Issuu on Google+

HISTORY OF CHICAGO

Lauren Hanson

Photograph: http:// www.rantlifestyle.com/ 2014/01/20/21-thingsnobody-tells-movingchicago/


Preface

My name is Lauren Hanson and this ebook will be discussing the different periods of growth in Chicago, Illinois. This ebook is meant to target fourth grade students learning social studies and history of Chicago. There are many interactive resources in this ebook involving short quizzes on different chapters, and also a short quiz at the end of the ebook reviewing key information discussed. Also there will be videos throughout the ebook discussing and informing different information.

Photograph: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chicago


Overview of Chicago Chicago, being the third most populated city in the United States, contains approximately 2.7 million residents and is just after Los Angeles and New York City. Sometimes called the “Chicagoland”, which includes the beautiful suburbs of Chicago, is home to 9.5 million people. Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 and experienced rapid growth in the mid-nineteenth century. Chicago contains the second-busiest airport in the world called O’Hare airport and also contains the largest number of U.S highways and railroad freights entering the region.

Photographs: http://www.urbansplatter.com/ chicago-architecture-yorkarchitecture/ http://yochicago.com/anupdated-rental-service-do-notcall-list/28563/

ii

Country: United States State: Illinois Counties: Cook, DuPage Settled: 1770s Incorporated: March 4th, 1837 Government Type: Mayor-council Mayor: Rahm Emanuel Population (2010) City: 234.0 sq. mi (606.1 km2) Rank: 3rd US Density: 11,864.4/sq. mi (4,447.4/km2) Metro: 9,522,434


Chapter 1

Beginnings

Photographs: http://www.aroundtheworldineightyyears.com/touring-chicagos-ethnic-neighborhoods/ http://www.lurvely.com/photo/5079705503/Old_Time_Chicago/ http://www.negative-g.com/old-chicago-amusement-park/old-chicago-amusement-park-my-memories.htm


Quick Fact!

SECTION 1 O R I G I N O F “ C H I C AG O ”

Robert de LaSalle was the first person to reference the city of Chicago as “Checagou” in 1679. He wrote this name in a memoir written about his adventures. Henri Joutel also wrote in his journal of 1688 that the wild garlic, referenced as “chicagoua” grew abundantly all over.

THE ONION!

The name Chicago was derived from a Native American word that translates into “wild onion” or “wild garlic” ❖ Today Chicago has a residential news paper called “the Onion” as seen above in the photo. ❖

Photographs: http://www.theguardian.com/technology/blog/2013/sep/06/technology-links-newsbucket http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/René-Robert_Cavelier,_Sieur_de_La_Salle

4


SECTION 2

Native Groups and People to Chicago

The Native Americans named the city after the wild onions and garlic that grew all over which translates into “shikaakwa�. This name came about by the Native Americans during the mid-18th Century which was inhabited by the Native American tribe called the Potawatomi. This tribe has taken the place of the Miami, Sauk, and the Fox peoples which were other tribes. During the 1780s Chicago saw the first arrival of a nonindigenous permanent settler named Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable was of African and European (french) descent.

tary post. This land was handed over by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. This area was turned into Fort Dearborn which was destroyed in the War of 1812, Battle of Fort Dearborn. Although Fort Dearborn was destroyed, it was later rebuilt by the United States Army. Following the rebuilding, the Ottawa, Ojibwe, and the Potawatomi tribes gave land over to the United States in accordance with the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis. The Native American tribes did a lot for our land and were very cooperative, until around 1833 when the Potawatomi were eventually forcibly removed from the land over the Treaty of Chicago.

Following short after the Northwest Indian War in 1795, there was land handed over to the United States for a mili-

Photograph: http://lincoln.lib.niu.edu/fimage/lincolnimages/Colbertfronti.jpg

5


Chapter 1 Quiz Review 1.1 Question 1 Where did the name “Chicago” originate from?

A. Native Americans B. Russians C. Europeans D. Jean Baptiste Point du Sable

Check Answer

Review 1.2 Question 2 What is the newspaper called that got its name from the history of the city of Chicago?

A. The Weed B. The Onion C. The Garlic

Review 1.3 Question 3 True or False: The Ojibwe were forced off of the land because of the Treaty of Chicago

A. True B. False

D. The Onion Times

Check Answer

6

Check Answer


Chapter 2

Early Founding and the 19th Century

Photographs http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Chicago_Fire http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fort_Dearborn


SECTION 1

Movie 2.1

Population

Corner of Madison and State Street, Chicago July 31st 1897 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chicago MADISON AND STATE ❖

Madison and State streets, were always and still are very busy streets.

The population numbers of Chicago may sound big, but until you experience the crazy amounts of people you really put the numbers into context!

In the early time periods for Chicago, on August 12, 1833 the Town of Chicago’s population was around 200 people. Chicago was one of the most rapid growing places when it came to population. Within seven years the population dramatically increased to a population of over 4,000 people. The city of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837 and went on to become the worlds fastest growing city in the world for decades to follow.

8


SECTION 2

Chicago Fire The Great Chicago Fire broke out in 1871 from a cow kicking over a lamp in a barn. This massive fire destroyed an area of about 4 miles long and 1 mile wide, which was a very large section of the city at the time. Much of Chicago survived, including railroads, and stockyards. Most of Chicago including some streets, sidewalks, bridges, and buildings were wooden structures which arose and spread most of the

fire. Most of the city was being updated with stone and steel, there was much construction taking place, but the wooden remains were still present. During the rebuilding period, Chicago constructed the worlds biggest and first skyscraper. This was built in 1885 with something called a “steelskeleton construction�

Photographs: http://www.worldfootprints.com/news-byte/today-history-great-chicago-fire-oct-8-1871 http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:View_after_the_Chicago_fire,_by_Lovejoy_%26_Foster.png

9


SECTION 3

Economy and Politics Economy

Politics

Chicago’s flourishing economy attracted high numbers of new people and new immigrants from all over. There were immigrants mostly from Europe and new people form Eastern United States. Of the total population in 1900 no less than 77% were foreign-born, or born in the United States of foreign parentage. There were immigrants descending from Germans, Irish, Poland, Sweeten and Czechlavachia. These immigrants made up nearly two-thirds of the foreign-born population (by 1900, whites were 98.1% of the city's population.

Chicago has the third largest gross metropolitan product in the United States. This is approximately $532 billions according to the 2012 estimates. New York City and Los Angeles of course are in the first and second place, respectively. The city of Chicago has also been rated as having the most balanced economy in the United States, due to its high level of diversification. Chicago was named the fourth most important business center in the world in the MasterCard Worldwide Centers of Commerce Index and is a major world financial center, with the second largest central business district in the United States.

Labor conflicts followed the industrial boom and the rapid expansion of the labor pool, including the haymarket affair on May 4, 1886. Concern for social problems among Chicago's immigrant poor led Jane Addams to co-found Hull House in 1889.[50] Programs developed there became a model for the new field of social work.

Photographs: http://trivedideep.deviantart.com/art/ Busy-Chicago-69680821

10


SECTION 4

Movie 2.2 Worlds Columbian Exposition

Worlds Columbian Exposition

The Worlds Columbian Fair was a point in time where people can sit back and relax from the tough times recently passed. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dXmsRfDTjyA

YOUTUBE VIDEO

The world fair was a huge image change for Chicago. This fair “defined” the future of Chicago ❖ The Worlds Columbian Exposition was considered a “rising from the ashes” from the Chicago fire occurring as well as the war. ❖

The World’s Columbian Exposition, also known as the Columbian Exposition or The Chicago Worlds Fair for short, was in 1893 and celebrated the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbus’ arrival in the 1492. The centerpiece of the Fair, the large water pool, represented the long trip and adventures that Columbus took to the New World. The fair was a very influential social and mostly cultural event. This fail also had a profound effect on many things in Chicago. It effected the architecture, sanitation, the arts, Chicago’s self-image, and American Industrialization. The Chicago Columbian Exposition was, in large, designed by Daniel Burnham and Frederick Law Olmsted. It was the prototype of what Burnham and his colleagues thought a city should be. It was designed to follow Beaux Arts principles of design, namely French neoclassical architecture principles based on symmetry, balance, and splendor. 11


Review 2.1 Question 1 How many tickets were sold to the Worlds Columbian Exposition? How many participants form other countries?

A. 22 Million Tickets; 30 Million Other Countries B. 20 Million Tickets; 20 Million Other Countries C. 27 Million Tickets; 40 Million Other Countries D. 37 Million Tickets; 44 Million Other Countries

Chapter 2 Quiz Review 2.2 Question 2 When was the Haymarket Affair?

A. May 14, 1886 B. May 4, 1886 C. March 4, 1886

Review 2.3 Question 3 How much land did the massive Chicago Fire destroy?

A. 5 miles long and 5 mile wide B. 5 miles long and 1 mile wide C. 1 miles long and 4

D. May 4, 1896 D. 4 miles long and 1

Check Answer

Check Answer

12

Check Answer


Chapter 3

20th and 21st Centuries

Photographs: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chicago


SECTION 1

World War 1 and the Industry The World War I period and the 1920s saw a major expansion in industry. The availability of jobs attracted African Americans from the Southern United States. Between 1910 and 1930, the black population of Chicago dramatically grew from 44,103 to an astounding 233,903. Arriving in groups of hundreds and thousands during the Great Migration, the newcomers had a huge cultural impact, called the Chicago Black Renaissance, part of the New Negro Movement, in art, literature, and music. The ratification of the 18th amendment to the Constitution in 1919 made the production and sale (including exportation) of alcoholic beverages illegal in the United States. This ushered in the beginning of what is known as the Gangster Era, a time that roughly spans from 1919 until 1933 when the Prohibition was repealed.

Photograph: http://www.chicagohs.org/history/stock.html

14


Chapter 3 Quiz Review 3.2 Question 2

Review 3.1 Question 1 When was prohibition repealed?

What did the availability of jobs do in the 1920’s?

A. Increased sales A. 1920

B. Attracted immigrants

B. 1930

C. Attracted African Americans from the South

C. 1933 D. 1919

D. Attracted farmers from the South Check Answer

Check Answer

15


Chapter 4

Other Characteristics of Chicago

Photographs: http://sportsmockery.com/best-chicago-sports-song-vote-4840/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chicago http://amazingribs.com/recipes/beef/italian_beef.html\


Climate, Demographics, Religion, and Tourism Climate: The city experiences four distinct seasons. Summers are hot and humid, with a July daily average of 75.8 °F (24.3 °C). In a normal summer, temperatures exceed 90 °F (32 °C) on 21 days. Winters are cold and snowy with few sunny days, and with a January daytime average high of 27 °F (−2.8 °C). Spring and autumn are mild seasons with low humidity. According to the National Weather Service, Chicago's highest official temperature reading of 106 °F (41 °C) was recorded on July 24, 1934, although an unofficial reading of 109 °F (43 °C) was also recorded at Midway Airport during that month. The lowest temperature of −27 °F (−33 °C) was recorded on January 20, 1985, at O'Hare Airport. The city can experience extreme winter cold waves and summer heat waves that may last for several consecutive days. There are also many mild winter and summer days. Thunderstorms are not uncommon during the spring and summer months which may sometimes produce hail, high winds, and tornadoes.

Demographics: Racial Composition (2010)

White: 45.0%

Non-Hispanic: 31.7%

Black or African American: 32.9%

Hispanic or Latino: 28.9%

Asian: 5.5%

Religion: Christianity is predominant among the city's population who worship. The Chicago metropolitan area also includes adherents of Judaism, Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, Jainism, Sikhism, and the Bahá'í, among others. The wealth of Chicago's religious heritage is evident in its many noted examples of sacred architecture and institutions. Many of these religious edifices are Christian in origin, with Roman Catholic structures particularly prevalent.

Tourism: Upscale shopping along the Magnificent Mile and State Street, thousands of restaurants, as well as Chicago's eminent architecture, continue to draw tourists. The city is the United States' third-largest convention destination. A 2011 study by Walk Score ranked Chicago the fourth most walkable of fifty largest cities in the United States. The city of Chicago also has many great attractions such as Navy Pier, Millennium Park, various museums, and many activites to do all over the City!

17


Chicago Sports Chicago was named the "Best Sports City" in the United States by the Sporting News in 1993, 2006, and 2010. The city is home to two Major League Baseball (MLB) teams: the Chicago Cubs of the National League (NL), who play in Wrigley Field on the North Side; and the Chicago White Sox of the American League (AL), who play in U.S. Cellular Field on the South Side. Chicago is the only city that has had more than one MLB franchise every year since the AL began in 1901. The Chicago Bears, one of the last two remaining charter members of the National Football League (NFL), has won nine NFL Championships, including Super Bowl XX. The other remaining charter franchise, the Chicago Cardinals, also started out in the city, but is now known as the Arizona Cardinals. The Bears play their home games at Soldier Field, named after "The men and women of the armed forces". The Chicago Bulls of the National Basketball Association (NBA) is one of the most recognized basketball teams in the world.[citation needed] During the 1990s with Michael Jordan leading them, the Bulls took six NBA championships in eight seasons. The Chicago Blackhawks of the National Hockey League (NHL) began play in 1926, and are one of the "Original Six" teams of the National Hockey League

Photographs: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chicago http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chicago_Bears http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chicago_Blackhawks http://jamesvanosdol.wordpress.com/2012/08/26/chicago-white-sox-vs-chicagocubs/

18


Cuisine Chicago claims to a large number of regional specialties, all of which reflect the city's ethnic and working class roots. Included among these are its nationally renowned deep-dish pizza, this style is said to have originated at Pizzeria Uno. The Chicago-style thin crust is also popular in the city of Chicago.

There are several distinctly Chicago sandwiches, among them the Italian beef sandwich, which is thinly sliced beef slowly simmered in au jus and served on an Italian roll with sweet peppers or spicy giardiniera. A popular modification is the Combo—an Italian beef sandwich with the addition of an Italian sausage. There are several distinctly Chicago sandwiches, among them the Italian beef sandwich, which is thinly sliced beef slowly simmered in au jus and served on an Italian roll with sweet peppers or spicy giardiniera. A popular modification is the Combo—an Italian beef sandwich with the addition of an Italian sausage.

The Chicago-style hot dog, typically a Vienna Beef dog, is loaded with an array of fixings that often includes neon green pickle relish, yellow mustard, pickled sport peppers, tomato wedges, dill pickle spear and topped off with celery salt on a S. Rosen's poppy seed bun. Enthusiasts of the Chicago-style dog frown upon the use of ketchup as a garnish, but may prefer to add giardiniera. Photographs http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chicago http://www.viennabeef.com/history-of-the-chicago-hot-dog https://www.rentenna.com/blog/taste-of-chicago-2012-dates-chicagos-premier-food-festival/

19


Final Quiz Review 4.1 Question 1 When was Chicago incorporated at a city?

A. 1834 B. 1847 C. 1837 D. 1827

Check Answer

Review 4.2 Question 2

Review 4.3 Question 3

What time period was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable first arrival?

Fill in the blank: “Chicago constructed the worlds biggest and first....”

A. 1760’s B. 1780’s C. 1790’s D. 1800’s

Check Answer

A. Sidewalk B. Apartment building C. Skyscraper D. Industry Check Answer

Continue... 20


Continued Final Quiz.. Review 4.4 Question 4 What followed the industrial boom?

A. Success in sports teams

Review 4.5 Question 5 Fill in the blank: “The city of Chicago has been rated as having the most balanced economy in the United States, due to its high level of...�

B. Great food C. Labor conflicts D. African Americans coming from the South

A. Diversification B. Food C. Culture Spread D. Population

Review 4.6 Question 6 Chicago was named and known for..

A. Amazing food B. Rapid growth in population C. "Best Sports City" D. Diverse E. All of the Above

Check Answer Check Answer

Check Answer

21


UNTITLED Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat.

Related Glossary Terms Drag related terms here

Index

Find Term


Ebook History of Chicago Final