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from silence to sound... by Lauren Walter Thesis presented to the Faculty of the Department of Architecture School of Architecture Philadelphia University

In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of BACHELOR OF ARCHITECTURE

Thesis Studio Instructor Susan I. FrostĂŠn Academic Advisor Jane Cespuglio Professional Advisor Ali Mahjouri

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania May 2010

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Abstract With the advancement of technology and the subsequent decline of deaf culture, a transformation has occurred, revealing a need for a new place, psychologically and physically. The success of a cochlear implant for the individual user is dependent on both internal and external factors, with external factors being a controllable and crucial part of the rehabilitation process. The phenomenological experience of architecture and the examination of both visual and aural architecture form the basis through which an appropriate learning environment can be designed. The environment should simultaneously create an understanding of sound as the user adapts to and is comfortable within the space, and correspond to the learning hierarchy system of language and speech.

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Table of Contents: Part I Position Paper..........6 Program Study..........24 Cochlear Outline Cochlear Implant Diagram Cochlear Implant Age/Likelihood Cochlear Team Chart Rehabilitation Schedule Rehabilitation Study Auditory Skills Speech Skills Language Skills

Sound Study..........40 Aural Definitions Sound in Space

Program Precedent..........42 Pennsylvania School for the Deaf Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia

Architectural Precedent..........48 Bernhard Leitner Peter Zumthor Richard Serra Max Neuhaus

Objectives..........55 Appendix..........56 Sound Visuals Hearing Culture/Deaf Culture Literature Review Position Paper Outlines

Bibliography..........66

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Introduction With the advancement of technology and the subsequent decline of deaf culture, there becomes a need for the revitalization of an emerging culture. Because of the development of cochlear implants, deaf culture is transforming from a world of silence to a world of sound. The rehabilitation process is the most complicated and complex part of the cochlear implant process with its transition into sound, language, and speech. Early childhood education is a vital period of development in general, but it is even more important for children who have received a cochlear implant and require an adjustment to an entirely new world of sound. The success of a cochlear implant is dependent on both internal and external factors, with external factors being a controllable and crucial part that influences rehabilitation. The phenomenological experience of architecture and the examination of both visual and aural architecture form the basis through which an appropriate learning environment can be designed. The environment should simultaneously create an understanding of sound as the user adapts to and is comfortable within the space, and correspond to the learning hierarchy system of language and speech.

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Phenomenology As a person proceeds from deafness to the world of sound, a phenomenological approach to architecture seems most appropriate with its focus on the sensorial experience within space. This and its potential for making an environment a meaningful place are the reasons for its applicability to an architecture that is based on the learning and understanding of sound. Architecture designed through phenomenology is a significant approach that influences any user, but could be rendered even more useful for exploring senses that were previously nonexistent. The most difficult part of cochlear implant process is rehabilitation. The success of the rehabilitation process is determined by both internal, uncontrollable factors and by external, controllable factors. The external factors are related to the learning environment and the understanding of the concept of sound.

Environment Within the philosophy of phenomenology, the term “environment” is physically experienced through the concept of place1. The environment is comprised of both the material objects of the world and 1 Norberg-Schultz, Christian. “Phenomenon of Place”. 1976. Theorizing a New Agenda for Architecture. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1996. 414

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feelings, whereas the concept of place gives environment a physical locality and substance to those materials. The role of architecture is to form a place, encapsulating essence, structure, and spirit. Where place was once an existing factor in deaf culture, through deaf theaters, clubs, and institutions, it has now become nearly obsolete. A portion of the reason is due in part to the advancement in cochlear implant technology. The impact of the technology has transformed the deaf community, which in turn demands a regeneration of a place for those individuals. There is a demand for a place for the new culture that is gradually developing and producing new needs.

Developing New Architecture The history of architecture plays a huge role in the development of new architecture in terms of adapting to the times, approaching conditions within the world, and applying to a specific group or culture. Designing is about inventing, but according to Zumthor, there are few architectural issues that do not already have a solution. There are many programmatic building uses that have been around for centuries, such as a church, a residence, or a hospital. Each building program has a set of design problems which have been and continue to be solved in a variation of manners by designers for the past few centuries. Solutions

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have been developed for many design problems that already exist, so problems need to be approached with a new, appropriate architectural solution. Therefore, architecture should approach issues of our time, reflect the inventor’s spirit, change what portion is ineffective, update the mood, enhance what is valuable, and recreate what is missing2. The architecture that once existed for the deaf no longer matches with the culture that exists today, stimulating the need for new architecture. Whereas institutions were a means of removing the afflicted and educating them in a separate place, one that was regimented, met their needs, and provided a community, this is no longer needed. Their needs are no longer dependent on their deafness but in their new ability to hear. The environment for learning is not dependent on learning to communicate through sign language but through spoken language. The current and developing issue is how to provide a meaningful place that explores the concept of sound in order to open the door for learning language and speech. The impact architecture has on human lives is of primary importance while historical significance, style, and aesthetic being of secondary importance3. The program of the space is important because of its function in the lives of cochlear implant receivers with its 2 Zumthor, Peter. Thinking Architecture. Basel, Switzerland: Birkhauser Publishers, 2005. 23 3

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capability of teaching individuals and mainstreaming them into educational programs. It is specifically designed for a specific use, in a specific place, for a specific community of individuals, reflecting a need of today and future developments in this area.

Place The structure of place is a concept that encompasses both three dimensional geometry and the perceptions of space through its character4. The geometrical spaces created through architecture are determined through a number of factors and considerations, such as boundary, threshold, paths, edges, and nodes. There needs to be an organizational system within the building that dictates a relationship between inside and outside, a world that is known and one that has yet to be discovered. The character of a place or the presentation of a specific atmosphere directly relates to the intended experience for the inhabitants. The character of a space is a method of presenting the world to the user, and it is a function of time that changes with daily conditions5. In terms of the program at hand, the challenge is to present a visual and aural atmosphere that describes and teaches about a world that is entirely new to the individual user. The organizational system is a 4 5

Norberg-Schultz 418 Norberg-Schultz 420

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strong portion of the design that involves a need for orientation in order to be most effective. Both the spatial geometry and character need to be manifested in a way that exhibit an understanding of sound in order for the user to understand the function of the place.

Dwelling The concept of dwelling deals with man’s relationship within space, a concept that involves both the concept of “space” and “character”6. The important of place is denoted both through the physical locality of a human being within a space and an exposure to the character of that place, or its environment. The psychological functions involved with this concept are that of “identification” and “orientation”, where the individual has to understand where he is and how he is in a certain place7. The feeling of orientation corresponds with the organizational structure through which the architecture is derived and commonly based on a natural structure. In order to feel at peace within a space, the user needs to have a certain understanding of his environment to feel a sense of security. Orientation depends largely on an identification of self, environment, and self within environment. Identity is created 6 7

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Norberg-Schultz 423 Norberg-Schultz 423

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through developed schemata of the accessible world8. Just as hearing people develop their identity with their senses through experience, the identification of deaf people occurs through a world without sound. Their methods of identification are comfortable since it is all that they have known, but ultimately their level of comfort changes drastically with the addition of sound. A comfortable atmosphere needs to be created for their system of identification because of the transition from deafness to sound. Orientation and identification are factors that need to be considered simultaneously as one tends to interpret the other. The important function of the program lies in the idea that a world that was previously unknown and unrecognizable now has the opportunity to surface. The way that world of sound is presented puts a certain responsibility on the architect. The methods through which it is presented should be naturally derived and interpreted in order for the architecture to have communicative power.

Communicative Power The communicative power of architecture should develop through the meaning of the function and the experience within the space instead of the beauty of the form detaching itself from the ar8

Norberg-Schultz 425

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chitecture and becoming an entity of its own. There has been concern that architecture is losing its communicative power and that architecture should be representing human existence and spatial experience through sensory feelings, unlike the majority of modern buildings today9. The meaning of architecture needs to be emphasized by feeling and experiencing the space through the form. Form is a portion of the product of a building, but should be derived after the function. The reasoning behind this is because form merely effects our feelings for what it represents, and like a work of art, the art does not lie in the physical thing, but through the experience of the viewer10. In order to have a full appreciation for the meaning of the architecture, the richness and sensory experience needs to be directed towards the user to give them a perception about the world. Phenomenology deals with the inner language of the building, and according to Husserl’s concept, phenomenology involves a “pure looking at” of the architecture through ones consciousness. Experiencing architecture also involves a certain degree of loneliness because of the private dialogue that occurs between the work and person experiencing it11. This draws a consideration to the environment in terms of involvement between the user and the archi9 Pallasmaa, Juhani. “The Geometry of Feeling: A Look at the Phenomenology of Architecture”. 1986. Theorizing a New Agenda for Architecture. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1996. 447-448 10 Pallasmaa 449 11 Pallasmaa 452

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tecture. The experience should directly engage the user within their surroundings to provide an understanding of the concept of sound in order to be most effective and rich.

Essence of Things Architecture has a complexity and depth that arises from function and a natural development process. The ideas are in architecture, architecture is not the idea12. Whereas some sound spaces are created by artificial means, creating a false perception of sound, architecture should present sound through realistic and natural means. By staying close to the essence of things and the ideas within those things, an appropriate architecture can develop. The qualities of sound can not be abstractly presented but must derive from materials and the qualities of those materials. This form of natural evolvement from things will help in creating a meaningful architecture and a meaningful experience. Architecture should set out from real things, such as place, function, and material, and return to real things13. The parts that combine to make architecture should be decided upon with confidence and through the relationship among the parts; an appropriate architecture of complexity and depth will result. The experience should speak for itself in a way 12 13

Zumthor 29 Zumthor 35

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that the architecture does not have to force the ideas upon the user. Art is kindled only between the reality of things and the imagination14. The reality of architecture lies in the body through which forms, volumes, and spaces come into being.

Pattern Language The method of designing through patterns is one that allows for environments to be understood through a specific language. Patterns make it possible to design deep and well-informed environments where both small patterns and large patterns coexist to create a cohesive whole15. Part of the goal of these languages is to use a system based on human and natural considerations to make the system of design understandable through its various phases. A pattern language is utilized through a sense of scale where the largest site conditions are considered first and the system gradually works its way down to the minute details. The pattern becomes the solution to the design issue, based on the nature of things and the nature of humans.

14 Zumthor 36 15 Alexander, Christopher, Sara Ishikawa, and Murray Silverstein. A Pattern Language. New York: Oxford University Press, 1977. 14

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Architecture for the Senses While architecture is experienced at different scales, it is also experienced through various senses. The feel, smell, and sound of spaces all have equal weight within a space, meaning that we perceive in totality and not just through one sense16. Since we perceive through these different senses, the architecture that is designed should apply to and stimulate these senses directly. The experience of architecture allows the user to be informed about the world, through their visual, auditory, taste, smell, and haptic system17. All of these systems can be considered an extension to touch in terms of locating the source object. In the majority of cases, you can touch objects that stimulate the senses. You can touch something that you see or taste something that you eat, but you can not touch a sound. It is possible for sound to be touched in other ways, such as feeling the vibration causing the sound or seeing the movement of ones lips causing the production of speech. These tactics may be useful in finding a way to understand the concept of sound. According to Hegel, touch is the only sense able to give sensation to spatial depth as it ‘senses weight, resistance, and three dimensional shapes of material bodies’18. The sense of touch requires a certain amount of 16 Pallasmaa, Juhani. The Eyes of the Skin. Ontario, Canada: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 2005. 7 17 Pallasmaa 41 18 Pallasmaa 42

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intimacy, whereas the sense of sight allows for distance between the object and viewer. One’s sense of hearing lies between the two in terms of distance, and while sound has the capability to isolate, sound incorporates19. Our ability to see an object can be achieved from a rather far distance, but a closer proximity is required for sensing sound. Sound is also omni-directional because sound waves can approach from and be heard from many directions simultaneously. This contrasts the directional quality of vision as we can only see within a specific angle from which our eyes are focused. It is also significant to note that architecture can react to sound, through materials and form, to help inform the user about its very essence, but the same is not true for sight. We are able to respond to a building through our ability of sight, yet a building can not provide a reverse response.

Silence vs Sound In addition to the immediate comparing and contrasting nature of the senses, there are also environmental conditions that can heighten the senses. Sound and silence can only be achieved through architecture or through deafness. Silence during the night is the closest one can get to silence in nature, but there is still a reminder of hu19

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man solitude and morality20. Sound will always exist in nature, even in the most desolate area, because of the uncontrollable sound of wind through the trees, falling rain, singing birds, or chirping crickets. Silence is considered a comforting feeling and for the deaf, it is probably a place of comfort after being able to hear because it is how they have identified with themselves. Silence within space is important, as well as how sound responds to space. Sound is able to measure space and make it more comprehensible21. For example, a cathedral can be observed and appreciated with sight, but when the organ is played, the sound echoes throughout the sheer vastness of the space to exemplify its size. In this case, both visual and aural senses confirm one another as both are felt within the space.

Aural Architecture Architecture is concerned with the design, arrangement, and manipulation of space, but rarely do architects consider the acoustical properties of space and rarely does the user consciously sense spatial attributes through sound22. Our ability to understand space and sound as a joint entity becomes natural to us, yet only if the sound quality does 20 Pallasmaa 50 21 Pallasmaa 51 22 Blesser,Barry and Linda-Ruth Salter. Spaces Speak, Are you Listening? Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2007. 1

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not match the space would we notice. In this case sound and space need to correspond and naturally derive one another. For someone who is deaf, sound in space becomes a new concept that is understand only through time and experience. We experience attributes of space with the use of sound as perceived size and boundaries of space23. Rather than physical boundaries, it is possible to maneuver space with use of speech and listening as the primary tool, and let intangible, experiential boundaries become the replacement. Hearing becomes a different, yet just as beneficial, way to experience space compared to vision. Where vision determines size as length, width, and height, hearing roughly determines the volume as sound fluidly permeates space, qualifying it as a more appropriate means of measurement. Aurally, the volume of space is measure through reverberation and, in most cases, the longer the reverberation, the larger the space. For hearing, volume becomes a primary tool with boundaries being secondary, but the opposite is true for vision24. The condition becomes even more interesting when merging the measurement tools of hearing and vision. For example, a glass wall is an aural boundary, but not a visual boundary. A black curtain is a visual boundary, but not an aural boundary. When thinking about both of these 23 24

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conditions psychologically, our experience between two varying spatial partitions leads us to two varying spatial areas25. Experience can also be considered without thinking of physical boundaries but of virtual ones. Darkness becomes a virtual, visual boundary, but not an aural boundary. In fact, our hearing is usually enhanced when darkness is present. Background noise is the other condition through which vision is not impaired, but hearing becomes more difficult. Virtual boundaries can further be defined through concepts such as auditory horizon, acoustic arena, and auditory channel. Auditory horizon represents the maximum distance between a listener and a source of sound where sound can still be heard and best exemplified by an individual being able to hear music. How far away the music is and its volume must be further delineated by acoustic arena. The acoustic arena is a region where a community of listeners shares the ability to hear a sound source. The acoustic horizon is dependent on the arena, so if the music is in the form of a rock concert, where the volume of the sound cancels out the background noise, the horizon is large, but if the music is played quietly in a full room, the horizon is small because the background noise cancels out the sound. Auditory channel is similar to auditory horizon as it is defined as the connection between a sound and the listener. If an auditory channel were to take place as a conversation 25

Blesser, Salter 21

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at a rock concert, the auditory channel is small, but if the conversation were to take place in an empty auditorium, the channel would be large. A shared channel provides social cohesion and the concepts of soundscapes combined plays a relevant role in aural architecture26. The experiential attributes of auditory spatial awareness allow the determination of four modes of existence: social, an arena for community structure; navigational, as geometries that form a larger image of space; aesthetic, to enhance the texture of the space; and musical, as an artistic extension of space27. The combination of sound concepts and spatial awareness provide a means of categorizing space and creating an appropriate corresponding nature. The contrasting positions of visual and aural architecture and various sound concepts, becomes vital in examining how to create a transition from learning visually to learning aurally. Naturally, deafness causes one to be a visual learner, but with a cochlear implant, the child needs to develop auditory skills in order to acquire speech and language skills. Learning visually is not a negative thing, but a child must gain a certain degree of listening skills to progress through the necessary hierarchy of development. The various means of learning should correspond to space and allow the user to feel a sense of place. The 26 27

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spaces should also provide comfort as one adapts to the concept of sound and lend to the progressive journey from silence to sound.

Alexander, Christopher, Sara Ishikawa, and Murray Silverstein. A Pattern Language. New York: Oxford University Press, 1977. Blesser,Barry and Linda-Ruth Salter. Spaces Speak, Are you Listening? Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2007. 1 Norberg-Schultz, Christian. “Phenomenon of Place”. 1976. Theorizing a New Agenda for Architecture. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1996. 412-428 Pallasmaa, Juhani. The Eyes of the Skin. Ontario, Canada: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 2005. Pallasmaa, Juhani. “The Geometry of Feeling: A Look at the Phenomenology of Architecture”. 1986. Theorizing a New Agenda for Architecture. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1996. 447-453 Zumthor, Peter. Thinking Architecture. Basel, Switzerland: Birkhauser Publishers, 2005.

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Deafness and hearing loss is a condition for which there are many causes , both internal and external. An examination and evaluation of those factors lead to candidacy for a cochlear implant. The beginning stages of the cochlear implant process are significant, yet few. A brief exploration of the technical aspects of a cochlear implant and the process involved allows for an understanding of its basic functions and a base of information that will inform the design process. The rehabilitation process follows a linear and natural progression, similar to that of the normal learning hierarchy, in which the user aquires auditory, speech, and language skills through a number of stages. After an understanding of the journey for the user is made, the journey can be redefined through architecture which becomes a tool for learning.

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deafness

deaf culture

technical aspect

external causes internal problem

clubs, theater, institutions positive/negative aspects decline

how they work MAP performance factors (internal & external) variables effecting expectations

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how it works: 1. sound enters microphone 2. sound travels to processor 3. process sound travels up to headpiece 4. processed sound is transmitted through skin 5. implant sends sound to cochlea through electrode 6. electrode in cochlea stimulates hearing nerve Goldsmith, Estelle. Lecture: “Parent and Professional Education Seminar�. The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia. 20 Aug. 2009.

rehabilitation

educational placement

team

necessry support services communication method

family members audiologist surgeon speech therapist teacher of the deaf social worker

home improve environment conditions routines talk about actions respond pair verbal and visual schedule with therapist daily, structured activities consistency

auditory skills awareness/detection discrimination/association association/identification processing comprehension

speech skills pre-speech isolation sound sequences words phrases sentences

language skills word approximation word production connected utterances simple sentences expanded sentences complex sentences

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implant process Post-surgery mapping speech & sound therapy

Pre-surgery diagnosed as being deaf candidate for surgery speech and hearing evaluation apointment with ear, nose, throat doctor 2 hour expectation seminar meet with audiologist for insurance information and scheduling surgery surgery

check incision learn and get comfortable with equipment activation and mapping

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The implant process is very extensive post-surgery. Medical appointments to check the child’s progression and confirm the proper rehabilitation schedule is frequent for the first few months, but gradually decrease after the first few years. The most important reason for these visits is for re-mapping, a process by which the implant is adjusted according to what sounds are heard, and those which are not heard, by the user. Speech therapy occurs approximately three times per week for the individual. A representation of the schedule allows for a visual understanding of the frequency of visits by the user to the proposed rehabilitation center.

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newborn - early childhood

youth

adulthood

fast recovery, 2-4 days

?

most likely a much slower recovery process

not much exposure to traditional deaf culture

transition from traditional deaf culture to new culture

associate with deaf culture majority of life

as it becomes more popular there is larger acceptance

may have difficulty being accepted into new social circles

less social acceptance because of abandonment of deaf culture

rehabilitation about 3 years speech and learning close to that of their peers (dependent on internal and external factors)

behind that of peers more difficult with transition to a new language

development much more difficult (unless it was gradual hearing loss with which they may still have speech ability

education

mainstream education

may transfer out of deaf school in order to have more focus on spoken language difficult transition from visual language to auditory language

N/A

likelihood

high

medium

low

health

deaf culture

social acceptability

speech/learning

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Team Member Cochlear Implant Surgeon

Parent

Cochlear Implant Audiologist

Role

Time

performs thorough examination and determines medical suitability for implant monitors habilitation for their patients to encourage the best possible result

Before

should be visible and a helpful presence so that they are fully aware of how their child’s needs are being met should monitor homework and cochlear implant technology, ensure a routine, and help the child learn to be in control of his or her hearing loss only member who has complete historical, social and emotional perspective on their child’s development conducts audiological assessment to determine hearing levels and monitors the benefit received from amplification to determine if the child is an appropriate candidate works with the child and family to MAP the processor and track the child’s progress

During Psychologist/Social Worker

Speech or Auditory Therapist

Educational Consultant

Classroom Teacher

Educational Audiologist

Speech Language Pathologist

discusses expectations and responsibilities pre- and post-surgery to ensure that the family is able to provide the range of support needed for the child to be successful with a cochlear implant performs a program of intensive listening therapy that should be initiated to “prime the auditory pump” and provide the basis for continued auditory skill development works with the child’s school-based team to jointly develop a program of ongoing habilitation and ensure that needed support services are in place to meet the child’s needs must have support and training the (s)he needs regular check ups and updates throughout the year with the parent responsible for proper classroom seating and checking to ensure that the child understands what is being said in the classroom monitors and assists child as needed After

monitors child’s hearing in the classroom and is responsible for fitting and troubleshooting the FM system to ensure it is working properly responsible for assessing and developing an intervention plan, as well as providing services directly to the student to encourage the development of auditory, speech and spoken language skills

*courtesy of Nucleus Cochlear Implant System

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Awareness of Sound

Association of Sound with Events

first few weeks

by 3 months

first few weeks

by 6-10 months

by 4 months

by 6-14 months

McClatchie, Adeline amd MaryKay Therres. “AuSpLan: Auditory Speech Language�. Washington D.C.: AG Bell, 2003.

A : Auditory Learner

A study was conducted on 80 children, between 2 and 5 years old at the time of implantation, to understand differences in auditory, speech, and language progression after receiving a cochlear implant. All were cogenitally deaf or deafened pre-linguistically. All met criteria of profound deafness with minimal, if any benefit, from a cochlear implant. They were placed on team A, B, or C before documentation of their therapy, and their team status was updated following therapy. A timeline of goals and expected aquisition for stages within the skills provide a measuring tool for monitoring progress.

25%

87% A 13% B

B : Both Visual and Auditory Dependent

46%

5% A 85% B 10% C

C : Complimentary Audition to Visual Communication

29%

15% B 70% C 15% non-user

D : Does Not Benefit from Implant

position paper

program study

sound study

program precedent

architectural precedent 30

site analysis

objectives

appendix

bibliography


position paper

by 3 years

by 3 years

program study

sound study

by 3 years

mainstream consultant, moderate to intense speech/language therapy

only with considerable visual assistance for learning

modified mainstream education by 3 years

intense speech/language therapy, auditory training, mainstream consultant, resource/reading specialist, classroom aide or interpreter

some benefit, but visual is always primary learning method

not appropriate for mainstream education, immediate placement in self-contained deaf/hearing impaired total communication program

moderate speech/language therapy and auditory training, sign language tutoring

program precedent

architectural precedent 31

site analysis

Support Services

Educational Placement

by 2 years

by 2 years

Auditory Verbal/Oral Communicators and Sound Learners

by 12-18 months

Spoken Language to Express Needs and Feelings

Single Word Use with Understanding and Emerging Phrases by 1 year

mainstream education by 3 years

objectives

appendix

bibliography


awareness

AB 1-4 weeks

suprasegmental: discrimination/association

voice in voice

C

environmental sounds

1-12 weeks ling six sounds

3-5 months

vocal length

c

onomatopoeic content

m

word length

distraction

sentence length intensity pitch oral/nasal resonance rythm prosody/stress difference intonation

The auditory skills levels are similar between a deaf child and a normal hearing child but require more intense auditory stimulation. The order is dependent on listening age rather than chronological age.

position paper

program study

sound study

program precedent

architectural precedent 32

asso

site analysis

objectives

appendix

bibliography


segmental: ociation/identification

identification

6-9 months

9-12 months

1 key word in context with or without suprasegmentals

consonant and vowel difference in monosyllable/trochee/ 3 syllable words

processing comprehension

A 15+ months

advanced vocab. development increase auditory word-play association

2 key words in context

B 15-33 months

vowel only difference answer simple questions

C

3 key words in context

consonant only

understand increasingly complex sentences containing 3+ elements

4+ key words in context

+36 months, if at all

listen to short paragraphs & answer simple questions answer complex questions with or without visual support listen to longer paragraphs and answer complex questions sequence increase cognitive language skills follow conversation ending with familiar topic follow open conversation position paper

program study

sound study

program precedent

architectural precedent 33

site analysis

objectives

appendix

bibliography


speech skills

pre-speech

AB 1 week

voice control: the child learns to turn voice on/off volitionally child also learns to imitate different lengths of open vowel sounds

C

isolation

sound sequences

child learns placement of sound

child learns to blend two or more sounds together

1-4 weeks the goal is sound flow and not separation of sound

Speech skills have a general hierarchy in which sounds are targeted. The order approximates normal sound acquisition. Level one sounds are selected so the child is exposed to manner, voice, and place characteristics. Levels and phonological processes are varied in accordance to normal acquisition, child’s age, and child’s stimulability for sounds.

position paper

program study

sound study

program precedent

architectural precedent 34

site analysis

objectives

appendix

bibliography


words

phrases

sentences

child imitates, then spontaneously produces words that contain targeted Speech Level Sounds

defined as 2-4 word utterances that does not necessarily conform to grammatical rules

defined as any untterance five words or more in length, regardless of grammer

intelligibility is the goal

intelligibility is the goal

child imitates, then spontaneously produces phrases using targeted Speech Level Sounds

child imitates, then spontaneously produces single sentences progressing to connected sentences using the targeted Speech Level Sounds

position paper

program study

sound study

program precedent

architectural precedent 35

site analysis

objectives

appendix

A 7-12 months

B 9-15 months

C +34 months, if at all

bibliography


language skills

word approximation

word production

vocal intent and vocalization for meaning

spontaneous true word productions

child learns to use voice to gain attention

child learns to spontaneously use true words to convey meaning

child learns that vocalization is associated with meaning

AB 1-6 months

C 4-28 months

connected ut (phrases & basic

level consists of c words and basic that do not contain marker

level encompasses two to four word

speech sound shaping is in imitation child learns that vocal patterns/words have different meaning

Language is defined as verbal expression. The purpose is to facilitate development of verbal expressive skills in relation to using the cochlear implant. Normal, natural aquisition of language skills are followed. An important role of the therapist is in determining what a child has not learned naturally or through vicarious learning. Vocabulary growth is an ongoing goal, targeted at each level.

position paper

program study

sound study

program precedent

architectural precedent 36

site analysis

objectives

appendix

bibliography


terances sentences)

connected sentences grammatical rs

simple sentences

expanded sentences

complex sentences

child learns to use simple grammatical markers

child learns to use question formats and sentences that contain appropriate word order and grammatical structures

child learns to use advanced sentence structures appropriate to peer group

sentences are generally at least six words in length

includes the use of elements as embedded information, clauses, and advanced vocabulary

sentences are usually four to six words in length

s utterances ds in length

A 9-18 months

B 12-32 months

C +36 months

child also learns to exchange ideas verbally using intricate language ongoing level of language learning that extends from childhood to adulthood

position paper

program study

sound study

program precedent

architectural precedent 37

site analysis

objectives

appendix

bibliography


pre-implantation post-implantation

lobby/waiting area

multi-purpose room

daycare facilities

health care community

health care community

patient

visiting patients

visiting patients

community children

patient and family

patient and family

employees

administration

administration

employees

employees

noise level

programmatic spaces

both

privacy level

position paper

program study

sound study

program precedent

architectural precedent 38

site analysis

objectives

appendix

bibliography


health/hearing test facilities

mapping facilities

library

counseling

sound/speech therapy rooms

visiting patients

patient

health care community

patient and family

patient

patient

administration

patient and family

counselor

audiologist

administration

employees

administration

social worker

speech therapist

employees

employees

position paper

program study

sound study

program precedent

architectural precedent 39

site analysis

objectives

appendix

bibliography


auditory horizon

acoustic arena

auditory channel

maximum distance between listener and source where sound can be heard; centered on listener; experiential boundary delineating inclusion or exclusion of sound

community of listeners sharing ability to hear sonic event; centered at sound source

connection between event and listener; social cohesion

position paper

program study

sound study

program precedent

architectural precedent 40

site analysis

objectives

appendix

bibliography


individual within space

position paper

program study

sound study

space responding to sound

individual emitting sound in space

program precedent

architectural precedent 41

site analysis

objectives

appendix

bibliography


PA School for the Deaf

CHOP

Nat’l Technical Institute for the Deaf

Germantown, PA

Philadelphia, PA

Rochester, NY

deaf, cochlear implant, and special needs

leading Children’s Hospital in the nation, main hospital in Philadelphia that performs cochlear implant surgeries

deaf and cochlear implant students

2-3 yrs through high school, alumni, and deaf in the community

all ages

college age

academic

clinical

academic

mission

provide students with appropriate educational, social, and personal experiences to enhance academic development and prepare them for life in society

strong team of surgeons and audiologists who aim to provide the best support possible for their patients

preparation for a career

services

counseling, health services, library, job preparation

surgery, hearing tests, mapping, audiology

mapping, counseling, hearing tests, health services, library

language method

ASL and spoken language

therapy is spoken language and ASL

ASL and spoken language

special interest

art, movement and dance

preparation seminar prior to surgery, audiology and doctor

performing arts

through community pre-school

appointments following surgery connection with other patients through yearly events

through interpretation in the classroom

cochlear implant children are not the majority main focus is simply in playing

clinical setting not ideal for rehabilitation

cochlear implant students are not the majority whereas a deaf college is an important program, successful childhood development with an implant is vital

location targeted user

age group

environment

integration with the hearing

program conclusion

position paper

program study

sound study

program precedent

architectural precedent 42

site analysis

objectives

appendix

bibliography


position paper

program study

sound study

program precedent

Ch

ild

ho

od

Mi Hi ddle gh Sc & ho o S as

ium

Ea

rly

CC P mn Gy

is an all encompassing program that serves its members from birth to death. Starting with early childhood, the school continues through middle and high school, located across the campus. The CCPS program serves both alumni and outside visitors seeking more information about the school and the deaf community. The school has a rich history, both in the program of the school itself, dating back to ...., and in the architecture of the present school buildings. The historical architecture has prevented any desired changes to the campus, but alterations were performed by adding elements to make the building a continuous space. The spaces can be circulated through without needing to exit the building which, while useful at times, has created a maze of corridors, stairs, and rooms. The space is confusing and difficult for any visitor to be quickly oriented. Contrasting the condition of these merged historical buildings is the early childhood education building. Designed by a deaf architect, John Dickinson, this building has a simple design strategy in which there are wide and clear visual paths, both in the hallways and in the rooms, making the building easy to circulate. The childhood program is largely based upon play, making the playground outside one of the most visually interesting aspects. The user of the Deaf School has transformed over the past years, making it a educational facility for mostly deaf students with additional special needs. This exists in the middle and high school, but the childhood education does not necessarily experience this condition thus far. The children’s portion is comprised of half cochlear implant receivers and half deaf students, making an interesting mix between hearing and non-hearing students. As the child develops, the mix would most likely alter if students entered mainstream education.

l

Pennsylvania School for the Deaf

architectural precedent 43

site analysis

objectives

appendix

bibliography


Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia

seashore house : cochlear implant department

is one of the leading children’s hospitals in the nation. They perform between 50 and 60 cochlear implants per year and approximately 600 performed overall. They perform all preliminary check ups prior to surgery, host an expectation seminar for parents planning on surgery, perform the surgery, and provide continued care over the years with therapy sessions and mappings. The hospital’s primary role is a medical consultant, not a therapeutic or educational facilitator. While the staff is extremely knowledgable on all aspects of cochlear implants and provide many tips for parents through their examinations to determine progression of rehabilition, they do not provide the full extent of therapy necessary for a recipient. To examine where the patient is in their rehabilitation and to determine and adjust what they are hearing, various tactics are utilized. For children under 2 years old, classical conditioning is used with positive reinforcement in the form of a handheld toy is provided when a sound is heard. For children who are slightly older and beyond the fascination with small toys, conditioned play, “floor time”, is used instead. Here the child would wait, listen, then perform the action of play, such as throwing the ball into the bucket upon hearing the sound. This is all done to determine what sounds are heard and/or repeated through speech appropriately. The visual or tactile sense is always paired with a sound as a method of reinforcement. Surgeries are performed in the main section of the hospital, but all other appointments take place in the audiology department. The minimal number of rooms for tunings and therapy are located along a straight corridor, along with a staff office for approximately 30 staff members. Sound booths are located around the perimeter of an adjoining corridor.

position paper

program study

sound study

program precedent

therapy

observation room

tuning

3

1

2 sound booth

architectural precedent 44

site analysis

objectives

appendix

bibliography


1

Speech Therapy

child attains a “listening posture”, facing foward and waiting for sound to occur

2

child is aware of and can detect sound source

child receives positive reinforcement in the form of a puzzle piece

Sound Booth

child detects sound without being in a “listening posture” and shows his awareness by physical means, either looking up, widening eyes, etc.; auditory detection is reinforced with a visual, in this case a stuffed bear inside a box that lights up

3

Mapping

cochlear implant processor is removed from the child and attached through a wire to the computer

position paper

program study

sound study

processor is placed back on the sound are produced through the child while wired to the computer computer which then reads the nerves that fire to stimulate hearing

program precedent

architectural precedent 45

site analysis

objectives

the program is adjusted within the processor according to the judgements from the computer on what is heard or not heard appropriately appendix

bibliography


BERNHARD LEITNER

is a soundspace artist who designed architecture through sound to define a specific character, experience, and mood of a space through artificial and natural sounds. The sound was used as a tool to move people through a space or to create a full body experience. Leitner began his concept of sound spaces in 1968 and continued his multitude of experiments until 1998. His concept of sound involved the idea of sound as an actual architectural, form-producing material. Sound, and the movement of sound, was the material that formed the space rather than being a material within space. The spaces created were sequential, with a specified beginning and end, with changes occurring with daylight, periods of intensity of noise, and movement of people. Instead of the use of music, the explorations were performed with simple notes of sound to explore the true essence of sound. The focus of the sound spaces were on changing the depth of space rather than physical space. The forms designed to house the sound sources were simple because the generation of sound became the perceived boundary or axis. The purpose of the experiments was to help the participant meditate on self, create a correlation between self-perception and spatial perception, and create varying dimensions of space by concentrating on sound. The spaces create an intense focus which is necessary for a new perceptual experience. A person becomes woven into the coordinates of space to develop a relationship between sound, body, and space.

Leitner, Bernhard. Sound:Space. New York, NY: Distributed Art Publishers, Inc., 1998.

position paper

program study

sound study

program precedent

expansion/contraction

sound umbrella

sound stars

forming space

individual experience

cross body sound

experienced by movement

directing movement

speed - how fast/slow space is produced timbre - creating character pitch - changing pitch psychologically changes scale, dimension, quality of space intensity - low intensity is transparent boundary, high is massive/heavy wall boundary rhythm - sequence of spaces through lines of sound pause - interruption of space (creates spaceless situation) repetition - experience space again with new criteria, new experience architectural precedent 46

site analysis

objectives

appendix

sound chair

bibliography


sound cube

sound plaza

sound box

metal waves sound gate

water mirror sound corridor

position paper

program study

swinging space

sound study

program precedent

architectural precedent 47

site analysis

objectives

appendix

bibliography


PETER ZUMTHOR is an architect who designs with consideration for a phenomenological experience within space, inclusive of all the senses. His Swiss Sound Box for the 2000 Hanover Exposition began in 1997 with construction lasting from November 1999 through June 2000. The 50 by 50 meter box was 9 meters high and represented a place to rest and just be, a refuge for visitors amongst the stimuli of the exhibit as a whole. Sound was experienced through music played by a live band as the audience moved throughout spaces. Sound was the focal point which resonated through the giant, walk-in instrument in the form of a box. The intensity of the place was manipulated by the musicians, dictating the experience of the user. A light installation allowed for letters of light to be cast on the wooden beams, bringing out the grain of the wood and composition of the space. Words were inviting to read and influenced the user in their movements around the space. The project as a whole became a series of associations, between sound, movement, words, music, and architecture. The structure of the space was an open, labyrinth structure, permeable on all sides with interconnecteed passageways and interior spaces. Layers and layers of wood were pressed together with tension rods and steel springs with beams at ceiling level to connect the layered walls , making a rigid structure. Large galvanized gutters on the rood were part of the sounding body and rain played a role in the sound resonating through the spaces. “Moral Maze”. Architectural Review, Sept. 2000, v.208, n.1243, pg 50-53 “The Swiss Pavilion: Peter Zumthor”. Architecture, Aug. 2000, v.89, pg108 “Peter Zumthor: The Swiss Pavilion”. A+U, Sept. 2000, n.9 (360), pg 4-5, 30-35, 96-97

position paper

program study

sound study

program precedent

architectural precedent 48

site analysis

objectives

appendix

bibliography


position paper

program study

sound study

program precedent

architectural precedent 49

site analysis

objectives

appendix

bibliography


RICHARD SERRA’s provided a milestone in the history of the Guggenheim Museum Bilboa with his installation, The Matter of Time. Starting in the mid-1990’s, Serra created great architectural sculptures with psychological ambition. His curvilinear spaces are shown as ellipses, spirals, toruses, and spheres through which he establishes a dialogue between a large-scale work and its environment. The interaction of spectator within the art redefines the space and the viewer’s perspective within. The sculptural field is a coherent language in which the sculptures are not perceived as separate objects but a spatial continuum within their environment. Space is shaped through axes, trajectories, and passages through solid and void. The sculptures are given meaning through the rhythm of continuous and free-flowing movement of the viewer. The installation receives its name from the idea of multiple layered temporalities and the diversity in time between the various forms. The experience can be described as “internal, private, psychological, and aesthestic, on the one hand, and external, social, and public, on the other”. The art is focused on looking, walking, and experiencing through pieces. Each individual becomes the subject of the installation, but with a wide range of experiences within time, perceptually, emotionally, psychologically, and physically. The installation represents the discovery of a journey.

Foster, Hal, Carmen Gimenez, Kate D. Nesin, and Richard Serra. Richard Serra: The Matter of Time. Germany: Steidl Verlag, 2005. pg 9-15, 141

position paper

program study

sound study

program precedent

Intersection, 1992

The Matter of Time, Guggenheim Bilbao Museoa 1. Torqued Spiral, (Closed Open Closed Open Closed), 2003 2. Torqued Ellipse, 2003-04 3. Double Torqued Ellipse, 2003-04 4. Snake, 1994-97 5. Torqued Spiral, (Right Left), 2003-04 6. Torqued Spiral (Open Left Closed Right), 2003-04 7. Between the Torus and the Sphere, 2003-05

architectural precedent 50

site analysis

objectives

appendix

bibliography


The Matter of Time, Guggenheim Bilbao Museoa, 2005

The Matter of Time, Guggenheim Bilbao Museoa, 2005

position paper

program study

sound study

program precedent

architectural precedent 51

site analysis

objectives

appendix

bibliography


Times Square

MAX NEUHAUS

was a percussionist who designed sound installations for specific spaces using acoustic qualities and structural properties of the space as parameters. He also developed a series of drawings that relate to concepts of sounds. From his percussionist background, his focus was on sound timbre as he designed public sound works and artforms. For forty years he created works for various environments with permanent, temporary, and virtual spaces, plus numerous drawing exhibitions. His installations had no beginning or end and were placed in space rather than in time. One’s sense of place depends on what we hear and what we see. Neuhaus successfully built a new perception of place through sound. His Networks were virtual means of architecture promoting a self evolution of new music. Instead of a performance, a dialogue was created with sound as music was formed as an open, public, cultural event. Other works include: Public Supply (1966) - radio telephone network Radio Net (1977) - nationwide network with 190 stations Auracle - 24 hour global entity for sound integration over the internet Moment Works - sound works for communities that utilized cessation of sound to create periods of silence; time plus reflective moment

Walkthrough

Southwest Stairwell

“Max Neuhaus”. <http://www.max-neuhaus.info/ie.htm> 10.21.09

position paper

program study

sound study

program precedent

architectural precedent 52

site analysis

objectives

appendix

bibliography


Water Whistle

Auracle

Music Fan position paper

program study

sound study

program precedent

architectural precedent 53

site analysis

objectives

appendix

bibliography


54


Objectives: To design an appropriate learning environment for a cochlear implant patient To help visual learners implement methods of learning aurally To implement methods by which the senses help to inform an understanding of sound for the user To have a sense of comfort as one adapts to the concept of sound, language, and speech To develop a sense of place for this emerging culture To design an appropriate progression through architecture as a means of learning sound

position paper

program study

sound study

program precedent

architectural precedent 55

site analysis

objectives

appendix

bibliography


position paper

program study

sound study

program precedent

architectural precedent 56

site analysis

objectives

appendix

bibliography


position paper

program study

sound study

program precedent

architectural precedent 57

site analysis

objectives

appendix

bibliography


phenomenology

sound

architecture

David Egan (1988)

Christopher Alexander (A Pattern Language) (1977)

Peter Zumthor

Michael Benedikt (For an Architecture of Reality)

Steven Holl

W. J. Cavanaugh (Speech Privacy in Buildings) (1962)

Martin Heidegger (Building Dwelling Thinking) (Poetry, Language, Thought)

Tadao Ando

Christian Norberg-Schultz (1983, 1976)

Clark & Menefee Bob Hodas (Acoustics in Critical Listening Rooms)

Le Corbusier Peter Grueneisen studio bau:ton (2003)

Duncan Templeton (1986)

Steen Eiler Rasmussen (Experiencing Architecture)

Edmund Husserl (Transcendental Phenomenology)

Peter Waldman Robert Venturi (Complexity & Contradiction)

Merleau-Ponty (Pheonomenology of Perception) (The Visible and Invisible)

Vittorio Gregotti Juhani Pallasmaa

Gaston Bachelard (Poetics of Space)

Alvar Aalto

Peter Lord (1986)

literature Louis Kahn

David Saunders

Frank Lloyd Wright Carlo Scarpa

urban planning Alfred Hitchcock

Kevin Lynch (The Image of the City)

Junichiro Tanizaki (In Praise of Shadows)

Peter Mapp Peter Sacre

Luis Barragan

Walter Ong (Orality and Literature)

Glen Murcutt

Italo Calvino (Invisible Cities, 1972)

art/sculpture Richard Serra

Andrei Tarkovski

Louise Bourgeois

Orson Welles (The Third Man)

position paper

program study

William Carlos Williams (The Hard Core of Beauty) Peter Handke Edward Hall (The Silent Language, 1959) (The Hidden Dimension,1966)

Edward Hopper

sound study

program precedent

architectural precedent 58

site analysis

objectives

appendix

bibliography


position paper program study sound study program precedent architectural precedent 59 site analysis objectives appendix bibliography

John Burkey (Overcoming Hearing Aid Fears, 2003)

Glen Murcutt

Luis Barragan

Carlo Scarpa

Frank Lloyd Wright

Louis Kahn

Steen Eiler Rasmussen (Experiencing Architecture)

Mies Van Der Rohe

Le Corbusier

Renzo Piano

Michael Benedikt (For an Architecture of Reality)

Christopher Alexander (A Pattern Language, 1964,1977)

architecture

Alvar Aalto

Juhani Pallasmaa

Vittorio Gregotti

Robert Venturi (Complexity & Contradiction)

Peter Waldman

Clark & Menefee

Steven Holl

Tadao Ando

Peter Zumthor

architecture for the senses

Peter Grueneisen studio bau:ton (2003)

Bernhard Leitner (1968 - 1996)

Carol Padden & Tom Humphries (Inside Deaf Culture, 2005)

(Hearing Disorders)

architecture for sound

deafness

Nathan Seppa (Beyond Hearing, 2005)

Robert Shannon (Speech Pattern Recognition)

David Sindrey (â&#x20AC;?Hearing Journeyâ&#x20AC;?)

Advanced Bionics

Beverley Biderman (Journey Into Hearing, 1998)

Patricia Chute & Mary Ellen Nevins (2002)

Estelle Goldsmith (CHOP)

cochlear implants

Adeline McClatchie and Mary Kay Therres (AuSpLan)

communication therapy

acoustics

Kevin Lynch (The Image of the City)

urban planning

Gaston Bachelard (Poetics of Space)

Merleau-Ponty (Pheonomenology of Perception) (The Visible and Invisible)

Edmund Husserl (Transcendental Phenomenology)

Christian Norberg-Schultz (1983, 1976)

Martin Heidegger (Building Dwelling Thinking) (Poetry, Language, Thought)

phenomenology

Peter Sacre

Peter Mapp

David Saunders

Duncan Templeton and Peter Lord (Architecture of Sound, 1986)

(Room Acoustics, 2000)

Armstrong Techline (Quiet in the Classroom, 2005)

Bob Hodas (Acoustics in Critical Listening Rooms)

Hale Sabine (Less Noise, Better Hearing, 1941)

W. J. Cavanaugh (Speech Privacy in Buildings) (1962)

David Egan (1988)

Emily Thompson (Architectural Acoustics and the Culture of Listening in America, 2002)

1673)

Edward Hopper

Louise Bourgeois

Richard Serra

art/sculpture

Edward Hall (The Silent Language, 1959) (The Hidden Dimension,1966)

Peter Handke

William Carlos Williams (The Hard Core of Beauty)

Italo Calvino (Invisible Cities, 1972)

Walter Ong (Orality and Literature)

Junichiro Tanizaki (In Praise of Shadows)

Alfred Hitchcock

literature

Andreas Engel (Thesis: Brain and Form)

Anthanasius Kircher

physical science

Mark Steven Johnson (Daredevil, 2003)

Orson Welles (The Third Man)

Andrei Tarkovski


Hearing Culture

Deaf Culture

vocal: call someone’s name say “excuse me”...

visual or tactile attention: tap person, wave, flash lights, bang desk

use voice to distinguish questions, statements, commands

use facial expression to ditinguish Y/N questions from WHY questions; also for intensity of emotion

privacy

tend to be private about lives; have ability to whisper to keep information private

difficult to be private in Deaf Community; hard to “whisper”

eye contact

limited eye contact because it can be viewed as “aggressive” or “intimate”

eye contact is integral to communication

taught not to squirm or move too much

movement is important aspect of communication

pointing

pointing is considered rude

pointing is a part of ASL; all pronouns are designated be pointing, as are words like “this” and “it”

touching

generally don’t touch others

touching is more accepted and natural

noise

aware of making noise, and when not socially acceptable

may be unaware they are making noise

being direct

aim to be polite; socially acceptable comments

often direct, sometime to the point of being blunt or inadvertently offensive

proximity

converse at a distance of one or two feet

can communicate from further distances with signing

*courtesy of Pennsylvania School for the Deaf

getting attention

intonation

movement, use of body

position paper

program study

sound study

program precedent

architectural precedent 60

site analysis

objectives

appendix

bibliography


Pattern Language derived through function product of a building feeling and experience of space not just beauty of form

Touch extension of all sensory systems sensation to spatial depth requires intimacy all of equal weight in a space perceive in totality allow us to be informed about world

representation of human existence spatial experience relationship within space being at peace in a protected place

Development Process

natural evolvement of things essence of things relationship among parts

Function

Form

scale of systems nature of things & nature of humans understandable system of design

not aesthetics human existence

Communicative Power Architectural History

Dwelling

Senses

Phenomenology

Solutions

few issues without solutions approach issues of our time recreate the missing

Sound closeness incorporates omnidirectional darkness architecture response measures space

Sight distance isolates directional light no architecture response

physically experienced through place

Environment

Place formed through architecture gives environment physical locality gives environment substance to materials

Comfort

obvious, not forced by architecture

Adaptation

Experience

from deafness to sound

Deaf Culture

Sound

Essence

Structure

of things realistic, not abstract derive from material & quality of material

boundary thresholds paths edges nodes

Organization

Character

program study

sound study

program precedent

Downfall

lack of motivation advancement of technology lack of need

Regeneration physical locality within space understand sound to understand function

position paper

previously: deaf theaters, clubs, institutions

presentation of world function of time

architectural precedent 61

site analysis

demand for new â&#x20AC;&#x153;placeâ&#x20AC;? new ability to hear new needs new environment for learning spoken language vs. sign language

objectives

appendix

bibliography


SO

PROBLEM

Regenera

Deaf Culture ABOUT

deman new ab new n new en spoken

previously: deaf theaters, clubs, institutions

Downfall lack of motivation advancement of technology lack of need

not aesthetics human existence

Development Process natural evolvement of things essence of things relationship among parts

Communicative Power representation of human existence spatial experience

Phenomenological Architecture

Pattern Language

Architectural Solutions

scale of systems nature of things & nature of huma understandable system of design

few issues without solutions approach issues of our time

Essence of things realistic, not abstract derive from material & quality of material

recreate the missing

Place

derived through functio product of a building

Structure

formed through architecture gives environment physical locality gives environment substance to materials

Environment

Form

boundary thresholds paths edges nodes

feeling and experience o not just beauty of form

physically experienced through place

Function Character presentation of world function of time

Dwelling relationship within space being at peace in a protected place

Organization Experience obvious, not forced by architecture

position paper

program study

sound study

program precedent

architectural precedent 62

site analysis

objectives

appendix

bibliography


OLUTION

ation

nd for new â&#x20AC;&#x153;placeâ&#x20AC;? bility to hear eeds nvironment for learning n language vs. sign language

Touch extension of all sensory systems sensation to spatial depth requires intimacy

ns

Senses

Comfort Adaptation from deafness to sound

on

Sound

all of equal weight in a space perceive in totality allow us to be informed about world

of space

closeness incorporates omnidirectional darkness architecture response measures space

Sight distance isolates directional light no architecture response

position paper

program study

sound study

program precedent

architectural precedent 63

site analysis

objectives

appendix

bibliography


Phenomenological Architecture ABOUT

not aesthetics human existence

Communicative Power representation of human existence spatial experience

Architectural Solutions PROBLEM

few issues without solutions approach issues of our time

SOLUTION

Deaf Culture

Regeneration

previously: deaf theaters, clubs, institutions

Downfall lack of motivation advancement of technology lack of need

recreate the missing

demand for new â&#x20AC;&#x153;placeâ&#x20AC;? new ability to hear new needs new environment for learning spoken language vs. sign language

Development Process natural evolvement of things essence of things relationship among parts

Place

THESIS

formed through architecture gives environment physical locality gives environment substance to materials

adaptation to and comfort with sound

Environment physically experienced through place

Dwelling relationship within space being at peace in a protected place

Experience obvious, not forced by architecture

Pattern Language

position paper

program study

sound study

program precedent

architectural precedent 64

site analysis

scale of systems nature of things & nature of humans understandable system of design objectives appendix bibliography


Touch extension of all sensory systems sensation to spatial depth requires intimacy

Essence

Form

of things realistic, not abstract derive from material & quality of material

Senses

derived through function product of a building feeling and experience of space not just beauty of form

Sound

all of equal weight in a space perceive in totality allow us to be informed about world

Structure boundary thresholds paths edges nodes

Character

Function

Sight

Organization

presentation of world function of time

position paper

closeness incorporates omnidirectional darkness architecture response measures space

distance isolates directional light no architecture response

program study

sound study

program precedent

architectural precedent 65

site analysis

objectives

appendix

bibliography


Advanced Bionics Corporation. “Hearing Journey”. <http://www.hearingjourney.com> Copyright 2007. 8.24.09 Alexander, Christopher, Sara Ishikawa, and Murray Silverstein. A Pattern Language. New York: Oxford University Press, 1977. Armstrong Techline. “Quiet in the Classroom: Acoustics for Learning Environments”. Lancaster, PA: Armstrong World Industries, 2005. Biderman, Beverly. A Journey Into Hearing: Wired for Sound. Toronto, Canada:Trifolium Books, Inc., 1998. Blesser, Barry and Linda-Ruth Salter. Spaces Speak, Are You Listening? Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2007. Cavanaugh, William and Joseph A. Wilkes. Architectural Acoustics: Principles and Practice. New York: John Wiley, 1999. “Education Information and Resources”. Philadelphia: The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, 2009. “The Center for Community and Professional Services”. Pennsylvania School for the Deaf, Philadelphia. 11/5/09 Chute, Patricia and Mary Ellen Nevins. The Parents’ Guide to Cochlear Implants. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press, 2002. Egan, M. David. Architectural Acoustics. McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1988. Foster, Hal, Carmen Gimenez, Kate D. Nesin, and Richard Serra. Richard Serra: The Matter of Time. Germany: Steidl Verlag, 2005. pg 9-15, 141 “General Information”. Pennsylvania School for the Deaf, Philadelphia. PSD Board Approved August 2003. Goldsmith, Estelle. Lecture: “Parent and Professional Education Seminar”. The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia. 20 Aug. 2009. Griffith, Andrew J. “Hearing Disorders”. AccessScience@McGraw-Hill. <http://www.accessscience.com> DOI 10.1036/1097-8542.YB050800 Grueneisen, Peter. Soundspace: Architecture for Sound and Vision. Basel, Switzerland: Birkhauser Publishers, 2003. Harris, Cyril M. and Vern O. Knudsen. Acoustical Designing in Architecture. Acoustical Society of America, 1950, 1978. Leitner, Bernhard. Sound:Space. New York, NY: Distributed Art Publishers, Inc., 1998.

position paper

program study

sound study

program precedent

architectural precedent 66

site analysis

objectives

appendix

bibliography


Lord, Peter and Duncan Templeton. Architecture of Sound. London: Architectural Press Limited, 1986. “Max Neuhaus”. <http://www.max-neuhaus.info/ie.htm> 10.21.09 McAdams, Stephen and Emmanuel Bigand. Thinking in Sound: The Cognitive Psychology of Human Audition. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. McClatchie, Adeline and MaryKay Therres. “AuSpLan: Auditory Speech Language”. Washington D.C.: AG Bell, 2003. Miceli, Marsha. Guided tour. Pennsylvania School for the Deaf, Philadelphia. 5 Nov. 2009. Moore, Brian. An Introduction to the Psychology of Leaerning. Fifth Edition. San Diego, California: Elsevier Science, Academic Press, 2003. Norberg-Schultz, Christian. “Heidegger’s Thinking on Architecture”. 1983. Theorizing a New Agenda for Architecture. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1996. 429-439 Norberg-Schultz, Christian. “Phenomenon of Place”. 1976. Theorizing a New Agenda for Architecture. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1996. 412-428 Padden, Carol, and Tom Humpries. Inside Deaf Culture. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2005. Pallasmaa, Juhani. The Eyes of the Skin. Ontario, Canada: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 2005. Pallasmaa, Juhani. “The Geometry of Feeling: A Look at the Phenomenology of Architecture”. 1986. Theorizing a New Agenda for Architecture. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1996. 447-453 “Peter Zumthor: The Swiss Pavilion”. A+U, Sept. 2000, n.9 (360), pg 4-5, 30-35, 96-97 Sabine, Hale I. Less Noise, Better Hearing. Chicago: Celotex Corp., 1941 Schreiber, Linda. “Interview with Dave Sindrey”. 12 Dec 2007. <www.speechpathology.com/interview/interview_detail.asp?interview_id=1114> 8.24.09 Seppa, Nathan. “Beyond Hearing: Cochlear Implants Work Best When Given Early”. Science News, Vol. 168, No. 24, December 10, 2005, p. 371. Ac-

position paper

program study

sound study

program precedent

architectural precedent 67

site analysis

objectives

appendix

bibliography


cessScience@McGraw-Hill, © The McGraw-Hill Companies 2000-2005 Shannon, Robert V. “Speech pattern recognition”. AccessScience@McGraw-Hill. <http://www.accessscience.com> DOI 10.1036/1097-8542. YB020850 Zumthor, Peter. Atmospheres. Basel, Switzerland: Birkhauser Publishers, 2003. “Moral Maze”. Architectural Review, Sept. 2000, v.208, n.1243, pg 50-53 “The Swiss Pavilion: Peter Zumthor”. Architecture, Aug. 2000, v.89, pg108 Zumthor, Peter. Thermal Baths at Vals. London: Architectural Association, 1996. Zumthor, Peter. Thinking Architecture. Basel, Switzerland: Birkhauser Publishers, 2005. Zumthor, Peter. Three Concepts. Basel, Switzerland: Birkhauser Publishers, 1997.

position paper

program study

sound study

program precedent

architectural precedent 68

site analysis

objectives

appendix

bibliography


Table of Contents: Part II Site Analysis and Documentation..........70 Neighborhood Location Site Selection Mass Transit Zoning Information Site Context Decibel Levels Site Images Site Experience

Design Development..........83 Sound Activity Studies Parti Diagrams Parti Models Design Sketches Mid-Crit Model

Final Design Documentation..........94 Site Plan Floor Plans Sections Auditory Stages Renderings Model Images

Project Conclusion..........124

69


Delaware River

Schuylkill River

Site Location

76

676

676

University City

76

76

Neighborhood Location

site analysis

design development

final documentation 70

project conclusion


Annenberg Performance Center

UPenn Music Department

30th Street Station

36th and Sansom

76

The location within University City, on the corner of 36th and Sansom Street, was chosen primarily for its close proximity to several institutions. The educational, cultural, and artistic aspects of UPenn, the Institute of Contemporary Art, and the Annenberg Performance Center all offer an appropriate and enriching environment. The site is in close proximity to CHOP with the intention of keeping the hospital staff as the main medical facilitators for the patients at the Cochlear Implant Rehabilitation Center.

76

76

Site Selection Childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Hospital of Philadelphia

site analysis

design development

final documentation 71

project conclusion


LUCY Gold Loop

M

LUCY Green Loop

M

M

Metro Stop Site Location

M

M

Mass Transit site analysis

design development

final documentation 72

project conclusion


Institutional Development District Commercial Residential Industrial Site Location

Zoning site analysis

design development

final documentation 73

project conclusion


Site Context

site analysis

design development

final documentation 74

project conclusion


Friday [6:00 pm]

Thursday [2:30 pm]

Wednesday [4:00 pm]

Tuesday [8:30 am]

Monday [9:30 am]

Sunday [2:00 pm] 1 Range 69-72 Average 70.5

1

68-75 71.5

72-75 64-101 70-85 77.5 82.5 73.5

71-87 79

54-77 65.5

50-79 64.5

61-78 69.5

72-75 73.5

73-82 77.5

75-79 77

68-78 73

75-79 77.5

74-82 78

70-73 71.5

68-73 70.5

69-86 77.5

66-75 70.5

66-81 73.5

61-73 67

67-70 68.5

75-81 78

70-74 72

69-78 73.5

71-76 73.5

70-76 73

66-78 72

71-73 72

70-80 75

70-80 75

70-74 72

63-75 69

71-74 72.5

70-76 73

68-71 69.5

-

69-73 71

74-76 75

59-77 68

68-72 70

2 Range 75-81 Average 78 3 Range 72-77 Average 74.5

8

4

6

Range 70-81 Average 75.5

7 2 5

5 Range 67-73 Average 70 6

3

Range 72-75 Average 73.5 7

4

Range 67-72 Average 69.5 8 Range Average

site analysis

design development

final documentation 75

-

project conclusion

Decibel Levels


site analysis

design development

final documentation 76

project conclusion


Site Experience site analysis

design development

final documentation 77

project conclusion


Initial concept models which represent a progression toward complexity with visual obstructions

site analysis

design development

final documentation 78

project conclusion


Explorations into interactive tunnel spaces at the scale of a child

site analysis

design development

final documentation 79

project conclusion


Further study on tunnel spaces

site analysis

design development

final documentation 80

project conclusion


Initial studies for sound activities that eliminate visual reinforcement and act as â&#x20AC;&#x153;hide and go seekâ&#x20AC;? for sound

site analysis

design development

final documentation 81

project conclusion


Schematic design for ribbon technique and its ability to gradually change acoustical qualities of the space

site analysis

design development

final documentation 82

project conclusion


Initial parti diagrams to show location of spaces on the site

site analysis

design development

final documentation 83

project conclusion


Design development of tube structures and their location in space

site analysis

design development

final documentation 84

project conclusion


site analysis

design development

final documentation 85

project conclusion


Parti studies that examine location of spaces on the site with regard to visual and auditory conditions

site analysis

design development

final documentation 86

project conclusion


site analysis

design development

final documentation 87

project conclusion


site analysis

design development

final documentation 88

project conclusion


site analysis

design development

final documentation 89

project conclusion


Sketches showing ideas on how the complexity and activities within the stages progress

site analysis

design development

final documentation 90

project conclusion


Sectional progression of the space showing the relationship between therapy spaces and the performance area with consideration for how the space is altered approximately every 10 feet

site analysis

design development

final documentation 91

project conclusion


site analysis

design development

final documentation 92

project conclusion


Model at mid-crit

site analysis

design development

final documentation 93

project conclusion


WALNUT STREET

SANSOM STREET

36th STREET Site Plan

site analysis

design development

final documentation 94

project conclusion


Section

Section

C

A

Elev. Conference Room

Mechanical/ Storage

Section

SANSOM STREET

Administration

Section

B

Section

Section

C

First Floor Level 1’ 3’-0”

36th STREET

site analysis

design development

final documentation 95

project conclusion

5’-0”

10’-0”

B

A


Section

Section

C

A

Elev.

Resource Library/Lounge

Section

Resource Library/Lounge

Section

B

Section

Section

C

Second Floor Level 1’ 3’-0”

site analysis

design development

final documentation 96

project conclusion

5’-0”

10’-0”

B

A


Section

Section

C

A

Stage 2 Stage 1

Elev.

Section

Speech Therapy

Speech Therapy

Speech Therapy

Section

B

Section

Section

C

Third Floor Level 1’ 3’-0”

site analysis

design development

final documentation 97

project conclusion

5’-0”

10’-0”

B

A


Sansom Street

36th Street

Section A 1’ 3’-0” 5’-0”

site analysis

design development

final documentation 98

project conclusion

10’-0”


Sansom Street

Section B 36th Street

site analysis

design development

final documentation 99

project conclusion

1’ 3’-0” 5’-0”

10’-0”


100


36th Street

Section C

Sansom Street

1’ 3’-0” 5’-0”

site analysis

design development

final documentation 101

project conclusion

10’-0”


site analysis

design development

final documentation 102

project conclusion


site analysis

design development

final documentation 103

project conclusion


site analysis

design development

final documentation 104

project conclusion


site analysis

design development

final documentation 105

project conclusion


site analysis

design development

final documentation 106

project conclusion


site analysis

design development

final documentation 107

project conclusion


site analysis

design development

final documentation 108

project conclusion


site analysis

design development

final documentation 109

project conclusion


site analysis

design development

final documentation 110

project conclusion


site analysis

design development

final documentation 111

project conclusion


site analysis

design development

final documentation 112

project conclusion


site analysis

design development

final documentation 113

project conclusion


site analysis

design development

final documentation 114

project conclusion


site analysis

design development

final documentation 115

project conclusion


site analysis

design development

final documentation 116

project conclusion


site analysis

design development

final documentation 117

project conclusion


site analysis

design development

final documentation 118

project conclusion


site analysis

design development

final documentation 119

project conclusion


site analysis

design development

final documentation 120

project conclusion


site analysis

design development

final documentation 121

project conclusion


Summary and Conclusion For my thesis project, I designed a cochlear implant rehabilitation center, focusing on children between one and eight years old. The age range chosen was based on the likelihood of acquiring an implant at an early age and the most effective time period for learning the necessary skills. In order for a deaf child to advance their auditory skills after implantation to that of their hearing peers, an intense speech, language, and auditory skills therapy is required, and usually occurs three times per week for about three years. In Philadelphia, surgery and follow-up appointments for cochlear implants occur at the Childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Hospital of Philadelphia in University City. The role of CHOP as a medical facilitator and their close knit team of doctors and therapists became a factor in the selection of a site. The program and design of my thesis was intended to accompany and enhance the program at CHOP, and support the childâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s progression through the auditory stages which are outlined and followed by CHOP. Through my research and observations, the most important factors in designing the project were to follow the logistical requirements of the auditory stages and the emotional needs of the child as they adapt and transition to a world of sound. To accommodate these needs, I developed a program that combined sound activities and music

site analysis

design development

final documentation 122

project conclusion


therapy as a way to learn and understand concepts of sound. Emotionally, the child needs a sense of comfort, routine, and dedication from their parent. To provide a sense of routine, the child and parent circulate through the performance area in the building upon each visit. The area is a vast open space occupied by a seating system joined with ramps, allowing for access to the beginning therapy stages at the top. In the first stage, DETECTION, the child is accompanied by the parent to provide a sense of comfort in the new environment. The parent is taught how to play an instrument while the child watches, alleviating the pressure on the child and allowing them to start visually connecting the movements with the sounds being produced. The small, controlled space supports the level of therapy occurring. After these therapy activities occur for a couple weeks, the child and parent move to the next space. The second stage, DISCRIMINATION, includes a second instrument with which activities can be performed. The child would develop skills in discriminating between the instruments, with and without visual reinforcement, and between notes on the instrument. Compared to the first stage, this space is slightly larger in order to accommodate the additional instrument and to introduce a gradual progression towards a complex acoustic environment. The initial stages enforce the concept of learning how to listen which is supported by an

site analysis

design development

final documentation 123

project conclusion


ideal listening environment that is controlled and intimate with small acoustic arenas. After establishing a relationship with the therapist, a routine for circulating through the building and an initial introduction to sound, socialization becomes possible. In the third and fourth stages, IDENTIFICATION and COMPREHENSION, the parent separates from the child during therapy and the child has therapy with two or three other children. Stage three and four, combined in a large space with a wide, shallow sloping ramp, utilize a series of tube like structures to talk into and represent sound visually. The structures have an input and output for sound and become a fun sound activity that would help stimulate speech and encourage listening. The starting point of the tube determines its individual color shade and can be understood at its end because of the length it travels. The tubes exist as a system running the length of the space, but also as a system that transverse the shift between large and small volumes that are progressively formed. Overall, the tubes function as a method to break down the visual reinforcement by which the children often rely and to have fun speaking and listening. The third and fourth stages highly encourage interaction among the children, consequently making it a complex acoustical environment concerning background noise and reverberation. As these spaces are

site analysis

design development

final documentation 124

project conclusion


visited most often, it remains a dynamic space that can constantly be discovered and allow the children to fine tune their auditory skills. The conclusion of the therapy program is in a childâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s final musical performance. The performance is conducted with several peers and demonstrates the childâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s full comprehension of sound. This thesis explores how architecture is able to support and enhance sound therapy by enabling an experience and allowing for various levels of freedom or control. The program provides for the psychological and emotional needs of a child transitioning and adapting to sound.

site analysis

design development

final documentation 125

project conclusion

Architectural Thesis: from Silence to Sound  

With the advancement of technology and the subsequent decline of deaf culture, a transformation has occurred, revealing a need for a new pla...

Architectural Thesis: from Silence to Sound  

With the advancement of technology and the subsequent decline of deaf culture, a transformation has occurred, revealing a need for a new pla...

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