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Page 1

The

Semester Report

M2.2

Edition

Showcase Final Master Project Master’s Course ID TU/e @

Laurens Doesborgh www.laurensdoesborgh.com laurens@laurensdoesborgh.com


*M2.2


Welcome Reader, to the final edition of my series of semester reports. In this edition I will inform you about my goals, and activities during my final m2.2 phase. This report consists out of three main elements; my showcase portfolio, my Final Master Project (FMP), and a reflection on my competency development during my Master’s Course Industrial Design. Afterwards I will give a small preview of my plans for the future, concerning myself as a professional industrial designer. To end this preface, I would like to thank the

people that helped me through this semester, but also through the other three semesters during this master’s course. First of all my project coach Rene’ Ahn for his always present ethousiasm about my projects, and his advice to just go and do things the way I want to do them. Ollie Niemi for his expertise and feedback regarding my final master project. The IJssportcentrum for letting me in for free whenever I had to do some quick tests. The DQI group for their support on several

levels, ranging from expertise on technological level, to support on mechanical level. Especially Joep Frens for among others switching on the 3d-printer during the christmas-holiday... My fellow students for their discussions about the project and it’s direction, and their welcome cups of coffee and small talks to get my mind off the project for a while. My friends and family for their support during stressful times, and a majority of things that had nothing to do with school, but kept my eyes open for new and interesting things.


INDEX 06 12 14

ShowCase Portfolio

Evaluation Industrial Design Master’s course

Final Master Project

why game Literature Review Vision Process Benchmark Initial Ideas concept concept description technology overview prototype #1 user test #1 Training Programs Puck Docking Station Packaging CHI2009

28

38 44 45 54

References Appendices

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For a complete overview including movies, please have a look at my website: www.laurensdoesborgh.com

Part of the new assessment system of the Industrial Design course is the Showcase portfolio. In this showcase, an overview of the overall competency development will be given by highlighting different project-, classand internship-work. I think the Showcase should be a very important aspect of the graduation, since most

FMP’s focus on a specific design area, making it impossible to give expression to all of your competency development. The Showcase is a perfect way to show this diversity, which I think is very important. In order to be successful as a designer, you have to be aware, and take into account,the things that happen around you.

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________________________________________________________________________________________semester report | laurens doesborgh | m2.2 | final master project | showcase | _____

08 Introduction to the m2.2 semester

................................................................ Being a student of the faculty of Industrial Design for the last 5 years has now brought me to the point of graduation. After 3 semesters of hard work, late hours and lots of effort, but also many great outputs and lots of fun, I had to start my final M2.2 semester. Before I start to explain how I got to my Final Master Project, I would like to reflect on my overall growth as a designer. Reading from the ID Education Guide, a master graduate should be at the stage of ‘expertise’. Before this stage there is, starting at the Bachelor’s: ‘blank’, ‘awareness’ and ‘depth’, where ‘depth’ is the expected stage from a Bachelor Graduate. Moreover, at the end of the masters, there is a stage called ‘Visionair’, which is explained as: Visionary is the stage that excellent Master graduates may have started to develop. For many graduates this is the stage they will work on and arrive at after their graduation. Dorst (2004) defines this stage as follows: “The world discloser or ‘visionary’ consciously strives to extend the domain in which he/she works. The visionary develops new ways things could be, defines the issues, opens new worlds and creates new domains. To do this a visionary operates more on the margins of a domain, paying attention to other domains as well, and to anomalies and marginal practices that hold promises for a new vision of the domain.” In the Bachelor as well as the Master a strong emphasis is put on envisioning for societal transformation and students are stimulated to develop their own vision on society.

When a designer has reached the stage of visionary all his/her designs breathe this overall vision, which has become the salient aspect of his/ her identity, and this visionary expertise is recognized by other experts in and outside the field of industrial design. (Image below was taken from the education guide) What interests me about this piece is that along the semesters in the master’s, I was able to more and more identify myself with this. Every time I started a project, I am very interested in what should be the impact of the deliverable. Mostly the concept is a system of connected objects, like a platform. These objects can be the same, or multiple objects might communicate to one ‘base’object, depending on the direction of the project. One other thing I really like to take into account is the social factor. This is something which is also prominently present in almost all of my projects. During the initiation of a project I am curious about the number of the people involved. Is the system going to be designed for a couple, or is it on a larger scale like in my M1.1 phase project regarding airport customers. Other questions that interest me throughout a project are: Should it bring people together? And should it bring people together on a virtual level or on physical level? Should this social interaction be based on a level of ‘connectedness’, or on a level of ‘intimacy’? I can illustrate these statements with some of my projects, ranging from my final Bachelor’s work to various work from my Master’s course.

society Extend Your Senses envisioning transforming

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sensing perceiving doing

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Extend Your Senses # people


Individual Bachelor Project

Master M1.1 Phase Design Project

For my Individual Bachelor Project, I developed a system that would decrease the risk of child-drowning at public pools. This system had 2 wireless connected objects; one for the child and one for the parent. The bracelets could detect whether they were in contact with water or not. But of course, doing only this was not going to be enough. Research showed that in most of the drowning situations, there were plenty of bystanders, but they did not pay attention to people other than friends/family. The opportunity here was to create a system which would alarm bystanders, but only in case of a real emergency, A big part of the system was based on the principles of calm technology: the system was there, but only when it needed to be there, without interfering with the calm and quite private ambiance of public pools. Looking back at this project I think this is where I started looking at things from a broader perspective, taking into account more and more of the space where ‘the action takes place’. Another thing I noticed here was that I started to develop a vision about the way in which these systems had to work; they have to be built up from simple elements, but which together can create an intelligent whole. Because of my interest in people in relation to the space they are in, I chose the Intelligent Spaces track of the masters, of which the idea behind it in my opinion is still very interesting.

My first Master’s project was done in collaboration with People on the Move Studios; a design company focused on aviation design. The design brief was quite open, it was about increasing the perceived customer value of In-Flight Entertainment (IFE). Because of the freedom I had in terms of where to start, but also in where to go, it was extremely important to create a vision in which I would define the guiding principles of IFE. This was the first project that didn’t really start from a problem statement, but more from a design opportunity. Eventually I created an animation that presented a new vision on the concept of InFlight Entertainment, and created a system in which the customers are able to start their ‘In-Flight’ entertainment even before they are actually inflight. This way the customer can select content for his/her trip along his way to the airplane; they carry a digital boarding pass (in the shape of a clip, see image above) that stores the selection of content, as where this boarding pass becomes an object that activates the content ones they have boarded. And because of the low-tech, low-costs of the digital clip, it also serves as a trigger for the airline experience. Together with the business expert of People on the Move Studios, also the business plan describing the flows of products and money was made. Detailed information can be found on my website, as well as the animation about the vision. In this animation the concept is also embedded, giving a good overview of the entire project.

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M1.1 Phase Project | InFlight Entertainment


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M2.1 Phase Design Class | Ennea Master M1.2 Phase Research Project

................................................................ The research project that was done in the M1.2 phase, was done together with Jing Wang, a co-student. The project was about developing new sensory tools for humans, i.o.w. to make things perceivable for humans that can now only be measured by electronic sensors. What we developed was a very intimate communication device which would detect and transmit the heartrate of one person to the other person. Every time a heartbeat was detected, the bracelet of the other person vibrated, in real time. The main research question was to see if we could enhance or improve the relationship of two person by adding a communication channel. I really liked the choice of using heart rate, and got really intrigued by it. It is a thing that reacts to both physical exercise (e.g. walking stairs, running, et cetera), but also reacts very instantly to emotional stimuli. Talking to certain persons, we discovered, really raises your heart rate almost immediately. This ambiguity about the cause of a rising heart rate was very interesting to both us, and also the participants. In the end the project was extremely interesting and opened a lot of new possibilities for future applications. One other thing is that the communication about the project to external people is very hard. Because it is such an intimate feeling, it is impossible to show this on an image or in a video. The product created for this project was in my opinion the most intimate thing I’ve worked on, but I really liked it, because the

participants really felt as if they were really connected to the other person, and on more than only the physical level. Also this project’s report can be found on my website.

Master M2.1 Phase Masterclass Design

................................................................ I would also like to notice the result of the Design for Interaction masterclass. This masterclass was part of the Microsoft Design Expo 2008, an annual happening that takes place in Redmond, Washington. For this years theme, ‘Learning & Education’, we


Master M2.1 Phase Internship Philips Design

.................................................... As the final example I want to indicate my internship at Philips Design, where I took part in the Design Probes group. Philips Design Probes is a dedicated ‘far-future’ research initiative to track trends and developments that may ultimately evolve into mainstream issues that have a significant impact on business. The Probes generate insights from research in five main areas; politics, economic, culture, environments and technology futures. With the aim of understanding ‘lifestyle’ post 2020, the program aims to identify probable systemic shifts in the social and economic domains likely to affect our business and create intellectual property in new areas. It challenges conventional ways of thinking to come up with concepts to stimulate debate. Deliverables range from scenarios and narratives to the creation of experience prototypes and IP fortressing. Source: website Philips Design

What I very much appreciated during this internship was the way in which meta-thinking was ‘demanded’. We were brainstorming about topics that on first sight had nothing to do with design at all, but thinking through the impact and result of specific phenomena which are now occurring was super interesting. A short example: Technology brought us the ability to become old(er); we are now able to overcome the age limit of 100 year because of vaccines etc. Since women are also able to become pregnant until the age of 50, a child of these woman (and of course their partner)

M2.1 Intern Philips Design | Fractal

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looked at what is an interesting phase in life regarding this theme. Highschool freshmen became our target group because they go through a highly transitional phase where everything changes; they go to a new school, get a new class, new teachers, more homework and new friends. Besides all of this, they have to find a new place within the group. Creating an awareness of ones social role and about other social roles helps them in dealing with these transformations. We created wireless networked objects that measure intensity and diversity of social contact. These measurements are converted to animal icons which represent a certain social role. The same information is used for a web-based service available for the tutors to give them insight in their class’ social development. Eventually we won the competition and had to represent the Eindhoven University at the Design Expo; which was an extremely inspiring experience.


________________________________________________________________________________________semester report | laurens doesborgh | m2.2 | final master project | showcase | _____

012 will never know their grandma and grandpa. Which effect will this have on the traditions that so far have been passed on from grandparents to their grandchildren? Or another short example: Why is it that people can become older but puberty steps in earlier and earlier? If you think about it, it does not match. Doing days and days of these brainstorms was extremely interesting and exhausting, but it definitely changed my view on design, but more specifically on the impact of certain directions and trends. The cool thing was also that after these discussions a new topic had to be selected and concepts had to be created; which are mostly provocations about the topics discussed, stating “Is this the way we want to go?”. Trying to provide this awareness was in fact indirectly influencing these phenomena, thereby also indirectly ‘changing’ the future. The Design Probes department within Philips Design is definitely a very cool department to work for, and I think the way in which we (as industrial designers from this university) is a very nice next step for this group: to increase the level of experienceability of these provocations and ideas. The reactions on the work I did their are also very encouraging. The Living Jewelry I created called Fractal was covered in this years October edition of AXIS-magazine; the magazine of the world famous AXIS Gallery in Tokyo, Japan. Moreover, Fractal is going to be on a touring

interactive exposition by Philips Design and will be covered in the new Philips Design books like Next Simplicity. Evaluation Master Course Industrial Design

.......................................................................... Just finished from high-school and having to make a decision of what to do for probably the rest of your life wasn’t easy. But I think that my choice to start the Industrial Design course in Eindhoven has proven to be a good one. Somewhere in the beginning of the second year, something fell in the right place and I really started to enjoy what I was doing. Since this moment I tried not to just pass the semester, but really tried to push myself to the limits. At the time I started, the course was far from perfect, some say it still is. But by doing several internships and exchanges on a global level, I could see that we (as industrial designers, educated in Eindhoven) were participating on a very high level. Being one of the first to be educated through a competency based system has definitely changed my perspective on myself and the world. Even though the majority of this was based on an individual level, I am looking forward to work in a team environment again. When I started on the master’s course, I could feel that the people


Looking back at what I’ve learned I must honestly say that it is awfully lot. When I talk to my friends from highschool about what we are doing they are always amazed by the diversity, and also the level of depth that we work on. And that is exactly what I like so much. Being able to combine the good aspects from all different fields and creating something brand new that really improves peoples lives.

like to aim for a high level of user-involvement and experience-ability, because I believe design by doing. My nature to learn new things makes me take on new projects with a lot of enthusiasm. In these projects I like to design from the perspective of design opportunities instead of ‘design problems’. Analyzing the project’s topic and its environment from an abstract level is one of my strengths, enabling me to see and make new and interesting connections. I believe in the power of social interaction; designing products or services that are created to bring people together, making sure the products and services apply for a large audience.

Profile

.......................................................................... Preparing for a job in the professional design world made me wonder about who I have become during these years at the department. I think I can describe myself as:

After my graduation I would like to be active in the more consumer focused industry, developing and creating products and services targeted at a large audience. I know that it will be a big challenge to find a company where I can work and do the same things as here in the department, but I also think there is an incease in demand for industrial designers like me.

I’m an industrial designer who is able to combine academic research with a feeling for design, resulting in a design process where multiple disciplines are combined, prototyped and tested. With my projects I

photo taken by Joris Zaalberg

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_____ | semester report | laurens doesborgh | m2.2 | final master project | showcase | _______________________________________________________________________________________

surrounding me had just as much enthusiasm and drive to really make new things, even more than in the bachelor’s.


*FMP


The next chapter describes the process and outcomes of my Final Master Project. This project has been done as part of my masters course at the Eindhoven Univeristy of Technology. My project coach was dr. ir. Ren’e Ahn, member of the Designed Intelligence group of our faculty. Furthermore, Ollie Niemi, freelance fashion designer; the Icehawks, a student sport association

and the IJssportcentrum Eindhoven were involved in this project. The project’s topic is ice hockey, of where the focus will be on junior hockeyers between the age of 5 and 15. During this project, a training platform called Blizzard was created for the context of ice hockey, with a focus on

junior hockey players between the age of 8 and 14. The system consists of a sensor embedded hockey puck, a docking station and a software DVD. Using digital information generated by the actual game in real-time, several training programs were been developed that focus on specific game elements like tempo, passing and puck handling.


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Why

this project

My choice for this project is based on several factors. First of all I met Ollie Niemi, a freelance fashion designer from Finland, during my internship at Philips Design. Through several conversation I discovered he had a passion for ice hockey, and used to play it himself at a very high level in the Finnish competition. The way he described his experiences about training sessions, in which they were really working towards the official matches was really exciting to listen to. You could really tell he used to live for the game. His enthusiasm for the sport really got me thinking about different possibilities for my FMP. I’ve always found sports a fascinating topic, and personally I think it is a very important activity in life. It needs no notion that sporting positively contributes to ones health. I think being able to contribute to stimulating sports activities is therefore also one of the (more personal) goals of this project. Furthermore, using ice hockey as the topic would really help me focussing the project; this decision would really specify a clear design area. What I find important for my Final Masters Project is to develop the product as far as possible, going beyond the prototyping phase in which all elements are still looking like they are ‘in progress’, but much more towards market-ready products/services. Since this always takes a lot of time, I believe it is better to start with a more concrete project. Finally, I think doing a sports-related project does really contribute to my portfolio and personal development. For me it creates a more diverse design area and design experience. Although, I realize designing for sports is something different that I’m used to, and requires a different mind set compared to most projects I’ve done before; therefore I will firstly look into important aspects regarding designing for sports environment. More of this can be found in the paragraph ‘Literature Review’.

The

Game

Ice hockey (often referred to as simply ‘hockey’) is one of the fastest games in the world. It is played as two teams competing against each other, scoring as many goals in the opposing goal. Each team has 6 players, including one goalkeeper. Hockey is played on a hockey rink. The players may control the puck using a long stick with a blade that is commonly curved at one end. Players may also redirect the puck with any part of their bodies, subject to certain restrictions. Players can angle their feet so the puck can redirect into the net, but there can be no kicking motion. Players may not intentionally bat the puck into the net with their hands.

Semester Report M2.2 | Laurens Doesborgh | FMP

The five players other than the goalkeeper are typically divided into three forwards and two defensemen. The forward positions consist of a center and two wingers: a left wing and a right wing. Forwards often play together as units or lines, with the same three forwards always playing together. A substitution of an entire unit at once is called a line change. Substitutions are permitted at any time during the course of the game, although during a stoppage of play the home team is permitted the final change. When players are substituted during play, it is called changing on the fly. The boards surrounding the ice help keep the puck in play and they can also be used as tools to play the puck. Play often proceeds for minutes without interruption. When play is stopped, it is restarted with a face-off. Two players “face” each other and an official drops the puck to the ice, where the two


players attempt to gain control of the puck. There are three major rules of play in ice hockey that limit the movement of the puck: off-sides, icing, and the puck going out of play. Play is said to be offside if a player on the attacking team enters the attacking zone before the puck itself enters the zone. Icing occurs when a player shoots the puck across at least two red lines, the opposing team’s goal line being the last. The puck goes “out of play” whenever it goes past the perimeter of the ice rink (onto the player benches, over the “glass”, or onto the protective netting above the glass) and a stoppage of play should be called by the officials. It also does not matter if the puck comes back onto to the ice surface from those areas as the puck is considered dead once it leaves the perimeter of the rink.

in order to go forward, a good stick- and puck-handling was a necessity. With the arrival of offside rules, the forward pass transformed hockey into a true team sport, where insight in tactical decisions grew in importance.

Before the 1930s hockey was an on-side game. This meant that

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Literature

In order to start my literature research, I needed to have an indication about the possible direction(s) of the project. Through discussions and brainstorms regarding the project, I got interested in a few direction that I thought would fit the project but also my personal preferences. In the next section I will discuss the articles I found, and give a short explanation of how I thought these were related to the project. The direction which I’ve looked into more thoroughly were: - Sport Technology - Involvement - Experience - Fun/Motivation

Sport Technology

................................................................................... As I pointed out before, this project was my first sports-related

Semester Report M2.2 | Laurens Doesborgh | FMP

project, and in order to get familiar with designing for sport environments, I needed to take a closer look. Andy Miah from the University of Paisley, Scotland and Sigmund Loland, professor of sport philosophy at the Norwegian University of Sport and Physical Education wrote two papers respectively called ‘Rethinking Enhancement in Sport’, and ‘Technology in sport: Three ideal-typical views and their implications’. These papers look at sport from a more abstract level, and discuss the impact of man made ehancements for sport. Loland starts the article with an introduction about sport technology, and afterwards discusses three normative theories of competitive sport. He summarizes with a personal preference on one of the three theories. I will try to summarize the paper very briefly, for more detailed information the full paper can be read in the appendices-section. Sport technology represents a certain type of means to realize human interests and goals in sport. Such technology ranges from body techniques, via traditional sport equipment used by athletes within competition, to performance-enhancing machines, substances, and methods used outside of the competitive setting. He argues that any critical and systematic discussion of sport technology in competitive sport should relate to some kind of interpretation of the main constituent of these practices: athletic performance. The first theory Loland describes is called the non-theory. As


the term indicates, the non-theory is no real theory of performance. Rather, it is a theory of how sport can serve as a means towards external goals such as prestige and profit. In technological terms, the non-theory is relativistic; it accepts any kind of sport technology as long as it serves as a means to reach external goals. The second theory of performance is the thin theory. The thin theory builds on a particular sport ideal: CITIUS, ALTIUS, FORTIUS (Swifter, Higher, Stronger; this is also the Olympic motto). Sport is considered an arena for the testing out of the performance potential of the human body. To end up with valid and reliable tests, performance measurements have to be accurate, and the thin theory requires equal opportunity in competitions. The implication for technology is increased demand on standardization. However, the thin theory implies no regulation outside of competition. An acceptable technology is simply a performance-enhancing technology. A third, thick theory of performance does not just require equality of opportunity; its basic premise is that sport should be an arena for moral values and for human self-development and flourishing. Technology that requires athletic efforts and skills, to which there is equal access, and that does not represent unnecessary risk for harm, is considered not merely as acceptable but as constitutive to the value in sport. Expertadministrated technology that enhances performance without athletic effort or which exposes athletes to the risk of harm is problematic and should be avoided. I would like to highlight one example to indicate why Loland thinks the Thick-theory is the right theory. A new innovation in sport technology is the high altitude (i.o.w. low-oxygen) chambers for cross-country skiing, used as performanceenhancing means to boost the quantity of red blood cells in the body. The red blood cells transport oxygen through the body and more of them mean a better endurance capacity. Let us imagine that all athletes use the method with the same performance-enhancing result. Everyone skis, say, 5% faster. To the non-theorist, little is gained, as the ranking lists shall still be the same. From this perspective, only exclusive advantages are of interest. From the thin theory-perspective, it something is gained. We are able to enhance human performance with 5%, which is intrinsically good. From the thick theoryperspective, the introduction of high altitude chambers as a means towards performance-enhancement is a problem. Little is gained in terms of adding value to the sport of crosscountry skiing. The technique is the same, the excitement of the competition is the same, and the final ranking of skiers is identical. In fact, something is lost. As compared to a non- high altitude chamber situation, athletes have to spend more time in artificially created environments isolated from “the real world”. Moreover, their performances become more dependent upon external support systems. This reduces the responsibility of the individual. Therefore, the use of high altitude chambers represents additional costs and little or no benefit. Looking back at this paper, it deals with questions like ‘is this technology ethically right?’. I definitely feel that as a designer you have to be aware of these questions. You have to be aware

of your potential and power to change a sport.

Fun/Motivation

............................................................................. In an article from Jeffrey Yim and T.C. Nicholas Graham called ‘Using games to increase exercise motivation’ , they performed a study on existing exercise games in order to give an overview of the broad range of game styles in both the commercial as in the academic field. They also present requirements for exercise games, which they have drawn from exercise motivation literature. In this overview of game styles they indicate 2 styles which are still open for research. These are indicated with an X in the following table: User Interface vs Free Motion Traditional Electronic Equipment Based Game World Interface Interface Physical Interface Virtual World EyeToy PowerGrid Fitness Human Pacman Wii Sports Push N’ Pull Age Invaders Dance Dance GameBike Revolution Augmented Human Pacman X X Reality Laser Tag Reality Soccer Cycling Radio Controlled Cars

Even though the focus of this project is not about creating a true ‘game’ environment, it is interesting to see that there aren’t any examples of using equipment based physical interfaces combined with augmented reality. I personally thought overlaying digital information on top of the real ‘ice hockey’ experience would be a very fertile area to go into. Reinforced by the outcomes of this paper, it should indeed be a very interesting direction. Using hockey as the project’s topic, the user interface is Physical, Equipment Based; the players interact through the skates and stick with either the puck or the rink. What would be interesting to do is extract data from their actual game and feed this back to them in real time? In the second topic they discuss, requirements for exercise motivation, they indicate 6 requirements. I would like to notice that most of the requirements are drawn from exercise motivation literature, and since the hunch of this project is to explore a new area, some requirements might be more effective than others. The six requirements are: 1.) Integration of Music 2.) Facilitate Leadership for Novice Players 3.) Provide Achievable Short- and Long-term Goals 4.) Hide Players’ Fitness Level 5.) Avoid Systemic Barriers to Grouping 6.) Actively Assist Players in Forming Groups I was very interested by requirements number 1, 3 and 4, and decided to look a bit further into these. The integration of music into exercise/sports is a very obvious solution, but I think that the way of applying music to the exercise can make

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020 a difference and can really make it interesting. Think of ways that you interact with the music while exercising, instead of just ‘passively’ listening to it. A more focused study performed by Stephen H. Boutcher and Michele Trenske for the Journal of Sports and Exercise Psychology called ‘The Effects of Sensory Deprivation and Music on Perceived Exertion and Affect During Exercise’ looked into the differences in personal perception of fatigueness. Their study examined the effects of sensory deprivation and music on perceived exertion and affect. Volunteer women (N=24) performed three 18-min sessions on a cycle ergo meter at light, moderate, and heavy workloads during which perceived exertion, affect, and heart rate were monitored. Each subject participated in a control, deprivation, and music condition. No significant differences where found in heart rate between conditions. In contrast, significantly lower perceived exertion existed during the music compared to the deprived condition at the low workload. Similarly, there was lower perceived exertion during the music compared to the control condition at the moderate workload. Also, significantly greater levels of affect were observed during the music compared to the deprived condition at the moderate and heavy workloads.

Vision

As with most of my projects, I’d like to define a project vision up front, which I can use as a guideline throughout the rest of my project; this vision helps me decide in situations where multiple options are feasible. Like in my previous projects, I would like to focus on the experience, or at least take this as a starting point. To get an overall view on which elements are involved in the sport of ice hockey, I created a schematic overview of the most important elements. I focused on the game experience itself, not on the commercial areas around it; these might step in a later phase of the project. The schematic can be found on the right. What we see here is that in the sport of ice hockey, two main groups are involved: the Athlete and the Audience. Starting from the Athlete, I identified two groups, the professional players, with an age between 20 and 35, and the amateur player, of which the age varies between 6 and 50 years old. We also see that there is a choice about why they participate, for fun, health or performance. For this Athlete, the experience of ice hockey starts when he/she starts training. Depending on their choice of participation, the experience might spread out towards matches. Mostly, only the people that play for performance actually take this step. Otherwise their choice for playing is more fun or health related. During these matches, Audience plays a vital role for the experience of the Athlete. Playing for a crowded stadium is different than playing ‘just’ against your opponent on a training court.

Semester Report M2.2 | Laurens Doesborgh | FMP

For the Audience, the experience starts when they visit a match. I have not looked into the differences between a real or virtual (via television) visit to a match, because if I decide to design for the audience, I don’t want to focus on the homeexperience. For the majority of the Audience, fun or involvement are the main driving forces. Together with the rest of the Audience and the Match, they create their own experience. In my opinion, there is room for Technological Innovation at two points; between the Athlete and Training, and between Audience and Match; the blue dotted line in the schematic. As described in the previous chapter, I am very interested in the social aspect of things. Therefore I would also like to find that social aspect in this project, and see if there is a way to implement that in the concepts-to-be-generated. Since sport, and especially hockey, is highly competitive, the social factor is definitely present. As for now, I will use the following statement as the vision for my project: “Design a platform that allows players to be more actively involved in the game, and which stimulates them to keep practising.” “Create a platform that enhances the involvement of both the Athlete as well as the Audience in a way that it contributes to the overall experience of ice hockey.”

Process

Integrated in the schematic on the right is also the design process. Based on the mapping of the elements of ice hockey, I decided to take the technology innovation opportunity as the starting point of my project. Starting from a design opportunity instead of a design problem is based on the design process proposed by Hummels and Frens, called the Reflective Transformative Process. Also the idea is to go through a set of iterations, in which the product or service gets tailored more and more towards the customer. These iterations are centered around the middle circle: Ideating, Integrating and Realizing. By jumping from one circle to another, ideas develop on all aspects in a parallel instead of a sequential way. I really like this way of working because it allows more flexibility and individual preference, without losing track of the other areas.


Benchmark

During the start-up of the project, I started getting familiar with ice hockey in several ways. I went to training sessions both on skates and on ice of the IceHawks, a hockey student-sport-cooperation of the Eindhoven University of Technology; took part in a training session on ice myself; started analyzing matches; talked to experts; played EA sports NHL; benchmarked the internet for existing technologies; all different methods to get the hang of the game. The discussions with the players and coaches, and the benchmarking on the internet provided me with a lot of tools and applications,

some more interesting than the other. In this section I will show some of these tools, but also other products I thought were good inspiration.

The Demon Hot Shot Puck, a hockey puck which measures speed.

*Ice Hockey age category

professional amateur

20 - 35 6 - 50

athlete

audience

*audience experience

*fun *health *performance

*fun *involvement

training

*athlete experience

Analysing Abstracting

*performance

match

*technology innovation opportunity Ideating Integrating Realising

Validating

Sensing Perceiving Doing

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The idea is that you select from which distance you’re going to shoot, and the puck measures the time between the two impact hits (shot and stop), and calculates the speed of the puck.

A more thorough system is the Hawk-Eye concept. Using multiple high speed cameras, the ball’s as well as the players’ movement are tracked and analyzed by a computer. The computer aids in decisions about line calling, speed of the ball, service patterns, placement of first and second serves, etc. What I like about this system is that part of the information is also displayed live to the people in the stadium. What I do find questionable is the story on the website about challenges: In tournaments in which the Hawk-Eye Officiating System is utilized, players are usually granted two incorrect challenges per

Semester Report M2.2 | Laurens Doesborgh | FMP

set: if they call correctly their tally remains the same, but they lose a challenge is they are wrong. A further challenge is often granted if the set goes to a tie break. This provision ensures that players do not waste challenges on a whim, thus making sure that the tempo of the game is not interrupted. When players do make a challenge, Hawk-Eye displays the results within 2-3 seconds, making the process much quicker than on a clay court. This means that because of the system, the gameplay has changed. On the other hand, some quotes from tennis players that have been using the system are very positive: Andre Agassi, top tennis player: ‘In my 20 years in professional tennis, this is one of the most exciting things to happen for players, fans and television viewers. This new technology will add a whole new dimension to the game.’ and another tennis player: Jamea Jackson:’ It takes a lot of pressure off. You don’t get so angry. If you think a call is incorrect, you don’t spend extra games thinking about it. It’s really quick. I remember people were complaining about maybe it throwing off the timing and rhythm of the match, but it didn’t do anything like that at all.’


chest. In order to obtain useful data, I looked into the different aspects of the game; think of tactics, line play, direction of play, on which line does the puck get stuck, etc. An important thing to keep in mind was that I didn’t want to design a system that could detect a certain aspect, but only in a different way. I don’t want to design an intelligent puck which knows it’s own direction when the same information can already be obtained by video analysis for example. I started looking at the gear of the players, as worn during matches. An overview is displayed below: Adidas TeamGeist II with Goal Line Technology; the sensor embedded in the ball signals when the ball has crossed the goal line, indicating a goal. Application for referees.

Ideas As I described in the Vision section, I was very interested in the social aspect. I wanted to find/create an object that is used to bring people together. Within the context of this project, I indicated three social dimensions. The first, smallest one is the individual level of the player himself; mostly regarding puckhandling, condition, et cetera. Secondly there is the social dimension of the team; this dimension focuses on team performances, tactics, player-to-player- player-to-coach interaction, et cetera. As a third, there is the social dimension of the entire stadium; which focuses more on the interaction between the teams/players to the audience. Preferably I would like to design for the second or third dimension. What I found very interested in was finding a way to gather information about the game or the players in an unobtrusive manner, and feed this information back to them in real time. I felt that the unobtrusivness was a very important aspect, especially since I discussed similar issues with experts. As an example, Mika Panaanen, coach of a Finnish hockey team, told me he uses heartrate breaststraps for analyzing the condition of his players. But he only uses them during training because they are to obtrusive to wear during matches. You can imagine it is not a very pleasant feeling to get bodychecked onto the boarding and you have this hard piece of plastic stuck to your

1.

2.

3.

4.

1. helmet 2. shoulder pads 3. elbow pads 4. gloves 5. pants 6. shin pads 7. skates 8. stick One of the first ideas was designing an application that could give better feedback on the way you perform a certain exercise. For example a slapshot, the characteristic of a slapshot is that the player swings his stick and instead of directly hitting the puck, he first hits the ice just in front of the puck, he then leans forward, resulting in the stick to be bent onto the ice, and by turning the stick to the front, the stick will at a certain point swing loose from the ice and give an extra impact to the puck. As you understand, the positioning of the stick, as well as the level of bending plays a crucial role in this. If it is possible to measure these parameters, you are able to give real-time feedback on when to stop leaning forward and start turning the stick, so it can reach maximum result. The design process I followed, allowd for exploration in several directions. I took advantage of this by simultaneously starting building things. Parallel to the idea generation sessions, I wanted to do a user-involvement session. What I learned during my previous projects is that for a user-involvement session, it really helps if you take a working prototype with you; even if the goal of the prototype is not perfectly clear. For this user-involvement session I wanted to discover design opportunities in areas that on first sight don’t seem to be a problem, but can be an extremely interesting opportunity to design for. As indicated before, I like to look at the social elements in

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024 my projects; therefore I wanted to focus this session on this aspect. Looking at the three social dimension made me wonder if there was no link between all three of them. This link is represented by the hockey puck. Without the puck there is no play, and there is no experience for both the athlete as well as the audience. A lot of information can be extracted from the puck, think of information about speed, spin, twist, acceleration, distance covered, impact, et cetera. Especially the impact/acceleration, speed and twist of the puck might be very interesting for the players, coaches and audience. I started developing this direction further, and started by trying to embed an accelerometer into a hockey puck.

Prototype#1 The components I’ve started with were a 3-axis accelerometer, an xbee wireless module and a 3.7 volts lithium-ion battery. The accelerometer gives out a voltage which is mapped to the level of g-forces applied on the module. Normally this information is linked to a microcontroller, which is then hooked up to the xbee module. But because of the size and weight limitations of the puck, I had to leave out as much as possible. This meant I wanted to hook the accelerometer directly to the xbee module, and process the raw data at the receiverside. Using the built-in Analog-Digital converter of the xbee it should theoretically be possible to wire them directly, but this way needs extra decoding software. The following images show the elements that will be embedded into the puck, and also give an indication about the size.

The official NHL regulations state that the puck has dimensions of 1” thickness and a diameter of 3”. The weight of the puck should be between 5.5 and 6 oz, or 155 to 170 grams. Because of the forces that would be applied on the sensor during hits, I needed to be sure the technology would survive. I found suitable components that could resist impacts up to 2000 g. The scale of measurement is much lower, this ranges from -6 to +6 g. Another difficulty was how to embed the technology into the puck? It had to be fixed in the puck, preferably casted. I went to Venture Rapid Technologies, a company in Best, to ask them what material to use for the casting of the electronics. Normally when casting silicons/rubbers, an exothermic reaction takes place, reachig temperatures of over 100 degrees. I needed one that would’t get so hot. They suggested a polyurethane with Shore 70A, this had comparable characteristics to that of the puck. This puck is made from vulcanized rubber that is being extruded into one long cilinder of 3 inces diameter. Then this cilinder is cut into pieces of 1 inch, that are being fed into an oven of 300 degrees. A test-cast was done and the result can be seen on the picure below:

Since I was going to do tests with the puck, I almost certainly needed to adjust settings to the xbee wireless module.

Semester Report M2.2 | Laurens Doesborgh | FMP


Therefore I did not immediately casted the electronics in the puck, but decided I needed an alternative that could be opened also. Together with the crew of the Vertigo-atelier, we decided to mill another puck that had a small box in it, which could be removed. (image on the right). I created these parts in 3d CAD software, from which they could be sent to the electronic milling machine. The result was quite nice, it could be a viable alternative to the casting of the silicon; in this way the puck’s outer material was all the same. The only thing that had to be filled was the surroundings of the electronics (inside of the box), but this could be done with a softer silicon which also dampens out the extreme shocks.

Hardware

...................................................................................

Getting the technology working was quite a struggle. I ordered a digital 3-axis accelerometer because of it’s high range (-8 to +8 g),but I overlooked the fact that it had to communicate using the SPI or I2C language. Since I did not want to put a microcontroller

into the puck, communication wirelessly to the accelerometer turned out to be extremely difficult. After trying to get it up and running for one week, I had to decide whether to continue or order new analog ones, with a less wider range (-6 to +6 g). Eventually I chose to do the latter, and this worked pretty fast.

Software

...................................................................................

The next challenge was to convert the wireless raw data into understandable figures. This had to be done in a program that I’ve always wanted to do more with: Cycling ‘74 Max/MSP. This program offers a wide range of programming, especially regarding music/ sounds. The nice thing about this program is also that it is possible to do multithreading, meaning you can run several programs or parts of a program at the same time, since they don’t run sequential like when programming in arduino or JAVA. There is also a big support group of Max/MSP, which makes it easier to find the patches (parts of a program) you are looking for. But

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026 again, because I did not use the arduino or another microcontoller, there were no patches available that did this job. Using the helpfiles of the program I managed to make the patch myself. Now that I had both the hardware and software ready I started developing different directions. screenshot of the MAX/MSP program.

User Involvement

Session#1

Intention of the session: For this first user involvement session I wanted to focus on the conceptual part; what is the purpose of the system and what can be done with the gathered data, but also focus on the technological part of the concept, testing aspects like range, impact and measurability. Even before the development of the technology for the puck, I had a lot of correspondence with both Ollie Niemi and Mika Paananen, and discussed the possible purpose of the system on forehand. They both saw great potential in the data that could be gathered, and we even speculated about future applications. Eventually as the designer, you have to decide whether the concept should evolve in a certain direction, or that it should be a completely different one. At a certain point we played around with the idea of using the system to improve te audience involvement during matches. Because of

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fact that the system could detect the range of impact in level of g-forces, you could add special effects to stadium properties as sound and light. For example, if a player hits the puck above a certain level, a sample like a gunshot or explosion could be played and the lights in the stadium could change to red or even the color of the team. Or a different example; you could use the direction of play in order to set the ambiance in the stadium; if the puck goes one direction, the ‘moodlights’ could give the color of the home team and vice-versa. As said, for this session I wanted to focus also on the technological part. Therefore I needed to be able to test certain things. I created a two small programs, one of them converted the rotation of the puck into sound; if the puck is being rotated on its X-axis, the height of the produced tone would change accordingly. Same for the Y- and Z-axis. The other program played a sound effect when a certain threshold was reached. This meant peaks were filtered out, and I was able to detect if someone would hit the puck. The session: I went to the IJssportcentrum in Eindhoven in order to talk to coaches and players, and let them experience the things I had built so far. The first persons I talked to were 3 hockey players, 22, 24 and 24 years old. The prototype was received very positive. They were very impressed by the data that came out of the puck and started talking about possible things to do with it. One idea that I liked very much was using it as a training tool; because of the tone that varied when rotating the puck, it was perfect for training passes. These passes have to be as tight as possible, so ideally, the puck does not spin or rotate around it’s x-axis (flip upside-down). Using sound, the players were able to get more and more accurate feedback compared to only visual. Because of the speed of the puck, it is impossible to see whether the puck spins or not, and in most cases also the flipping is hard to see. When I ended the try-out session, also because the rink was booked by someone else, I was noticed by a coach that was going to practice on this rink. I explained him the idea and demonstrated the possibilities and he was really thrilled! At the time I wanted to ask him which team he was about to train, a group of kids came through the door, all dressed up with helmets and gear. Now I also understood the enthusiasm of the coach for using the system. Of course I had to show also the concept to the kids and they really wanted to play with it. One child even shouted at his mom that this was something she had to buy him...

As for the technology part; the components survived the impacts from the hockeyplayers’ swings, which was a real relief; even though the datasheets stated it could survive impacts up to 2000 g, it is always the in-field-testing that confirms or denies it. Also because of temperature, things could have worked out differently. One thing that definitely needed improvement was the range. Although the modules are capable of transmitting data in open field over 100 meters, the data was lost at certain moment, especially when the puck was at the opposing side of the rink. This was partly due to the fact that the modules were encapsulated in the puck, which drastically brought down the range. Reflection After discussing the concept with coaches, I noticed their hunch in using the system not that much for professional hockeyers, but as a training tool for hockeyers in the age between 6 and 15. This is a group that I had not thought of before, but indeed might be a very interesting target group. I started brainstorming about new applications which fitted this group better, focussing on creating fun to do exercises. Because of this target group I wanted to know more about designing for them. This made me look into literature about game design, but also motivational literature for children.

Redesign - extending range by using Xbee Pro instead of Xbee modules - idea generation for interactive exercises - focus on children 6 - 15 years old.

This user involvement session really opened a new world for me, one that I had not thought of before, but could be extremely interesting. What I liked about this direction was that it immediately brought more depth to the concept; using the technology to stimulate children in order to keep exercising, and at the same time making the exercises also more fun to do. This also refers to one of my goals I set at the beginning: contribute to stimulating sports.

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Defining the Final Concept

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Looking back at the user involvement session, I can state that I found a very interesting design opportunity, which leaves room for technological innovation and also meets my personal goals. Therefore, I, together with the people involved like Ollie Niemi, decided to continue developing this direction into the final concept. The direction proved to be interesting as well as feasible within the time-limits of this project. The image on this page displays the final deliverables for my Final Master Project called the Blizzard. The Blizzard system exists out of three parts, which are: 1. The hockey puck, including the accelerometer, xbee wireless module and the rechargable battery. 2. A

docking station, which functions as a charger for the hockey puck, also houses the xbee wireless communication module that communicates to the puck. The docking station works on a single USB-port. 3. A DVD including the software needed to create the wireless communication, 5 different training programs focused on different aspects of the hockey game. Because of the limitations in time and manpower, I will not go further into the details of setting up a businessplan for the

distribution, but I would like to notice how I would like to see this part of the concept evolve. Because of the widespread use of the internet, it is much easier to reach your customers. Manufacturers of digital apparel have been using it for quite some time now: monthly updates, firmware updates et cetera aren’t as difficult to execute as it was before. Also customers themselve have found way to tackle problems using someone elses help. If an error occurs, just google it and you bet someone had the same error before and has written about ‘what to do next’. A quite new phenomenon which has, partly because of Apple’s iPhone, taken a huge flight is the open source for external devices. There have been many examples of code-languages that are open source, but mostly they were for programs to be ran on that same computer; as opposed by the portable device like the iPhone. What I try to explain is that I would like to create a web-community around the Blizzard system, where players and coaches can create, upload, download and discuss their homecreated training programs. This way the system will take a huge flight in terms of usability and areas of application. Because hockey is so widespread across the world, doing so through the internet is a very viable way. But for now, let’s focus on the initial programs. Having picked a final direction, it was now time to put the information gathered into practice. As discussed in the previous paragraph, one crucial element that needed improvement was the range of the puck. Together with experts from the IJssportcenter, hockey players and Ollie Niemi, I developed several training programs which focus on a variety of specific game elements. These elements vary from puck handling and passes, to speed and tactics. The next pages of this report will describe the development and design of the three Blizzard parts, and also the development of the logo and branding of the Blizzard system.

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DevelopmentTrainingPrograms Returning from the user involvement session, it was decided that the direction of the project was going to change. The new focus is the creation of a platform that serves as (1) a real-time feedback system, enabling specific training on puck behavior, but also (2)as a platform for a new way of training junior hockey players. In order to develop training programs that could be used with the system, I needed more information about current training exercises. Websites like hockeyshare.com give an abundance of drills, including drawings of how to position players and equipment. I’ve used this website and the preferences of the coaches in order to develop a few programs. What I very much like about the system is the way new programs can be developed once the system itself is clear. The training areas listed on hockeyshare.com are: - Warmup - Timing - Systems - Stickhandling - Small Game - Skating - Shooting - Puck Control - Passing - Goalie - Competitive - Backchecking What can be seen at the number of exercises per category is that one of the crucial elements of a hockey training is speed and tempo. Ice hockey is the fastest teamsport in the world. Speed and tempo are trained in various ways. An interesting way is that of passing the puck. Since the system is capable of measuring impact, and therefore the time between two impacts, a lot of possibilities arise here. One of the programs that was made worked on this principle: the hit and receive of a puck can be measured. The time between those two hits can therefore also be measured. The program recognises this time as X. A different parameter can be set by the coach, called parameter Y, which represents the maximum time allowed between two hits. The system compares X with Y and gives an audio feedback signal, indicating whether it was fast enough or not. The program has 5 levels; with an interval ranging from 4 seconds

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to 0.75 second. Every level exists out of 10 ‘good’ hits, meaning within the interval time. Everytime the players reach a different level, a different audio signal can be heard. I also wanted a fun exercise, that would really motivate the players to actively involve. As for a warming up, the program plays an MP3 file that can be picked by the user, and connects the movement of the puck to the playback speed of the song. This means that the song will only play on the normal speed once the puck is in movement, otherwise it will reduce to zero. This program was received extremely positive by as well the coach as the players. They all immediately started to go after the puck and really wanted to interact or play with it. Because of the possibility to play any song, they came to me with request songs during the test, which was a nice indication that they were willing to work for it: the song doesn’t play when they don’t play! What I’ve learned is that the possibilities are almost endless, and that it is really important to discover what to do with these interesting areas through experiencing the system. During this project I’ve made several more programs, that, amongst others, also dealt with the level of impact, making it possible to train power shots et cetera. The program I’ve used for this is Max/MSP, a programming environment based on graphical components. A short description of this program: Max/MSP is an interactive programming environment, which means you create your own software using a visual toolkit of objects, and connect them together with patch cords. The basic environment that includes MIDI, control, user interface, and timing objects is called Max. Built on top of Max are hundreds of objects, including two powerful collections from Cycling ‘74: MSP, a set of audio processing objects that do everything from interactive filter design to hard disk recording. Jitter, a set of matrix data processing objects optimized for video and 3-D graphics. The new version of Max/MSP also has a presentation mode, making it possible to ‘hide’ the hardcore programming part and only display the essential elements. The lower images on the right show the Max/MASP environment, without (upper) and with (lower) presentation mode. Since Max/MSP is a commercially available program, the training programs are already kind of open source. You can share patches, parts of a program, to other users. The only thing needed to make


it a community is a webpage/forum. This is definately something I will look into, but because of the duration of the project, I can’t do this before the deadline of the project. Throughout the development of the programs I’ve spent a lot of visits to the IJssportcentrum and worked very close with the user group. These moments were for me definitely the moments that made me realize what a great profession it is, being able to make other people happy in what they are doing.

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Logo&GraphicDesign aspartoftheproduct-branding Since this project was my last opportunity to create my own product, one of my goals was to develop it as close to a market ready product as possible. Part of that is the branding. Personally I have always found this a very interesting and important part of industrial/ product design. Since it is in my nature to design products/services that are really targeted at the market instead of only research, these products should also look like they are designed for the market. It can be a fantastic idea, but if it does not look nice nobody will buy or use it. Mostly it comes down to the first impression a customer gets. Name, Logo and graphic design play a very important role here, and during my internship at People on the Move, a design company that

Semester Report M2.2 | Laurens Doesborgh | FMP

does a lot of work in the field of packaging, I learned the important aspects of it. What I needed to work on was developing unity in the three elements. They have to fit together also in terms of look and feel. A name and logo is the first thing I looked at. Brainstorming about it brought me to the name Blizzard, meaning “a storm with widespread snowfall accompanied by strong winds”. I wanted to integrate some iconic elements that could be used for recognizability. The shape of the docking station could for example be used as the “a” in the name. People have to recognize the three elements from the logo, therefore the logo should be well thought through. Some tryouts with colors are made in the overview on the right.


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DevelopmentBlizzardpuck In the beginning of the project I had some struggle regarding the objects to be designed. So far, I had created a platform around an already existing object: the puck. Since my interest is also in product and visual design, I did wanted to design something special for this project. The logo and name were the first starts. Because the electronics had to be casted back into the puck, room for the electronics was milled out of an original puck. This was be done by a computer-controlled milling machine. This enabled me to make something special from this shape and make the puck into a recognizable icon. The material that will be casted back in, a rubber polyurethane with shore 70A, is available in a number of colors, which I can vary accordingly. The left upper image on this page shows some of the designs for the puck. Eventually the one top-right was chosen; there was enough space for the electronics, and it fitted the context of the project. As for the electronics, the embedded components are:

Semester Report M2.2 | Laurens Doesborgh | FMP

- XBee Pro module - Freescale MMA7260Q, -6g/+6g 3-axis analog accelerometer - Lithium Ion 3,7 Volts, 100 Mah accu The XBee Pro was set at a baudrate of 115200 and a sample rate of 10. Furthermore pin 18, 19, and 20 were used for Analog/Digital Conversion of the X-, Y- and Z-axis data coming from the accelerometer. Pin 9 was used to force the XBee to go into sleep mode while charging. Using this extra connection pin the puck is not broadcasting when it is in the dock, allowing a full recharge. Naturally, the puck had to be recharged after a while. This could be done in various ways. I wanted maximum user comfort, excluding the possibility to connect wires or connectors in a wrong way. Eventually I managed to develop a charging mechanism in which the puck is completely closed, and does not need to be opened in order to charge. I needed three connection points, one “high� (5 Volts, to set the XBee into sleep mode), one + and one -. These + and - come


from an IC, a charging circuit needed to charge Lithium Ion batteries. This meant 3 connections in the puck; these will be created by three aluminium ‘dots’, divided over the top and bottom source of the puck. Dividing them is done to eliminate the chance of short-circuiting the electronics. The two positive voltages will be on one side and the negative on the other. The docking station will have three rings on both the top and bottom of the charging surface, so in total 6 rings. This way there is no way of inserting it the wrong way, and the puck will always charge. The snowflake icon will be visible from one side, this has been done keeping in mind future development of the training programs; there might be one where it comes in handy to have a visual conformation of the puck’s orientation. After all, it is possible to measure the orientation of the puck using the accelerometer. What I liked very much during the development of the

puck, and I am very thankful for this, was the help of the supporting staff. Especially Toon van Alen, employee of the Architecture Atelier. It was really nice to work with someone who enjoys trying out new things, and is not afraid to go into untraditional ways. The way in which the puck material would react to the 3-D milling machine was nowhere to be found. By just trying things out on a set of different pucks we were able to step by step work towards a very acceptable resolution, and discovered this works out pretty well. One thing I had to keep in mind when choosing for the casting method was the exothermic reaction of the polyurethane. It is a two-component material, that reacts to each other and hardens. During this process, the temperature can reach 80 degrees Celsius in its peak. By encapsulating the technology components, the risk of permanent damage decreases. The casting was done at Venture Rapid Technology in Best.

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Developmentdockingstation After knowing which components were going to be used in the puck, I could start with the development of the docking station. What I found important here was that the docking station had to be very easy to use. Even when the players/ coaches are wearing the big hockey gloves, they should be able to take the puck out of the charger. The electronical components embedded into the docking station are: - XBee Pro module - XBee read-out USB-board - LiPo Lithium Ion accu charging circuit - 3 LED lights for indicating range status - 1 LED for indicating charging in progress - Invertor for powering the EL-sheet - EL-sheet for indicating on/off status - 2 x 3 aluminium rings for connecting the charger to the puck All technical drawings and datasheets are added in the appendix chapter. As for the shape of the dock; I wanted it to be an object that would fit in its context, icehockey. I wanted to use high-gloss white to make a link to the ice, and add something special to it. What I like about an ice rink is the way the striping is underneath the ice; it gives this blurry but yet still very clear indication. Using lights embedded into the dock, that are invisible when switched off, and make a clear mark when they’re on I wanted to create this same element. On the components I’ve used are several control LEDs. For example on the XBee board, there are three LEDs that indicate the signal strenght of the XBee connection. This is very vital information, and gives you the ability to see whether there is data being transmitted and received between the dock and the puck. Therefore, it serves as a function control light. Is the puck connected yes or no? These LEDs were engineered underneath the surface so they are only visible when on. I’ve used bright white LEDs for this. The charging component also has a status LED, on means it is charging, off means either full or nothing is present. This is the fourth LED that was engineerd in the 3D model. This LED

Semester Report M2.2 | Laurens Doesborgh | FMP

will be red. Besides the functional LEDs, I wanted to do something extra with the dock. What I like about products, for example the Apple MacBookPro, is that a lot of work has been put into details. The logo on the top which lights up when in use, where they also could have made it just plain white. These are elements I believe are essential in order to distinguish a nice product from a regular one. What I wanted to do was to give the dock something extra when connecting it to your computer. It should, as a matter of speaking, come to life when it is connected. Combining this with the logo creates a strong relation to the brand. Customers remember that something positive happened unexpectedly, and that is connected to seeing the logo. I’ve used Electro Luminescent sheet for this effect; this sheet lights up very equally and using a mask the edges can be very sharp. This piece of EL-sheet is embedded under the top of the dock, where the same logo that is casted into the puck will shine through the top. I want to see whether I can make it in such a way that when the puck is in the dock, the EL-sheet is constantly on, and when it is out on the field, the EL-sheet pulsates really slowly. I am not sure if I can make it on short notice, but I will try my best. The shape of the docking station partly follows its function and interaction; a puck needs to be inserted for charging. Therefore the opening on the front is slightly tilted towards the top. This affords a better way of inserting and taking out the puck. I wanted to use simple lines and bring in the detail when it is switched on, as explained before. By doing both, the dock might become cluttered with different details conflicting each other. After trying out a lot of different sizes of edge chamfering, line play et cetera, the final shape was printed at the 3D printer at the /d-searchlabs. To finish the model it was grinded, primered, painted and assembled. Some images of the process can be found on the right page.


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Packaging Blizzard During the course of Industrial Design, the topic of external communication passed many times. During the Dutch Design Week of last year, the topic rose again; “why does the Design Academy get so much more attention?” Well, partly because of their external communication. The products that are displayed during the Graduation Show radiate a status of finished products, something you can buy in a store. And that is precisely what I miss in many of the projects that are run at our faculty; they are truly great project, but they often stay at a prototype level, making it hard to do good, professional external communication for these projects. It’s again about the first look people get. Therefore I wanted to take my final master project just one step further, and trying to make this a project that cán be communicated without additional work. Since I’ve created a platform consisting out of three elements, I was able to make it a nice compact whole. These images show the packaging I’ve made for the Blizzard System. The package has 2 drawers; one for the installation/software disc and one for the USB-cable. The Docking Station and Puck are located at the top, visible to the customers eye.

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040 During the project, I was asked to write an article about the project for the CHI2009 (computer human interaction) conference in Boston, USA. This conference has a special community regarding Design. A short introduction to what the CHI is (source: http://www.chi2009.org) We are extremely fortunate to work in a field in which ideas flow rapidly from research to practice – and back again. Designers are thirsty to learn about new tools and methods that can be used to rethink existing interaction paradigms. And researchers are equally eager to see their work applied to real world applications.

This rich collaboration is ever more critical as digital technologies shape our social fabric and cultural experience. More and more businesses, organizations and disparate communities are looking to information technologies to address pressing social and environmental problems. The Design Community at CHI 2009 offers a unique opportunity to showcase the results of the ongoing collaborations between the research and design communities. The next pages show the article I have written and submitted. At this time the article is being assessed whether it will be accepted.

The Development and Creation of an Interactive Training Platform in Ice Hockey Laurens Doesborgh

Abstract

Eindhoven University of

A training platform called Blizzard was created for the context of ice hockey, with a focus on junior hockey players between the age of 8 and 14. The system consists of a sensor embedded hockey puck, a docking station and a software DVD. Using digital information generated by the actual game in real-time, several training programs were been developed that focus on specific game elements like tempo, passing and puck handling.

Technology Den Dolech 2 Eindhoven, 5612 AZ NETHERLANDS laurens@laurensdoesborgh.com

Keywords augmented reality, computer aided exercise, sound, sport, ice hockey, technology, training, tool, design, blizzard

ACM Classification Keywords D2.2 Modules and interfaces

Objectives

Copyright is held by the author/owner(s). CHI 2009, April 4 – 9, 2009, Boston, MA, USA ACM 978-1-60558-246-7/09/04.

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The objective of the project was twofold. In the first place it was finding a new and fun way to motivate children to keep exercising. It goes without saying that exercising, being physically active, is very important specifically for children in this age category (8-14). Secondly, an exploration in the area of combining


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augmented reality and physical sports was made, aimed at gathering new information in this field.

Introduction Yim and Graham [1] performed a study on existing exercise games in order to give an overview of the broad range of game styles in both the commercial as in the academic field. They also present requirements for exercise games, which have been drawn from exercise motivation literature. In Table 1, a taxonomy of exercise games categorized by user interface and game world is given. In this Table Yim and Graham indicate 2 styles that are still open for research. These are indicated with an X. Table 1 Taxonomy by Yim and Graham [1]

As a second topic Yim and Graham discuss requirements for exercise motivation. They indicate 6 requirements. The six requirements are: 1) Integration of Music, 2) Facilitate Leadership for Novice Players, 3) Provide Achievable Short- and Long-term Goals, 4) Hide Players’ Fitness Level, 5) Avoid Systemic Barriers to Grouping, 6) Actively Assist Players in Forming Groups. It should be noticed that most of the requirements are drawn from exercise motivation literature, and since the core of this project is to explore a new area, some requirements might be more effective than others. The integration of music/sound into exercise/sports is a very obvious solution. However, it depends largely on the way of applying music to the exercise that makes the difference. Think of ways that you are interacting with the music while exercising, instead of just ‘passively’ listening to it.

Process

As I use hockey as the project’s topic, the user interface is Physical, Equipment Based; the players interact through the skates and stick with both the puck and the rink. What seemed interesting to do is to extract data from the actual game and feed this back to the players in real time. Even though the focus of this project is not about creating a true game environment, there is definitely a design opportunity in using equipment based physical interfaces combined with augmented reality.

During the project, the Transformative Reflective Design Process has been used, as described by Hummels and Frens [2]. The flexibility of this method allows for many parallel processes to be run at the same, thereby creating more frequent reflective interventions to check the project’s direction. Using this method, it is also possible to initiate the project from a different perspective. In quite an early stage of the project, the decision was made to use the puck as the central information generator. This was done based on the following: 1) Since the puck is the socially connecting element (it connects player to player, player to team, team to

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team, but also player to audience and team to audience), it is possible to create an environment in which players can actively stimulate each other. 2) A lot of information can be extracted from the puck, about various aspects of the game. The current limiting factor to do so is the speed of the puck; it moves too fast to visually judge the movement behavior. This decision was also confirmed to be an interesting direction by the first series of user tests. During these tests, the information generated by the players interacting with the puck was converted to sound. They could hear how the puck was behaving while and after they took a shot at it. Embedded in the puck was a 3-axis accelerometer directly connected to a XbeePro module, sending the data to another XbeePro connected to the computer that ran MaxMSP and converted the data. Changes in the acceleration on three axis were linked accordingly to a tone that changed in frequency. This sound could be heard over the stadium speakers.

Figure 1 First prototype components of the hockey puck

The players and coaches were amazed by the accuracy of the information generated by the puck. They were very interested in what the actual movement of the puck was during a shot; does it tilt? How much? Or

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does it even flip? Being able to train these specific areas might prove valuable since a straight movement of the puck is much more powerful compared to one where the puck looses a lot of energy in spinning and/or tilting/flipping. Having found an interesting direction for the project, different application areas could be identified and developed further, using the same technology. As a warming up, a program was developed that played an mp3-file. The playback speed of the song is controlled to the movement of the puck. So when there is no movement, the playback speed of the puck reduces to 0. In order to hear the song play correctly, the players are forced to keep playing the puck around. A crucial element in hockey is the tempo of the game; it is extremely high. Increasing this is therefore also trained a lot. A program was developed focusing on the tempo. Using the information generated by the puck, it was possible to filter out peaks, identifying a shot. The time between shots could also very easily extracted, giving the frequency of hits in a specific time slot. In the training program, the players have to pass the puck to co-player within a specific interval. The coach can speed up the game by adjusting this interval. As feedback, the players hear a sound sample when the pass is within these limits, a different sample if it is not. A similar program was made which automatically increases difficulty levels. Players start with an interval of 4 seconds, and after five correct passes, the interval decreases by 1 second, and 0.25 second when 1 second is reached.


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Key Findings

References

Judging from the interest of both hockey players and coaches, it is clear that a very interesting and probably profitable area has been identified. Since the use of the system allows players to train new areas that could not have been trained before, it might give them an advantage over their competition. Of course, this has to be confirmed by a longitudinal user test.

[1] Jeffrey Yim and T.C. Nicholas Graham, Using Games to Increase Exercise Motivation. School of Computing, Queen’s University, Canada.

Result/Impact It is clear that there are still many options that can be explored. One very interesting direction could be the set up of an open source web-based version for the training programs, where players as well as coaches can create and upload their own programs, but also download and discuss other person’s programs. This way the product can be tested on a global scale, and a supporting community is built around the platform. I strongly believe these platforms and accompanying products can transform the way in which we interact with computers, but eventually also with each other.

[2] Hummels, C., and Frens, J.W.F. Designing for the unknown: a design process for the future generation of highly interactive systems and products. Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Industrial Design, Designing Quality in Interaction Group

Acknowledgements This project was done as a Final Master Project by master student Laurens Doesborgh, as part of the masters course Industrial Design at the Eindhoven University of Technology. The project assessors were dr. ir. René Ahn, member of the Designed Intelligence group, and prof. dr. Kees Overbeeke, head of the Designing Quality in Interaction group of our faculty. Furthermore, Ollie Niemi, freelance fashion designer; the Icehawks, a student sport association and the IJssportcentrum Eindhoven were involved in this project. More information about the writer can be found on www.laurensdoesborgh.com

Figure 2: the Blizzard system

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References [1] Jeffrey Yim and T.C. Nicholas Graham, Using Games to Increase Exercise Motivation, School of Computing, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON, Canada

[2] Boutcher, J., and Trenske, M., The effects of sensory deprivation and music on perceived exertion and affect during exercise, Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. #12 (1990), 167-176.

[3] Parker, J.R. Human Motion as Input and Control in Kinetic Games, FuturePlay, London, Ontario, Canada. October 10-12, 2006.

[4] Wininger, S.R., and Pargman, D. Assessment of Factors Associated with Exercise Enjoyment. Journal of Music Therapy. 40 (2003), 57-73.

[5] MIAH. Rethinking Enhancement in Sport. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (2006)

[6] CHEN et al. The Technology of Accelerometry-Based Activity Monitors: Current and Future. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise (2005)

[7] Aminian et al. Capturing human motion using body-fixed sensors: outdoor measurement and clinical applications. Computer Animation and Virtual Worlds (2004)

[8[ Mayagoitia et al. Accelerometer and rate gyroscope measurement of kinematics: an inexpensive alternative to optical ‌. Journal of Biomechanics (2002)

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Appendices

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

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Semester Report M2.2 | Laurens Doesborgh | FMP

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 

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   

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 





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Semester Report M2.2 | Laurens Doesborgh | FMP

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048

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 

 

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  

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 

Semester Report M2.2 | Laurens Doesborgh | FMP

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Semester Report M2.2 | Laurens Doesborgh | FMP

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Semester Report M2.2 | Laurens Doesborgh | FMP

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

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 

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XBee™/XBee-PRO™ OEM RF Modules XBee/XBee-PRO OEM RF Modules RF Module Operation RF Module Configuration Appendices

Product Manual v1.xAx - 802.15.4 Protocol For OEM RF Module Part Numbers: XB24-...-001, XBP24-...-001

IEEE® 802.15.4 OEM RF Modules by MaxStream, Inc.

MaxStream 355 South 520 West, Suite 180 Lindon, UT 84042 Phone: (801) 765-9885 Fax: (801) 765-9895 rf-xperts@maxstream.net www.MaxStream.net (live chat support)

M100232 2006.10.13

Semester Report M2.2 | Laurens Doesborgh | FMP

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052  

 



±        

  ±

             

 µ µ          



  





























Semester Report M2.2 | Laurens Doesborgh | FMP





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





   



 

 

 

 

  

 





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

 

       



       

 


 

                           

  

 

             

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Semester Report M2.2 | Laurens Doesborgh | FMP

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One of my hobbys is photography. It is something I definitely want to do more work in. The images on these pages are just some examples. More of my work kan be found on www. flickr.com/photos/ laurensdoesborgh/

Profile for Laurens Doesborgh

Semester Report M2.2  

Semester report about my M2.2 phase at the Department of Industrial Design, University of Technology Eindhoven

Semester Report M2.2  

Semester report about my M2.2 phase at the Department of Industrial Design, University of Technology Eindhoven

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