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Employing people with learning disabilities: benefits to workers and employers Dr. Stephen Beyer Welsh Centre for Learning Disabilities School of Medicine Cardiff University

Supported employment began with people with intellectual disabilities n 

Key problems people with intellectual disabilities face ¨  Majority

of people will have problems with speech and language ¨  More people with severe intellectual disabilities are are likely to experience multiple disability : n  n  n  n 

sensory and physical impairments poor vision measurable hearing loss Epilepsy

Beyer, S. an Robinson, C. (2009)

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Key problems people with intellectual disabilities face n  n  n 

Ability to understand verbal instruction and to provide information is poor Cue dependency creates difficulty transferring tasks learned here (training) to there (job) Small changes can lead to the person being unable to do a well known task : n  n  n  n  n 

n 

task sequence machinery materials a co-worker role workplace environment

Weakens the relevance of pre-training- Supported Employment designed to overcome this

The Answer?: The right support to person & employer Place

Profiling Job finding Job Analysis Job Match Placement Plan Task Analysis Train Task Training Problem Solving Natural support Monitoring Maintain Accountability Career Development

THE SUPPORTED EMPLOYMENT MODEL

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People can do the job n 

Tse† (1994)- 38 employers, 25 work related attributes employees with intellectual disabilities: ¨  ¨  ¨  ¨ 

n 

Exceeded expectations in 7 aspects Fulfilled employers' expectations in 13 aspects Performed below expectation in only 5 aspects Employees had good record of work safety, were reliable, well-motivated and honest.

Smith et al (2004)- 656 employers, differences in employers' ratings of employees with and without a disability: ¨  ¨ 

Employers were generally less satisfied with employees with a disability than with other employees Employers were more satisfied with employees with a disability in relation to work performance

Employers want all round performance n  n 

Salzberg et al (1988) Job success= ¨  ¨  ¨ 

n 

task performance+ job responsibility+ Social/vocational skills

Provide the support and the employer gets a good deal on overall job success

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Importance of hands-on support to employers n 

Hernandez (2000)- Review of 37 studies of employer views ¨  ¨  ¨ 

n 

Butterworth & Pitt-Catsouphes (1997) ¨ 

n 

Employers expressed generally positive attitudes towards workers with disabilities, and in the main express very affirmative and humane views about disability Physical disabilities continue to be viewed more positively than workers with intellectual or psychiatric disabilities When appropriate supports are provided, employers express positive attitudes toward workers with intellectual and psychiatric disabilities Employers may express a willingness to hire people with disabilities, but are typically at a loss as to how to identify workplace supports and accommodations that might be necessary.

Lueckin (2000)- focus groups of employers with & without experience ¨  ¨  ¨ 

Many companies technical positions want people with skills unless….. …applicants can offer an employer more than straight worker-to-job match e.g. “job carving” by disability employment specialists. Chief concern matching of a person to a specific company need not simply the matching of an individual applicant to a job.

Importance of hands-on support to employers n  n 

Fabian, Luecking & Tilson (1995)- comparison of views of disabled people, job coaches and employers What factors contribute to successful employment of people with disabilities? People with disabilities and job coaches: “employers’ understanding attitudes and flexibility to make accommodations” ¨ 

Employers: “quality service from employment specialists and competence in particular workers ” ¨ 

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Youth placement schemesSupport is still important n 

Luecking (2003) - A review of the literature and case study illustrations Employer attitudes toward disability are less significant when deciding to bring youth into the workplace than other factors ¨  Identification of workplace supports, accommodations, and interventions that contribute to improvement of companies’ operational and organizational processes ¨  Companies gain when hiring for work experience means the way the company works is enhanced as a result of the design of workplace support and “accommodations” ¨  Combining education and disability employment interventions with typical company human resource interventions works for employers ¨ 

Youth placement schemesSupport still important n  n 

n 

n 

Luecking and Fabian (2000) 77% of young people, regardless of nature or severity of disability, completing a work-based internship programme in high school were offered continuing employment by their host companies. Once young people are in the job and workplace supports are effectively in place, employers clearly value the contribution the young people are making to the business Education and employment schemes can offer expertise to employers (e.g. specialised knowledge about accommodations and job analysis to benefit all workers).

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Youth placement schemesSupport still important n  n 

n 

n 

Pla c

ing (2000) Luecking and doeFabian s no peregardless o 77% of young people, t wo ple wit of nature or severity of disability, completing a work-based programme rk w hointernship ell ut employment sup in high school were offered continuing by their por host companies. t Once young people are in the job and workplace supports are effectively in place, employers clearly value the contribution the young people are making to the business Education and employment schemes can offer expertise to employers (e.g. specialised knowledge about accommodations and job analysis to benefit all workers).

Youth placement schemesSupport still important n  n 

n 

n 

Pla cing (2000) Luecking and doeFabian s no peregardless o 77% of young people, t wo ple wit of nature or severity of hointernship programme disability, completing a work-based rk ell ut employment sup in high school were offered w continuing by their por Rea host companies. t l ppin ffer Oare Once young opeople the job and workplace supports ort i n p u g oemployers are effectively clearly value the lain itie making c place, ffer nare me people contribution to the business s Wethe eyoung nt i s su Proj s t ppo caneoffer Wa Education and employment n schemes ct expertise to les thknowledge rted e employers (e.g. specialised about S are as. outothbenefit accommodations and job analysis all workers). &

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Hiring disabled workers can bring positive consumer reaction n 

n  n 

n 

Attitudes to companies that hire individuals with disabilities have been assessed through national public survey (N=803). 75% had direct experience of people with disabilities in a work environment. All participants responded positively towards companies that are socially responsible, including 92% of consumers who felt more favourable toward those that hire individuals with disabilities. 87% specifically agreed that they would prefer to give business to companies that hire individuals with disabilities.

Positive employer costs & benefits n 

Graffam et al (2002)- 643 Australian employerscomparison of the employee with a disability and the "average" employee. A large majority considering the financial effect of modifications and changes cost-neutral ¨  Financial benefit more common than net cost ¨  Employers reported short-term, but no long-term or broader benefits from employer subsidies and/or incentives ¨ 

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Employer return- performance Worker Performance Benefit

Employer

No Benefit

Appearance Relationship with supervisor Relationship co-workers Productivity Breaks (according to rules) Interest in tasks Initiative Quality of work Quantity of work Punctuality Attendance record Follow given instructions Following safety rules Working skills Very Satisfied

Satisfied

2

Neutral

1

0

Very Satisfied

Unsatisfied

1

Very 2 unsatisfied

Satisfaction 15

Nautilus Project, Portugal, 2007, N=51

Employer return- social responsibility Workforce Benefit Benefit

Employer

No Benefit

Positive change in recruitment Lower absenteeism Reduce labour turnover Help overcome labour shortages Improve training in workplace Lead to better teamwork Improve innovation/creativity of staff Make staff happier Improve motivation/efficiency staff Help attract/retain talented workers

4 9

Agree 1

3 8

2 7

16 0 14 5 Agreement

Nautilus Project, Portugal, 2007, N=51

23

32

4

Disagree 16

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Employer return- social responsibility Workforce Benefit Benefit

Employer

No Benefit

Positive change in training Positive change flexibility in work schedules Positive change work/production Company more receptive diversity Improved company image Improved management Help avoid litigation- Equality New ideas for products/markets Brought more customers Enhance service & customer satisfaction Enhance company reputation Strengthen values & tolerance to difference

94

Agree

83

72

61 50 41 32 Agreement

Nautilus Project, Portugal, 2007, N=51

3 2

14

Disagree 17

Conclusions n  n 

n  n 

Employers and their attitudes are not always the problem Establishing the benefit to the company of having a good supported employee is successful There can be wide employer benefits This benefit usually through both: n 

n 

n  n 

the work of the person with a disability The contribution of support

Establishing good support builds employer confidence and jobs Partnership between education and employment support is key

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References n  n 

n  n 

n 

Beyer, S. (2008) An evaluation of the outcomes of supported employment North Lanarkshire (2007). Motherwell: North Lanarkshire Council. Beyer, S. an Robinson, C. (2009) A Review of the Research Literature on Supported Employment: A Report for the cross-Government learning disability employment strategy team. London: Department of Health. http://www.realroles.org/rrdocs/supported_employment_lit_review.pdf Beyer, S (2007) The Nautilus Project: Employer return on social responsibility. Cardiff: Welsh Centre for Learning Disabilities. Butterworth, J., & Pitt-Catsouphes (1997). Employees with disabilities: What managers, supervisors, and co-workers have to say. Employment in the mainstream, 22, 5-15. Carter, E, Trainor, A, Cakiroglu, O, Cole O, Sweedon B, Ditchman N and Owens L (2009) Exploring School-Employer Partnerships to Expand Career Development and Early Work Experiences for Youth With Disabilities. Career Development for Exceptional Individuals, 32: 145-159.

References Cimera, RE. (2010) National Cost Efficiency of Supported Employees With Intellectual Disabilities: 2002 to 2007. AJIDD. 115, 1: 19–29. n  Fabian, E., Luecking, R., & Tilson, G. (1995). Employer and rehabilitation personnel views on hiring persons with disabilities: Implications for job development. Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, 61, 42-49. n  Graffam J, Smith K, Shinkfield A and Polzin U (2002) Employer benefits and costs of employing a person with a disability, JVR, 17, 4 251-263. n  Hernandez, B. (2000). Employer attitudes towards disability and their ADA employment rights: A literature review. Journal of Rehabilitation, 16, 83-88. n  Kilsby, M and Beyer S (2010) A Financial Cost:Benefit Analysis of Kent Supported Employment- Establishing a Framework for Analysis: An Interim Report. https://shareweb.kent.gov.uk/Documents/adult-Social-Services/kent-supportedemployment/kse_financial_costs_report.pdf n  Luecking, R (2003) Employer Perspectives on Hiring and Accommodating Youth in Transition, Journal of Special Education Technology, 18, 4. n  Luecking, R. & Fabian, E. (2000). Paid internships and employment success for youth in transition. Career Development for Exceptional Individuals, 23, 205-222. n 

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References n 

n 

Smith K, Webber L, Graffam J, Carlene and Wilson C (2004) Employer satisfaction with employees with a disability: Comparisons with other employees. JVR, 21, 2, 61-69. Tse†, J (1994) Employers' expectations and evaluation of the job performance of employees with intellectual disability, Vol. 19, No. 2 , P 139-147

Acknowledgements n 

Thanks to Kent SE, North Lanarkshire SE and the Valued in Public document (Employer’s Forum on Disability/DoH) and Learning Disability Wales for photographs

Thank you For further information contact: Dr. Stephen Beyer Email: beyer@cf.ac.uk Tel: + 44 (0) 2920 687206

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Employing People with a Learning Disability: Benefits to Workers and Employers  

This presentation, prepared by Dr Stephen Beyer, Deputy Director of the Welsh Centre for Learning Disabilities at Cardiff University. Dr Be...

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