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TYPOGRAPHIC

TR UC TU RE S

GRID


TY ST PO RU GR CT AP UR HIC ES G RID

CHAPTER 5 02-09 the column CHAPTER 6 10-13 the grid CHAPTER 7 14-17 syntax/hierarchies 1 CHAPTER 8 18-23 syntax/hierarchies 2

03


CHAPTER 5 T H E COLU M N “Order is the actual key of life”

LE CORBUSIER

10/11 minion pro regular left justified

02

14 PICA COLUMN

graphic design and typography are not the same thing. That’s not to say that graphic design and typography are mutually exclusive; of course, typography is an integral part of graphic design, and graphic design enters into every aspect of typography. But typography, because of the way it functions, is more basic, more conservative, and depends on the cultural development of the viewer more than graphic design in general. People learn to read very early in life, and reading depends on a mutually agreed upon tightly defined system of symbols and graphic conventions whereas the larger conventions and

cultural symbols of graphic design, while they undoubtedly are important, are not as central to its successful conception. The lines have always been the most blurred at the border between display type and graphic design. Display typography tends to function more as graphic design than body copy: though it remains type, and must be at least legible, it works more as a graphic element than does body type, and is more susceptible to the tastes of fashion and is used more expressively than is body typography. As such, graphic designers tend to deal with display typography more intensively (and successfully) than they do body type.


9/11 tahoma regular left justified

14 PICA COLUMN

graphic design and typography are not the same thing. That’s not to say that graphic design and typography are mutually exclusive; of course, typography is an integral part of graphic design, and graphic design enters into every aspect of typography. But typography, because of the way it functions, is more basic, more conservative, and depends on the cultural development of the viewer more than

graphic design in general. People learn to read very early in life, and reading depends on a mutually agreed upon tightly defined system of symbols and graphic conventions whereas the larger conventions and cultural symbols of graphic design, while they undoubtedly are important, are not as central to its successful conception. The lines have always been the most blurred at the border between display

type and graphic design. Display typography tends to function more as graphic design than body copy: though it remains type, and must be at least legible, it works more as a graphic element than does body type, and is more susceptible to the tastes of fashion and is used more expressively than is body typography. As such, graphic designers tend to deal with display typography more intensively (and successfully) than they do body type.

tightly defined system of symbols and graphic conventions whereas the larger conventions and cultural symbols of graphic design, while they undoubtedly are important, are not as central to its successful conception. The lines have always been the most blurred at the border between display type and graphic design. Display typography tends to function more as graphic design than body copy: though it remains type, and must be at least legible, it works more as a graphic element than does body type,

and is more susceptible to the tastes of fashion and is used more expressively than is body typography. As such, graphic designers tend to deal with display typography more intensively (and successfully) than they do body type.

10/12 optima regular left justified

14 PICA COLUMN

are not the same thing. That’s not to say that graphic design and typography are mutually exclusive; of course, typography is an integral part of graphic design, and graphic design enters into every aspect of typography. But typography, because of the way it functions, is more basic, more conservative, and depends on the cultural development of the viewer more than graphic design in general. People learn to read very early in life, and reading depends on a mutually agreed upon graphic design and typography

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CHAPTER 5 THE COLUMN

8/10 optima regular left justified

8/10 verdana regular left justified

04

9 PICA COLUMN graphic design and typography

are not the same thing. That’s not to say that graphic design and typography are mutually exclusive; of course, typography is an integral part of graphic design, and graphic design enters into every aspect of typography. But typography, because of the way it functions, is more basic, more conservative, and depends on the cultural development of the viewer more than graphic design in general.

9 PICA COLUMN

graphic design and typog-

are not the same thing. That’s not to say that graphic design and typography are mutually exclusive; of course, typography is an integral part of graphic design, and graphic design en ters into every aspect of typography. But typography, because of the way it functions, is more basic, more conservative, and depends on the cultural development of the viewer more than graphic design in general. People learn to read very raphy

People learn to read very early in life, and reading depends on a mutually agreed upon tightly defined system of symbols and graphic conventions whereas the larger conventions and cultural symbols of graphic design, while they undoubtedly are important, are not as central to its successful conception. The lines have always been the most blurred at the border between display type and graphic design. Display typography tends to function

early in life, and reading depends on a mutually agreed upon tightly defined system of symbols and graphic conventions whereas the larger conventions and cultural symbols of graphic design, while they undoubtedly are important, are not as central to its successful conception. The lines have always been the most blurred at the border between display type and graphic design. Display typography tends to function more as graphic design

more as graphic design than body copy: though it remains type, and must be at least legible, it works more as a graphic element than does body type, and is more susceptible to the tastes of fashion and is used more expressively than is body typography. As such, graphic designers tend to deal with display typography more intensively (and successfully) than they do body type.

than body copy: though it remains type, and must be at least legible, it works more as a graphic element than does body type, and is more susceptible to the tastes of fashion and is used more expressively than is body typography. As such, graphic designers tend to deal with display typography more intensively (and successfully) than they do body type.


9/11 verdana regular fully justified

9/10.5 baskerville regular fully justified

14 PICA COLUMN 14 PICA COLUMN

are not the same thing. That’s not to say that graphic design and typography are mutually exclusive; of course, typography is an integral part of graphic design, and graphic design enters into every aspect of typography. But typography, because of the way it functions, is more basic, more conservative, and depends on the cultural development of the viewer more than graphic design in general. People learn to read very early in life, and reading depends on a mutually agreed upon tightly defined system of symbols and graphic conventions whereas the larger conventions and cultural symbols of graphic design, while they undoubtedly are important, are not as central to its successful conception. The lines have always been the most blurred at the border between display type and graphic design. Display typography tends to function more as graphic design than body copy: though it remains type, and must be at least legible, it works more as a graphic element than does body type, and is more susceptible to the tastes of fashion and is used more expressively than is body typography. As such, graphic designers tend to deal with display typography more intensively (and successfully) than they do body type. graphic design and typography

Graphic design and typography are not the same thing. That’s not to say that graphic design and typography are mutually exclusive; of course, typography is an integral part of graphic design, and graphic design enters into every aspect of typography. But typography, because of the way it functions, is more basic, more conservative, and depends on the cultural development of the viewer more than graphic design in general. People learn to read very early in life, and reading depends on a mutually agreed upon tightly defined system of symbols and graphic conventions whereas the larger conventions and cultural symbols of graphic design, while they undoubtedly are important, are not as central to its successful conception. The lines have always been the most blurred at the border between display type and graphic design. Display typography tends to function more as graphic design than body copy: though it remains type, and must be at least legible, it works more as a graphic element than does body type, and is more susceptible to the tastes of fashion and is used more expressively than is body typography. As such, graphic designers tend to deal with display typography more intensively (and successfully) than they do body type.

05


CHAPTER 5 THE COLUMN

10/13 minion pro regular fully justified

18 PICA COLUMN

06

10/14 myriad pro regular fully justified

18 PICA COLUMN

graphic design and typography are not the same graphic design and typography are not the same thing. thing. That’s not to say that graphic design and typog- That’s not to say that graphic design and typography raphy are mutually exclusive; of course, typography is are mutually exclusive; of course, typography is an an integral part of graphic design, and graphic design integral part of graphic design, and graphic design enters into every aspect of typography. enters into every aspect of typography. But typography, because of the way it functions, is But typography, because of the way it functions, more basic, more conservative, and depends on the is more basic, more conservative, and depends on cultural development of the viewer more than graphic the cultural development of the viewer more than design in general. People learn to read very early in life, and reading depends on a mutually agreed upon tight- graphic design in general. People learn to read very ly defined system of symbols and graphic conventions early in life, and reading depends on a mutually whereas the larger conventions and cultural symbols agreed upon tightly defined system of symbols and of graphic design, while they undoubtedly are impor- graphic conventions whereas the larger conventions and cultural symbols of graphic design, while they tant, are not as central to its successful conception. The lines have always been the most blurred at the undoubtedly are important, are not as central to its border between display type and graphic design. Dis- successful conception. play typography tends to function more as graphic deThe lines have always been the most blurred at sign than body copy: though it remains type, and must the border between display type and graphic debe at least legible, it works more as a graphic element sign. Display typography tends to function more as than does body type, and is more susceptible to the graphic design than body copy: though it remains tastes of fashion and is used more expressively than is type, and must be at least legible, it works more body typography. As such, graphic designers tend to as a graphic element than does body type, and is deal with display typography more intensively (and more susceptible to the tastes of fashion and is used successfully) than they do body type. more expressively than is body typography. As such, graphic designers tend to deal with display typography more intensively (and successfully) than they do body type.


12/14 optima regular fully justified

18 PICA COLUMN

are not the same thing. That’s not to say that graphic design and typography are mutually exclusive; of course, typography is an integral part of graphic design, and graphic design enters into every aspect of typography. But typography, because of the way it functions, is more basic, more conservative, and depends on the cultural development of the viewer more than graphic design in general. People learn to read very early in life, and reading depends on a mutually agreed upon tightly defined system of symbols and graphic conventions whereas the larger conventions and cultural symbols of graphic design, while

ANDREAS LEVERS BERLIN/2008

graphic design and typography

they undoubtedly are important, are not as central to its successful conception. The lines have always been the most blurred at the border between display type and graphic design. Display typography tends to function more as graphic design than body copy: though it remains type, and must be at least legible, it works more as a graphic element than does body type, and is more susceptible to the tastes of fashion and is used more expressively than is body typography. As such, graphic designers tend to deal with display typography more intensively (and successfully) than they do body type.

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CHAPTER 5 THE COLUMN

14/15 calibri regular fully justified

24 PICA COLUMN

08

graphic design and typography are not the same thing. That’s not to say that graphic design and typography are mutually exclusive; of course, typography is an integral part of graphic design, and graphic design enters into every aspect of typography. But typography, because of the way it functions, is more basic, more conservative, and depends on the cultural development of the viewer more than graphic design in general. People learn to read very early in life, and reading depends on a mutually agreed upon tightly defined system of symbols and graphic conventions whereas the larger conventions and cultural symbols of graphic design, while they undoubtedly are important, are not as central to its successful conception. The lines have always been the most blurred at the border between display type and graphic deANDREAS LEVERS sign. Display typography tends to function more as BERLIN/2009 graphic design than body copy: though it remains type, and must be at least legible, it works more as a graphic element than does body type, and is more susceptible to the tastes of fashion and is used more expressively than is body typography. As such, graphic designers tend to deal with display typography more intensively (and successfully) than they do body type.


13/16 georgia regular fully justified

34 PICA COLUMN

graphic design and typography are not the same thing. That’s not to say

that graphic design and typography are mutually exclusive; of course, typography is an integral part of graphic design, and graphic design enters into every aspect of typography. But typography, because of the way it functions, is more basic, more conservative, and depends on the cultural development of the viewer more than graphic design in general. People learn to read very early in life, and reading depends on a mutually agreed upon tightly defined system of symbols and graphic conventions whereas the larger conventions and cultural symbols of graphic design, while they undoubtedly are important, are not as central to its successful conception. The lines have always been the most blurred at the border between display type and graphic design. Display typography tends to function more as graphic design than body copy: though it remains type, and must be at least legible, it works more as a graphic element than does body type, and is more susceptible to the tastes of fashion and is used more expressively than is body typography. As such, graphic designers tend to deal with display typography more intensively (and successfully) than they do body type.

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CHAPTER 5 THE COLUMN

8/8 fully justified

SABON REGULAR graphic design and typography

are not the same thing. That’s not to say that graphic design and typography are mutually exclusive; of course, typography is an integral part of graphic design, and graphic design enters into every aspect of ty pography. But typography, because of the way it functions, is more basic, more conservative, and depends on the cultural development of the viewer more than graphic design in general. People learn to read very early in life, and reading depends on a mutually agreed upon tightly defined system of symbols and graphic conventions whereas the larger conventions and cultural symbols of graphic design, while they undoubtedly are important, are not as central to its successful conception. The lines have always been the most blurred at the border between display type and graphic design. Display typography tends to function more as graphic design than body copy: though it remains type, and must be at least legible, it works more as a graphic element than does body type, and is more susceptible to the tastes of fashion and is used more expressively than is body typography. As such, graphic designers tend to deal with display typography more intensively (and successfully) than they do body type.

10

12/15 arial regular fully justified

24 PICA COLUMN

are not the same thing. That’s not to say that graphic design and typography are mutually exclusive; of course, typography is an integral part of graphic design, and graphic design enters into every aspect of typography. But typography, because of the way it functions, is more basic, more conservative, and depends on the cultural development of the viewer more than graphic design in general. People learn to read very early in life, and reading depends on a mutually agreed upon tightly defined system of symbols and graphic conventions whereas the larger conventions and cultural symbols of graphic design, while they undoubtedly are important, are not as central to its successful conception. The lines have always been the most blurred at the border between display type and graphic design. Display typography tends to function more as graphic design than body copy: though it remains type, and must be at least legible, it works more as a graphic element than does body type, and is more susceptible to the tastes of fashion and is used more expressively than is body typography. As such, graphic designers tend to deal with display typography more intensively (and successfully) than they do body type. graphic design and typography


13/15 didot regular fully justified

24 PICA COLUMN

are not the same thing. That’s not to say that graphic design and typography are mutually exclusive; of course, typography is an integral part of graphic design, and graphic design enters into every aspect of typography. But typography, because of the way it functions, is more basic, more conservative, and depends on the cultural development of the viewer more than graphic design in general. People learn to read very early in life, and reading depends on a mutually agreed upon tightly defined system of symbols and graphic conventions whereas the larger conventions and cultural symbols of graphic design, while they undoubtedly are important, are not as central to its successful conception. The lines have always been the most blurred at the border between display type and graphic design. Display typography tends to function more as graphic design than body copy: though it remains type, and must be at least legible, it works more as a graphic element than does body type, and is more susceptible to the tastes of fashion and is used more expressively than is body typography. As such, graphic designers tend to deal with display typography more intensively (and successfully) than they do body type. graphic design and typography

ANDREAS LEVERS BERLIN/2009

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CHAPTER 5 THE COLUMN

10/13 century gothic regular fully justified

18 PICA COLUMN

are not the same thing. That’s not to say that graphic design and typography are mutually exclusive; of course, typography is an integral part of graphic design, and graphic design enters into every aspect of typography. But typography, because of the way it functions, is more basic, more conservative, and depends on the cultural development of the viewer more than graphic design in general. People learn to read very early in life, and reading depends on a mutually agreed upon tightly defined system of symbols and graphic conventions whereas the larger conventions and cultural symbols of graphic design and typography

8/9 avernir lt std 35 light fully justified

12

10 PICA COLUMN

graphic design and typography are not the same thing. That’s not to say that graphic design and typography are mutually exclusive; of course, typography is an integral part of graphic design, and graphic design enters into every aspect of typography. But typography, because of the way it functions, is more basic, more conservative, and depends on the cultural development of the viewer more than graphic de-

graphic design, while they undoubtedly are important, are not as central to its successful conception. The lines have always been the most blurred at the border between display type and graphic design. Display typography tends to function more as graphic design than body copy: though it remains type, and must be at least legible, it works more as a graphic element than does body type, and is more susceptible to the tastes of fashion and is used more expressively than is body typography. As such, graphic designers tend to deal with display typography more intensively (and successfully) than they do body type.

sign in general. People learn to read very early in life, and reading depends on a mutually agreed upon tightly defined system of symbols and graphic conventions whereas the larger conventions and cultural symbols of graphic design, while they undoubtedly are important, are not as central to its successful conception. The lines have always been the most blurred at the border between display type and graphic

design. Display typography tends to function more as graphic design than body copy: though it remains type, and must be at least legible, it works more as a graphic element than does body type, and is more susceptible to the tastes of fashion and is used more expressively than is body typography. As such, graphic designers tend to deal with display typography more intensively (and successfully) than they do body type.


12/13 cochin regular fully justified

18 PICA COLUMN Graphic design and typography are not the same thing. That’s not to say that graphic design and typography are mutually exclusive; of course, typography is an integral part of graphic design, and graphic design enters into every aspect of typography. But typography, because of the way it functions, is more basic, more conservative, and depends on the cultural development of the viewer more than graphic design in general. People learn to read very early in life, and reading depends on a mutually agreed upon tightly defined system of symbols and graphic conventions whereas the larger conventions and cultural symbols of graphic design, while they undoubtedly

8/9 garamond regular fully justified

10 PICA COLUMN

graphic design and typography are not the same thing. That’s not to say that graphic design and typography are mutually exclusive; of course, typography is an integral part of graphic design, and graphic design enters into every aspect of typography. But typography, because of the way it functions, is more basic, more conservative, and depends on the cultural development of the viewer more than graphic design in general. People learn to read very early in life, and reading depends on a mutually agreed upon tightly defined system of symbols and

are important, are not as central to its successful conception. The lines have always been the most blurred at the border between display type and graphic design. Display typography tends to function more as graphic design than body copy: though it remains type, and must be at least legible, it works more as a graphic element than does body type, and is more susceptible to the tastes of fashion and is used more expressively than is body typography. As such, graphic designers tend to deal with display typography more intensively (and successfully) than they do body type.

graphic conventions whereas the larger conventions and cultural symbols of graphic design, while they undoubtedly are important, are not as central to its successful conception. The lines have always been the most blurred at the border between display type and graphic design. Display typography tends to function more as graphic design than body copy: though it remains type, and must be at least legible, it works more as a graphic element than does body type, and is more susceptible to the tastes of fashion and is used more expressively than is body

typography. As such, graphic designers tend to deal with display typography more intensively (and successfully) than they do body type.

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CHAPTER 5 THE COLUMN

8/12 fully justified

SABON REGULAR

graphic design and typography are not the same thing. That’s not to say that graphic design and typography are mutually exclusive; of course, typography is an integral part of graphic design, and graphic design enters into every aspect of typography. But typography, because of the way it functions, is more basic, more conservative, and depends on the cultural development of the viewer more than graphic design in general.

People learn to read very early in life, and reading depends on a mutually agreed upon tightly defined system of symbols and graphic conventions whereas the larger conventions and cultural symbols of graphic design, while they undoubtedly are important, are not as central to its successful conception. The lines have always been the most blurred at the border between display type and graphic design. Display typography tends to function

more as graphic design than body copy: though it remains type, and must be at least legible, it works more as a graphic element than does body type, and is more susceptible to the tastes of fashion and is used more expressively than is body typography. As such, graphic designers tend to deal with display typography more intensively (and successfully) than they do body type.

learn to read very early in life, and reading depends on a mutually agreed upon tightly defined system of symbols and graphic conventions whereas the larger conventions and cultural symbols of graphic design, while they undoubtedly are important, are not as central to its successful conception. The lines have always been the most blurred at the border between display type and graphic design. Display typography tends to function

more as graphic design than body copy: though it remains type, and must be at least legible, it works more as a graphic element than does body type, and is more susceptible to the tastes of fashion and is used more expressively than is body typography. As such, graphic designers tend to deal with display typography more intensively (and successfully) than they do body type.

10/11 fully justified

SABON REGULAR

Graphic design and typography are not the same thing. That’s not to say that graphic design and typography are mutually exclusive; of course, typography is an integral part of graphic design, and graphic design enters into every aspect of typography. But typography, because of the way it functions, is more basic, more conservative, and depends on the cultural development of the viewer more than graphic design in general. People

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9/11 left justified

GILL SANS LIGHT

are not the same thing. That’s not to say that graphic design and typography are mutually exclusive; of course, typography is an integral part of graphic design, and graphic design enters into every aspect of typography. But typography, because of the way it functions, is more basic, more conservative, and depends on the cultural development of the viewer more than graphic design in general. graphic design and typography

People learn to read very early in life, and reading depends on a mutually agreed upon tightly defined system of symbols and graphic conventions whereas the larger conventions and cultural symbols of graphic design, while they undoubtedly are important, are not as central to its successful conception. The lines have always been the most blurred at the border between display type and graphic design. Display typography tends to

function more as graphic design than body copy: though it remains type, and must be at least legible, it works more as a graphic element than does body type, and is more susceptible to the tastes of fashion and is used more expressively than is body typography. As such, graphic designers tend to deal with display typography more intensively (and successfully) than they do body type.

and reading depends on a mutually agreed upon tightly defined system of symbols and graphic conventions whereas the larger conventions and cultural symbols of graphic design, while they undoubtedly are important, are not as central to its successful conception. The lines have always been the most blurred at the border between display type and graphic design. Display typography tends to function more as graphic design than body copy: though it remains type,

and must be at least legible, it works more as a graphic element than does body type, and is more susceptible to the tastes of fashion and is used more expressively than is body typography. As such, graphic designers tend to deal with display typography more intensively (and successfully) than they do body type.

9/12 left justified

HELVETICA BOLD

GRAPHIC DESIGN AND TYPOGRAPHY

are not the same thing. That’s not to say that graphic design and typography are mutually exclusive; of course, typography is an integral part of graphic design, and graphic design enters into every aspect of typography. But typography, because of the way it functions, is more basic, more conservative, and depends on the cultural development of the viewer more than graphic design in general. People learn to read very early in life,

15


CHAPTER 6 THE GRID “The grid system is an aid, not a guarantee. It

permits a number of possible uses and each designer can look for a solution appropiate to his personal style. But one must learn how to use the grid; it is an art that requires practice�

JOSEF MULLER-BROCKMANN

17 three-column grid 18 two-column grid with added elements 19 two-column grid

16


“typography is the craft of giving language a visual form, and thus an independent existence” TYPOGRAPHY makes at least instructions? Surely typographers, deliberately, and well. two kinds of sense. It makes vi- like others, ought to be at liberty It is true that typographer’s sual sense and historical sense. to follow or to blaze the trails tools are changing with considThe visual side of typography is they choose. erable force and speed, but this always on display, and materials Typography thrives as a shared is not a manual in the use of any for the study of its visual form are concern, and there are no paths particular system. I suppose that many and widespread. The his- at all where there are no shared most readers will set most of their tory of letterforms and their us- desires and directions. A typog- type in digital form, using computage is visible too, to those with rapher determined to forge new ers, but I have no preconceptions access to manuscripts, inscrip- routes must move, like other soli- about which brands of computers, tions and old books. This book tary travellers, through uninhab- or which versions of which prohas the fruit of a lot of long walks ited, crossing common thorough- prietary software, they may use. in the wilderness of letters: in fares in the silence before dawn. The essential elements of style part a pocket field guide to the The Elements of Typographic Style have more to do with the goals living wonders that are found is about not typographic solitude, typographers set for themselves there, and in part a meditation on but the old, well-travelled roads than with the changeable nature the ecological principles, survival at the core of the tradition: paths of their tools. techniques, and ethics that apply. that each of us is free to follow or Typography is the craft of givThe principles of typography are not—if only we know the paths ing language a visual form, and not “a set of dead conventions” are there and have a sense of thus an independent existence. but a place where ancient voices where they lead. That freedom is As a craft, typography shares speak from all directions and new denied us if the tradition is con- a long common boundary and ones move to perhaps unremem- cealed or left for dead. Original- many common concerns with bered forms. ity is everywhere, but much origi- writing and editing on the one One question remains. When nality is blocked if the way back side and with graphic design on all right-thinking human beings to earlier discoveries is cut or the other; yet typography itself beare understanding that other men overgrown. longs to neither. and women are free to be differBy all means leave the road ent, and free to become more dif- when you wish. That is precisely 9/10 ferent still, how can one honestly the use of a road: to reach indi- helvetica neue lt std write a rulebook? What reason vidually chosen points of depar- 45 light and authority exist for these com- ture. By all means break the fully justified mandments, suggestions, and rules, and break them beautifully, ANDREAS LEVERS BERLIN/2010

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CHAPTER 6 THE GRID

ELEMENTS OF TYPOGRAPHIC STYLE TYPE IS A SHARED CONCERN

adapted by robert bringhurst

ANDREAS LEVERS/BERLIN/2008

Modern Roman letterforms contain history that in some cases originated 4000 years ago. Others joined later as language and usage evolved.

18

TYPOGRAPHY makes at least two kinds of sense. It makes visual sense and historical sense. The visual side of typography is always on display, and materials for the study of its visual form are many and widespread. The history of letterforms and their usage is visible too, to those with access to manuscripts, inscriptions and old books. This book has the fruit of a lot of long walks in the wilderness of letters: in part a pocket field guide to the living wonders that are found there, and in part a meditation on the ecological principles, survival techniques, and ethics that apply. The principles of typography are not “a set of dead conventions” but a place where ancient voices speak from all directions and new ones move to perhaps unremembered forms. One question remains. When all rightthinking human beings are understanding that other men and women are free to be different, and free to become more different still, how can one honestly write a rulebook? What reason and authority exist for these commandments, suggestions, and instructions? Surely typographers, like others, ought to be at liberty to follow or to blaze the trails they choose. Typography thrives as a shared concern, and there are no paths at all where there are no shared desires and directions. A

typographer determined to forge new routes must move, like other solitary travellers, through uninhabited, crossing common thoroughfares in the silence before dawn. The Elements of Typographic Style is about not typographic solitude, but the old, welltravelled roads at the core of the tradition: paths that each of us is free to follow or not—if only we know the paths are there and have a sense of where they lead. That freedom is denied us if the tradition is concealed or left for dead. Originality is everywhere, but much originality is blocked if the way back to earlier discoveries is cut or overgrown. By all means leave the road when you wish. That is precisely the use of a road: to reach individually chosen points of departure. By all means break the rules, and break them beautifully, deliberately, and well. It is true that typographer’s tools are changing with considerable force and speed, but this is not a manual in the use of any particular system. I suppose that most readers will set most of their type in digital form, using computers, but I have no preconceptions about which brands of computers, or which versions of which proprietary software, they may use. The essential elements of style have more to do with the goals typographers set for themselves than with the changeable nature of their tools. Typography is the craft of giving language a visual form, and thus an independent existence. As a craft, typography shares a long common boundary and many common concerns with writing and editing on the one side and with graphic design on the other; yet typography itself belongs to neither.


“typography thrives as a shared concern, and there are no paths at all where there are no shared desires and directions” TYPOGRAPHY makes at least two kinds of sense. It makes visual sense and historical sense. The visual side of typography is always on display, and materials for the study of its visual form are many and widespread. The history of letterforms and their usage is visible too, to those with access to manuscripts, inscriptions and old books. This book has the fruit of a lot of long walks in the wilderness of letters: in part a pocket field guide to the living wonders that are found there, and in part a meditation on the ecological principles, survival techniques, and ethics that apply. The principles of typography are not “a set of dead conventions” but a place where ancient voices speak from all directions and new ones move to perhaps unremembered forms. One question remains. When all rightthinking human beings are understanding that other men and women are free to be different, and free to become more different still, how can one honestly write a rulebook? What reason and authority exist for these commandments, suggestions, and instructions? Surely typographers, like others, ought to be at liberty to follow or to blaze the trails they choose. Typography thrives as a shared concern, and there are no paths at all where there are no shared desires and directions. A typographer determined to forge new routes must move, like other solitary travellers, through uninhabited, crossing common thoroughfares in the silence before dawn. The Elements of Typographic Style is about not typographic solitude, but the old, welltravelled roads at the core of the tradition: paths that each of us is free to follow or

not—if only we know the paths are there and have a sense of where they lead. That freedom is denied us if the tradition is concealed or left for dead. Originality is everywhere, but much originality is blocked if the way back to earlier discoveries is cut or overgrown. By all means leave the road when you wish. That is precisely the use of a road: to reach individually chosen points of departure. By all means break the rules, and break them beautifully, deliberately, and well. It is true that typographer’s tools are changing with considerable force and speed, but this is not a manual in the use of any particular system. I suppose that most readers will set most of their type in digital form, using computers, but I have no preconceptions about which brands of computers, or which versions of which proprietary software, they may use. The essential elements of style have more to do with the goals typographers set for themselves than with the changeable nature of their tools. Typography is the craft of giving language a visual form, and thus an independent existence. As a craft, typography shares a long common boundary and many common concerns with writing and editing on the one side and with graphic design on the other; yet typography itself belongs to neither. 8/11 helvetica neue lt std 55 roman fully justified

19


CHAPTER 7 SYNTAX / HIERARCHIES 1 This chapter explores the understanding of Carl Dair’s seven principles of typographic contrast to create hierarchy.

size

“A simple but dramatic contrast of size provides a point to which the reader’s attention is drawn.” CARL DAIR

type should be read in the same way we talk ;

rhythmic, in

LUBALIN

consistent flow

20


weight

“Not only types of varying weight, but other typographic material such as rules, spots, squares, etc., can be called into service to provide a heavy area for a powerful point of visual attraction or emphasis.” CARL DAIR

form

“There are some script types which harmonize with standard types... and can be used for dramatic change of form.” CARL DAIR

GOD is in the details TSCHICHOLD

realism is a CORRUPTION of REALITY STEVENS

21


CHAPTER 7 SYNTAX / HIERARCHIES 1

colour

“A second colour is usually less emphatic than black or white, so careful thought must be paid to which element needs to be emphasized.” CARL DAIR

feelI HAVE wisdom THAT WHICH IS LOVE

I DO NOT ENOUGH TO

UGLY STENDHAL

texture

“Like threads in cloth, types form the fabric of our daily communication.” CARL DAIR

the aim of typography must not be

EXPRESSION, EXPRESSION, EXPRESSION, EXPRESSION,

least of all SELF

but perfect communication achieved by

skill TSCHICHOLD

22


GOUDY

“The use of contrast of structure may be compared to an orator who changes his voice not to increase or decrease the volume, but to change the very quality of his voice to suit his words.” CARL DAIR

“Turning one word on its side can have a dramatic effect on a layout.” CARL DAIR

divested of the exigencies & accidents of the

SCRIBES

all roads

lead

direction

TYPE is merelyhandwriting ar w do if y e he n o go re ’t u in yo kn g u ow

structure

ROMAN PROVERB

THERE 23


CHAPTER 8 SYNTAX / HIERARCHIES 2 “The secret of a grid’s success is not so much

its structure as the imagination with which it is used”

ALLEN HURLBURT

This chapter explores the understanding and use of the following relationships; between letters and words, the word in relationship to the line, the line in relationship to the column and how these elements activate a particular space and convey meaning specific to content.

25 harmony within the hierarchy 26 rhythm and movement within the hierarchy 27 dynamic tension within the hierarchy

24


ELEMENTS OF TYPOGRAPHIC STYLE

TYPE IS A SHARED CONCERN

are not the same thing. That’s not to say that graphic design and typography are mutually exclusive; of course, typography is an integral part of graphic design, and graphic design enters into every aspect of typography. But typography, because of the way it functions, is more basic, more conservative, and depends on the cultural development of the viewer more than graphic design in general. People learn to read very early in life, and reading depends on a mutually agreed upon tightly defined system of symbols and graphic conventions whereas the larger conventions and cultural symbols of graphic design, while they undoubtedly are important, are not as central to its successful conception. The lines have always been the most blurred at the border between display type and graphic design. Display typography tends to function more as graphic design than body copy: though it remains type, and must be at least legible, it works more as a graphic element than does body type,

ANDREAS LEVERS/BERLIN/2008

GRAPHIC DESIGN AND TYPOGRAPHY

and is more susceptible to the tastes of fashion and is used more expressively than is body typography. As such, graphic designers tend to deal with display typography more intensively (and successfully) than they do body type. Typography makes at least two kinds of sense. It makes visual sense and historical sense. The visual side of typography is always on display, and materials for the study of its visual form are many and widespread. The history of letterforms and their usage is visible too, to those with access to manuscripts, inscriptions and old books. This book has the fruit of a lot of long walks in the wilderness of letters: in part a pocket field guide to the living wonders that are found there, and in part a meditation on the ecological principles, survival techniques, and ethics that apply. The principles of typography are not “a set of dead conventions” but a place where ancient voices speak from all directions and new ones move to perhaps unremembered forms.

25


CHAPTER 8 SYNTAX / HIERARCHIES 2

GRAPHIC DESIGN AND TYPOGRAPHY are not the same thing. That’s not to say that graphic design and typography are mutually exclusive; of course, typography is an integral part of graphic design, and graphic design enters into every aspect of typography.

ELEMENTS OF TYPOGRAPHIC STYLE

26

MARLENA GENIUSZ/CHICAGO/2009

But typography, because of the way it functions, is more basic, more conservative, and depends on the cultural development of the viewer more than graphic design in general. People learn to read very early in life, and reading depends on a mutually agreed upon tightly defined system of symbols and graphic conventions whereas the larger conventions and TYPE IS A SHARED CONCERN cultural symbols of graphic design, while they undoubtedly are important, are not as central to its successful conception. The lines have always been the most blurred at the border between display type and graphic design. Display typography tends to function more as graphic design than body copy: though it remains type, and must be at least legible, it works more as a graphic element than does body type, and is more susceptible to the tastes of fashion and is used more expresMARLENA GENIUSZ/CHICAGO/2009 sively than is body typography. As such, graphic designers tend to deal with display typography more intensively (and successfully) than they do body type. Typography makes at least two kinds of sense. It makes visual sense and historical sense. The visual side of typography is always on display, and materials for the study of its visual form are many and widespread. The history of letterforms and their usage is visible too, to those with access to manuscripts, in scriptions and old books. This book has the fruit of a lot of long walks in the wilderness of letters: in part a pocket field guide to the living wonders that are found there, and in part a meditation on the ecological principles, survival techniques, and ethics that apply. The principles of typography are not “a set of dead conventions” but a place where ancient voices speak from all directions and new ones move to perhaps unremembered forms.


ANDREAS LEVERS/BERLIN/2008

TYPE IS A SHARED CONCERN graphic design and typography are not the

TY P

EO L

E GR M

AP EN HIC T S ST O YL F E

same thing. That’s not to say that graphic design and typography are mutually exclusive; of course, typography is an integral part of graphic design, and graphic design enters into every aspect of typography. But typography, because of the way it functions, is more basic, more conservative, and depends on the cultural development of the viewer more than graphic design in general. People learn to read very early in life, and reading depends on a mutually agreed upon tightly defined system of symbols and graphic conventions whereas the larger conventions and cultural symbols of graphic design, while they undoubtedly are important, are not as central to its successful conception. The lines have always been the most blurred at the border between display type and graphic design. Display typography tends to function more as graphic design than body copy: though it remains type, and must be at least legible, it works more as a graphic element than does body type, and is more susceptible to the tastes of fashion and is used more expressively than is body typography. As such, graphic designers tend to deal with display typog“graphic design and typography raphy more intensively (and successfully) are not the same thing” than they do body type. Typography makes at least two kinds of sense. It makes visual sense and historical sense. The visual side of typography is always on display, and materials for the study of its visual form are many and widespread. The history of letterforms and their usage is visible too, to those with access to manuscripts, inscriptions and old books. This book has the fruit of a lot of long walks in the wilderness of letters: in part a pocket field guide to the living wonders that are found there, and in part a meditation on the ecological principles, survival techniques, and ethics that apply. The principles of typography are not “a set of dead conventions” but a place where ancient voices speak from all directions and new ones move to perhaps unremembered forms.

27


2012 LAURA SCHÜTTE


Profile for laura schütte

typographic grid structures  

a 28 page 8" by 9" saddle stitched typographic book focusing on the use of grids in typography.

typographic grid structures  

a 28 page 8" by 9" saddle stitched typographic book focusing on the use of grids in typography.

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