayed true to individual organizational goals and limitations while still addressing food access. We recognized that some of these proposals to

promote healthy eating in Baltimore’s food deserts were immediately actionable, whereas others would require additional coordination and funding. Create More Incentives • Introduce a punch card system that encourages healthy purchases over multiple trips • Publicize a refer-a-friend incentive • Reward rff volunteers with a Baltimarket discounted order • S ubsidize shipping costs for online orders from other local producers Make Shopping Fun • Entice Baltimarket customers with participatory games like spinning wheels, coloring pages/ contests, and using an actual shopping cart • Prompt customers to make healthy decisions with Baltimarket shopping list notepads

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In our research, we also identified the following potential local partners: Baltimore’s Food and Faith Project; local producers like One Straw Farm or Reid’s Orchard; urban farming initiatives like the Hamilton Crop Circle; vendors at farmers’ markets near Baltimarket sites; corner stores; and Lexington, Cross Street, and Northeast Markets.

Highlight Food Potential • Advertise a featured food of the week/month with taste tests, free samples, recipes, and healthy bundles for purchase • Sell rff produce at Baltimarket ordering/ delivery sessions that match grocery store advertised prices • Split a csa share from rff or other local producer among Baltimarket customers • Publish a Baltimarket/rff healthy, local, seasonal cookbook using recipes from the community, local producers, and local chefs • Rebrand healthy items to appeal to kids

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Expand Audience & Engage Community • Arrange field trips for Baltimarket customers to pick-your-own farms and/or rff • Represent each other at corresponding markets using Baltimarket and rff bags and flyers • Co-sponsor healthy snack time at local schools and libraries • Publicize Baltimarket/rff at corner stores • Publish a local producers and farmers’ markets resource list • Institute a shuttle service to/from local farmers’ markets • Start Baltimore’s own Buy Local Week ■


First Steps Promotion Week One –Five Analysis In the Supermarket

imple ment ation

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Implementation | First Steps

The most frequently purchased fresh vegetables at Baltimarket’s Orleans Street library branch include potatoes, salad mix, broccoli, cucumber, and corn. Kale, romaine, collard greens, and mustard greens — though not as popular — were also purchased. Bananas, grapes, oranges, strawberries, and apples were the most popular fresh fruits.

first steps Direction for Action

From our initial brainstorming, we isolated our “Food of the Month” concept as an immediately actionable idea that could also address a few of our other brainstorming goals. Baltimarket would offer month-long discounts on a featured healthy food. Recipe cards and free samples would introduce healthy-food tangibility otherwise missing from Baltimarket’s shopping experience. Free food and the opportunity to try something new would create a buzz in the library during ordering sessions and make the experience more fun for customers. We chose to run our trial “Food of the Month” during the month of March at Baltimarket’s Orleans Street library branch because it is one of Baltimarket’s longest-running ordering sites and is the site closest to rff in East Baltimore. At the Orleans Street library branch, customers order groceries from 3–6 pm on Tuesdays and pick up orders from 4:30–5:30 pm on Wednesdays. In later weeks, we expanded the discount to two other Baltimarket sites. Taste tests took place at Orleans Street library branch each week.

Before commencing our promotion, we analyzed previous orders at Baltimarket’s Orleans Street library branch to gauge customers’ interest in buying healthy food and to help us decide what to select as the featured food. Out of 154 orders placed at Orleans Street library branch since the program’s inception, nearly 90% (135 orders) included at least one healthy food purchase, which we defined as whole grains, fresh/ frozen/canned vegetables or fruit, 100% fruit juice, and low-fat dairy. 74% of the orders placed included at least one fresh fruit or vegetable, and we aimed to increase this percentage with the “Food of the Month” promotion and incentivize customers to purchase more healthy food items per order. After looking at the data, we chose greens as the featured food for this trial period. Greens were familiar to the Baltimarket audience, were in season in March, and could be supplied by rff. Greens also lent themselves to a wide variety of cold, easy-to-prepare recipes for our food samples. ■

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Our green tablecloth set us apart from the Baltimarket ordering table but still provided a direct association.

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Implementation | Promotion Week One

Promotion week one March 1, 2011

Objective To encourage Baltimarket customers at the Orleans Library ordering site to purchase healthy foods in the month of March.

schedule and a coupon of the greens discount on the reverse. We made a few small posters advertising the “Food of the Month” that were displayed throughout the library.

Solution A coupon (Figure 4) offered approximately 50% off any fresh or frozen green on top of any Santoni’s weekly discount. Baltimarket agreed to fund the cost of this incentive program. On March 1, we offered four prepared samples using various local greens and provided corresponding recipe cards (Figure 1). Each subsequent Tuesday, we focused on just one of our four recipes. The samples used ingredients from both Santoni’s Super Market and rff. We created an informational flyer called “How to Mix up Your Greens” (Figure 5) that sought to educate customers about the growth and selection of the various greens in the recipes. We produced quarter-sheet flyers (Figure 3, 4) for library distribution and had them available at the ordering table. The flyers included a food sample

Findings baltimarket audience

The 3–6 pm time slot was not conducive to large order quantities. This new time had only been offered for a few weeks. Compared to the earlier time slot (11 am– 3 pm), the later ordering session did not align with Baltimarket’s primary audience. Of those who frequented the library at this new time, most were kids or people not looking to purchase groceries—they either didn’t live in the community, used a car to go food shopping, or were not available to pick up their order the following day. There were only three orders placed during the session (one of which was from a new customer). Much of the adult foot traffic was not familiar with Baltimarket.

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young audience

greens information

S urprisingly, kids responded well to the free greens samples, were inquisitive about the recipe ingredients, and were willing to taste unfamiliar food. Multiple kids took recipe cards home to their parents. Several kids talked about eating at the Burger King across the street, but our samples provided a free, accessible, and healthy alternative.

Most frequenters ignored the informational sheet. This may be because it seemed too educational and disposable, the sheet detailed greens that were already familiar to tasters, or the format was too daunting. Also, there was not room to place the sheet immediately next to the recipe cards and samples, so we put it on the red Baltimarket ordering table.

coupon incentive

overall

 ne customer took advantage of the incentive, using O two coupons to purchase kale and mustard greens. Several potential customers still took coupons home, but did not see the offer as a strong enough incentive to start using the virtual supermarket program.

The greens discount was overlooked because both the free food samples and the Baltimarket service were foreign to most passersby. The samples and recipes drew attention but did not correlate with additional orders (healthy or not).

samples & recipes

 oving forward, we wanted to evaluate whether M focusing on a single recipe would better highlight the “Food of the Month” discount. We planned to make healthy eating education more accessible by moving the “How to Mix up Your Greens” content to the back of the recipe cards. ■

All four samples (Crispy Kale Chips, Easy Spinach Dip, Strawberry Salad, and Lemon Greens) were popular with library traffic, but the free food was not seen as connected to the Baltimarket service. The Strawberry Salad was the most popular sample, most likely because it included fruit. Several tasters were excited about the recipe cards and took multiple copies.

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Implementation | Promotion Week One

We started off the month with a spread of all four prepared recipes. Doing so allowed us to build a reputation and encourage attendance at subsequent ordering sessions.

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The library agreed to post our calendar in this kiosk at the entrance. Coupons and flyers were available at the book checkout counter.

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Implementation | Promotion Week Two

Promotion week two March 8, 2011

Objective To encourage Baltimarket customers at the Orleans Library ordering site to purchase healthy foods in the month of March. subobjectives

• T  o use our food samples as a vehicle for talking more about Baltimarket’s program • R  ealizing that any consumption of healthy food was a positive outcome and that not all tasters at the Orleans Library lived in that community, to attract traffic to the tasting table but not obligate them to participate in the program • T  o better integrate information about healthy food with the tasting experience • T  o more formally track the quantity and demographic of those interested in greens samples, as well as who took advantage of our coupon Solution On March 8, we offered one of our four prepared samples, Lemon Greens, using mustard greens from rff and Kashi tlc crackers as a supplement. We

hoped that focusing on a single recipe would allow us to spend more time conversing with tasters about the benefits of the virtual supermarket program instead of describing the food on the table. We combined the dense “How to Mix up Your Greens” informational flyer with the sample recipe card (Figure 1). We included only the information relevant to the single recipe on the reverse side of the card (Figure 2). We continued to provide quarter-sheet flyers in the library and at the ordering table. The flyers included a food sample schedule (Figure 3) and the greens discount on the reverse (Figure 4). The “Food of the Month” flyer was still on display in the library. Findings baltimarket audience

Like last time, more kids tasted the greens than adults, most likely due to the time of the ordering session and the library traffic (15 kids, four adults). There were five orders placed during the session.

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Of the adult foot traffic, more people inquired directly about Baltimarket. Most kids were excited to try the sample even if mustard greens were unfamiliar. Additionally, most liked the taste. In large groups of kids, it was evident that peer pressure negatively affected their reactions. coupon incentive

Three customers took advantage of the incentive during this ordering session, and one customer even used five coupons. samples & recipes

 ewer people took recipe cards because we deF emphasized rff and the takeaway of the cards. We explained the sample in the context of Baltimarket, rather than the reverse, so this week, the free food was seen as more connected to the Baltimarket service. greens information

 utting the information on the back of the recipe P cards better integrated the content and made it less dense and more accessible. overall

 e greens discount seemed less overlooked because Th we were able to explain it earlier in our interactions with passersby. The single sample and recipe still drew attention but also allowed for an easier explanation of both Baltimarket and the greens promotion.

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We concluded that if healthy food is immediately available, kids may eat it in place of an unhealthy snack.  ver the two weeks, we realized that Santoni’s weekly O circular, available on the Baltimarket ordering table, was one of the only influences on customers’ purchase behavior. The circular was also the only aspect of Baltimarket that directly resembled the actual experience of shopping in a supermarket. For week three, we planned to design an insert to place in Santoni’s weekly circular as a vehicle for communicating directly to Baltimarket’s customers. By advertising concrete, affordable prices instead of discount coupons, we hoped that customers would be more likely to impulsively purchase the featured food. We believed this new model could also extend to Baltimarket’s other ordering sites whose ordering sessions fell within the same circular week. This method of advertising the incentive would be direct, wouldn’t require elaboration, and would take advantage of customers’ familiarity with weekly supermarket circulars. ■


Implementation | Promotion Week Two

We designed these flyers (Figure 3, 4) to provide a calendar of food tastings at Baltimarket and to offer an incentive coupon on the reverse. Later, we abandoned the use of a discount coupon in favor of advertising lower Baltimarket-only prices on weekly circular inserts.

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Recipe cards accompanied each sample. We compiled tips for selecting fresh greens on the reverse.

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Implementation | Promotion Week Three

Promotion week three March 15, 2011

Objective

Solution

To encourage Baltimarket customers at the Orleans Library, Washington Village, and George Washington Elementary (gwes) ordering sites to purchase healthy foods in the month of March.

On March 15, we offered one of our four prepared samples, Strawberry Salad, using salad mix from rff and additional ingredients from a grocery store.

subobjectives

• T  o use food samples during the Orleans Library ordering session as a vehicle for talking more about Baltimarket’s program • T  o advertise concrete, affordable prices for greens instead of the $1 discount • T  o use the familiarity of Santoni’s weekly circular to influence customers’ purchases • T  o more formally track the number and demographic of those who tasted our greens sample, picked up a circular, ordered from Baltimarket, and/or took advantage of our greens discount

We realized that Baltimarket’s customers approached the ordering table already having made their grocery lists. The weekly specials in Santoni’s circular were the only last-minute factors that affected their purchase. We designed an insert for the circular (Figure 6) that included detailed prices on greens, using Santoni’s original sale prices with the Baltimarket discount. We used language and imagery that matched the rest of the sales ad, yet still made it obvious that these prices were for Baltimarket customers only. We continued to provide the sample’s accompanying recipe card (Figure 1) with the “How to Mix up Your Greens” information on the reverse (Figure 2). We continued to provide quarter-sheet flyers (Figure 3, 4) in the library and had them available at the ordering table. The flyers included a food sample schedule and the greens discount on the reverse. The “Food of the Month” flyer was still on display in the library.

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Findings baltimarket audience

circulars

 is week, there were significantly more tasters, and Th more adults sampled the salad than kids (15 adults, 11 kids). The same group of kids frequented our table with excitement and were delighted to see a more familiar sample recipe than the Lemon Greens from the previous week. Many returned to our table for second helpings.

12 adults picked up circulars at Orleans Street library.

coupon

Of the five orders placed at Orleans this week, four greens coupons were used on three orders. Of the three orders placed at Washington Village this week, five greens discounts were used. The one order at gwes this week did not use a greens discount. samples & recipes

S even adults and two kids took recipe cards for the Strawberry Salad, mostly unprompted. They may have seen the cards as more of a resource, rather than something we were trying to get them to take.

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overall

S everal more greens discounts were used this week. This was partly due to expanding the discount to other ordering sites, but also because the special was much more apparent, self-explanatory, and better integrated into the ordering experience.  e planned to rethink the format of the insert to W make it a more obvious addition to the circular that called attention to Baltimarket’s specials. A header would more clearly explain that this insert advertised exclusive Baltimarket pricing. We would pay closer attention to the customers’ interpretation and interaction with the insert’s language and format. I f convenience/access alone was not a big enough selling point, we would explain the additional discounts to potential customers as a reason to use the service. ■


Implementation | Promotion Week Three

The Strawberry Salad was the most requested recipe. Even kids were eager to try a sample.

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We prepared the tasting dishes in our own kitchens. These mushrooms were used in our Easy Spinach Dip.

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Implementation | Promotion Week Four

Promotion week four March 22, 2011

Objective

Solution

To encourage Baltimarket customers at the Orleans Library, Washington Village, and George Washington Elementary (gwes) ordering sites to purchase healthy foods in the month of March.

On March 22 during the Orleans Library ordering session, we offered one of our four prepared samples, Spinach Dip, using frozen spinach and other ingredients from a grocery store. We served it with carrots and Triscuits.

subobjectives

• T  o use food samples during the Orleans Library ordering session as a vehicle for talking more about Baltimarket’s program • T  o advertise concrete, affordable prices for greens instead of the $1 off discount • T  o use the familiarity of Santoni’s weekly circular to influence customers’ purchases • T  o more formally track the number and demographic of those who tasted our greens sample, picked up a circular, ordered from Baltimarket, and/or took advantage of our greens discount

This week, we changed the dimensions of the circular ad (Figure 7) to make the information less dense (from 8.5" × 11" to 4.25" × 11" ). We lessened the number of advertised specials (from eight to four) so it would be more obvious that the specials being featured weren’t the only discounted greens, but rather indicative of the greens discount as a whole. We continued to provide the sample’s accompanying recipe card (Figure 1) with the “How to Mix up Your Greens” information on the reverse (Figure 2). We continued to provide quarter-sheet flyers (Figure 3, 4) in the library and had them available at the ordering table. The flyers included a food sample schedule and the greens discount on the reverse. The “Food of the Month” flyer was still on display in the library.

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Findings baltimarket audience

circulars

 is week, six adults and 11 kids sampled the Th Spinach Dip. We were surprised that Spinach Dip, something we thought of as an Americanized food, was still unfamiliar with the audience.

 en adults picked up circulars at Orleans between T the hours of 3–5 pm.

coupon incentive

Of the two orders placed at Orleans this week, one greens discount was used. Of the five orders placed at Washington Village/gwes this week, three greens discounts were used. recipes

 wo adults and one child took recipe cards for the T Spinach Dip, unprompted.

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overall

Fewer greens discounts were used this week. This was mostly due to lower order totals.  wanted to change the dimensions of the circular We insert to make it more prominent when the circular was closed. We would especially increase the height so it would stick out the top. We would further clarify that these specials were exclusive to Baltimarket. â– 


Implementation | Promotion Week Four

All of our samples except the Easy Spinach Dip used fresh greens from Real Food Farm in Clifton Park. We advertised their markets as a place to get fresh, local greens.

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Our kale and other greens were grown at Real Food Farm in Clifton Park in a hoop house like this one below. The structure allows them to grow year-round.

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Implementation | Promotion Week Five

Promotion week five March 29, 2011

Objective

Solution

To encourage Baltimarket customers at the Orleans Library, Washington Village, and George Washington Elementary (gwes) ordering sites to purchase healthy foods in the month of March.

On March 29 during the Orleans Library ordering session, we offered one of our four prepared samples, Crispy Kale Chips, using kale from rff and other ingredients from a grocery store.

subobjectives

This week, we changed the dimensions of the circular ad (Figure 8) again (from 4.25" × 11" to 6" × 13.5") so that the insert would stick out of the top of the circular. With the extra height, we also were able to enlarge our photos and advertised specials to stand out from Santoni’s existing design.

• T  o use food samples during the Orleans Library ordering session as a vehicle for talking more about Baltimarket’s program • T  o advertise concrete, affordable prices for greens instead of the $1 off discount • T  o use the familiarity of Santoni’s weekly circular to influence customers’ purchases • T  o more formally track the number and demographic of those who tasted our greens sample, picked up a circular, ordered from Baltimarket, and/or took advantage of our greens discount

We continued to provide the sample’s accompanying recipe card (Figure 1) with the “How to Mix up Your Greens” information on the reverse (Figure 2). We continued to provide quarter-sheet flyers (Figure 3, 4) in the library and had them available at the ordering table. The flyers included a food sample schedule and the greens discount on the reverse. The “Food of the Month” flyer was still on display in the library.

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Findings baltimarket audience

 e Orleans site again had very low traffic during Th the ordering session this week. Only six adults and five kids sampled the Crispy Kale Chips.

the ordering session, preventing us from interacting with potential customers. Our count, as usual, does not account for circulars that were picked up at the other sites.

coupon incentive

overall

 f the three orders placed at Orleans this week, four O greens discounts were used. Of the seven orders placed at Washington Village/gwes this week, three greens discounts were used.

 onsidering only two circulars were picked up this week, C we were delighted that the two women who did pick them up placed orders and used the greens discount.

recipes

Two adults and one child took recipe cards for the Crispy Kale Chips. circulars

 ery few circulars were picked up at the Orleans Street V Library this week. We suspect that this was due to a visitor who interviewed Ms. Fox for the majority of

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 ox commented that the inserts seemed more F successful when they listed more items, contrary to our original thinking. We did, however, like how the insert stuck out from the top of the circular with a bright, dominant header. â– 


Implementation | Promotion Week Five

While we could not attend every Baltimarket ordering session, we stuffed inserts in circulars to be used at other sites. Shown below is a Cherry Hill ordering session.

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We washed and dried cratefuls of fresh salad greens.

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Implementation | Analysis

Coupons were most frequently applied to mustard greens and salad mix, followed by frozen spinach, kale, romaine, fresh spinach, and collard greens.

analysis Evaluation of the “Food of the Month” Promotion

Over the course of five weeks, customers placed a total of 18 orders at Baltimarket’s Orleans Street library branch. 20 greens coupons were applied across ten of these orders, but out of all orders, customers used at least one coupon only 55% of the time. At the other two ordering sites that participated in the promotion during weeks three, four, and five, 11 coupons were applied over 16 orders. Overall, 31 coupons were applied across 34 orders. We realize, however, that this does not mean that coupons were used on 91% of orders because customers at the library sites could use multiple coupons per order. As of May 2011, only a little over 100 unique individuals participate in the Baltimarket program, and of our 18 orders at Orleans Street library, many were repeat customers between weeks. Therefore, those who were unwilling to purchase greens one week were no more willing a week later. We successfully promoted access to affordable, healthy food through the Baltimarket program, but it was difficult

to increase demand with Baltimarket’s small base and repeat “unhealthy” customers. Our food samples and corresponding recipe cards communicated the tangibility and food potential of the discounted items, but at Orleans Street library, each week’s sample did not influence ordering of the particular type of green used in the recipe that week. Rather, food samples as a whole just provided an entry point for talking about affordable and available healthy food. The most influential way to communicate a discount to customers was to look up specific weekly prices at Santoni’s, subtract the discount ($1 off all fresh and frozen greens), and advertise those new prices as part of the circular experience. This insert design was most effective when it stuck out the top and when there were more pictures and prices shown. Some customers would not think to order items unless they were visualized in the circular. Separate $1 off coupons seemed to have little or no effect on buying behavior.

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nea Progress Report Fittingly, at the conclusion of our “Food of the Month” promotion, we were required to submit a progress report to the nea summarizing our activities as well as a list of grant-supported plans scheduled for the remainder of the grant period. submitted text

In an effort to promote healthier buying behavior in Baltimore’s food desert communities, mica’s Center for Design Practice partnered with Baltimarket, a Virtual Supermarket Program run by the Baltimore City Health Department, and Real Food Farm, a local urban farm. Following our initial research, we introduced “greens” as a “Food of the Month” for all March orders at Baltimarket’s Orleans Street site. The promotion was originally a coupon worth $1 off any fresh or frozen greens from the partnering supermarket. Additionally, we offered food samples using local greens, provided recipe cards, and displayed posters. The samples showed customers the physical potential of a healthy ingredient. To simulate a real shopping experience, our strategy evolved into an insert in the supermarket circular that advertised concrete, affordable prices for greens each 50

week. We tracked the order and discount totals at three Baltimarket sites. At the Orleans site, we also noted customers who picked up circulars and/or tasted our greens sample. Moving forward, we will continue to experiment with ways to create demand for healthy food. We will also compare our research with Baltimarket data from students of the Center for a Livable Future at Johns Hopkins University. Some possibilities for future explorations include concepts for a grocery cart redesign, supermarket environmental graphics, or new models for online grocery store interfaces and weekly sales ads. At the close of the semester, we will compile our process notes, conclusions, and photos into a concise open-source book — available in print or digital formats. Comparing Notes During our test period, Beth Andreasen, a clf student research assistant, completed her Masters in Public Health capstone project that focused on customers’ experience using Baltimarket. After speaking with 10 customers from two of Baltimarket’s sites (Orleans


Implementation | Analysis

Street and Washington Village libraries), Andreasen found that Baltimarket’s customers were thankful for the program and wanted to see it continue. They viewed the library sites as a convenient place for grocery shopping, but the hours of ordering/pick-up limited the number of customers, especially among working residents. Customers felt pressured to order on a weekly basis in order to support the program despite tight budgets and wasted food. Lastly, focus group participants suggested holding an open house and providing samples of healthy snacks to promote the virtual supermarket program — a need that our “Food of the Month” promotion met.  ecognizing Baltimarket’s small customer base and R the limited run of our promotion, we ended our “Food of the Month” promotion realizing that creating demand for healthy food could not be achieved solely by increasing access and affordability. We hoped that bigger strides would be possible if supermarkets themselves adopted some of the initiatives we tested during our “Food of the Month” promotion. ■

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Visiting local supermarkets provided valuable field research that guided many of our concepts. Shown here are displays of various food to make a common recipe, multiple shelf tags, and refrigerated end-of-aisle displays.

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Implementation | In the Supermarket

in the supermarket Conceptual Design Approaches

After trying to increase demand for healthy food at Baltimarket’s ordering sites, we took a step back and thought about ways to increase demand for healthy foods in a space with a much larger customer base: the supermarket itself. If customers did not buy or demand healthy food when it was available, we could not expect food desert communities to demand healthy food when it wasn’t accessible.

hopes that we could design a healthy foods insert similar to our insert for Baltimarket’s “Food of the Month” promotion. Lastly, we located shelf tags that advertised product health benefits and concepted a way to use tags to make the language of healthy eating more accessible to everyday shoppers. The following pages feature conceptual design solutions that could be implemented in any supermarket.

We visited several local supermarkets including Safeway, Save-a-Lot, and Santoni’s Super Market to study interior layout, customer behavior, and any healthy food shelf tags or point-of-purchase displays. Specifically, we looked at how customers placed items in their shopping carts and brainstormed whether a redesigned cart could encourage customers to purchase more fruits and vegetables or at least prompt more conscious buying. We evaluated pointof-purchase displays that shelved an assortment of related ingredients, believing that grouping healthy ingredients together would urge customers to prepare easy, healthy meals. We observed whether customers picked up weekly in-store circulars in 53


Initial sketches of grocery cart redesigns included alternative cart structures, labeled compartments, and foam padding to protect fresh produce. Ultimately, we opted for a less authoritative approach with minimal segmentation. The color sketch below uses a snap-on insulated produce compartment.

54


Implementation | In the Supermarket

At the supermarkets, end-of-aisle displays often included clusters of food that people would normally buy together. Playing off that idea, we developed several healthy meals that could rotate through a refrigerated display. The recipe cards would be nearby and every ingredient would be on sale.

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MAKE YOUR WEEKLY

GROCERY LIST! SANTONI’S SUPER MARKET | April 13 –19 This grocery list would be inserted into weekly circulars. Its purpose is three-fold. First, it encourages store business by making it easy for customers to write their shopping list while sales are already on their minds. Second, it advertises produce in particular, prompting customers to consider purchasing fresh food. Finally, the design includes additional selling points of the particular produce — local, pesticidefree, etc., providing education about the food customers eat.

Planning meals ahead of time is the best way to maintain a healthy diet and balanced budget. Use these weekly specials to guide your list. Eat healthy and save! Sale Vegetables asparagus red leaf lettuce dole salad mix jumbo sweet onion russet potatoes portabella mushrooms

organic in season domestic locally grown

$ 0.99 /lb $ 1.49 / head $ 1.99 / bag $ 0.99 /lb $ 1.29 / lb $ 3.99 /lb

Sale Fruit navel oranges braeburn apples red & black plums beefsteak tomatoes anjou pears simply orange juice

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organic domestic pesticide-free locally grown

$ 0.99 each $ 1.19 / lb $ 1.49 / lb $ 1.29 / lb $ 1.49 / lb $ 2.99 each


Implementation | In the Supermarket

These pairing tags would be affixed to supermarket shelves next to price labels to encourage customers to make healthy choices. Labels also point to other aisles of the store that customers might not frequent. For example, a cereal box tag could suggest bananas, blueberries, and fat-free milk. Other pairing ideas: M&Ms: try with almonds, dried fruit, and granola; Salad Dressing: try with baby carrots or grape tomatoes; Cool Whip: try with strawberries, grapes, and raspberries.

â– 

Try with‌ sliced bananas

produce

blueberries fat-free milk

dairy

57


Recommendations

con clu sion

59


conclusion | Recommendations

recommendations Takeaways and Future Research

After a semester of ideation and experimentation, we identified several key points or “best practices” that may inform future research of solutions for Baltimore and other cities’ food deserts, specifically regarding affordable, healthy food availability in those communities. Engage Partners •

Identify resourceful, supportive organizations deeprooted in food desert communities. Whether based in education, health, agriculture, retail, or faith, these partners will be willing to devote their energy to common, actionable goals, and, consequently, will be the best advocates for communities in need of healthy food access.

Involve a partner on the supply-side. A local producer or larger supermarket will be able to manage the quality and quantity of goods necessary to feed food desert communities. As seen with the increasing presence of farmers’ markets, mobile food markets, and online delivery services,

businesses in the food industry are now more willing to bring food directly to customers in order to boost business. Offer Incentives •

Make language familiar, direct, and accessible. Use existing supermarket vernacular like shopping lists and weekly store circulars to advertise affordable prices that point customers to healthier items.

Show Food Potential •

Offer free samples and recipes. While they may not immediately affect total healthy food purchases at Baltimarket or in a supermarket, these offerings encourage tasters to try new things and increase familiarity with healthy options in the future. Satisfying customers’ appetites with free healthy snacks also reinforces the belief that healthy foods can be delicious and filling. The samples may even temporarily replace consumption of a highcalorie, low-nutrient food.

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Reach Customers •

Meet customers on their own turf. Baltimarket is an example of a successful community-based distribution network for affordable, healthy food that can be replicated in other cities. But, since Baltimarket is only a temporary solution until an actual supermarket moves to the area, supermarkets could also strive to prompt customers to make healthy decisions by altering store layout, displaying healthy point-of-purchase shelf tags and bundles, and using the weekly sales circular to highlight discounts on fresh foods.

Overall, these points reinforce that in order for Baltimore’s food desert communities to have a supply of healthy, affordable food, they must demand it. Federal and local initiatives, with the help of design research, can all play a part to help supply this demand. ■


Baltimarket Design Materials Contributors Etcetera

ap pen dix

63


Figure 1: Recipe Cards These recipes accompanied each weekly taste test. The pictures in the background help identify the greens.

Crispy Kale Chips INGREDIENTS

DIRECTIONS

• 5 handfuls fresh kale • 1 tbsp olive oil • salt

Preheat oven to 350°. Thoroughly wash and dry the kale. Tear into bite-sized pieces, removing the stems. Place on baking sheet. Drizzle olive oil over kale and toss lightly. Bake for 12 – 20 minutes. Remove when leaves are paper-thin and crackly. Sprinkle with salt and enjoy. YIELDS ABOUT 4 SERVINGS.

TOOLS

• baking sheet

Recipe from steamykitchen.com. Photo courtesy of Flickr user SweetonVeg.

Easy Spinach Dip

Strawberry Salad

Lemon Greens

INGREDIENTS

DIRECTIONS

INGREDIENTS

DIRECTIONS

INGREDIENTS

DIRECTIONS

• 1 package (10 oz) frozen chopped spinach • 1½ cups fat-free sour cream • 1 cup fat-free mayonnaise • 1 cup fresh mushrooms, chopped • 3 green onions, chopped

Thaw and squeeze water out of the frozen spinach. In a medium-sized bowl, combine all ingredients. Mix well, cover, and refrigerate. Serve chilled and enjoy with a variety of raw vegetables.

• • • • • • •

Quarter strawberries and toss together with onion, spinach, and cheese in a large bowl. Drizzle with vinaigrette and toss again. Sprinkle almonds on top. Add salt and pepper to taste and enjoy.

• • • • •

Chop washed greens. Cook greens in a large pot of boiling water until bright green and tender ( about 3 min or less ). Remove and plunge into ice water. Drain well and squeeze dry.

TOOLS

• medium bowl

YIELDS ABOUT 10 SERVINGS. Recipe from mayoclinic.com. Photo courtesy of Flickr user slave2thetea.

16 oz strawberries ¼ red onion, thinly sliced 12 oz fresh spinach low-fat feta cheese low-fat vinaigrette ½ cup sliced almonds salt and pepper

TOOLS

• large bowl

YIELDS ABOUT 6 SERVINGS. Recipe from Southern Living.

1 lb mustard / collard greens ¼ tsp minced garlic 3 tbsp olive oil salt and pepper 2 lemons

TOOLS

• large pot • large bowl

Toss greens with garlic, olive oil, salt and pepper. Juice lemons and sprinkle over the greens. Enjoy! YIELDS ABOUT 6 SERVINGS. Recipe from The New York Times. Photo courtesy of Flickr user I LikE Plants!.

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Appendix | Baltimarket Design Materials

Figure 2: Learn More About Greens Beginning in our second week of the “Food of the Month” promotion, we included supplemental information about specific greens on the reverse side of the recipe cards.

LEARN MORE ABOUT KALE available

year-round (peak season: mid-winter through spring)

look for

small bunches with deeply colored small leaves and hardy stems

avoid

large bunches with limp, yellowing, or holed leaves

store

in a storage bag in the refrigerator for up to 5 days; it develops a more bitter flavor as it’s stored

prepare

rinse thoroughly right before cooking; remove center stalk before cooking

enjoy

cooked; comes fresh, frozen, and canned

LEARN MORE ABOUT COLLARD & MUSTARD GREENS

LEARN MORE ABOUT SPINACH

LEARN MORE ABOUT SPINACH

available

year-round (peak season: summer)

available

year-round (peak season: summer)

look for

bunches with crisp, dark leaves and thin stems

look for

bunches with crisp, dark leaves and thin stems

avoid

bunches with limp, yellowing, or bruised leaves and thick stems; slimy coating

avoid

bunches with limp, yellowing, or bruised leaves and thick stems; slimy coating

store

in a storage bag in the refrigerator for up to 5 days; cooked spinach does not store well in the refrigerator

store

in a storage bag in the refrigerator for up to 5 days; cooked spinach does not store well in the refrigerator

prepare

rinse thoroughly right before cooking or eating

prepare

rinse thoroughly right before cooking or eating

enjoy

raw or cooked; comes fresh, frozen, and canned

enjoy

raw or cooked; comes fresh, frozen, and canned

available

year-round (peak season: mid-winter through spring)

look for

crisp and green leaves; smaller collard leaves have a milder flavor; depending on the variety of mustard greens, leaves can be crumpled or flat and have scalloped, frilled, or lacy edges

avoid

yellowing, brown, wilted, or blemished leaves

store

in a storage bag in the refrigerator for 3 –5 days

prepare

rinse thoroughly right before cooking; chop evenly

enjoy

collard can be eaten raw or cooked; mustard should be cooked (it benefits from slow, moist cooking); both come fresh, frozen, and canned

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Figure 3: “Food of the Month” Calendar This quarter-sheet flyer advertised our “Food of the Month” promotion. We handed them out at the Baltimarket ordering sessions and had a stack at the Orleans Street library check-out counter.

FOO D of MONthe TH!

ORLEANS LIBRARY TUESDAYS, 3 – 6 PM IPES REC D UDE L INC

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FREE WEEKLY SAMPLES

MARCH 1

TRY ALL FOUR! Lemon Greens, Strawberry Salad, Easy Spinach Dip, Crispy Kale Chips

MARCH 7

Lemon Greens

MARCH 14

Strawberry Salad

MARCH 22

Easy Spinach Dip

MARCH 29

Crispy Kale Chips


Appendix | Baltimarket Design Materials

Figure 4: Greens Incentive Coupon This coupon was printed on the reverse of the “Food of the Month” Calendar (Figure 3). Initially, this coupon served as our greens incentive. The coupon could be applied multiple times per order.

OeD FO of th TH! MON

save all month long

$1 off

All fresh & frozen greens INCLUDING SPINACH, COLLARD GREENS, MUSTARD GREENS, KALE, ICEBERG, ROMAINE, & SALAD MIXES. Discount applies to Baltimarket orders. No quantity limit. Valid March 1–31, 2011.

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Figure 5: “How to Mix up Your Greens” Flyer This 8.5” × 11” informational flyer was only used during Promotion Week One. After that, we divided up the information and printed them on the back of the recipe cards.

How to Mix up Your Greens spinach available :

bunches with crisp, dark leaves and thin stems

avoid :

bunches with limp, yellowing, or bruised leaves and thick stems; slimy coating

store :

in a storage bag in the refrigerator for up to 5 days; cooked spinach does not store well in the refrigerator

fresh

cooked

year-round (peak season: summer)

look for :

prepare :

rinse thoroughly right before cooking or eating

enjoy :

raw or cooked; comes fresh, frozen, and canned

available :

year-round (peak season: mid-winter through spring)

look for :

small bunches with deeply colored small leaves and hardy stems

kale

fresh

cooked

avoid :

large bunches with limp, yellowing, or holed leaves

store :

in a storage bag in the refrigerator for up to 5 days; it develops a bitter the flavor as it’s stored

prepare :

rinse thoroughly right before cooking; remove center stalk before cooking

enjoy :

cooked; comes fresh, frozen, and canned

available :

year-round (peak season: mid-winter through spring)

collard

fresh

look for :

smaller leaves that are crisp and green

avoid :

leaves that show yellowing, wilting, or insect damage

store :

in a storage bag in the refrigerator for 3 – 5 days

prepare :

rinse thoroughly right before cooking; chop evenly

enjoy :

cooked (it benefits from slow, moist heat cooking); comes fresh, frozen, and canned

available :

year-round (peak season: mid-winter through spring)

look for :

fresh, crisp, green leaves; depending on the variety of mustard greens, the leaves can be crumpled or flat and have scalloped, frilled, or lacy edges

cooked

mustard

fresh

cooked

avoid :

blemished and yellowing or brown leaves

store :

in a storage bag in the refrigerator for 3 – 4 days

prepare :

rinse thoroughly right before cooking or eating; chop evenly

enjoy :

raw or cooked; comes fresh, frozen, and canned

Photos courtesy of Flickr users I likE plants!, Laurel Fan, little blue hen, mlinksva, slave2thetea, stu spivak, SweetonVeg, and YoAmes.

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Appendix | Baltimarket Design Materials

Figure 6: Greens Circular Insert, Promotion Week Three We stuffed this 8.5 ” × 11 ” advertisement inside Santoni’s regular circulars on the Baltimarket ordering table. This way, every potential Baltimarket customer was aware of the greens promotion. The prices required no calculations or coupons.

Dole American Salad Blend 12 oz

$

2.69

Collard Greens

BUY 1 LB GET 1 FREE

Regularly $3.69

Regularly $0.99/lb

Kale

Birds Eye Frozen Chopped Spinach

BUY 1 LB GET 1 FREE

10 oz

$

0.55

Regularly $0.99/lb

Regularly $1.55

Red Leaf Lettuce

Spinach

5 oz

1 lb

BUY 1 LB GET 1 FREE

$

Regularly $2.99/lb

Regularly $0.99/lb

Romaine Lettuce

Dole Just Lettuce Salad Blend

20 oz

$

2.24

Regularly $3.24

0.99

11 oz

$

1.99

Regularly $2.99

Save on greens all month with Baltimarket!

RECEIVE $1 OFF ALL FRESH & FROZEN GREENS, EVEN THOSE NOT LISTED ABOVE.

FOO

D of MON the TH!

Prices effective Thursday, March 10 through Wednesday, March 16, 2011 when ordering through Baltimarket’s Virtual Supermarket Program. Discount applies to spinach, collard greens, mustard greens, kale, iceberg, romaine, and salad mixes.

69


D FOO of the H! MONT

Figure 7: Greens Circular Insert, Promotion Week Four This 4.25” × 11 ” second iteration of the circular insert limited the number of featured sale items in an attempt to make it more obvious that the special applied to every green — not just a select few.

Romaine Hearts

Ro

16 oz – 22 oz

16 o

$

70

1.99

$

Regularly $4.99

Reg

Kale

Ka

BUY 1 LB GET 1 FREE

BU GE

Regularly $0.99/lb

Reg

Dole Just Lettuce Salad Blend – 11 oz

Do Sa

$

$

1.99

Regularly $2.99

Reg

Collard Greens

Co

BUY 1 LB GET 1 FREE

BU GE

Regularly $0.99/lb

Reg

RECEIVE $1 OFF ALL OTHER FRESH & FROZEN GREENS NOT LISTED ABOVE.

RECE FROZ

Prices effective Thursday, March 17 through Wednesday, March 23, 2011 when ordering through Baltimarket’s Virtual Supermarket Program. Discount applies to spinach, collard greens, mustard greens, kale, iceberg, romaine, and salad mixes.

Prices e when or Discoun romaine


Appendix | Baltimarket Design Materials THIS WEEK’S

EXCLUSIVE SAVINGS FOOD of the

MONT

Romaine Hearts

H!

16 oz – 22 oz

$

1.99

Figure 8: Greens Circular Insert, Promotion Week Five For this 6 ” × 13.5” final iteration of the circular insert, we reformatted the content so the red headline stuck out of the top of the circular. This better stood out from Santoni’s design.

Regularly $4.99

Spinach 1 lb

$

0.99

Regularly $1.99/lb

Dole Select Salad Blends 16 oz – 22 oz

$

1.99

Regularly $4.99

Romaine Lettuce 20 oz

$

1.11

Regularly $2.49

RECEIVE $1 OFF ALL OTHER FRESH & FROZEN GREENS NOT LISTED ABOVE. Prices effective Thursday, March 24 through Wednesday, March 30, 2011 when ordering through Baltimarket’s Virtual Supermarket Program. Discount applies to spinach, collard greens, mustard greens, kale, iceberg, romaine, and salad mixes.

71


Appendix | Contributors

CONTRIBUTors Credits and Authors

Thank You

Designer Profiles

None of this would have been possible without the support of our many advocates and partners. First and foremost, thank you to the project initiators Mike Weikert and Gunalan Nadarajan of mica’s Center for Design Practice for trusting us to take on this work. Many thanks to the Baltimore City Health Department and Baltimarket’s Project Director Laura Fox for her generous time and dedication to our endeavor. Thanks to Real Food Farm’s Tyler Brown and Maya Kosok for nurturing and providing delicious greens. Thank you to Johns Hopkins University’s Center for a Livable Future and Master of Public Health student Beth Andreasen for their focused efforts and to Angela Smith for her sharing her experience. Finally, thank you to the National Endowment for the Arts for funding the semester’s work.

Lauren P. Adams is a freelance designer in Baltimore, Maryland and a graduate of mica’s Graphic Design mfa program. Her writing has been published in aiga Voice and in Ellen Lupton’s book, Graphic Design Thinking (2011). Besides design, Adams enjoys old maps, coffee, and outdoor adventures. Her favorite fresh green is cooked spinach. laurenpadams.com Aura Seltzer is a graphic designer currently working as a summer intern at Design Army in Washington, D.C. and earning her mfa in Graphic Design at mica. Seltzer is a habitual list-maker with an uncontrollable sweet tooth who preaches the value of idea-driven design. Her favorite fresh green is dressed salad. auraseltzer.com ■

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Appendix | Etcetera

Etcetera Referenced Works and Typefaces

Endnotes 1 

Ver Ploeg, Michele, et al. Access to Affordable and Nutritious Food — Measuring and Understanding Food Deserts and Their Consequences: Report to Congress. Rep. Economic Research Service, June 2009. Administrative Publication No. (ap-036). Page 7.

2 

Ibid, page 5.

3 

Franco, Manuel, et al. “Neighborhood Characteristics and Availability of Healthy Foods in Baltimore.” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2008; 35(6). Pages 561–56. Colophon The body copy of this book is typeset in Chaparral Pro. Other text, including titles and captions, are set in Gotham Rounded. Printed using Blurb.com. ■

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Supplying Demand: Designing Solutions for Baltimore's Food Deserts