Y U Y U D
Your Guide to Relating Personality Type to Your Nine to Five Career LAUREN TOKARSKI
YOU ARE WHAT
Copyright ÂŠ 2010 by Lauren Ann Tokarski All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. Published in the United States by Lulu Enterprises, Inc., an online printing source in the United States and Canada in 2010. Designed by Lauren Tokarski
Y U Y U D
Your Guide to Relating Personality Type to Your Nine to Five Career
The Theory Behind It All
Personality Test and Holland Code Results
Realistic Personality Profile
Investigative Personality Profile
Enterprising Personality Profile
Conventional Personality Profile
Artistic Personality Profile
Social Personality Profile
Resources for You
The choice of
vocation is an
—Dr. John Holland
INTRODUCTION When one is around the age of four or five, they typically start to develop an interest in what they want to be “when they grow up.” Being a pilot, policeman, ballerina or movie star are common careers that children dream of one day becoming, even going as far as dressing up or acting out the particular dream role. Although everyone has a dream of what they want to do when they grow older, childhood eventually ends along with the nostalgia of dressing up and playing make believe careers. The reality of actually determining what one wants to pursue as a career approaches after high school graduation. Whether immediately entering the work force or continuing education in college, one is expected to choose a career field and what they actually want to do now they have grown up. Though everyone has some sort of idea of what they want to become, Psychologist Dr. John Holland determined that there was actually a theory behind why people choose certain careers over others. He related the entire process of choosing a career to one’s personality saying that “the choice of vocation is an expression of personality.” Through years of study he developed a six-factor typology that could be used to describe persons and work environments. His typology provides an interpretative structure for a number of different vocational interest surveys, including the two measures he developed: The Vocational Preference Inventory and the Self Directed Search. His model of personality theory and career choice is now used by the United States Department of Labor for categorizing jobs relating to interests. Dr. Holland’s theory does not assume that a person is just one type or that there are only six types of people in the world. Instead, he assumed that any person could be described as having interests associated with each of the six types in a descending order of preference. This assumption allows the Holland Codes to be used to describe 720 different personality patterns. As the theory is applied in interest inventories and job classifications, it is usually only the two or three most dominant codes that are used for vocational guidance. For example, if one has performed the personality test and determined that they are first dominant in the Artistic personality and second in the Social personality, their code would be SA and their suggested career choices would come from the two types of personality types. The first being Social and the second being Artistic. This book is meant to be used as a tool for career guidance and exploration. In the following pages you will be able to determine which personality you are dominant in, decide your Holland Code and dive deeper into sample career choices from each personality. Who knows, you might come up with what you actually dreamed of becoming when you would someday grow up!
THE THEORY BEHIND IT ALL
Within most cultures around the world, most people from the general population are classified as one Dr. John Hollandâ€™s six personality types: Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising and Conventional
People of the same personality type working together in a job create a work environment that fits their type. For example, when several Artistic personalities are working together within a job, they come together to create a work environment that rewards creative thinking and behaviorâ€” known as an Artistic environment.
3 People search for environments where they can use their skills and abilities and express their values and attitudes. For example, Realistic types search for Realistic environments; Artistic types look for Artistic environments, and so forth for the others.
Before reading on and discovering what personality type you fit into, it might help to better understand the key points behind Dr. John Holland’s theory of personality traits relating to one’s career choice consists of six key points. They consist of personality traits and the association between career and work environment.
6 4 5
People who choose to work within an environment similar to their personality type are more likely to be overall more successful and satisfied. For example, Artistic persons are more likely to be successful and satisfied if they choose a job that has an Artistic environment, like choosing to be a dance teacher in a dancing school—an environment “dominated” by Artistic type people where creative abilities and expression are highly valued.
There are six basic types of work environments that one can choose to be a part of are often closely associated to their personality type. The six environments that Dr. John Holland determined were: Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising and Conventional
How you act and feel at work depends to a large extent on your workplace environment. If you are working with people who have a personality type like yours, you will be able to do many of the things they can do, and you will feel the most comfortable with them.
TAKE THE TEST To determine which of the six personality types you fit into, follow the steps in completing the Holland Personality Code Questionnaire. Although the questionnaire is designed to help determine where you can find occupational satisfaction according to your personality type, it is a generalization and may not always seem like the exact fit. It is simply a tool to help quickly identify possible career clusters and lead you in the right direction of career exploration.
Holland Personality Code
Check the number of any item in the box below that is appealing to you. There is no limit to the number of items you check, so if you have any interest in or enjoy doing something, check it off!
Farming 1 Advanced Math 2 Being in a Play 3 Studying People in other Cultures 4 Talking to People at a Party 5 Word Processing 6 Auto Mechanics 7 Astronomy 8 Drawing or Painting 9 Going to Church 10 Working on a Sales Campaign 11 Using a Cash Registrar 12 Carpentry 13 Physics 14 Foreign Language 15 Teaching Children 16
25 Driving a Truck 26 Working in a Lab 27 Musicians 28 Making New Friends 29 Leaders 30 Following a Budget 31 Fixing Electrical Appliances 32 Building Rocket Models 33 Creative Writing 34 Attending Sports Events 35 Being Elected Class President 36 Using Business Machines 37 Building Things 38 Doing Puzzles 39 Fashion Design 40 Belonging to a Club
Buying Clothes for a Store 17
41 Giving Speeches
Working from Nine to Five 18
42 Keeping Detailed Records
Setting Type for a Printing Job 19 Using a Chemistry Set 20 Reading Art and Music Magazines 21 Helping People Solve Personal Problems 22 Selling Life insurance 23 Typing Reports 24
43 Wildlife Biology 44 Being in a Science Fair 45 Going to Concerts 46 Working with the Elderly 47 Being a Sales Person 48 Filing Letters and Reports 13
Holland Personality Code
On the chart below, again circle the numbers that you previously circled as interesting you in the box above. Count the numbers circled on each line across. Determine which two categories your scored the highest in to find your Holland Personality Code. For example, if you scored highest in Social and second highest in Artistic, your code would be â€œSAâ€?. When exploring careers, you would want to focus your efforts on those two personality categories and their corresponding careers.
I scored highest in
second highest in
My Holland Personality Code is Using your Holland Personality Code, refer to the information on the next page to start discovering further information on each personality type and corresponding career choices.
Realistic: prefers to work with things, present oriented, structured, mechanical, athletic and often very persistent Take a look on page 14 for some more information
Conventional: structured, accurate, detail-oriented, loyal followers and not natural born leaders Check out page 26 for more information.
Investigative: analytical, mathematical, scientific, has originality and is known to be a natural born problem solver Venture to page 20 for the in-depth details about you.
Enterprising: adventurous, natural leader, persuasive, values political and other economical matters Turn to page 26 for all the facts on your personality.
A S Artistic: relies on feelings, expressive, intuitive, values esthetics and imaginative Flip to page 38 to paint the full picture about your personality traits.
Social: sensitive to needs of others, helpful, caring, empathic, enjoys interpersonal gatherings and values education Get all the information about your trait on page 44.
REALISTIC So you have figured out that you are a Realistic personality type? Then, lets get right to the point. As a Realistic personality type, you are capable and confident when using you body to relate to the physical world. You focus on things, learn by doing hands on activities and have little need for conversation and you value practical things you can touch, see and use like tools, equipment and machines. Because of your ease with physical objects, you are often good in emergency situations and things with a mechanical nature such as tools and machines. Your ability to deal with the physical world often makes you a very independent and practical person, sometimes preferring to work on things alone. To most Realistic careers life appears relatively simple and straightforward, often resulting in the worker being able to quickly see the results of his or her labor. Realistic jobs normally look at life as not being complicated by intricate problems between people, organizations or troublesome choices between conflicting philosophies. They allow you to use your hands and get physically involved with different tasks and projects.
• • • • • • • • •
Farmer, Police Officer, Carpenter, Locomotive Engineer, Forester, Flight Engineer, Electrician, Truck Driver, Fire Fighter, Pilot, Diesel Mechanic, Locksmith
Justice Studies, Fire Science, Athletic Training, Martial Arts, Corporate Fitness and Physical Fitness Education
concrete and practical athletic action-oriented nature lovers mechanically inclined likes working outdoors prefers to work alone good motor coordination buys boats, campers, motorcycles and vehicles
FIREFIGHTER With thousands of fires and other emergencies occurring every year around the country, firefighters are there to provide the public with a variety of services not just limited to extinguishing flames in homes and businesses. Often being the first ones to respond to traffic accidents and other medical emergencies, the firefighter must be able to think fast and take action to protect the public without hesitation or drawn out thought. During the average duty time of a firefighter, one must be prepared to respond immediately to fires or other emergencies. Fire fighting is complex and dangerous and often requires organization and teamwork. When responding to fires, they connect hose lines to hydrants and operate a pump to send water to high-pressure hoses. Some carry hoses, climb ladders, and enter burning buildings—using systematic and careful procedures—to put out fires. At times, they may need to use tools to make their way through doors, walls, and debris, sometimes using the aid of information from a building’s unique floor plan. Some find and rescue occupants who are unable to leave the building safely without assistance. They also provide emergency medical attention, ventilate smoke-filled areas and attempt to salvage the contents of buildings. Firefighters’ duties may change several times while the company is in action. Sometimes they remain at the site of a disaster for days at a time, rescuing trapped survivors, and assisting with medical treatment.
50 The number of hours the typical firefighter works throughout the average week.
18 The minimum age to apply and train to become a firefighter.
The job allows one to work in a variety of settings from rural to metropolitan areas, within airports, chemical plants and other industrial sites where the risk of fires is high. There are also specialized areas of work for firefighters where they are trained to work with certain materials and procedures for different kinds of emergencies. One can work with a hazardous materials unit controlling, preventing and removing hazardous materials such as oils spills or transporting of chemicals. Working with forest fires is also a concentrated area of work for firefighters. Firefighters trained in the particular field of wildfires suppress the fire with heavy equipment and water hoses and set up systems called fire linesâ€”cutting down trees and digging out grass and all other combustible vegetation in the path of the fire in order to deprive it of fuel. The elite form of fire fighting is a position called smoke jumpers. The men and women jumpers parachute from airplanes to reach areas the workers on the ground cannot.
Firefighters spend much of their time at fire stations, which are usually similar to dormitories. They consist of individual sleeping beds, showers, common areas and a full kitchen. When an alarm sounds, fire fighters are ready to respond, regardless of what is happening within the firehouse or outside. Considering the high risks that fire fighters face daily, they wear a variety of heavy protective gear and equipment. Most firefighters work an average of 50 hours per week with some areas allowing a scheduling system of 24-hour duty hours and 48-hour off duty hour intervals. Working holidays and weekends is required and sometimes extra hours are required when fighting fires or responding to the various types of emergencies.
When a man becomes a fireman, his greatest act of bravery has been accomplished. What he does after that is all in the line of work.” —Chief Edward F. Croker
QUALIFICATIONS Candidates have to be 18 years of age and are usually required to have at least a high school diploma, but candidates with some sort of postsecondary schooling or even an associate’s degree in Fire Science are becoming preferred. Upon being hired, a candidate is required to pass a number of written and physical tests and attend several weeks of intense fire safety and fighting training. Many departments require their fire fighters to have the lowest level of certification in emergency procedures, called the Emergency Medical Technician-Basic, although some departments require a full certification in paramedics.
AVERAGE SALARY Median annual wages of fire fighters were $44,260 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $31,180 and $58,440. The lowest ten percent earned less than $22,440, and the highest ten percent earned more than $72,210. Median annual wages were $44,800 in local government, $45,610 in the Federal Government, $25,300 in other support services, and $37,870 in State governments. There is room for salary increase and position advancement within the field after several years of experience.
STAMINA A quality that a firefighter candidate must have in order to keep up with the physical requirements of the job. Many stations require candidates to complete a physical fitness test before even being considered. 21
INVESTIGATIVE So you are an Investigative personality type? Lets uncover all of the details about your traits. You tend to gravitate towards science and scientific activities. You are usually task-oriented and not particularly interested in working around other people. You enjoy solving abstract problems, have a great need to understand the physical world, and prefer to think through problems and challenges rather than act them out. Frequently you have unconventional values and attitudes and tend to be original and creative within scientific areas. You enjoy things that deal with the real world, read, study and use charts and graphs to observe data. Investigative careers allow the workers’ freedom and opportunity to satisfy an innate curiosity. Workers continually study a broad range of different areas, using a scientific approach, analyzing situations, checking out data or trying to understand what is going on in the field they are working in. The careers usually allow considerable freedom to try new ways and indulge your own work styles, even though there is steady pressure for achievement. Such things as experimenting is highly encouraged and sometimes required for the job.
• • • • • • •
Chemist, Biologist, Medical Technician Veterinarian, Architect, Mathematician, Dentist, Pharmacist, Surveyor, Meteorologist, Physician, Crime Scene Investigator, Electrical Technician
Botany, Engineering, Forestry Science, Physics and various Foreign Languages
inquisitive and analytical scientific and logical likes solving math problems enjoys scientific theory unconventional attitudes wants to understand the world buys telescopes, calculators, electronic equipment
VETERINARIAN Veterinarians diagnose animal health problems, vaccinate against diseases, medicate animals suffering from infections or illnesses, treat and dress wounds, set fractures, perform surgery, and advise owners about animal feeding, behavior, and breeding. Specifically, they care for the health of pets, livestock, and animals in zoos, racetracks, and laboratories. Some work within laboratories to help protect the human population against animal diseases or study the different types of species within the animal kingdom. Many veterinarians work within private practices most often treating and caring for household pets such as dogs and cats but also see birds, reptiles, rabbits, ferrets, and other animals that can be kept as pets. Some veterinarians work in private mixed and food animal practices where they see pigs, goats, cattle, sheep, and some wild animals in addition to other farm animals. Those who work with food animals or horses usually drive to farms or ranches to provide veterinary services for herds or individual animals and test for and vaccinate against diseases and consult with farm or ranch owners and managers regarding animal production, feeding, and housing issues.
80 The percentage of veterinarians that work in private practices. ENVIRONMENT
28 The number of accredited colleges within 26 states that offer a veterinary medicine program that is recognized by the Council on Education of the American Veterinary Medical Association.
Veterinarians in private or clinical practice often work long hours in a noisy indoor environment. Sometimes they have to deal with emotional or demanding pet owners. When working with animals that are frightened or in pain, veterinarians risk being bitten, kicked, or scratched. Those who work with food animals or horses spend time driving between their offices and farms or ranches. They work outdoors in all kinds of weather and may have to treat animals or perform surgery, often under unsanitary conditions. Being on call for emergencies late at night, weekends and holidays is an important part of being able to respond to an animals emergency needs similar to a doctor treating humans..
QUALIFICATIONS Most veterinarians have a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (D.V.M. or V.M.D.) degree from a four-year program at an accredited college of veterinary medicine from one of the colleges or universities that meet accreditation standards set by the Council on Education of the American Veterinary Medical Association. In order to be accepted into the highly competitive programs, one must obtain a bachelorâ€™s degree. The preveterinary courses include chemistry, physics, biology, animal biology, animal nutrition, genetics, zoology and other course with a strong scientific emphasis. In addition to satisfying preveterinary course requirements, applicants must submit test scores from the Graduate Record Examination (GRE), the Veterinary College Admission Test (VCAT), or the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) when applying to a veterinary program.
The best doctor in the world is a veterinarian. He can’t ask his patients what is the matter— he just has to know.” —Will Rogers
All States and the District of Columbia require that all veterinarians be licensed before practicing. Licensing is controlled by the States and is not uniform, although all States require the successful completion of the D.V.M. degree— or equivalent education— and a passing grade on a national board examination, the North American Veterinary Licensing Exam.
AVERAGE SALARY Median annual wages of veterinarians were $79,050 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $61,370 and $104,110. The lowest ten percent earned less than $46,610, and the highest ten percent earned more than $143,660.
PATIENCE A quality that one must have in order to become a successful veterinarian due to the lack of communication skills between doctor and patient.
ENTERPRISING Oh goodness, and Enterpriser? You have a great facility with words, which can come in handy when put towards selling, dominating and leading. You tend to see yourself as energetic, enthusiastic, adventurous, self-confident, and dominant, and prefer social tasks where you can assume leadership. You do not like to spend a long amount of time on activities involving intellectual effort, often preferring to be in active situations with others. You are a natural born leader who initiates projects but often persuades others to carry them out. With a need to be part of the “in crowd” your relationships center on tasks and getting things accomplished, sometimes becoming so consumed with the task that your feelings, as well as others, go unnoticed. Careers in the Enterprising field are often associated with a sense of achievement that comes from making things happen, whether it is conducting sales campaigns, winning an election, or persuading a board of directors to accept new policies. Often within the different occupations, there are many Enterprisers working together in a team environment. The employees value the energetic and competitive work place that their associate Enterprising personality types provide within the environment.
• • • • •
Auctioneer, Recreation Leader, City Manager, TV Newscaster, Hotel Manager, Sales Person, Judge, Sales Manager, Customer Inspector, Real Estate Agent, Travel Agent, Lawyer, Bank President, Camp Director, School Principal
Pre-Law, Business Management and Administration, International Business and Political Science
• • • •
enthusiastic and assertive verbally persuasive adventuresome sociable with others strong leaders and enjoys making things happen concerned with status enjoys selling things, motivating others decision makers buys big cars, nice clothes, country club memberships
NEWSCASTERS Newscasters, also referred to as a broadcast journalists or news anchors, gather information, prepare stories, and make broadcasts that inform the public about local, State, national and international events. They present points of view on current issues and report on the actions of public officials, corporate executives, interest groups, and others who exercise power. When covering a story, the newscaster evaluates the facts and surroundings, investigates leads and news tips, observes events, takes notes and interviews people surrounding the scene. Once the material is gathered from the news location, they sometimes travel back to the news station or stay on location to organize the material, determine the focus or emphasis of the piece and write their stories. Sometimes newscasters are expected to report live from the scene and have to give up the careful and detailed planning and editing processes that usually goes along with making a detailed report. When a newscaster works at a large station or network, they usually specialize in a particular type of news, such as sports or weather. They have a narrowed topic of research and solely report on the happenings of those areas. Therefor a newscaster specializing in sports would not report on the status of the U.S. economy and so forth.
24 The number of hours many networks are on the air, ultimately requiring the reporter to manage long hours, irregular schedules and some travel.
1,500 The number of colleges and universities around the United States offering programs in communications, journalism and other related fields.
ENVIRONMENT The work of news analysts, reporters, and correspondents is usually very hectic. They are under great pressure to meet deadlines and broadcasting time limits. Broadcasts sometimes are aired with little or no time for preparation requiring the newscaster to think of such things like introductions or interview questions on the spot. Some news analysts, reporters, and correspondents work in comfortable, private offices; others work in large rooms filled with other newscasters busily preparing and editing their own pieces. Curious onlookers, police, or other emergency workers can distract those reporting from the scene for radio and television hoping to be caught on camera. Covering wars, political uprisings, fires, floods, and similar events can be dangerous to the newscaster, however, the rate of injuries for reporters and correspondents is relatively low. The work hours vary. Reporters on morning broadcasts often work from very early morning to late afternoon and many are expected to report to the different locations of events and news when needed. If one is working a later broadcast shift, they are expected to prepare stories earlier in the day and be ready to report later.
They’re indispensable. They’re the glue that holds a newscast together.” —Roone Arledge
QUALIFICATIONS A degree in mass communications or journalism is usually expected when looking for a newscaster position. Many companies look for experience of the individual in such things like working for the school newspaper or television programs. A strong camera personality and ability to think on your feet is a necessary part of the job due to the fact that things are constantly spontaneously happening around you. One must be able to react to the things that people say or do in a tactful and unrehearsed manner. Confidence when reporting as well as strong public speaking skill are essential qualities for a newscaster.
EARNINGS Median annual wages of broadcast news analysts were $51,260 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $32,000 and $88,630. The lowest ten percent earned less than $23,470, and the highest ten percent earned more than $156,200. Median annual wages of broadcast news analysts were $51,890 in radio and television broadcasting.
PUBLIC SPEAKING Newscasters must be comfortable speaking in public in impromptu moments, speaking with strangers and be able to deliver reports in front of a camera.
CONVENTIONAL Considering you are a Conventional personality, lets lay out all of the facts for you. You prefer highly ordered activities, both verbal and numerical. You tend to be led rather than take on a leadership position, often fitting into large organizations working within a chain of command. You seek to know precisely what is expected of yourself and you might describe yourself as stable, well controlled, and dependable. When carrying out tasks, usually delegated by others, you like to be well prepared ahead of time, obey rules, be aware of small details, and value the order in which data is placed. Conventional occupations center on seeing offices and organizations run smoothly and focus on understanding how one’s individual contribution helps in making that happen. Conventional employees, who have a methodical outlook on life, can organize and keep details straight so that the work of other people is facilitated. They take great pleasure in seeing their efforts result in a smooth-running operation. Although you are not taking control of the project, you are the glue that holds the entire operation together.
• • • •
Bank Teller, Court Clerk, Typist, Secretary, Post Office Clerk, Title Examiner, Bookkeeper, Mail Carrier, Time Keeper
Business, Risk Management, Medical Record Technology, Data Entry Operations, Accounting and Management
accurate and precise efficient and organized very methodical enjoys working with numbers and operating computers • prefers well-ordered environments • often does not seek a leadership position within large groups • tends to save money and buys items conservatively 34
MAIL CARRIER A Postal Service mail carrier’s main duty is to deliver mail to residences and businesses in cities, towns, and rural areas all around the country. From neighborhoods to city sidewalks, most carriers’ work on established routes making sure to carefully deliver the correct mail to residences as well as collect mail. Their day begins at the post office where they arrange the mail in sequence of delivery although nowadays, high tech equipment has reduced the amount of time is takes by organizing the mail for the carriers. On foot, by vehicle, or by a combination of both, the delivery method of mail carriers varies by the route in which they travel. When traveling on foot, they carry a heavy load of mail in a satchel or push it on a cart. In most urban and rural areas, they use a car or small truck. The Postal Service provides registered vehicles to city carriers; in most rural areas with low populations, carriers use their own vehicles. Deliveries are made to mailboxes in front of or in houses, to roadside mailboxes, and to large buildings such as offices or apartments. Besides delivering and collecting mail, carriers collect money for postage-due and cash on delivery fees and obtain signed receipts for registered, certified, and insured mail. If a customer happens not to be home, the carrier may leave a notice that tells where special mail is being held. Once the day is complete and a carrier’s routes has been covered, they travel back to the post office and return collected mail and signed receipts Although many people think of a mail carrier’s job as being one of delivering mail to others, some city carriers’ sole duty is to pick up mail from large collection boxes along the streets. In comparison with city carriers, rural carriers perform a wider range of postal services other than just delivering and collecting mail. They sometimes oversee the entire postal service within the area including selling stamps, authorizing receipts and insuring packages. All carriers, however, must be able to answer customers’ questions about postal regulations and services and provide change-of-address cards and other postal forms when requested.
2 The number of years that one customarily waits to be hired after passing the required examination process.
40 The typical amount of hours a full-time mail carrier works a week over a five day period.
ENVIRONMENT Many mail carriersâ€™ duties start very early in the morning, sometimes as early as 4 a.m. They must report to the post office within their district, begin working on organizing the mail and then start loading all of the dayâ€™s deliveries into their hand carrier or truck. Carriers spend most of their time outdoors, delivering mail in all kinds of weather. In rain, sleet or snow, the mail still has to be delivered to the homes and businesses of the area. Though carriers face many natural hazards, such as extreme temperatures and wet and icy roads and sidewalks, serious injuries are often due to the nature of the work, which requires repetitive arm and hand movements, as well as constant lifting and bending. These activities can lead to repetitive stress injuries in various joints and muscles. They are also faced with the people and sometimes animals around them within their route. A mail carriersâ€™ route is certainly routine although their day varies with all of the different interactions happening around them.
QUALIFICATIONS Postal Service mail carriers must be at least 18 years old and a United States Citizen or have been granted permanent resident-alien status within the United States. A male worker must also be registered with the Selective Service upon reaching the age of 18. There are no specific education requirements to become a Postal Service mail carrier except a good grasp of on the English language. All applicants are required to fist take an examination before even being considered to take a job as a Postal Service mail carrier. After passing the examination, an applicant can be expected to wait up to one to two years before actually being assigned a position. Upon being hired, new carriers are trained on the job by experienced workers. Hands on experience of delivering and traveling routes are the best way to learn. Many post offices offer classroom instruction as well on safety and defensive driving. Workers receive additional instruction when new equipment or procedures are introduced.
The examination that all applicants must pass measures such things as speed and accuracy at checking names and numbers and the ability to memorize mail distribution procedures. In order to start the application and examination process, one should register with the mail-processing center in their district. Once the exam is done, applicantsâ€™ names that have passed are listed in order of their examination scores. If an applicant is an honorably discharged veteran, five points are added to their score and ten points are added to a veteran who has been wounded in combat or disabled. When a vacancy within the district occurs, the appointing officer chooses one of the top three applicants; the rest of the names remain on the list for up to two years to be considered for future openings. Once accepted, all applicants are required to go through a criminal-history check and pass a physical examination and a drug test. Some areas may even ask the applicants to show that they can lift mail sacks weighing up to 70 pounds. The applicants driving record is also examined to ensure that they are qualified to drive a mail truck.
ROUTINE A mail carrier must be able to deal with a strict daily routine such as following the same delivery route.
Median annual wages of Postal Service mail carriers were $49,800 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $41,270 and 51,250. The lowest 10 earned less than $37,400, while the top 10 percent earned more than $52,400. Rural mail carriers are reimbursed for mileage put on their own vehicles.
ARTISTIC Voila! An Artistic personality? Lets paint the big picture about your traits. You are very creatively oriented and like to work in artistic settings where there are many opportunities for self-expression. When you have a problem or feeling an emotion, you often express it in some sort of artistic way. You tend to be less assertive about your own opinions and capabilities but are more sensitive and emotional towards others. Your creative abilities are not only limited to canvas and paint. If you are more sensitive to sight, sound, and touch you will be drawn to the fine arts such as drama, music, and literature. Your artistic abilities allow you to see the world differently than others. Your outlook on everything centers around your creative perspective. Artistic careers allow for the opportunity for creating new things and being around other creative people similar to yourself. In most creative occupations, the employee is expected to create something new, try something different, and stretch for new ways of doing things. With the constant stimulation for the new and the different and quality in creativity, a huge part of the field is seeing what you can come up with!
• artistic and imaginative • independent and emotional • prefer to work in unstructured or flexible environments • enjoys taking photographs, making films, reading and creative writing • engages in painting, drawing, dancing, singing or playing a musical instrument • values beauty and aesthetic quality in things around them • dresses in freer styles • spends money on art objects, books, paintings, DVDs, music
Dancer, Clothing Designer, Actor, Composer, Book Editor, Graphic Designer, Disk Jockey, Musician, Art Teacher, Comedian
Art, Theater, Graphic Design, Music, Journalism and Communication
GRAPHIC DESIGNER Graphic designers use their creative talent and skills to plan, analyze, and create visual solutions to communication problems. They find the most effective way to get messages across in print and electronic media using different colors, types, illustrations, photography, animations, and various print and layout techniques. Graphic designers develop the overall layout and production design of such things as magazines, newspapers, journals, corporate reports and other publications. They also produce promotional displays, packaging, and marketing brochures for products and services, design distinctive logos for products and businesses, create large scale billboards and unique forms of advertisements and develop signs and signage systems for businesses and government. With the Internet being such a popular source of communication, many graphic designers also develop material for Internet Web pages, interactive media, and multimedia projects. Graphic designers meet with clients to discuss the needs and materials to be used within the design then begin to prepare sketches or layouts to demonstrate their vision for the design. They select colors, artwork, photography, style of type, and other visual elements for the design. Designers also select the size and arrangement of the different elements on the page or screen all while using specialized design software. Designers then present the completed design to their clients or art and creative director for approval. In printing and publishing firms, graphic designers also may assist the printers by selecting the type of paper and ink for the publication and reviewing the mock-up design for errors before final publication. 43
300 The number of colleges and universities within the United States offering programs that are accredited by The National Association of Schools of Art and Design.
25 The percentage of graphic designers who are self-employed. Most work freelance jobs on the side.
Many designers work in various forms of businesses. One can work within a large design firm specializing in designing for companies outside of their own or one may work within a large corporate company in the creative department developing concepts and designs specifically for that particular company. Some designers choose to work as a freelance artist, working for themselves and taking on clients as needed. Working as a freelance artist allows one flexibility in choosing the projects in which they work on as well as setting their own procedures and design fees. Many designers work freelance in addition to a full time position at a firm or company.
ENVIRONMENT Some graphic designers may be employed by large advertising, publishing, or design firms generally work regular hours within offices. Designers in smaller design consulting firms and those who freelance generally work on a contract, or job, basis. They frequently adjust their workday to suit their clientsâ€™ schedules and deadlines. Consultants and self-employed designers tend to work longer hours and in smaller, more congested, environments such as a home office. Working weekends and sometimes-long hours is necessary when meeting a deadline that is fast approaching.
QUALIFICATIONS A bachelorâ€™s degree in Graphic Design is often required for most entry level and advanced positions. Many universities and colleges have programs consisting of studio art, principles of design, print production, graphic production and most recently web design. Along with the artistic courses, a design student also takes courses in art history, communication and English. Considering the market is constantly changing and new technology is being produced every year, a graphic designer must stay up to date on the most recent advancements within their field as well as popular design trends. A keen eye for detail and creative thinking is essential for producing excellent design.
Simplicity is not the goal. It is the by-product of a good idea and modest expectations.” —Paul Rand
EARNINGS According to the American Institute of Graphic Arts, median annual cash compensation for entry-level designers was $35,000 in 2008. Staff-level graphic designers earned a median of $45,000. Senior designers, who may supervise junior staff or have some decision-making authority that reflects their knowledge of graphic design, earned a median of $60,000. Solo designers who freelanced or worked under contract to another company reported median earnings of $57,000. Some designers may design for things like non-profit organizations free of charge.
TRENDS It is necessary for graphic designers to keep up with the constantly changing creative trends happening all around them. The market in which they are designing for changes and they must be able to keep up with the changing creative demands.
SOCIAL Hello there! So you are the Social personality? You tend to like socializing with others, are usually responsible, humanistic, and concerned with the welfare of others. Considering you are sensitive to other people’s moods and feelings, you enjoy company and make friends easily. Your empathy skills and the ability to identify emotional signals allows you to recognize when an individual may be in crisis. You usually express yourself well, get along with others, like attention, and seek situations allowing them to be at or near the center of a group. When faced with a situation, you prefer to solve problems by discussions with others or by arranging or rearranging relationships. Having little interest in situations requiring physical exertion or working with machinery, you would sometimes describe yourself as cheerful, popular, achieving, and a good leader.
Social careers often focus on warm glow that comes from helping other people. People in social jobs are called upon daily to work closely with other people and help them solve their problems. They frequently have an opportunity to see the results of how their actions helped others. They usually have coworkers who are like themselves, both warm and supportive of each other. They make each other feel wanted, have great respect for each other’s abilities, and have many opportunities for close interpersonal relationships within the career field.
• • • • •
Teacher, Clergy, Coach, Therapist, Nurse, Counselor, Sociologist, Physical Therapist, Librarian, Parole Officer, Athletic Trainer
Nursing, Christian Education, Counseling, Biblical Studies, Social Science and Education
outgoing and sociable understanding of others very cooperative and patient tactful in various situations skilled with words in both writing and socializing • concerned about the welfare of others • enjoys communicating, listening and relating to others • buys big cars, nice clothes, country club memberships 46
TEACHER Everyday when a child goes to school, a major person affecting their educational upbringing is their teacher. Teachers play an important role in fostering the intellectual and social development of children during their early years. Education is incredibly important and can have a large effect on one’s future. Whether in elementary or high schools or in private or public schools, teachers provide the tools and the environment for their students to develop into mature and educated adults. Using presentations or individual instruction within the classroom, teachers help students learn and apply concepts in subjects such as science, mathematics, and English. They prepare lesson plans, assign work to help with the learning process, prepare graded assignments and listen to and interact with the students. A large part of a teachers job is to observe and evaluate a student’s performance and potential within a classroom setting. The way a child performs on a test is not the only tool for judgment; the way a child interacts with other peers evaluates the necessary social skills. Teachers grade papers, prepare report cards, and meet with parents to discuss a student’s academic progress as well as oversee study halls and homerooms, supervise extracurricular clubs and activities and accompany students on field trips outside of the classroom. Many teachers use different styles of teaching within the classroom to apply and appeal to the different learning styles that his or her students might have. A common method is a hands-on approach that utilizes props or interactive demonstrations to get the students involved and understand. This can include using a educational board game or conducting a science experiment. They also encourage collaboration in solving problems by having students work in groups to discuss and solve the problems together. Being able to interact with peers and think through problems logically equips students to be successful later in life. There are a wide variety of age groups and grade levels one can teach in. From kindergarten to college level, a teacher affects the educational outcome of a student and must be equipped with the necessary knowledge and understanding of each age group. Kindergarten teachers focus on the development of the child’s social and interactive behaviors. When a student first enters the classroom, it might very well be the first time that they are away from home and surrounded by unfamiliar faces. What children learn and experience during their 49
10 The number of months the average school year lasts along with a two month summer break.
50 The number of states, as well as the District of Columbia, require public school teachers to be licensed. In most private schools, a license is not required.
early years can shape their views of themselves and the world and can affect their later success. Within the kindergarten classroom, there is a lot of playtime and hands-on-teaching, but academic subjects such as the alphabet, numbers and phonics are introduced within the kindergarten classroom. Elementary school teachers instruct one class of children in several subjects. The teacher is responsible for teaching the students about a wide range of topics and preparing them for higher education. Middle school teachers and high school teachers help students delve more deeply into subjects introduced in elementary school and expose them to more information about the world. Teachers tend to specialize in one subject such as Algebra, Biology, Art and Government with students changing classrooms and teachers periodically throughout the day. Along with teaching lessons on scholarly subjects, teachers are responsible for introducing career guidance and job placement.
ENVIRONMENT Teachers work with students from all sorts of ethnic backgrounds, race and religion. It is important for a teacher to be able to interact with a diverse student population. Although seeing a student succeed is very rewarding, dealing with a student that is unmotivated or disrespectful can be very frustrating. Teachers may experience stress in dealing with large classes, heavy workloads, or old schools that are run down and lack modern amenities. The stress of teachers being expected to produce students who are able to produce a satisfactory performance on standardized tests can be a daunting task for many teachers. Teachers in private schools generally enjoy smaller class sizes and more control over developing their own curriculum. They may also deal with students who are more motivated considering some private schools can be selective in their admissions processes. In private or public schools, the teachers within may work together to teach, interact with students or just socialize.
A teacher is a compass that activates the magnets of curiosity, knowledge and wisdom in the pupils.” —Terri Guillemets
Many teachers work more than 40 hours a week, including school duties performed outside the classroom. Most school districts go by the traditional ten-month school year, with a two-month vacation period during the summer. Throughout the two-month summer break, some teachers may opt to teach summer school, tutor or just take a break to explore personal interests. Teachers in districts with a year-round schedule typically work eight weeks, are on vacation for one week, and have a five-week midwinter break.
QUALIFICATIONS Teachers working for a public school district, and typically private as well, are required to have a bachelor’s degree from a teaching education program and a license. Traditional education programs for kindergarten and elementary school teachers include courses in mathematics, physical science, social science, music, art, and literature, as well as prescribed professional education courses, such as philosophy of education, psychology of learning, and teaching methods. Aspiring secondary school teachers most often major in the subject they plan to teach, while also taking a program of study in teacher preparation. Many four-year colleges require students to wait until their sophomore year before applying for admission to teacher education programs. Most programs require students to perform a student-teaching internship that includes preparing lesson and working alongside a teacher in a classroom. Teacher education, programs within
INTERACT Teachers roles are not only limited to teaching lessons. They must also have the ability to communicate, show trust and confidence, motivate their students as well as be able to understand students’ educational and emotional needs in and outside of the classroom walls. 51
25 The average number of students in each classroom within most public schools in the United States.
colleges and universities, are accredited by the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education and the Teacher Education Accreditation Council. Graduating from an accredited program is not necessary to become a teacher, but it may make fulfilling licensor requirements easier. All fifty States and the District of Columbia require public school teachers to be licensed. Private schools are generally exempt from meeting State-licensing standards. Usually the State Board of Education or a licensor advisory committee grants licenses that includes a test of competency in basic skills, such as reading and writing, and in teaching and require teachers to exhibit proficiency in their subject. Teachers may be licensed to teach the early childhood grades; the elementary grades; the middle grades; a secondary-education subject area; or a special subject, such as reading or music. All States require teachers to have their bachelor’s degree and have gone through student teaching program before obtaining their license. Some States also require technology training and the attainment of a minimum grade point average. Many states are now requiring teacher’s to have a master’s degree as well. In addition to being very knowledgeable about the subjects they teach, teachers must have the ability to communicate, inspire trust and confidence, and motivate students, as well as understand the students’ educational and emotional needs. A teacher must be able to respond to a wide range of both social and academic problems within the classroom. They should be organized, dependable, patient, and creative.
The Median annual wages of kindergarten, elementary, middle, and secondary school teachers ranged from $47,100 to $51,180 in May 2008; the lowest ten percent earned $30,970 to $34,280; the top ten percent earned $75,190 to $80,970.
RESOURCES FOR YOU The following are sources that you can use to further discover more about the Holland Personality Codes and various careers. Do not limit yourself to one type either. If you feel very strongly about a certain career choice, investigate it more, learn about how to start off and discover the career possibilities!
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Since it’s debut in 1995, Careers.Org has become one of the best sources for career exploration. This informational website provides detailed information about colleges and universities around the country, college majors and in-depth career information on over 1000 occupations.
CAREER OVERVIEW careeroverview.com
Make a more informed career choice by visiting and discovering relevant, reliable and up-to-date career and job information. There is a convenient search feature broken up into categories such as location and industry.
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS bls.gov
The government sponsored website provides up to date information on salary, employment, job outlook and recent projections data.
CITATIONS PHOTOS All photos used within the book were taken from the following sources: BigStock. Web. 22 Apr 2010. <http://www.bigstockphoto.com/>. iStockphoto. Web. 22 Apr 2010. <http://www.istockphoto.com/index.php>. QUOTES All quotes used within the book were taken from the following sources: Great Quotes. Great Quotes, 2009. Web. 22 Apr 2010. <http://great-quotes.com/>. “Quotes.” Quotes for All. N.p., 2009. Web. 22 Apr 2010. <http://quotes4all.net/>. INFORMATION “Holland Personality Types.” North Carolina Career Resource Network. North Carolina Career Resource Network, 02 Mar 2010. Web. 26 Apr 2010. <http://www.soicc.state.nc.us/ soicc/planning/jh-types.htmhttp://www.soicc.state.nc.us/soicc/planning/jh-types.htm>. “Holland’s Theory of Career Choice and You.” The Career Key. The Career key, 2009. Web. 02 Mar 2010. <http://www.careerkey.org/>. “Bureau of Labor Statistics.” United States Department of Labor. United States Department of Labor, Dec 2009. Web. 12 Mar 2010. <http://www.bls.gov/>.
Detailed book relating personality type to career choice.