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Concept: Definition: Positive Examples:

Negative Examples:

emma should not have married charles

when raspberries taste the best

a gentleman does not kiss and tell

miraculous even if I

unfortunately the thief was too sly for that bad kids go to juvenile hall jealousy kills

before we begin the ritual music box


Sentences 

A sentence is a group of words that contains a subject and verb pair and that expresses a complete thought. Subject: the topic, or the “star,” of the sentence (the rest of the words are the subject’s “entourage”)  Verb: the word or words that describes what the subject is doing.  Example: Drinking and dancing make a fun Saturday night. SUBJECT VERB 


Concept: Definition: Positive Examples:

Negative Examples:

although he tried to tell the truth

dancing with the stars running wild

ella is a good kisser fraternity party online dating ruins lives and corrupts virtues

Caribbean bread pudding

we catapulted how to wrap a fish when silver bends


Clauses A

clause is a group of words with a subjectand-verb pair.

A

clause isn’t the same as a sentence: it doesn’t always express a complete thought.


Concept: Definition: Positive Examples:

Negative Examples:

we can buy our books after we receive our financial aid

once he sent the text message

PowerPoint is a tool of the Man and spreads corporate propaganda

even though Julia thought Mark acted goofy

we caught perch in Saginaw Bay

while they lassoed the goats

she wants a truck for her eighteenth birthday

whenever you wonder what happened


Independent Clauses

ď Ź An

independent clause is a subject-verb pair that can stand on its own as a sentence.


Concept: Definition: Positive Examples:

Negative Examples:

if you don’t know someone’s preference

drunk pirates

although his bow skills are impressive after she read the tea leaves because no one knew where they were until she discovered the secret

drug use is as common in rural areas as it is in urban ones plucked chicken they found old mansions and palm trees in key west he always underestimated how long things would take


Dependent Clauses ď ŹA

dependent clause is a subject-verb pair that cannot stand on its own as a sentence. ď Ź

Often, a dependent clause begins with a hinting word or phrase, such as even though, although, once, if, because, while, when, and after.


Sentence Fragments A

sentence fragment is a group of words that does not express a complete thought.

 It

might also be a dependent clause.

 Examples:

 

Don’t know what to do. A miracle cure. Where the dog lives.


Clauses and Sentence Fragments  You

can use the idea of clauses to spot sentence fragments in your writing. 

If you have a group of words missing either a subject or a verb, you know it’s a fragment.

If you have a dependent clause, you know it’s a fragment.


Fragment Examples  Took 

my time.

Why is this a fragment?

 While 

we were partying on Saturday night.

And this one?

 People 

who don’t get it.

How about this one?


How to Fix a Fragment  Give 

I took my time.

 Give 

it a subject.

it a verb.

People who don’t get it need to start getting it.

 Make 

it an independent clause.

We were partying on Saturday night.


Run-On Sentences A

run-on sentence is two or more independent clauses stuck together.  Examples:  My girlfriend forgot to wake me up for class I didn’t go.  We ate he didn’t like peanuts though and he threw them out.


Clauses and Run-on Sentences ď Ź You

can also use the idea of clauses to spot run-on sentences. ď Ź

If you have more than one independent clause in a sentence, you know you have a run-on.


Run-on Examples  My

dog has three legs she can still run fast.

Where are the independent clauses in this sentence?

 The

Delta Planetarium has a new theatre and the seats are very nice you can also take a class there. 

How about this one?


How to Fix a Run-on  Make

each independent clause its own sentence:    

My dog has three legs. She still runs fast. The Delta Planetarium has a new theatre. The seats are very nice. You can also take a class there.


How to Fix a Run-on, Continued Connect the independent clauses with a coordinating conjunction and a comma.  The coordinating conjunctions are: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so. 

You can remember them by using an acronym: FANBOYS.

If you do not include a comma, it is still a run-on!


How to Fix a Run-on, Continued ď Ź The

Delta Planetarium has a new theatre. The seats are very nice, and you can also take a class there.


How to Fix a Run-On, Continued  You

can make one of the independent clauses dependent. 

Although my dog has three legs, she still runs fast.

Since the seats in the Planetarium are nice, you can take a class there.


Semicolons  You

can also put a semicolon (;) in between two independent clauses, but you only want to do this when there’s a strong connection between the two ideas expressed. 

Good semicolon use: 

He doesn’t like cold weather; his blood’s too thin.

Not-so-good semicolon use: 

He doesn’t like cold weather; he likes country music.


The Dreaded Comma Splice  When

an independent clause is connected to another independent clause with just a comma and no FANBOY, we have a comma splice.  Examples:   

She calls him, he doesn’t call her back. He knew she was cheating, she wasn’t clever enough. Come to my party, we’re going to Wii.


Comma Splices, continued  You

can fix a comma splice the same way you fix a run-on: 

She calls him, but he doesn’t call her back.

He knew she was cheating; she wasn’t clever enough.

When you come to my party, we’re going to Wii.


All About Clauses