UP-CYCLING SPACE: Design recommendations for reactivation of residual urban space Laura Petruskeviciute
University of Strathclyde Department of Architecture BSc Honours Architectural Studies with International Study Dissertation â€˜Up- cycling space. Design recommendations for reactivation of residual urban spaceâ€™ Laura Petruskeviciute Reg. No 2009434435 Studies supervisor: Dr Cristian Suau April 2014
Declaration AB 420 Dissertation 2013/14 BSc Honours Architectural Studies BSc Honours Studies with International Study Pg Diploma in Architectural Studies Declaration â€œI hereby declare that this dissertation submission is my own work and has been composed by myself. It contains no unacknowledged text and has not been submitted in any previous context. All quotations have been distinguished by quotation marks and all sources of information, text, illustration, tables, images etc. have been specifically acknowledged. I accept that if having signed this Declaration my work should be found at Examination to show evidence of academic dishonesty the work will fail and I will be liable to face the University Senate Discipline Committee.â€?
Content Abstract Acknowledgments List of Figures Glossary of Terms Definition of Residual Space Typologies
9 11 12 17 19
Introduction Personal motivations Problem definition Methodology
20 20 23
Part 1 WASTE 1.1 Residual Urban Space 1.2 The Decline of Public Space 1.3 Discarded Materials
26 30 32
Part 2 Regeneration 2.1 Creating the Place 2.2 Public Empowerment 2.3 Up-cycling Materials
36 38 39
Part 3 Case Studies 3.1 Case Studies Selection 3.2 The Place of Giant, Paris 3.3 Folly for a Flyover, London 3.4 Temporary Amusement Park, Lima 3.5 Open- Air Library, Magdeburg 3.6 ECObox, Paris 3.7 Evaluation & Recommendations
43 44 46 48 50 52 54
Part4 Testbed in Glasgow 5.1 Place Making Glasgow. Stalled Spaces 5.2 Site Scenario
Part 5 Conclusion: A Route Map of Up- cycling Space 70 Part 6 Bibliography
Abstract ‘We have to relearn to think about space’ 1 The phenomenon of excess in modern city, which can be understood as waste of space, waste of public realm and waste of discarded materials is the result of passive actions to agile changes in urban fabric and societal needs. The research aims to emphasize the potential of the abundance of waste which can be reinvigorated through architectural intervention. Up-cycling space illustrates the idea of residual space being reactivated which can act as a trigger for social capital and discarded materials regeneration. It creates a scenario of residual space reactivation through temporary use and community participation using low-tech intervention tools. This is an efficient method for creating long term results with a low input of investment suggesting an ecodesign approach. Design recommendations are created after assessing relevant case studies against set criteria which reveals strength and weakness of different design approaches defining the most viable reactivation of residual space. The research also informs eco-design initiative Mobileland which is a part of Glasgow City Council Stalled Spaces Project . Its main goal is to deliver proposal of low cost based on the theme of reduce, re-use and recycle ‘on wheels’. There is good evidence that successful up-cycling of space is a complex process involving understanding of context, discarded materials availability and participatory role of its users transforming the space. By claiming residual spaces as temporary arenas for public interaction the gaps in the city can be closed, enhancing public realm and urban experience.
Key words: residual urban space, public realm, discarded materials, up- cycling, reactivate, participation, waste
1Marc Auge, Non- places: introduction to an anthropology of supermodernity (London: Verso,1995) p 36. 9
Acknowledgments I am thankful for Dr Christian Suau guidance and willingness to discuss the research. Special thanks to my family and friends for their continued support.
List of Figures Cover: Up- Cycling Space (Author’s image) Fig. 1 Residual space typologies (Author’s image) Fig. 2 Proposal for Kaunas Architecture Festival ‘Freedom Impulses’ (Authors: Laura Petruskeviciute, Paulina Naruseviciute) Fig. 3 Concept diagram for Kaunas Architecture Festival ‘ Freedom Impulses’.Value what exists/Nurture the possible/ Define what is missing (Authors: Laura Petruskeviciute, Paulina Naruseviciute) Fig. 4 Proposal for Kaunas Architecture Festival ‘Freedom Impulses’ (Authors: Laura Petruskeviciute, Paulina Naruseviciute) Fig. 5 Word cloud diagram (Author’s image) Fig. 6 Methodology (Author’s image) Fig. 7 Concept diagram.’ Up- cycling space’ (Author’s image) Fig. 8 Development of residual space typologies (Author’s image) PART 1 Fig. 9 Dense amount of vacant sites in Glasgow urban fabric (Author’s image based on Glasgow City Council incivility sites map) Fig. 10 Scene from movie ‘ Stalker’ directed by A.Tarkovsky. (© Lorber Films) Available: http://www.imdb.com/media/rm2298134016/tt0079944?ref_=ttmi_mi_all_sf_4 [01/12/2013] Fig. 11 Scene from movie ‘ Stalker’ directed by A. Tarkovsky .(© Lorber Films) Available: http://www.imdb.com/media/rm3893080576/tt0079944?ref_=ttmd_md_pv [01/12/2013] Fig. 12 Fresco by Ambrogio Lorenzetti ‘The Allegory of Good and Bad Government’ in the Town Hall of Siena. ( Image retrieved from < http://italianpiazza.blogspot.co.uk/2009/10/ambrogio-lorenzetti-allegory-of-good.html> [03/02/2014] ) Fig. 13 Painting by Mario Sironi ‘Urban Landscape’.( Image retrieved from < http://www.bbc.co.uk/arts/ yourpaintings/paintings/urban-landscape-132978> [03/02/2014] Fig. 14 Glasgow waste hierarchy.(Author’s image) Fig. 15 Product life cycle diagram ‘Cradle to grave’ (Author’s image based on blog Intercon. Available: http:// intercongreen.com/2010/02/17/recycling-vs-upcycling-what-is-the-difference/ [ 16/02/2014] Fig. 16 Product life cycle diagram ‘Cradle to cradle’( Author’s image based on Zhiying diagram) Available: http:// upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7a/Biological_and_technical_nutrients_%28C2C%29.jpg [16/02/2014] Fig. 17 Waste composition diagram ( Author’s image based on Glasgow City Council Waste Strategy information. ) Available : http://www.glasgow.gov.uk/CHttpHandler.ashx?id=11089&p=0 [ 28/12/2013] Fig. 18 Matrix Diagram. Potential of framability of discarded materials in construction.(Author’s image) PART 2 Fig. 19 What interim activity suits best to reactivate residual urban space? (Author’s image) Fig. 20 Consumerist. Street vendors in Talad Rom Hoop market. (Author of photograph: Rungroj Yongrit/EPA) Available : http://www.theguardian.com/news/2013/apr/23/picture-desk-live-the-best-news-pictures-of-the-day [ 18/02/2014] Fig. 21 Playful. Public space intervention 2012 in Cairo by Basurama. ( Author of photograph Basurama) Available: http://basurama.org/en/ [30/03/2014]
Fig. 22 Productive. London Festival of Architecture in 2010 ‘Urban Orchard’ (Author of photograph: Mike Massaro) Available : http://www.unionstreetorchard.org.uk/photos?nggpage=2 [ 20/03/2014] Fig. 23 Drop City Panorama.( Author of photograph Clarck Richert) Available: http://www.clarkrichert.com/dropcity [30/03/2014] Fig. 24 Large and small versions of Heineken’s WOBO (World Bottle), designed by John Habraken.( Image available: http://www.cabinetmagazine.org/issues/13/collins.php [ 16/03/2014] Fig. 25 The first and only WOBO house, built in 1965 near Alfred Heineken’s villa in Noordwijk, Holland.(Image available: http://www.cabinetmagazine.org/issues/13/collins.php [16/03/2014] Fig. 26 Earth rammed tires wall construction. Episode from “Garbage Warrior” 2007 Documentary. Directed by Oliver Hodge. Online Source. Fig. 27 Michael Johansson, ‘Self Contained‘ 2010 ( Image retrieved from: http://www.michaeljohansson.com/Real_ life_tetris-Smith_journal.pdf [12/03/2014] Fig. 28 The Big Crunch, by Raumlabor 2011, Darmstadt, Germany ( Author Raumlabor) Available: https://raumlabor.net/the-big-crunch/ [ 12/03/2014] ) Fig. 29 R- Urban project by Atelier d’architecture autogérée. (Author of image aaa team) Available: http://www.archdaily.com.br/br/01-60110/mass-design-group-vence-o-zumtobel-group-award-2012/ urban-paris-atelier-darchitecture-autogeree-aaa-constantin-petcou-doina-petrescu-courtesy-of-zumtobelgroup1341625424-8-ecohab/ [02/03/2014] ) PART 3 Fig. 30 Trans Trash: Understanding waste streams. Boston. Inside the inflatable structure. Basurama (Author of photo Basurama) Available: http://basurama.org/transtrash/ [16/03/2014] Fig. 31 Trans Trash: Understanding waste streams. Boston. Outside the inflatable structure. Basurama (Author of photo Basurama.) Available: http://basurama.org/transtrash/ [16/03/2014] Fig. 32 Residual urban space before intervention.( Author of photo Collectif Etc. Available: http://www.publicspace. org/en/works/g027-place-au-changement [05.10/2013] ) Fig. 33 Signs on abandonment building facades rising passersby awareness about regeneration of residual neighborhood space. (Author of photo Collectif Etc.) Available: http://www.collectifetc.com/realisation/place-au-changement-chantier-ouvert/ [05.10/2013] ) Fig. 34 Carpentry workshop on site. (Author of photo Collectif Etc.) Available: http://www.collectifetc.com/realisation/place-au-changement-chantier-ouvert/ [05.10/2013] ) Fig. 35 The Place of Giant after work completion.( Author of photo Collectif Etc. ) Available: http://www.collectifetc.com/realisation/place-au-changement-chantier-ouvert/ [05.10/2013] ) Fig. 36 Site- motorway flyover. (Author of photo Planning Resource) Available: http://www.flickr.com/photos/33232053@N03/6052374301/in/photostream/ [31/03/2014] Fig. 37 Wooden bricks from reclaimed timber. ( Author of photo Planning Resource) Available: http://www.flickr.com/photos/33232053@N03/6052375333/in/photostream/ [31/03/2014] Fig. 38 Structure in the evening. (Author of photo Assemble.) Available: http://assemblestudio.co.uk/?page_id=5 [31/03/2014] Fig. 39 View to Folly from motorway. (Author of photo Assemble.) Available: http://assemblestudio.co.uk/?page_id=5 [31/03/2014] Fig. 40 During daytime structure serves as cafe space. (Author of photo Assemble.) Available: http://assemblestudio.co.uk/?page_id=5 [31/03/2014] Fig. 41 Site before intervention ( Author of photo Basurama) Available: http://www.basurama.org/img_b10/rus-lima/tren-electrico-surquillo-lima_g.jpg [31/03/2014] 13
Fig. 42 Engaging playground from tires ( Author of photo: Basurama) Available: http://www.play-scapes.com/play-design/contemporary-design/ghost-train-park-basurama-limaperu-2010/ [03/02/2014] Fig. 43 Net for climbing from old tires ( Author of photo: Basurama) Available: http://www.play-scapes.com/play-design/contemporary-design/ghost-train-park-basurama-limaperu-2010/ [03/02/2014] Fig. 44 Structure below serves as playground from reclaimed tires. Available: http://www.play-scapes.com/play-design/contemporary-design/ghost-train-park-basurama-limaperu-2010/ [03/02/2014] Fig. 45 Site before intervention ( Author of photo: Anja Schlamann) Available: http://www.publicspace.org/en/works/f084-open-air-library [03/02/2014] Fig. 46 Mockup for open air library. ( Author of photo: Anja Schlamann) Available: http://www.publicspace.org/en/works/f084-open-air-library [03/02/2014] Fig. 47 Shopping mall which facade was reclaimed to construct open- air library.( Author of photo : Karo architects) Available: http://www.karo-architekten.de/cms/wp-content/uploads/2007/08/LZ-projekt-information-dt.pdf [03/02/2014] Fig. 48 Facade module ( Author of photo : Karo architects) Available: http://www.karo-architekten.de/cms/wp-content/uploads/2007/08/LZ-projekt-information-dt.pdf [03/02/2014] Fig. 49 Open- Air Library after work completion. ( Author of photo : Karo architects) Available: http://www.dezeen.com/2009/10/28/open-air-library-by-karo/ [03/02/2014] Fig. 50 ECObox garden from pallets. (Author of photo: Atelier d’Architecture Autogérée (aaa)) Available: http://www.spatialagency.net/database/aaa [03/31/2014] Fig. 51 ECObox garden as catalyst for community gatherings. (Author of photo: Atelier d’Architecture Autogérée (aaa)) Available: http://www.bustler.net/index.php/article_image/2011_curry_stone_design_grand_prize_winner_ announced_sustainable_architectu/image/5137 [03/31/2014] PART 4 Fig. 52 Web graph. Comparison of case studies.( Author’s image) Fig. 53 Up-cycling space recommendations. (Author’s image) Fig. 54 Incivility gaps indicated by Glasgow City Council.( Author’s image) Fig. 55 Cathcart Road- Greek Thomson gap site. (Author’s image) Fig. 56 Caledonia Road church 1970 (Author of photo Gushetfauld) Available: http://urbanglasgow.co.uk/index.php?component=content&topicid=3902&highlight= [17/02/2014] Fig. 57 Site. Indication of possible activities on site based on site conditions. (Author’s image) Fig. 58 Harvestmap. It indicates location of discarded materials source in 8km radius from gap site. (Author’s image) Fig. 59 Activation units (Author’s image) Fig. 60 [WALL GARDEN] (Author’s image) Fig. 61 Preliminary proposal of design for ‘Mobileland’ , Stalled Spaces (Author’s image)
Glossary of Terms Eco- efficiency Transforms human industry integrating environmental, economic and ethical concerns into the industry system that takes, makes and wastes. In other words, it is ‘doing more with less’.2 Up-cycling An action of taking something that is disposable and turning it into the product of greater use and value. 3 Down- cycling The most common form of recycling which reduce the quality of the material over the time.4 Eco-design All products have an impact on environment during their life- cycle from raw materials manufacturing,packaging, transportation, disposal and recycling. The biggest amount of the environmental impact is determined in the stage of design. Eco- design- takes into consideration all environmental impacts of a product from the very early stage of design. 5 Re-make ‘Make something again or differently.’6 Re-use ‘Use again or more than once.’7
Up- cycling space Regeneration of social capital and discarded materials as a result of residual space reactivation. Waste8 ’ Unwanted or unusable material, substances, or by-products.’
2 William McDonough & Michael Braungart Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things (New York: Nort Point Press, 2002)p 5. 3 William McDonough & Michael Braungart Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things (New York: Nort Point Press, 2002) p 72. 4 William McDonough & Michael Braungart Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things (New York: Nort Point Press, 2002) p 56. 5 European Commission Eco-design brochure. Available <http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/policies/sustainable-business/ecodesign/files/brochure_ecodesign_en.pdf> [ 16/03/2014] 6 Oxford Online Dictionary <http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/remake> [16/03/2014] 7Oxford Online Dictionary < http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/reuse> [16/03/2014] 8 Oxford Online Dictionary <http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/waste >[16/03/2014] 17
Residual Space Typologies9 1.Void Spaces Large underutilized sites surrounding buildings. 2. Redundant Infrastructures Infrastructure which is not in use anymore.
3. Spaces Below Spaces below infrastructural elements such as: elevated railway lines, motorway flyovers. 4. Rooftops Underutilized rooftop spaces of buildings. 5. Spaces Around The result of new development in old context when new positioned buildings creates intermediary zones between the public street and private interior space of the building. 6. Spaces Between The result after urban demolition. 7. Wedges The result of intersection of conflicting urban grids or infrastructural lines. 8. Oversized Infrastructures Overestimated spaces for traffic.
Fig.1 Residual space typologies (Author’s image)
9 Eric Villagomez ‘Claiming residual spaces in the heterogeneous city’. In: Jeffrey Hou Insurgent Public Space. Guerrilla Urbanism and the Remaking of Contemporary Cities (London: Routledge, 2010) pp 81-95. 19
Introduction Personal motivation This is a design driven research which topic was highly influenced by my participation in Architecture Festival ‘Freedom Impulses’ in Kaunas, Lithuania.(fig. 2) My friend and worked on a project which aimed to create proposals of how Freedom Avenue, the most widely used pedestrian street in Kaunas, could be rehabilitated and reactivated whilst creating a contemporary piece of architecture in the historic environment. Detailed investigation during the project raised a lot of questions about identity of space and its meaning to community, as well as collective memory and space transformation during different historic times. After analysis, our proposal focused on underused courtyard space occupied by cars, offering to open the space to main street and to reclaim it for public use whilst creating an enterprise zone for young and creative people to experiment and occupy the space by temporary use (fig. 3). It was an idea of creating a social catalyst in the neighbourhood in contrast of being a non-place10 (fig. 4). During the festival period, projects were presented in front of the ‘eyesore’ building on Freedom Avenue to encourage public awareness and discussion, giving an opportunity to vote for the favourite project. In the end, our proposal received 3rd place out of 27 other projects in the festival.This proves peoples’ interest in forgotten or underutilised space reclamation for public use. Problem definition There are many spaces in urban fabric which lack identity and have no or little function. These spaces vary in shape and type and can be perceived as waste of space which intersects with the public realm. Furthermore, public realm became the space of mobility rather than the place to stay due to the ever changing patterns of public space usage and the growing pace of life in consumerist society. The basis of this research is it to emphasise the potential of excess phenomenon in the modern
city which can be treated as waste of space, waste of public realm and waste of materials. All aforementioned factors can be reinvented through architectural intervention. Reactivated residual space would be the result of empowered public participation in place creation by using eco- design structures created from reused discarded materials. The research intends to create design recommendations for reactivation of residual urban space with low-tech intervention tools and community participation, turning underused space into social catalyst. Vast declining amount of gap sites as well as the decline of public realm is the result of failed industries and Modern movement which neglected the idea of organic space creation leaving a lot of negative and ill-defined spaces. Reactivation of residual urban spaces is a relevant topic for every modern city which has to face the issue and find the methods of dealing with it. There is a good example of this program called Stalled Spaces11 initiated by Glasgow City Council in collaboration with Glasgow Housing Association in order to reactivate vacant land in the city by giving it a temporary use. It is open for proposals and participation with creative infill of residual space by interim use for communities and other initiatives as long as the projects will benefit local residents. This year I am involved in one of the Stalled Spaces projects called Mobilelands which aims to reactivate incivility gaps indicated by Glasgow City Council. This research gives a unique opportunity to evaluate and inform the live project as well as test design recommendations created from the analysis described. There is good evidence of projects in Europe where residual urban space is reactivated by temporary intervention, however, there is little evidence of creating a strategy which fosters the idea of public participation empowerment and up-cycling discarded materials in order to
10To track research and ideas for Freedom Impulses project in architecture festival in Kaunas relevant information was placed in 11 Stalled Spaces Handbook this blog by me and my friend Paulina Naruseviciute. Available: http://www.glasgow.gov.uk/CHttpHandler. Available: http://urbanrestart.wordpress.com/[30/12/2013] ashx?id=13597&p=0 [30/12/2013] 20
Fig. 2 Proposal for Kaunas Architecture Festival 2013 ‘Freedom Impulses’ (Authors: Laura Petruskeviciute, Paulina Naruseviciute)
Fig. 3 Concept diagram for Kaunas Architecture Festival 2013 ‘ Freedom Impulses’.Value what exists/Nurture the possible/ Define what is missing. (Authors: Laura Petruskeviciute, Paulina Naruse-
Fig. 4 Proposal for Kaunas Architecture Festival 2013 ‘Freedom Impulses’ showing relationship between courtyard and street. (Authors: Laura Petruskeviciute, Paulina Naruseviciute)
Fig. 5 Word Cloud diagram based on words frequency in text and reflecting main topics of essay. (Authorâ€™s image)
The dissertation, following this introduction is divided into five parts where each of part explores the following: Part 1 (Waste) identifies emerged problems in current urban tissue of residual space, the decline of public realm and discarded materials. It explores scale and origins of each problem as well as reveals missed out opportunities. Part 2 (Regeneration) is focused on Reactivation of residual urban space is about investigation of methods to fulfil the potential making it accessible for public use applying of previously stated problems. It explores the temporary activities which would give an ideas of place creation, participation, ply and identity for ill-defined leftover space. Projects materials up-cycling. and the framework of work by architectural Part 3 (Case studies) investigates and practices like atelier dâ€™ architecture autogeree evaluates a selection of unique case studies (aaa) and Basurama reveal cornerstones of against set criteria of affordability, public dealing with residual urban spaces and became engagement, construction time, life span and an exemplary case studies in this research. the reactivation of areas in order to define the most viable space reactivation approach. As In order to create design recommendations for a result, design recommendations are created up-cycling space research defines the following of what steps need to be taken in order to primary objectives: reactivate residual urban space. Part 4 (Testbed in Glasgow) presents the -To analyse defined phenomenon of waste. program of Stalled Spaces and the project Creating theoretical grounding. Mobilelands, where the reader will be -To depict offered potential and to investigate introduced to site and initial proposals. methods of solving the problem. Part 5 (Conclusion: A Method of Up-cycling -To create design guidelines after evaluation Space) reflects on research findings, and comparison of case studies. emphasising an idea of regenerative design -To test created design recommendations which is about reusing discarded materials against live project Mobilelands. in an eco- design approach and empowering public participation in order to reactivate the reactivate residual urban space. It reflects an idea of regenerative design approach which seeks a waste- free system. The concept of up-cycling the space manifests an idea of regeneration of residual urban space, discarded materials and social capital. It is an efficient method for long term results without the risk of high capital investment.
residual site. Methodology The primary idea of research is to create design recommendations which explore the potential of residual space reactivation as the trigger to regenerate public realm and to re-use discarded materials. Literature review and case studies evaluation are the main tools of the research as it provides an understanding of context and relevant theories. Reading and reviewing books, journals and online resources will help to define the problems and methods of dealing with them. Analysing statistics of waste and governmental strategies will reveal the current waste management situation, as well as create a scope for the use of discarded and available materials. Also, analysis of relevant case studies will help to provide an understanding and evaluate what methods of space reactivation approach works in real practice and what can be learnt from them. Mapping and visiting residual sites in Glasgow as well as documenting them through taking photographs will provide information about the vast amount of residual spaces in urban tissue.
Fig. 6 Methodology (Author’s image)
Fig. 7 Concept diagram.’ Up- cycling space’.(Author’s image) 23
Part 1 WASTE
1.1 Residual Urban Space 1.2 The Decline of Public Space 1.3 Discarded Materials
1.1 Residual Urban Space Space is a medium enhancing urban experience as connection of public, semi-public and private domains. Every unspecified space challenges urban coherence and becomes as a waste with unfulfilled possibilities or in other wordsresidual space. Meaning of residual in English dictionary is described as “an amount still remaining after part is subtracted or accounted for; a remainder”.12 In the context of space and urban environment it can be extremely diverse and vary in shape and type. It is, indeed, an integral part of every urban tissue dating the first settlements, if it is considered as a balance between solid and loose. It can be depicted as inverted diagram of built and unbuilt spaces, where expanding city is reversing loose space to solid (fig. 8).The diagram depicts changing pattern of residual space’s nature with growing urbanity. In the early stages of city formation it could be defined as unbuilt territories for city expansion, whereas later it became a mixture of undeveloped and new emerging urban gaps within the city fabric. Historically, the value of land was too high to be merely left disused and abandoned. “From the medieval fortified towns throughout Europe to dense cities of Asia, urban life and intense land use were interdependent phenomena.”13 In general, it is a result of smaller scale settlements which create stronger connectivity between local people and the space they inhabit allowing them to appropriate and interact directly with the everyday built environment more efficiently. It is still prominent within third countries that lack the economic means to do otherwise. However, in modern city the amount of residual urban spaces in the form as it exists today is “ relatively recent urban phenomenon”.14(fig. 9) In
Fig. 8 Development of residual space typologies. (Author’s image)
‘Finding Lost Space’, Roger Trancik writes: ‘Generally speaking, lost spaces are the undesirable urban areas that are in need of redesign—anti spaces, making no positive contribution to the surrounding or users. They are ill-defined, without measurable boundaries, and fail to connect elements in a coherent way.’15 It is, also, the figure of excess which characterize the situation of supermodernity.16 It reflects general tendency of cities to grow outwards rather than finding the space in existing urban tissue17, leaving the wasted space in the inner core of the city. From the fer from great industrial wastelands, underused car parking etc.
12 Online English Dictionary http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/16 3583?rskey=UXki5g&result=1&isAdvanced=false#eid [ 06/02/14] 13 Eric Villagomez, ‘Claiming residual spaces in the heterogeneous city’. In: Jeffrey Hou Insurgent Public Space. Guerrilla Urbanism and the Remaking of Contemporary Cities (London: Routledge, 2010) p 81
15 Roger Trancik Finding Lost Space: Theories of Urban Design (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1986) pp 3-4. 16 Marc Auge, Non- places: introduction to an anthropology of supermodernity (London: Verso, 1995 ) According, to M. Auge supermodernity is excess of events and space.
17 Sampo Ruoppila, ‘Eastern European cities in the making - temporary land use as a tool for cultural projects ’Journal for Northeast Issues, 3 (2004), pp 24-6. 14 Ibid., p 81. Villagomez refers to North American cities situation Available: http://www.kaupunkikettu.fi/temporary2004.html [acwhich is applicable to all modern, post-industrial cities which suf- cessed 10 November 2013] 26
Fig. 9 Dense amount of vacant sites in Glasgow urban fabric is the result of failed industry.(Authorâ€™s image based on Glasgow City Council incivility sites map)
planning point of view there is an economic necessity to use leftover space rather than conquer new lands.18 It is, actually a phenomenon of human being creating this junkspace as if the resources of space are endless. Koolhaas writes: ‘If space-junk is the human debris that litters the universe, junk-space is the residue mankind leaves on the planet.’19 Than the first question arises is: what actions of mankind determined the vast amount appearance of residual spaces in cities? Trancik has distinguished five main factors which had impact on negative spaces in cities:20 1. An increased dependence on the automobile; Large scale cities require greater mobility and transport links which, create movement corridors along highways and roads. Auge called them as “none-places”21 - spaces which are lack of significance and are only overlooked by people from moving vehicles. Also, vast amount of parking lots are created, which are dual- use spaces. They only have a single use at certain times but are mostly vacant after business hours. J. Jacobs agrees on destructive element of automobiles in city fabric, however she is more concerned about incompetence at city building where the pressure falls under the planners and designer’s decision making.22 Increased infrastructure separates neighborhoods minimizing level of contact between local people creating general alienation with space. 2. The attitude of architects of the Modern Movement toward open space; The movement brought an idea of building more as an object in itself where the design of
18 Charles Jencks, Nathan Silver Adhocism: The Case for Improvisation (London: Secker & Warburg, 1972), p 68 19 Rem Koolhas 2001 Junk Space. Available: http://www.cavvia.net/junkspace/ [ 10/11/2013] 20Roger Trancik Finding Lost Space: Theories of Urban Design (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1986) pp 4-17 21Marc Auge, Non- places: introduction to an anthropology of supermodernity (London: Verso, 1995 ) 22 Jane Jacobs The Death and life of great American cities (London: Jonathan Cape, 1962) p 7 28
space between buildings was simply ignored. Such an attitude was radical against organic medieval or renaissance city planning creating mechanical and soulless environments. Buildings than are acting more as an objects rather than a part of the whole system where the space in between is undefined and lost. It creates a struggle for people to appropriate the space resulting in the failure of project. 3. Zoning and land-use policies of the urbanrenewal period that divided the city; It was an attempt to recreate rundown areas of city through segregation of land uses into discrete zones where high-rise towers were built to increase ground level-density. It resulted in unresponsive habitable environments where functions of living, working and leisure where separated and the connection between community and built environment were lost. It can be well illustrated with the demolition of Pruitt- Igoe Housing Project in 1955. A counter move against modernism towards creating better urban environment was done by Gehl’s urban study ‘Life Between Buildings’ first published in 1971. It aims to tackle the issue fostering humanistic planning principles to serve and inspire designs in growing cities. It also analyses existing people activities in urban environment suggesting design tips to improve their urban experience. There is a great need to reinvent non-spaces between buildings as they directly affect human well being. 4. An unwillingness on the part of contemporary institutions- public and private- to assume responsibility for the public urban environment; Buildings as an objects in urban fabric tends to act separately segregating domains of public and private on ground level and converting collective spaces into private spheres. In a way, these are spaces with blurred boundaries where the indifference for sense of ownership and responsibilities towards public space either from governmental or private bodies results directly in welfare of public realm. 5. An abandonment of industrial, military, or transportation sites in the inner core of the city; Changing pattern of land use is one of the greatest factors creating lost spaces in the inner core of the city. Some sites can
be described as derelict land indicating brown-fields and containing small amounts of hazardous pollutants other as vacant land. It can be simply a leftover land after demolition of previous building awaiting for new redevelopment. Some of these spaces have embodied history which can be significant in the collective memory of community. All mentioned factors above are the result of residual space in modern city which can appear in types of: Spaces Between, Spaces Around, Rooftops, Wedges, Redundant Infrastructure, Oversized Infrastructure, Void Spaces and Spaces Below.23 It is important to understand their typologies and how they are created as well as their potential use in order to achieve successful reactivation.
Fig. 10 Scene from movie ‘ Stalker’ directed by A. Tarkovsky. It depicts all environment beyond derelict site ‘ Zone’ in B&W tones creating cold and unwelcoming atmosphere. ( © Lorber Films)
Although, these spaces are indicated as negative they also can be interpret as opportunity spaces. They are like islands of possibilities in the structured and programmed city environment. This allegorical meaning of derelict space is illustrated in the movie directed by Andrei Tarkovsky ‘Stalker’.24 Where he highlights the distinct nature of residual space called Zone by depicting it in colour scenes whereas ordinary environment was shown in B&W tones. Tarkovsky’s approach of colour usage emphasizes the contrast between two worlds of formal and informal. The Zone is derelict place with catastrophic history that appeared after meteorite burned a settlement causing human disappearances. However, in the middle of Zone there is a room where all human desires can be fulfilled. A new profession arisenStalker - a person who guides curious people to Fig. 11 Scene from movie ‘ Stalker’ directed by A. Tarkovsky . Zone. Apparently, Zone is alive and responsive In contrast, derelict site ‘ Zone’ is shown in color tone creating environment with its own rules which need to promising and welcoming environment atmosphere. (© Lorber Films) be followed by intruders to reach their final destination. An idea of Zone can be plotted to any residual space which seems to be isolated from outer world though having a potential of being a land of opportunity allowing to experiment and fulfill desires which may not be
23 Eric Villagomez, ‘Claiming residual spaces in the heterogeneous city’. In: Jeffrey Hou Insurgent Public Space. Guerrilla Urbanism and the Remaking of Contemporary Cities (London: Routledge, 2010) p 83 24 Stalker . 1979. Film. Directed by A. Tarkovsky .163 min. Soviet Union 29
The current alienation with environment as well as lost ownership has happened due to several reasons. In comparison to ancient Greece and Rome or Medieval Europe there is a great change in our system of dependence as well as dominance of home domain which leads to lifestyle driven by private interests and personal desires. There is no need to go Nature of residual urban spaces have been changing since historic times, however recently to plaza to exchange the news with friends as it can be easily done via phone or via they appear in urban tissue as gap sites the internet at home.30 Also, cooperation disturbing coherent public realm. In contrast within city inhabitants has deteriorated as to ordinary public spaces, these are spaces everyone depends now on the global system which can be used playfully with low levels of production and distribution. Privatization of investment, regulation and surveillance. is another issue transforming the concept of Part 2 will discuss what approach should be considered in order to reactivate residual urban public space into pseudo-public spaces such as malls, corporate plazas and redeveloped parks. spaces. It restricts the rights of using space by opening and closing hours as well as allowed activities 1.2 The Decline of Public Space where every human interaction is planned or even recorded. It aims homogenization and There is a common and historic assumption purity in space usage fostering brand- oriented that public life occurs in open space.26 consumption. Even worse, it limits diversity These open spaces can be regarded as public of social exchange were certain individuals spaces as long as they are accessible to all or groups can be excluded from using public people for free use and enjoyment of civic space. life. However, such an ideal space hardly exist as most of them depend on private or public Dead public spaces are also the result of authorities. There is a bill currently passing Modern Movement in architecture. The through UK parliament which aims to expand the power of governmental authorities such as most influential was the Functionalist council and the police so that they almost have Movement which started in the first half of the twentieth century.31 It pursued an idea of a free will to define the use of urban spaces.27 Even more, according to statistics, UK citizens pure architecture and freestanding buildings behavior in public spaces are recorded in nearly in their own space and time resulting in today’s individual isolated buildings by roads six million security cameras which means 28 and parking lots. Public space became one for every ten people. Such a control a functional space serving roads. Also, over public space reflects the current attitude functionalists applied urban grid which created towards it as a space which provokes fears non-hierarchical and mechanical spaces for its uncontrolled nature, in which society is exceptionally fragile. The public sphere can be where center for public gathering was hardly identified. The pattern of street use as social described as leftover space in urban reality.29 and economic was transformed, directing masses to enclosed malls and sunken plazas. possible to complete anywhere else. Residual spaces are ‘… spaces of relative freedom where rules and codes can still be redefined.’25 Appropriation of these spaces can be done through temporary use as usually gap sites have the future redevelopment plans.
25 Doina Petrescu ‘Loosing control, keeping desire’ in Peter Blundell Jones, Doina Petrescu, Jeremy Till Architecture and Participation (London. New York : Spon Press, 2005) pp 43-64 26 Brill Michaels, ‘An Ontology for Exploring Urban Public Life Today‘, Places, Volume 6, Number 1 (1989) pp 24-31.
“ The modern city dweller is forced to create a social life on personal, controllable territory instead of engaging in a communal existence
27 Josie Appleton ‘The end of Public Space’ The Architectural Review . Issue number 1404, Volume CCXXXV, (February 2014) p 18. 28 Catherine Slessor ‘Editorial View’ The Architectural Review, Issue number 1404, Volume CCXXXV, (February 2014) p 13.
30 Mark Chidister ‘PUBLIC PLACES, PRIVATE LIVES: Plazas and the Broader Public.‘Places. Volume 6, Number 1(1989) p 35.
29 Rem Koolhaas, Bruce Mau, Office for Metropolitan Architecture. S,M,L,XL (Rotterdam: 010 Publishers, 1995)
31 Roger Trancik Finding Lost Space: Theories of Urban Design (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1986)
around the street.”32 Public space today is missing sense of collectiveness and became more as a space of mobility. It seems that people do not take advantage of this luxury anymore. However, vitality of public space is dependent on personal choice and decision to act in publicity even if there is no obligation to do that.33 Essentially, public space character and meaning is formed and defined by how people choose to use it.34 The main issue, is empowerment of community to take control over their environment. There is a need to rethink public space. D. Mitchell writes that “ strugglewhich is the only way that the right to public space can be maintained...”35 Public space is for people to be together, to interact, to exchange, to create, to learn, to trade and to collaborate. In Part 2 I will explore ideas of participation and ply as successful methods of creating public space in residual urban site. Fig. 12 Fresco by Ambrogio Lorenzetti ‘The Allegory of Good and Bad Government’ in the Town Hall of Siena. This fresco depicts late Medieval City life which shows vibrant street life which is defined by exchange of goods and information in the main square.
Fig. 13 Painting by Mario Sironi ‘Urban Landscape’ depicts modernist view of city expressing dominance of built environment which is rather dull and unfriendly. ( Image: Date painted: c.1924, Oil on paper, 26.5 x 38.5 cm Estorick Collection, London) Comparison of these artworks reveal contrasting ideas towards the space and built environment in different historic times. It also reveals general attitude to public realm. If in Medieval city people activities embraced street life creating organic environment with built and unbuilt spaces than in modern city built environment is overwhelming.
32 Roger Trancik Finding Lost Space: Theories of Urban Design (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1986) p 10. 33 Mark Chidister ‘PUBLIC PLACES, PRIVATE LIVES: Plazas and the Broader Public.‘Places. Volume 6, Number 1(1989) p 36. 34 Karen Franck A., Quentin Stevens Loose Space: Diversity and Possibility in Urban Life (New York: Routledge, 2007) pp 10-11. 35 Don Mitchell The right to the city: social justice and the fight for public space (New York : Guilford Press, 2003) p. 5. 31
1.3 Discarded materials Differently from nature, city as a living organism do not reuse everything it produces. Materials enter the city on daily basis as products and leave as a waste in the landfill.36 The issue of waste is especially arising in the consumption driven societies and will increase with a growing population in later years. That would lead to expanding landfill sites and increasing landfill taxes to Government. For example, last year Glasgow council paid £13 million in landfill tax to the Government.37 Better control of waste by reducing and limiting the amount of it going to landfill sites can shrink the amount of carbon footprint as well as save recourses. The process of recycling waste is a parallel idea of residual space reclamation.38 Almost all materials can be reused and brought back to cycle of life. That even refers to an idea of “zero waste city” which targets 100% of recycling rate and recovery of waste materials.39 For instance, the Scottish Government’s Zero Waste Plan set the target to city of Glasgow to recycle or compost 60% of produced waste by 2020 and it will rise up to 70% by 2025. The plan indicates proposed Glasgow waste hierarchy (fig. 14) which aims at first to reduce the amount of waste which greatly depends on consumers awareness. Then, it indicates reuse and recycle. But what does it mean to recycle? Most of the recycling could be called as down-cycling which refers to reduced quality and value of material and additional energy resources involved in processing new product. 40 Recycling is a part of material’s life-cycle known as cradle to grave which analyzes the environmental impact of product during its life-span. However, even with reduced amount of waste going to landfills the environmental impact of products still remains and it reflects an idea of ‘Being “Less Bad” Is No Good’.41 In contrast, the concept of Cradle to Cradle42 design suggests an idea of regenerative design. It is a holistic economic, industrial and social framework that seeks to create systems that are not only efficient but also essentially waste free. The concept of up-cycling is the first step towards cradle to cradle design approach and it should be applied in waste management strategy instead of recycling in order to reduce environmental impact of products. Waste can be described differently depending on personal perception, as one person can discard what they perceive as a waste while another can treat it as resource of material.43 Quite Fig 14. Glasgow waste hierarchy.(Author’s image)
36 Frank Ackerman ‘Materials flows for a sustainable city’. International Review for Environmental Strategies.Vol. 5, No. 2, (2005) pp 499 - 510. 37 Glasgow city Council Page Available: http://www.glasgow.gov.uk/index.aspx?articleid=4597 [ 14/02/14] 38 Charles Jencks, Nathan Silver Adhocism: The Case for Improvisation (London: Secker & Warburg, 1972) p 68. 39 Steffen Lehmann ‘Urban growth and waste management optimization towards ‘zero waste city’ City, Culture and Society 2 (2011) pp 177-187. 40William McDonough & Michael Braungart Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things (New York: Nort Point Press, 2002) p 56. 41William McDonough & Michael Braungart Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things (New York: Nort Point Press, 2002) pp 45-68. 42The concept of ‘Craddle to Cradle’ is registered under McDonough Braungart Design Chemistry (MBDC) consultants.
43 Steffen Lehmann ‘Urban growth and waste management optimization towards ‘zero waste city’ City, Culture and Society 2(2011) pp 177-187. 32
LIFE -CYCLE CRADLE-TO- GRAVE
CRADLE- TO - CRADLE
CRADLE - TO -GRAVE Energy in the Making energy product has a supply chain that begins with harvesting virgin materials and processing them into their finished form. All processes require energy and interfaces with environment.
Fig 15. Product life cycle diagram ‘Cradle to grave’ (Author’s image)
Take it back UP unlike recycling, upcycling drives materials back to supply chain to be reused, negating the need for further virgin stock and reducing waste
Even best landfills eventually suffer from leaks with chemicals, metals and plastics effecting water supply, life of plants and animals.
LIFE -CYCLE CRADLE-TO- CRADLE 1.100% Renewable Energy Use 2. Water Stewardship clean water output 3. Social Responsibility positive impact on community 3. Material Reutilization recycle-ability/ compost-ability 5. Material Health impact on human and environment
Fig 16. Product life cycle diagram ‘Cradle to cradle’ (Author’s image based on Zhiying diagram) 33
often as a manifestation of environmental activism, temporary projects aim to use discarded materials not only to highlight the waste associated with modern living and to demonstrate the potential for re-using materials but also it is often a financial viable solution to realize the project.44 A great variety of materials which are collected by recycling centres (fig. 17) have a potential to be re-used or up-cycled in architectural interventions or artworks .(fig. 18) There is a need to rethink materials around and to reinvent waste bringing it back to functional and aesthetically pleasant shape which would benefit environment by offsetting carbon, water and slavery footprints. Part2 will explore the phenomenon of up-cycling found in counterculture movement, architecture and art. Fig 17. Waste composition diagram. 346, 917 tonnes of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) were collected by or on behalf of Glasgow City Council during 2008/2009. Diagram depicts composition of waste materials.(Authorâ€™s image based on info from Glasgow City Council Waste Strategy) *WEEE- Waste and Electronic Equipment
44 Peter Bishop and Lesley Williams The Temporary City (New York: Routledge, 2012) p 144. 34
Fig 18. Matrix Diagram. Potential of framability of discarded materials in construction.(Authorâ€™s image)
REGENERATION 2.1 Creating the Place 2.2 Public Empowerment 2.3 Up-cycling Materials
2.1 Creating the Place In the first part described residual urban spaces cannot be perceived as places as they are lack of identity and successive relation with environment.45 The nature of residual spaces vary establishing different scenarios of appropriation. Temporary activities could be the most applicable reactivation and place creation strategy for residual spaces due to several reasons. First of all, they can be low risk with possible high reward as they can change feel of area and strengthen community sense without significant financial investment. Also, they would embrace an idea to perceive residual urban spaces as experimental and creative laboratory for community to strengthen its identity and sense of ownership. There are different approaches for interim activities and they can be categorized as: consumerist, playful and productive. These activities occupies the space temporarily giving it another meaning, without modifying it. Different nature of activities might be more suitable to reactivate only particular type of residual urban space. In order, to achieve that it is important to understand the nature and limitations of each activity against the type of residual urban space. (fig. 19) Consumerist temporary activities can be perceived as pop-up shops, restaurants, markets or fairs. This approach promotes temporary use of vacant retail space as well as can offer a small business opportunities for entrepreneurs. In the case of pop-shop or restaurant it should be a mobile unit which enables flexibility to reactivate diverse range of vacant sites. However, its success highly depends on site proximity to peopleâ€™ flow. On the other hand, pop-up shops or restaurants can reactivate space if the residual site is located close to existing business and could act as its extension. It is most likely to happen with spaces around, rooftops and spaces between. Another consumerist activity to be pursuit is market. Street vendors can appear in a variety of unexpected places (fig. 20) offering their goods and attracting crowds of consumers. Market activity can reactivate any residual urban space and it varies in types such as car boot sales, flea markets, night markets and farmer markets offering a diverse social exchange. Car boot sale gained huge popularity in the UK since they were first established in the 1970s.46 They are likely to reactivate void spaces, wedges or even spaces below attracting people for
Fig. 19 What interim activity suits best to reactivate residual
45 Marc Auge, Non- places: introduction to an anthropology of supermodernity (London: Verso, 1995 ) 46 Peter Bishop and Lesley Williams The Temporary City (New York: Routledge, 2012) p 75. 36
Fig.20 Consumerist Street vendors in Talad Rom Hoop market. Informal occupation of space. An example how railway ‘non-space’ can act as interactive and engaging place. ( Photo: Rungroj Yongrit/EPA)
Fig. 21 Playful Public space intervention. The project for design and construction from low cost materials in Cairo in 2012 by Basurama. The structure engaged local people providing sun shade during day time and was lit during the night (Photo: Basurama)
Fig. 22 Productive A part of London Festival of Architecture in 2010 ‘Urban Orchard’ turned residual space into interactive gardening and workshop space, where people could learn about urban food growing. (Photo: Mike Massaro)
its inexpensive and affordable second hand goods. Farmer markets usually offers more expensive organic or handmade products. It is especially popular recently with growing trend of sustainable and healthy living. Depending on its scale, it might be successful for reactivation of redundant or oversized infrastructure spaces. The pop-up retailing operation time may vary from certain hours, days to annual event spaces. This phenomenon has a natural power to attract people because of its offered commodities. There is a diverse range of playful interim activities. The concept of ply represents the potential to stimulate urban experience through boosting active and creative public behavior.47 These activities taking place in residual spaces would manifest an idea of unpredictable behavioral possibilities opposing to predetermined instrumental activities in ordinary public spaces. They usually take form of sport or event and can vary from temporary gatherings for breakfast,48 open air cinema, playgrounds, design installations (fig. 21) or even annual festivals. For example, London Festival of Architecture is focusing on reclaiming public spaces with events, installations and temporary structures. These activities should engage with public and invite community for open participation. Productive temporary activities as urban gardening emerged from Green Guerillas activist movement in New York. It has started with gardening and occupation of public or private land without permission.49 Urban gardening is the most widespread temporary intervention usually inspired and lead by communities. Some urban gardening temporary interventions like Urban Orchard (fig. 22) is a great example of space activation where people exchange knowledge of urban growing as well as learn to do things themselves during DIY workshops. Garden acts as social catalyst which can fulfill recreational community needs and is often valued as place to work, meet other
people, to socialize and to grow flowers or vegetables. ‘The garden takes on “ the spirit” of place- a connectedness to the built and natural world.’50 According to 2009 New Local Government Network estimations, there is a huge demand of allotments in UK51 indicating 100,000 people waiting on the list. This conditions lead community gardening projects even more successful. Urban gardening might be achieved at very low cost and is quite flexible form to appropriate available space. However it success highly depends on strong community involvement. 2.2 Public Empowerment Residual urban spaces intersects public realm distracting coherent urban experience. On the other hand, they can be regarded as a continuation of public space. If “public space can be redefined as ‘open’ space, a space that, whether it is private or public property, is open to diverse use”52 than, residual urban space could be regarded as such. It is also reinforced with an idea of Mitchell who states that “public spaces were only public: to the degree that they were taken and made public.”53 So, disregarding property status it seems that public space phenomenon is strongly defined by people/users will and involvement in its creation. When it comes to residual space reactivation, the best design approach achieving this would be empowerment. Spatial Agency described this approach as something pro-active allowing people to take control over their own environment.54 The key words to achieve this would be ‘participation’ and ‘ply’. In architecture, participation is related with DIY movement and hands- on experience and can 50 Francis Mark ‘The Urban Garden as Public Space‘ Places Volume 6, Number 1 (1989) p 53. 51Peter Bishop and Lesley Williams The Temporary City (New York: Routledge, 2012) p 144.
47 Quentin Stevens The Ludic City: Exploring the potential of public spaces (London, New York: Routledge, 2007) p 29. 48Peter Bishop and Lesley Williams The Temporary City (New York: Routledge, 2012) p 109. 49 Doina Petrescu ‘Loosing control, keeping desire’ in Peter Blundell Jones, Doina Petrescu, Jeremy Till Architecture and Participation (London. New York : Spon Press, 2005) p 33. 38
52 Tom Avermaete, Klaske Havik , Hans Teerds ‘Editorial’. ‘Into the open’. Oase #77 December (2008) p 2. 53 Don Mitchell The right to the city: social justice and the fight for public space (New York : Guilford Press, 2003) p 142.
54 Spatial Agency Available: http://www.spatialagency.net/database/how/ empowerment/ [16/03/2014]
be well illustrated by projects of Walter Segal self built housing55 or Habraken56 support and infill ideas. Both of which are emphasizing importance of active individual participation in its built environment. It is also usually about working in the manageable scale were low-tech approach is applicable. A design method for reactivation of residual space should seek participatory approach to guarantee successful exploitation of space. Participation is naturally embedded in urban gardening and also can be achieved through playful activities. Play can take form in four different ways: competition, simulation, chance and vertigo.57 Each of them represents different ways how the escape from instrumental everyday routine can be achieved. Competitive ply is about testing skills and strength. Simulation ply is when people forget their practical everyday roles pursuing act of ‘lets pretend’. Chance events create opportunity to escape from programmed activities exposing oneself to unpredictable situations. Whereas, vertigo is about sublime experience of environment through actions such as climbing, jumping, squeezing into small space etc., where people are confronted to risk and loss of safe form of movement.58 Residual spaces are niche for architectural intervention to achieve all of mentioned conditions, boosting the sense of ownership and creating unpredictable, creative social exchange spots from previous leftover spaces. 2.3 Up -cycling Materials Up- cycling refers to an action where wasted material is given a new use or function of higher quality. It is a method of recycling which does not degrade the initial composition of material but re-invents it. The idea became especially popular now with the concepts of sustainable and ‘green’ living pursuing anti-consumerist approach. However, this phenomenon is not new and was practiced as long as discarded materials exist. It was especially significant with “counterculture” movement of Hippies in late 1960s. The main focus of movement was how to sustain free living out of formal society leftovers.59 It can be well illustrated with one of the most influential hippie commune Drop City (fig. 23) where homes were made out of waste, mainly scrap metal and wasted car roofs. Such phenomenon proves that one can live out of waste of the abundant consumerist society. Level of creativity expressed by Hippie strategy towards re-using discarded materials can inform designers about possible future function of product to serve user after the
Fig 23. Drop City Panorama. Photo Clarck Richert
55 Peter Blundell Jones ‘ Sixty-eight and after’ in Peter Blundell Jones, Doina Petrescu, Jeremy Till Architecture and Participation,(London. New York : Spon Press, 2005) p 93. 56 De Drager/A film about Architect John Habraken by Sonja Lüthi and Marc Schwarz. 2013 Available: http://vimeo.com/61410893 [ 15/11/2013] 57 Quentin Stevens ‘Why Berlin’s Holocaust Memorial is such a Popular Playground?’.Into the open’. Oase #77 (December, 2008) p 73. 58 Quentin Stevens ‘Why Berlin’s Holocaust Memorial is such a Popular Playground?’.Into the open’. Oase #77 (December, 2008) p 73. 59 Charles Jencks, Nathan Silver Adhocism: The Case for Improvisation (London: Secker & Warburg, 1972), pp 65-8 39
primary function is completed. This idea was tested with Alfred Heineken in collaboration with architect John Habraken to design a beer bottle which could serve as a brick afterwards. (fig. 24) Even though discarded materials can be re-invented in creative ways, products should be designed with greater consideration for possible future use without need of being recycled. That refers to the concept of cradle to cradle design described in Part1. Up- cycling is also favored by many artists not only because it is cheap way of sourcing art but also it is greatly about pursuing ideas and concepts with available materials. These artworks rise awareness of consumerist society as well as delivers interesting and aesthetically pleasant results. (fig. 27) Building with available materials is documented in “Garbage Warrior”(fig. 26) were architect Mike Reynolds shares an idea of Earthship design.60 He has developed a method of building off- grid house using discarded materials wherever possible such as drink cans, glass bottles and scrap metal. Earthship design proves the value of wasted material through reuse action. Even more, it emphasizes the idea of DIY using available and usually free of charge
60 Garbage Warrior 2007 Documentary. Directed by Oliver Hodge :Open Eye Media Ltd
Fig 24. Large and small versions of Heineken’s WOBO, designed by John Habraken.
materials creating a high end results. There is good evidence that discarded materials have a potential to be up-cycled in art or architectural interventions. To pursuit these interventions there is a need to understand waste flow and their availability. Recyclecity initiated by 2012Architecten use a term of harvestmap to reflect available waste materials in the area of project.61 This tool helps to maximize ecoefficiency of project by reducing transportation cost and carbon footprint. It is also a method towards eco-design which should be applied in up-cycling space interventions.
61 Recyclecity Online page Available: http://www.recyclicity.org/toolsharvestmap.html [05/03/2014]
Fig 25. The first and only WOBO house, built in 1965 near Alfred Heineken’s villa in Noordwijk, Holland.
Fig 27. Michael Johansson, ‘Self Contained‘, containers, caravans,tractor, Volvo, pallets and refrigerators, 2010
Fig 26. Earth rammed tires wall construction. Episode from “Garbage Warrior” 2007 Documentary. Directed by Oliver Hodge. Online Source.
Fig 28. The Big Crunch, by Raumlabor 2011, Darmstadt, Germany
CASE STUDIES 3.1 Case studies selection 3.2 The Place of Giant, Paris 3.3 Folly for a Flyover, London 3.4 Temporary Amusement Park, Lima 3.5 Open- Air Library, Magdeburg 3.6 ECObox, Paris 3.7 Evaluation & Recommendations
3.1 Case studies selection Ideas of place creation, public empowerment and materials upcycling can all be combined and achieved in the form of architectural intervention resulting in residual space reactivation. Chosen case studies represents architectural collectives who have a public interest and seek active public involvement in projects delivery. Some practices like Basurama or Atelier d’architecture autogérée (aaa) has developed the whole framework of project approach driven by public participation and waste re-using. For instance, Basurama’s main focus is to re-use and to raise public awareness of waste and consumption through series of interventions, public art and workshops. (fig. 30, 31) While architecture collective Atelier d’architecture autogérée (aaa) could be described as a platform for collaborative research and actions on city. Their main focus is on creating self-managed systems, where local residents take over the control of their own environment. (fig. 29 )
Fig. 29 R-URBAN is a bottom-up strategy of urban resilience involving the creation of a network of locally closed ecological cycles linking a series of fields of urban activities (i.e., economy, habitat, mobility, urban agriculture, culture) and using land reversibly. Project is active since 2012.More info: http://r-urban.net/( Image: by (aaa)) From up to down Fig. 30 ‘Trans Trash: Understanding waste streams.’ (Boston) Inside the inflatable structure with re-used plastic bag made during the workshop ‘How to make inflatables in 8 steps: Cut + Paste + Inflate + Dive celebrate ‘ (Photo by Basurama) Fig. 31 Outside the inflatable structure. This simple reinvention of waste became as engaging and playful social catalyst.( Photo: by Basurama)
Case studies selection was based on concept of ‘up-cycling space’ stated in the previous parts and contain the main components of residual space, community participation and lowtech approach re- using discarded materials. Also, each case study has a unique site conditions and methods dealing with residual space. Close investigation of case studies has given an opportunity to reflect what can be learned from each scenario. Moreover, cross linking examples of cases studies and evaluating them against set criteria of affordability, life span, construction time, public engagement and reactivated area has helped to determine the most viable approach of residual space reactivation. This study informs how effectively to approach the Stalled Spaces project in Glasgow Mobileland. 43
3.2 The Place of Giant
Key data Protagonists: Collectif Etc, artists, community members City: Saint-Étienne Country: France Year: 2011 Area: 700 m2 Cost: 30,000 €
Gehl pointed out that when the quality of outdoor space is desirable, not only necessary activities but also optional activities take place there.62 Obviously, it should be a desirable aim in all public space projects. There is good evidence that Collectif Etc with participation of local residents turned a vacant land in Saint-Étienne into desirable place to stay. The site is situated on the intersection of Ferdinand and Cugnot Street and used to be a location for petrol station which was demolished due to the future estate development on the site. The plans were not realized, and the site became as between space in the old city environment serving only cars. Collectif Etc were commissioned to reactivate the space by the City Council under the program of ‘urban renewal’. The proposal of Collectif Etc was called “Embracing Change ”working with people for the realization of the public space, and use the time of construction of four weeks, exchange and involve the population in the long term.’ 63 First strategic moves which were done , before the site was open for public participation, were presentations for local authorities, residents and stakeholders to share the idea of project and its aims. In addition, the online blog64 was opened to record every day progress on site and to spread the information about the project in wider city context. The concept of design was to resemble the future housing plan on ground and section on adjoining building. Also, artistic interventions were done around the site in city inviting people to build the square themselves. A good promotion and the diversity of activities offered on site during construction period, attracted variety of people from diverse backgrounds to take part in shaping the public square. A series of public workshops were run by architects to appropriate the site according to the designated plan. Different age and occupations local people were engaged in: wall painting, the gardening and carpentry workshops. One member of Collectif Etc noted that it was a great experience to act on the space everybody shares. 65 The wall painting done by street artists Ella&Pitr created the identity of square making it a desirable destination not only for local people. Lesson learned: -Make community aware about the project before it starts -Involve community in the project from the very first day -Use benefits offered by residual site -Share and track information about happening activities online -Provide workshops of DIY furniture and gardening -Collaborate with artists creating identity of space
62 Jan Gehl Life Between Buildings (2nd ed. London: Island Press, 2011) 63 Collectif Etc, ‘Embracing change! Available : http://www.collectifetc.com/place-au-changement-chantier/ [04/01/2014] 64 Collectif Etc blog to record work progress Available: http://placeauchangement.site40.net/index.php [04/01/2014] 65 Collectif Etc (2012) Interview as part of the placemaking series published in ecosistemaurbano.org Available: http://vimeo.com/36268364 [04/01/2014]
Fig. 32 Residual urban space before intervention.(Photo: Collectif Etc) Fig. 33 Signs on abandonment building facades rising passersby awareness about regeneration of residual neighborhood space. (Photo: Collectif Etc) Fig. 34 Carpentry workshop on site lead by architects and local residents. (Photo: Collectif Etc) Fig. 35 The Place of Giant after work completion- new square in the neighborhood. (Photo: Collectif Etc) 45
3.3 Folly for a Flyover
Key data Protagonists: Assemble, volunteers City: London Country: UK Year:2011 Cost: £20,000
Folly for a Flyover is a beautiful example of how the space bellow can be upcycled providing multiple programs. The site is situated under the motorway flyover near the River Lea. The structure served as cinema and performances stage for 6 weeks in the evenings as a part of Create festival with ticketed entrance. While during day time people could access the structure free of charge and spend time in the coffee shop, participate in the workshops or other events as well as to row in the canal in boats and canoes. Assemble erected structure with a help of volunteers during the period of one month where they used mainly reclaimed, donated or recycled materials. For instance, the terrazzo floor was donated from nearby factory and wooden bricks were made from reclaimed timber which came from Ashwell’s timber yard. The dry technique of connecting bricks with ropes through drilled holes allowed structure to be quickly demountable and re-usable. One of the biggest costs was renting the scaffolding to hold the structure.66 The project was delivered as playful event space in unexpected environment. It attracted over 20,0000 visitors during the period of operation. It has consumerist approach method which attracted people for cinema screening and coffee shop visit. Paid entrance to movies denies idea of public space, limiting amount of participants. However, collected money was used to cover expenses of the project. Paloma Strelitz a member of Assemble hopes that this intervention will have a long– term effect in the future on people awareness about the potential of these spaces. 67 Lesson learned: -Use benefits offered by residual site -Resource local supplies for reclaimed or second hand materials -Find volunteers to help pursuit your concept -Explore the techniques of building to provide quickly demountable and re-usable structure -Consider paid entrance to cover cost of project
66 Naomi O’Leary (2011)‘ Folly for a Flyover: Pop-up architecture’ Available : http://www.ideastap.com/IdeasMag/all-articles/folly-for-a-flyover-piece [23/12/2013] 67 Naomi O’Leary (2011)‘ Folly for a Flyover: Pop-up architecture’
Available : http://www.ideastap.com/IdeasMag/all-articles/folly-for-a-flyover-piece [23/12/2013]
Fig. 36 Site- motorway flyover. (Photo: Planning Resource) Fig. 37 Wooden bricks from reclaimed timber. (Photo: Planning Resource) Fig. 38 In the evening structure serves as seating for watching cinema and as enclosed gathering space. (Photo: Assemble) Fig. 39 View to Folly from motorway.(Photo: Assemble) Fig. 40 During daytime structure serves as cafe space. (Photo: Assemble) 47
3.4 Temporary Amusement Park
Key data Protagonists: Basurama, local artists, architecture students City: Lima Country: Peru Year: 2010 Area: 1 mile long stretch of elevated train overpass Cost: € 1,500
Amusement Park in Lima also known as ‘Ghost Train’ Park was completed by non-profit practice based in Spain called Basurama as a part of RUS68 projects in Latin America. Work of Basurama is focusing on understanding the issue of urban solid waste and learning how to re- use it in a creative way, what is delivered through workshops, urban interventions, art works etc. The work framework developed by Basurama on RUS projects reveals what actions were taken as well as what actors were involved to generate the project. The’ Ghost Train’ Park illustrates how the residual space below is up-cycled using local waste. The first step of the project was to create a harvestmap to understand the location of available waste materials around the site of proposed project. The initial design idea was to build a playground from wasted car parts was left behind due to the high cost of material. Eventually, only car tires were used to deliver the project, which were available free of charge in the neighborhoods. A series of workshops were held off site (in centre of culture) by Basurama to erect the structure with a help of volunteers and local artists. It took two days to build a structure on site before it was open to public use. However, it did not last long, as the structure was demolished after one week, even though it was intended to stand for a month. Lesson learned: - Create a harvestmap to indicate the location of available materials source - Be flexible with design idea - Collaborate with local artists and residents to pursuit the project
Fig. 41 Site before intervention ( Photo: Basurama) Fig. 42 Engaging playground from tires ( Photo: Basurama) Fig. 43 Net for climbing from old tires ( Photo: Basurama) Fig. 44 Structure below serves as playground from reclaimed tires. ( Photo: Basurama)
68 Mazón, R., P. Basurama: a framework for designing collectively with waste. R+R 2013 Reclaim and Remake International Symposium, (Washington, DC. 11-13 April 2013) Available: http://basurama.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/130325_Pablo-Rey-Mazon_Basurama-a-framework-for-designing-collectively-with-waste_p.pdf [23/12/2013]
3.5 Open- Air- Library
Key data: Protagonists: Salbke BÜrgerverein (Citizens’ Group), Salbke Primary School, Aktion Musik e.V., Karo with
This project represents how temporary intervention was shifted to permanent built form lead by community enthusiasm. Former void site is situated in the district of Salbke at the intersection of two commercial streets and a residential street. The site was occupied by library building before and after it burned down it was never rebuilt. However, in the collective memory of residents it was a significant part of city cultural life. Even though, former library site was considered for renewal by the City Council , there were no funding available and architects initiated a participative workshop with residents on site where potential library model at 1:1 scale was built from donated beer crates by local beverage retailer.( fig. 46) Empty book shelves were filled with books generously donated by residents. For two days temporary intervention served as a stage for poetry festival and after disassembling, it had a lasting effect as the informal library was established by citizens group. Donated books were kept in the sales room adjoining the site and during the period of year the amount of donated books increased significantly. It shows an enthusiasm and willingness of residents as well as a need to have a space to serve as a social catalyst in the form of library in the site. During the planning period Burgerverein (Citizens’ Group) as well as primary school, a youth club and the congregation of local church were involved in the development of concept through collaborative work and discussions with architects. Citizens’ participative role had a huge impact on implemented façade material which is made from re-used façade of modernist department store (fig. 47). Today the library is operating 24 hours and is free to borrow and bring the books creating this continuing participation and engaging local residents. ‘It is a library of trust’69 . It is used on daily basis not only for reading and relaxing but also as a stage for cultural events. The project is an experiment testing the maturity of community. Minimal vandalism is apparent due to the fact, that residents invested money and were involved in the project from the very beginning. Lesson learned: -Investigate the history of residual site in relation to the community around -Test communities desire in a form of short term installations -Involve community participation in the form of consultation in order to specify certain design moves -Investigate local resources for reclaimed materials
69 Stefan Rettich ‘ Salbke District Library, Magdeburg’ in Philipp Oswalt, Klaus Overmeyer, Philipp Misselwitz Urban Catalyst: The Power of Temporary Use (Berlin: DOM publishers, 2013) p 316.
48 Fig. 45 Site before intervention ( Photo: Anja Schlamann) Fig. 46 Mock-up for open air library. Over a thousand beer crates were used to construct a 1:1 scale model on the definitive location. This was the venue for a small two-day reading and poetry festival.(Photo: Anja Schlamann) Fig. 47 Shopping mall which facade was reclaimed to construct open- air library. ( Photo : Karo architects) Fig. 48 Facade module (Photo: Karo architects) Fig. 49 Open- Air Library after work completion. New catalyst in the neighborhood. ( Photo: Karo architects) 51
Key data Protagonists: Atelier Architecture Autogeree (aaa team),artists, students, community City: Paris, area of La Chapelle Country: France Year: 2001 Cost: €55,000 per 5 years/ €100,000 value of voluntary work per 5 years
ECObox was initiated and curated by non-profit practice Atelier Architecture Autogeree, who decided to act on their living environment not only from the perspective as being architects but also as residents and users of every day space they share with neighbors. The main goal of ECObox is to encourage residents to act on their living environment by approaching residual sites and transforming them into collective exchange spheres. Area of La Chapelle surrounded by railway tracks and underused sites was striving to be reactivated. ECObox started with resident’s consultation and discussion what temporary activities can fill residual sites. ‘Post it’ board was used to collect ideas from residents varying in age, social and cultural backgrounds. Summarizing research the concept of ECObox emerged as a demountable garden from wooden pallets and other recycled materials in the site owned by Railway Company. Residents were creating habitable surface from wooden pallets of pathways and holes, which needed to be in filled by individual resident with plants. An idea of being a part of bigger creation gives user a sense of ownership. Later the project evolved through adding movable modules of kitchen, library, media library and tool box which accompany the following activities such as cooking, radio broadcasting, debating and chatting. It fosters people to greater social exchange and space appropriation. Mobile modules are powerful tools coming out from everyday experience and being able to be identified with different backgrounds and ages of people. The demountable structure gave an opportunity to be relocated to another site after being evicted by the government, while keeping the same established social values between its users. The success of the project depends on community’s ability to act cooperatively towards desire.’ Community desires are geared neither to profit- generation nor for urban functionality, but something else that is not predictable and conducts itself everyday with everyone participating.’70 The self- managed model of residual space reactivation is quite a complex system involving multiple players and desires which only can work with responsive and initiative community. Lesson learned: -Create open discussion in the form of consultations with local people to define dominating desires -Design flexible, mobile, cheap and manageable system which is able to re-activate diversity of spaces -Consider modular design -Foster activities familiar to people everyday experiences and needs -Consider urban gardening as main attraction idea
70 Doina Petrescu ‘Loosing control, keeping desire’ in Peter Blundell Jones, Doina Petrescu, Jeremy Till Architecture and Participation (London. New York : Spon Press, 2005) p 33.
Fig. 50 ECObox garden from pallets. Creates a new habitable surface in gap site.( Photo: aaa) Fig. 51 ECObox garden as catalyst for community gatherings. Garden with movable modules supports variety of activities and events. ( Photo: aaa) 53
Evaluation & Recommendations Reactivation of residual space is a process which involves diversity stakeholders, where proactive collaboration of all parties is the guarantee of successful project realization. The analysis of case studies has shown that in order to implement the project with long term lasting results there is a need to consider following things. First of all it is important to investigate residual site’s history, conditions and its offered possibilities as it may restrict or assist in the design process. It is evident in the first case study- ‘The place of Giant’, where the adjoining building wall was used for artists painting which even distinguished the identity of place. Also, the residual site nature informed the design in the project of ‘The Temporary Amusement Park’ as swings and climbing frames where fixed to elevated train overpass. Whereas in ‘Folly for a Flyover’ the space below created shelter and was utilized for films screening. In the example of ���Open- Air Library’ there is a good evidence for collective memory which is embedded in the residual site. Quentin Steven emphasizes that the previously built form retains the historical depths of social behavior patterns.71 It simply has defined the success of the project as the community was highly initiative and involved in its development pursuing the previous function of site as a social catalyst in the neighborhood. Than, it is important to track the location and availability of discarded materials for project realization. Harvestmap could be seen as useful tool to determine that. However, the decision on materials is also greatly influenced on available funding, project brief and aimed aesthetics. For instance, the initial idea of using wasted car parts in the ‘Temporary Amusement Park’ was refused due to the high cost of it. Next, very significant step to consider, is the level of public participation in project’s delivery. The analysis has shown that community involvement leads to longer term results establishing new level of understanding about architects role and users 71 Quentin Stevens The Ludic City: Exploring the potential of public spaces (London, New York: Routledge, 2007) p 13. 54
creating their built environment. Participative design approach can be understood as voluntary labor work helping to achieve the set design goals by architects or it can also be defined as working in collaboration with public to set certain design goals and achieve them afterwards. Short term event projects like ‘Folly for a Flyover’ which offer commodity can be achieved with voluntary labor work where people get hands-on experience, but where the purpose of built structure is not primarily to serve the participants who built it. However, if the project intends to have longer term result and aims to be used by community serving neighborhoods with specific function a different approach framework needs to considered. It is important to establish a bond between the place and prospective users allowing them to design their environment as ‘neighborhoods and buildings planned ‘for’ the users decay, as the users not having participated in their planning are unable to appropriate them and therefore have no reason to defend them.‘ 72 A good example of public involvement creating stronger social connection within community and inhabited residual spaces is evident in the case studies of ‘The Place of Giant’ and ‘ ECObox’. The success of ‘The Place of Giant’ was defined by several reasons. First, it was well promoted within neighborhood. Secondly, it provided workshops which empowered better appropriation of place. Third, all workshops and other organized activities were held on site that created permeability between passersby and events happening on site attracting more potential users. In contrast, the workshops of ‘The Amusement Park’ project took place off site loosing this opportunity to familiarize and involve more local people in the process. That resulted in unexpected dismantle of structure before stated date. In the case of ‘ECObox’ a unique approach of self-managed network was achieved through continuous consultation with local residents. It is the most users orientated approach, which aims to reactivate more than one residual site at once. However it is hard to be achieved and maintained due to diversity
72 Giancarlo De Carlo ‘Architecture’s public’ in Peter Blundell Jones, Doina Petrescu, Jeremy Till Architecture and Participation (London. New York : Spon Press, 2005) p 9.
Reactivated Area-reactivated site area in m2 Affordability- cost of project in £ Construction Time- project delivery time on site Life Span- time of project being on site- reactivating residual space Public Engagement- level of public involvement in the project delivery
ECObox Folly for a Flyover Open- Air Library The Place of Giant Temporary Amusement Park
Fig. 52 Web graph. Comparison of case studies.( Author’s image)
opinions and stakeholders involved in the process which also slows down the development of project. The graph (fig. 52 ) shows that the most viable residual space reactivation is the approach delivered by aaa members in ECObox project. It is clear that construction time, reactivated area and affordability are interrelated factors defined by complexity and chosen materials usage in structure. It suggests design which is mobile, easy to construct and dismantle as well as can be sourced effortless locally. ( tyres, wooden pallets,beer crates and etc.) The ultimate life span of project can be achieved either it is a permanent structure as Open-Air Library or if there was established a sufficient social bond within community in the delivery stage of project as in the example of ‘The place of Giant’. To sum up, there could be distinguished six steps in order to up-cycle space: 1. To choose residual urban site 2. To investigate its history and site conditions 3. To create harvestmap, locate and investigate available materials sources 4. To investigate possible future activities 5. To promote project within community and media 6. To proceed work on site with help of local community through series of workshops 55
RE-USE Fig. 53 Up-cycling space recommendations. (Authorâ€™s image) 56
TESTBED IN GLASGOW 5.1 Place Making Glasgow. Stalled Spaces 5.2 Site Scenario
5.1 Place Making Glasgow. Stalled Spaces Glasgow as post- industrial city has the greatest amount of vacant sites than the rest Scotland put together. Vacant site is described as unused land which is awaiting for future redevelopment. Whereas derelict land due to past damage of development needs to be rehabilitated before any further developments can take place.73 Since 2010 to tackle the problem of vacant sites and to improve communities wellbeing Glasgow City Council in partnership with Glasgow Housing Association has been running a project called Stalled Spaces. The initiative’s main focus is temporary redevelopment of underutilized sites giving an opportunity for local communities to re-shape their environment. It funds diversity of projects such as communal gardens, playgrounds, out-door exercise space, outdoor education, public art project, event space or any other innovative project which would benefit local community and environment embracing social interaction and public engagement. There is a funding available varying from the minimum of £1000 to maximum of £2,500 for each project to realize. The Stalled Spaces initiative has been very successful since its establishment and during a period of 2011-2012 it brought over 12 hectares of land into temporary use involving participation of hundreds of citizens in the renewal of urban tissue. Innovative and successful Stalled Spaces scheme even was nominated Award in the 2013 City to City Barcelona FAD ( Fostering Arts and Design) 74 The initiative is built around the central tenet that place and space have an impact on health and wellbeing and that individual action to improve lifestyle or health are likely to be constrained by the environmental and socioeconomic contexts in which they take place. Glasgow City Council has indicated 41 incivility gap sites(fig. 54) which have categories of low and recommended priority to be reactivated 73 The Scottish Government page. Available: http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/ArtsCultureSport/ Sport/MajorEvents/Glasgow-2014/Commonwealth-games/Indicators/S8 [12/02/2014] 74 BBC News Available: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-glasgowwest-22798662 [01/02/2014] 60
through temporary use in city preparation for upcoming 2014 Commonwealth Games which will be held in Glasgow. Three Stalled Spaces in Glasgow are proposed to be animated and funded by Glasgow City Council: Site 1. Land adjacent to Riverview garden, West street, Glasgow. Site 2. Greek Thomson Church and adjacent land, Cathcart road, Glasgow. Site 3. David Street, Gallowgate, Glasgow. My participation in one of gap sites urban activation projects Mobileland coordinated by Dr Cristian Suau gives an opportunity to evaluate the site and strategic design development movements according ‘up- cycling space’ recommendations got after research and cases studies analysis. Mobileland design proposals are defined by modular urban gardening units with maximum flexibility to be moved out of the site if needed. This innovative garden could offer a D.I.Y. solution to create greenery in gap sites for various groups to establish and cultivate their own urban flora, food and ecosystems.75 Currently a team of five is involved in the development of Cathcart Road- Greek Thomson Stalled Space.76 The concept of design should also fulfill the following ideas of : Re- activate - Historic landmark building - Introduce Glasgow history - Awareness Re- connect - Industrial Area - Residential Area - Tradition/ New Communication Re- Use - Industrial Materials, - Recycled Materials/ recycling centers 5.2 Site Scenario Historic background Gap site is located in the historic place of Caledonian Road Church designed by Alexander Thomson and occupies the space of former tenements. Caledonia Road Church was 75 Cristian Suau Mobileland Design Statement (2014) 76 Team members: Laura Petruskeviciute, Paulina Naruseviciute, Cinzia Scandurra, Elena Pastranagoya, Tsvetomila Duncheva
Fig. 54 Incivility gaps indicated by Glasgow City Council.( Author’s image)
Fig. 55 Cathcart Road- Greek Thomson gap site. (Author’s image)
Fig. 56 Caledonian Road church 1970(Photo: Gushetfauld)
Fig. 57 Site. Indication of possible activities on site based on site conditions. (Author’s image) 61
built in 1856 but in the 1950 and 60s the congregation dwindled as neighboring tenements in Glasgow’s Gorbals were demolished. The site with A grade listed church is empty for more than 40 years, however Alexander Thomson Society has prepared plans to redevelop the site creating three galleries, a public study area where Thomson material can be accessed, a cafe, meeting rooms and apartments which would be used to host the tourist. The green space in future plans is mainly supposed to serve as car park.77 Evaluation of site conditions Gap site could be described as residual between space which is the result of former building demolition. Although, it is positioned next to historically important church ruins it does not have a strong connection with local community which is relatively new after former Gorbals tenements where demolished. Also, the site is located in the intersection of three busy roads which makes it rather disconnected from surroundings. The East boundary of site is facing disused railway line which vaults and walls could be re-used as storage, screening or artwork spaces. Materials/Harvestmap Created harvestmap indicates four operating recycling centres which can provide the same composition of discarded materials indicated in the Part1. Besides recycling centres, map also indicates beer crates and wooden pallets suppliers. In general, site is located in quite close proximity of possible discarded materials source. Polmadie Recycling Centre and West Beer Brewery are within 2km distance from gap site whereas pallets supply is 4km away. Also, pallets can be collected off street from small retailers before they are dumped. Activities/Proposals Proposed activities and how they will be implemented on site are highly dependent on defined project life span. If the project intends to engage community for long term than it is essential to make aware and involve local residents in the process of project delivery. By doing this, stronger social bond and appreciation of project will be created within prospective users. If it is short term event space it can be implemented with helps of volunteers who are not necessarily from local surroundings. Short term activation project is more likely to succeed as it is hard to reconnect residual site with community for longer period of time if the community is not proactive. After evaluating available materials against construction techniques and complexity to proceed ‘mobile land’ structures, wooden pallets or beer crates seem to be the most efficient way to go with. The activities are partly predefined by brief as it should fulfill urban growing idea. However besides that, our team also investigated other activities which would rise the level of playability, engagement, interaction and social exchange. We are aiming to create interactive herbal garden while introducing different components in the green space tissue. Indicated components: [Garden Unit] combined with [Tea House] unit will represent different kind of herbs and will allow to explore users its medical value and taste in the tea house. [Wall Garden] is movable structure with plants which could also be used as seat to serve different needs on site. [Railway Theatre ] in vault space below disused railway can be used for screening. Also, we indicate that brick wall facing the site should act as [Artist Wall] where local or invited artists would help to shape the identity of site.
Fig. 58 Harvestmap. It indicates location of discarded materials source in 8km radius from gap site. (Author’s image) 77 Scotcities by Gerald Blaikie Available: http://www.scotcities.com/thomson/ [30/03/2014] 63
Bibliography Books -Awan, N. Schneider, T. and Till, J. (2011) Spatial Agency: Other ways of Doing Architecture. New 64
Fig. 59 Activation units (Authorâ€™s image) 65
Proposed components construction possibly can take place on site as there is sufficient storage place to keep tools overnight in adjoining gated church ruins. Work on site would make aware of project passersby and local residents. Moreover, different workshops of gardening and carpentry should be provided teaching people DIY methods of making objects from available materials. Next step in design development involves calculation of proposal cost to evaluate against given funding from Stalled Spaces that may re-shape the proposal or require looking for additional funding possibilities. Also, depending on defined life span of project, actions needs to be taken to make local community aware about the proposal. Proposed mobile components such as [Garden Unit], [Wall Garden] and [Tea House] have the flexibility to be moved out of the site and reactivate almost any other incivility gap indicate in the map. However, the success of project highly depends if it has sufficient amount of proactive community around.
[WALL GARDEN]- ECO STRUCTURE
LOW COST---->EASY TO CONSTRUCT--->FLEXIBLE USE For one [Wall Garden] unit to construct you need : 4 EURO PALLETS 4 WHEELS 16 WOODEN PLANKS 10 CONTAINERS WITH PLANTS Most of components can be sourced free of charge or at very low cost. Structure can be easily built by two or one person work using simple actions of sawing, screwing and nailing.
Fig. 60 [WALL GARDEN] (Authorâ€™s image) 67
York: Routledge - Bishop,P. and Williams, L (2012) The Temporary City New York: Routledge - Gehl, Jan (2011). Life Between Buildings. 2nd ed. London: Island Press. - Koolhaas, Rem. Mau, Bruce. (1995) S,M,L,XL. Rotterdam: 010 Publishers. - Lynch,Kevin.(1960) The image of the city. Cambridge, Mass. : M.I.T. Press. - Tristan Manco (2012) Raw+ Material= Art: Found,Scavenged and Upcycled. London:Thames & Hudson -Calvino, Italo. (1997) Invisible Cities. London : Vintage. -Franck, Karen A., Stevens, Quentin.(2007) Loose Space: Diversity and Possibility in Urban Life, New York: Routledge. -Hou, Jefrey. (2010) Insurgent Public Space: Guerrilla Urbanism and Remaking of Contemporary Cities. London: Routledge. -Jencks, Charles. Silver, Nathan. (1972) Adhocism: The Case for Improvisation. London: Secker & Warburg. -Lascelles M. 2011 The Union Street Urban Orchard: A Case Study of Creative Interim Use. Architecture Foundation -Marc Auge; translated by John Howe. (1995) â€˜Non- places: introduction to an anthropology of supermodernityâ€™, London: Verso -Mitchell,Don(2003) The right to the city: social justice and the fight for public space New York :
Fig. 61 Preliminary proposal of design for ‘Mobile Lands’ , Stalled Spaces (Author’s image) 69
Conclusion: a route map of up- cycling space This part will review and summarise the dissertation research which was carried out in four phases. The first phase was about identifying problem and giving it contextual and theoretical grounding through literature review and mapping of residual sites. Phase two research investigated methods of solving the problem based on examples in practice in addition to literature review. In phase three, relevant case study analysis was carried out. It provided an opportunity to evaluate and reflect on different methods of space activation and it also gave an opportunity to create design recommendations for space up- cycling . This research informed how to effectively approach a live project of Stalled Spaces in Glasgow Mobileland. The identified phenomenon of waste in current society can be understood as waste of space, waste of public realm and waste of materials, where residual space activation is the trigger to regenerate the rest. Vast amounts of residual spaces penetrate the tissue of modern cities appearing in different sizes and types, breaking up the coherent urban experience. They affect human well being by creating alienation with space due to its undefined nature. Also, changed pattern of public space use requires a different approach of its creation while giving an opportunity for its users to take ownership of the space. Up-cycling space would foster the userâ€™s initiative to take care of the place, as well as creating the need to use it. Gap spaces have a great potential to be the platforms for community empowerment while giving an opportunity for user to be responsible of creating genius loci with low- tech eco-design structures reusing discarded materials. This concept refers to the regenerative design approach of cradle-to-cradle which aims to create a waste free system. There is good evidence of discarded materialsâ€™ potential to be up-cycled in art or architecture. Even more, it is important to explore the border line of art and architecture and how it can inform each other. The eco- design strategy of using discarded materials to build the structures benefits against convention as it reduces carbon, water and slavery footprints which are matters of global environmental impact. Successful reactivation of residual space refers to place creation. Ill-defined space is given a new identity and it can be achieved through temporary activities. The reactivation strategy of temporary use is the most applicable due to the nature of the urban gap sites which are often waiting for future redevelopment. Interim activities that are consumerist, playful and productive could be applied to reactivate the spaces according to site conditions and need. Another important factor is the participatory role of community in project delivery which should also provide a high level of playability. Analysis of case studies enhanced reflection on design approach used by different architecture collectives in order to reactivate residual space. It also gave an opportunity to evaluate and compare various methods allowing to establish design recommendations in the end. It is clear 70
that the most viable reactivation method is defined by affordability, reactivated area, life span, public engagement and construction time. It should be easy to construct mobile structures which are made from available, locally-sourced materials and techniques as well as involve public participation in all design stages. Further research will inform of actions in the Mobileland project which is aiming to create ecodesign structures made from available materials reactivating incivility gaps through temporary, productive and playful activities. The proposed herbal garden aims to act as a social catalyst in neighbourhoods which will allow society to engage, educate and be the place to recreate. In conclusion, up-cycling space is a method which is about re-using locally-sourced, discarded materials in an eco- design approach, empowering public participation in order to reactivate the residual site. This method of approach offers an abundance of potential in the modern city.
Bibliography Books Auge M., Non- places: introduction to an anthropology of supermodernity (London: Verso,1995) Awan, N., Schneider T. & Till J., Spatial Agency: Other ways of Doing Architecture (New York: Routledge, 2011) Bishop P. & Williams L., The Temporary City (New York: Routledge, 2012) Blundell P. J., ‘ Sixty-eight and after’ in Peter Blundell Jones, Doina Petrescu, Jeremy Till Architecture and Participation (London. New York : Spon Press, 2005) pp 90-102. Calvino I., Invisible Cities ( London: Vintage, 1997) De Carlo G., ‘Architecture’s public’ in Peter Blundell Jones, Doina Petrescu, Jeremy Till Architecture and Participation (London. New York : Spon Press, 2005) pp 1-14. Edited book. Franck K. & Stevens Q. Loose Space: Diversity and Possibility in Urban Life (New York: Routledge, 2007) Edited book. Hou J., Insurgent Public Space: Guerrilla Urbanism and Remaking of Contemporary Cities (London: Routledge, 2010) Gehl J., Life Between Buildings (2nd ed. London: Island Press, 2011) Jacobs J. The Death and life of great American cities (London: Jonathan Cape, 1962) Jencks C., Silver N., Adhocism: The Case for Improvisation (London: Secker & Warburg, 1972) Koolhaas R. & Mau B., S,M,L,XL (Rotterdam: 010 Publishers, 1995) Lascelles M., The Union Street Urban Orchard: A Case Study of Creative Interim Use (Architecture Foundation, 2011) Lynch K., The image of the city (Cambridge, Mass. : M.I.T. Press, 1960) McDonough W. & Braungart M. Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things (New York: Nort Point Press, 2002) Mitchell D. The right to the city: social justice and the fight for public space (New York : Guilford Press, 2003) Petrescu D., ‘Loosing control, keeping desire’ in Peter Blundell Jones, Doina Petrescu, Jeremy Till Architecture and Participation (London. New York : Spon Press, 2005) pp 30-47. Rettich S. ‘ Salbke District Library, Magdeburg’ in Philipp Oswalt, Klaus Overmeyer, Philipp Misselwitz Urban Catalyst: The Power of Temporary Use (Berlin: DOM publishers, 2013) pp 316-19. Stevens Q. The Ludic City: Exploring the potential of public spaces (London, New York: Routledge, 2007) Trancik R. Finding Lost Space: Theories of Urban Design (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1986) 72
Tristan M., Raw+ Material= Art: Found,Scavenged and Upcycled (London:Thames & Hudson, 2012) Villagomez E., ‘Claiming residual spaces in the heterogeneous city’. In: Jeffrey Hou Insurgent Public Space. Guerrilla Urbanism and the Remaking of Contemporary Cities (London: Routledge, 2010) pp 81-95.
Articles and Reports Appleton J., ‘The end of Public Space’ The Architectural Review, issue number 1404, Volume CCXXXV, (February 2014) p 18. Avermaete T., Havik K., Teerds H. ‘Editorial’. ‘Into the open’. Oase #77 December (2008) pp 43-57. BBC News ‘Glasgow Stalled Spaces scheme wins international award’ ( 6 June 2013) Available: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-glasgow-west-22798662 [01/02/2014] Blaikie G. ‘Alexander Greek Thomson, Architect’, Scotcities http://www.scotcities.com/thomson/ [30/03/2014 Brill M., ‘An Ontology for Exploring Urban Public Life Today‘, Places, Volume 6, Number 1 (1989) pp 24-31. Chidister M., ‘PUBLIC PLACES, PRIVATE LIVES: Plazas and the Broader Public.‘Places. Volume 6, Number 1(1989) p 35. European Commission Eco- design brochure. http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/policies/sustainable-business/ecodesign/files/brochure_ecodesign_ en.pdf [ 16/03/2014] Glasgow City Council.Refuse and Recycling Collection Service. http://www.glasgow.gov.uk/index.aspx?articleid=4597 [ 14/02/14] Glasgow City Council Waste Strategy 2009 http://www.glasgow.gov.uk/CHttpHandler.ashx?id=11089&p=0 [01/04/2014] Koolhas R., Junk Space (2001) Available: http://www.cavvia.net/junkspace/ [ 10/11/2013] Lehmann S., ‘Urban growth and waste management optimization towards ‘zero waste city’ City, Culture and Society 2.(2011) Mark F., ‘The Urban Garden as Public Space‘ Places Volume 6, Number 1 (1989) p 53 Mazón P. P. R., ‘Basurama: a framework for designing collectively with waste’ Reclaim and Remake International Symposium (Washington, DC. 11-13 April 2013) http://basurama.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/130325_Pablo-Rey-Mazon_Basurama-a-frameworkfor-designing-collectively-with-waste_p.pdf [23/12/2013] Moore R. ‘Silence; Folly for a Flyover; 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami Memorial – review’(10 July 2011) http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2011/jul/10/folly-for-flyover-assemble-silence [ 20/12/2013] Morrow R. ‘ ECObox. Mobile devices and urban tactics’ Domus (14 November 2007) http://www.domusweb.it/en/architecture/2007/11/14/ecobox-mobile-devices-and-urban-tactics.html [31/12/2013]
O’ Leary N. ‘ Folly for a Flyover: Pop-up architecture’ (2011) http://www.ideastap.com/IdeasMag/all-articles/folly-for-a-flyover-piece [23/12/2013] Ruoppila S., ‘Eastern European cities in the making - temporary land use as a tool for cultural projects ’Journal for Northeast Issues, 3 (2004), pp 24-6. Available: http://www.kaupunkikettu.fi/temporary2004.html [ 10/11/ 2013] The Scottish Government http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/ArtsCultureSport/Sport/MajorEvents/Glasgow-2014/Commonwealthgames/Indicators/S8 [12/02/2014] Slessor C., ‘Editorial View’ The Architectural Review, Issue number 1404, Volume CCXXXV, (February 2014) p 13. Stevens Q., ‘ Why Berlin’s Holocaust Memorial is such a Popular Playground?’.Into the open’. Oase #77 (December 2008) pp 71- 80. Stalled Spaces Handbook Available: http://www.glasgow.gov.uk/CHttpHandler.ashx?id=13597&p=0 [30/12/2013] Suau C. Mobileland Design Statement (2014) Winterbottom D., ‘Residual Space Re-evaluated’ Places 13,3 (2000) pp 40- 7.
Garbage Warrior 2007 Documentary. Directed by Oliver Hodge :Open Eye Media Ltd Stalker . 1979. Film. Directed by A. Tarkovsky .163 min. Soviet Union
Internet Blogs L. Petruskeviciute & P. Naruseviciute Urban restart http://urbanrestart.wordpress.com/ [30/12/2013] T.Caine ‘Recycling vs. Upcycling: What is the difference?’ Intercon, (February 17, 2010 ) http://intercongreen.com/2010/02/17/recycling-vs-upcycling-what-is-the-difference/ [01/04/2014]
Thesis Philip David Henshaw, ‘ An Exploration into the Potential for Strategies of ‘Temporary Urbanism’ to Reactivate Shrinking Territories in the Rhondda Valley, South Wales’ (Cardiff University, Architecture & Urban Design, 2012)
Websites Spatial Agency Available: http://www.spatialagency.net/database/how/empowerment/ [16/03/2014] Online English Dictionary http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/163583?rskey=UXki5g&result=1&isAdvanced=false#eid [06/02/14] Recyclecity http://www.recyclicity.org/toolsharvestmap.html [05/03/2014]
Case Studies References The Place of Giant Collectif Etc - architects online page http://www.collectifetc.com/place-au-changement-chantier/ [04/01/2014] Collectif Etc blog http://placeauchangement.site40.net/index.php [04/01/2014] Public Space http://www.publicspace.org/en/works/g027-place-au-changement [ 04/01/2014] Archdaily- online magazine http://www.archdaily.com/179874/place-au-changement-public-plaza-collectif-etc/placeauchangement_ collectifetc_drawing/ [14/12/2013] Inhabitat- online magazine http://inhabitat.com/saint-etienne-residents-transform-wasteland-into-public-square-and-garden/placeau-changement-collectif-etc-1/ [14/12/2013] Folly for a Flyover Assemble- architecs online page http://assemblestudio.co.uk/?page_id=5 [ 05/12/2013] Dezeen- online magazine http://www.dezeen.com/2011/07/05/folly-for-a-flyover-by-assemble/ [ 05/12/2013] Design Exchange- online magazine http://www.demagazine.co.uk/architecture/the-folly-flyover-assemble [ 20/12/2013] Temporary Amusement Park Basurama- architects online page http://basurama.org/general/rus-lima-autoparque-de-atracciones [05/02/2014] Blog Such R, â€˜Basuramaâ€™ Collaborative City http://collaborativecity.com/basurama/ [18/02/2014] Open- Air- Library E-architect- online magazine http://www.e-architect.co.uk/germany/magdeburg-open-air-library [10/11/2013] Archdaily- online magazine http://www.archdaily.com/39417/open-air-library-karo-architekten/ [10/11/2013] Inhabitat- online magazine http://inhabitat.com/stunning-open-air-library-pops-up-in-east-germany/ [10/11/2013] Entertainment Designer- online magazine http://entertainmentdesigner.com/news/experiences/award-winning-open-air-library-in-magdeburggermany/ [15/11/2013] Dezeen- online magazine http://www.dezeen.com/2009/10/28/open-air-library-by-karo/ [10/11/2013] 75
Karo Architects- online page http://www.karo-architekten.de/ [01/04/2014] Public Space- online page http://www.publicspace.org/en/works/f084-open-air-library [31/12/2013] ECObox Arte Útil archive nr: 066 http://museumarteutil.net/projects/ecobox-2/ [06/01/2014] Urban Matters (2011) http://urban-matters.org/projectsbyindividuals/eco-urban-network-ecobox [31/12/2013] Urban Tactics- online page of Atelier d’architecture autogérée http://www.urbantactics.org/projects/ecobox/ecobox.html [31/12/2013] ECObox - self-managed eco-urban network http://www.urbaninform.net/home/minidoc/236/ecobox-self-managed-eco-urban-network.html [31/12/2013]