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Explorer Series

National Geographic Learning

The NGL Explorer series includes my layout design, all photoshop of images following National Geographic Standars for photography and art and typography design of all article tittles.

Treasure he Lure of

a). Pirates. Artcile 1 “Blackbeard Lives” and Article 3 “The Lure of Treasure” b). Space. Artcile 5 “Cosmic Dawn” and Artcile 7 “Crazy Far” c). Endangered Species. Article 1 “On Thin Ice” and Article 4 “Last One”

Adapted from “The Lure of Treasure,” by Cathy Newman, in National Geographic’s Treasure, 2011

John Grotzinger is a researcher at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) and the chief scientist for the mission of NASA’s Mars rover Curiosity. In this article, he describes the challenges and excitement of directing Curiosity’s fieldwork on Mars. the size of a pea. First we drilled scores of real rocks. But we were worried that the rocks might “There is no foreign land; it is the traveller be different on Mars, so we made fake rocks and only that is foreign.” The writer Robert Louis drilled those, too. Stevenson expressed this thought while exploring We were certain the weather would be California in 1880 with his new bride. I’m a type different. Daily temperatures on Mars can vary of traveler myself. I’m one of a team of more than greatly, as much as 180°F depending on location 500 people exploring Mars from California. We and time of day. We knew swings in temperature are using Curiosity, the most sophisticated robot would cause the whole rover, including the drill ever sent to another planet. bit, to expand and contract, so we needed a plan As I write in July of 2013, Curiosity is to keep it from getting stuck. We also feared the pounding a hole into a rock in Gale crater, on powder produced by drilling would clump and Mars. That primitive feat may not seem like clog the tiny tubes of our onboard chemical lab. proof of the Curiosity’s sophistication, but it is. Getting Curiosity safely settled on the surface It took us ten years of engineering on Earth and of Mars was a complex, anxiety-producing six months of preparation on Mars to get to that process. Once the rover was on the ground, we rock. Drilling a two-inch-deep had to go easy with our hole into it and extracting brand-new $2.5 billion an aspirin-size piece will take There is no foreign land; vehicle. When I swing my weeks more. We’re doing it in hammer on Earth, sometimes it is the traveller only search of chemical evidence I miss and hit my hand. that Mars is not so different Bandages and time usually that is foreign. from Earth. We want to learn solve the problem. But if Mars was once hospitable —Robert Louis Stevenson we can’t send doctors or to life. technicians to Mars. That I’m a geologist, and I do my means we don’t want the drill or hammer to hit work on Earth. When I want to sample a rock, I the rover, not even once. reach into my backpack, grab my rock hammer, The arm was built with as little slack as and knock off a piece. On Mars the process is not possible in the joints, and those computer nearly so simple. programs were checked and checked again. On Earth as well as on Mars, fieldwork takes a Until we tried it, however, we didn’t know great deal of practice, but on Mars, it’s at a whole exactly how the arm would work on Mars. For different level. For starters, we need brilliant one thing, Martian gravity is about one-third as engineers just to figure out how to wield the strong as Earth’s. And so we repeated on Mars hammer or the drill. At Caltech’s Jet Propulsion the dozens of activities we had already practiced Laboratory they practiced for years on Curiosity’s in California. Only, on Mars, we practiced them twin sister. They tested complex computer very carefully, in very small steps. programs that controlled the seven-foot robotic Finally, after six months of practice we were arm. We wanted to make sure the arm could ready to drill a rock. If working on Mars weren’t perform the hundreds of motions needed to place so amazing, it would be enough to make you a 65-pound drill as gently as a feather on a target scream sometimes.

EARTH TO MARS

Field Trip on

Mars BY JOHN GROTZINGER

Adapted from “Field Trip on Mars,” by John Grotzinger, in National Geographic, July 2013

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BEGUILING BLUE One of the world’s largest and most famous diamonds, the Hope Diamond is in the Smithsonian Museum.

THE FLASH OF PRECIOUS STONES

Why should this be? You can’t eat a diamond, and it won’t keep you warm. Yet the fever for the precious and rare has driven human beings to extremes. “The things . . . concealed and hidden underground,” the Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder wrote, “are the things that destroy us and drive us to the depths below.” The Greek deity known as Hades, after all, was god of both wealth and the underworld. Treasure, in its darkest guise, has been the motive for murder, theft, and betrayal, the material of plots and bribes. It has prompted population shifts, such as the 1886 gold rush that built Johannesburg, South Africa. At other times, it has caused the downfall of cultures. The promise of gold drove the Spanish conquest of the New World and the collapse of the Aztec and Inca Empires.

TREASURES WON AND LOST Treasure is the winner-take-all proof of victory. Often, spoils are handed from conqueror to conqueror, like the Koh-i-Noor diamond. This jewel passed from Hindu rulers to four other Asian monarchs before it ended up in the British crown jewels. For good reason, cautionary tales are often stories of treasure won and lost. Midas, granted his wish, turned everything to gold, until the stain of greed turned food and drink—even his daughter—into lifeless metal. Such moral tales are far from the minds of the New York auction goers, for whom the offerings are wrapped in the language of romance. At the podium Rahul Kadakia, head of jewelry for Christie’s in the Americas, presides. He is slim, lively, and elegant. His eyes sweep the room,

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and costly beauty for their own.

In October of 2010, on a crisp fall day, you might have entered the glass doors of Christie’s auction rooms in New York City. After nodding to the doorman, you would have turned left at the information desk, then left again, to join a crowd swirling around a bank of glass cases. On display were 448 lots to be offered at the New York Sale of Jewels. Rare treasures were everywhere. One case held a sapphire pendant the size of a matchbox, estimated to sell for $350,000 to $500,000. Another held a glowing strand of natural pearls, expected to bring $60,000 to $80,000. A splendid pear-shaped diamond ring nearby was thought to be worth $1.5 million to $2 million. And there was more—much more. The star of the auction was on display in a dark room, in its own theatrically lit case. The object of attention was a 10.95-carat diamond, vividly blue like the Hope Diamond in the photo (left). It was set opposite a similar white diamond in a gold ring. It was as blue as the ocean, scattering light in all directions, winking . . . at what? The foolishness, maybe, of the humans who coveted this one-in-ten-million chunk of crystalline carbon. Estimated to bring $12 million, the blue diamond shining in the dark spoke a timeless message: Treasure. We are drawn to the flash of precious stones and noble metals such as gold and silver and platinum, not unlike the bowerbird, which gathers bits of glitter for its nest to attract a mate. Our language reflects our desire. We look for the silver lining and the pot of gold, and great speakers are said to have silver tongues. The magic weapon is a silver bullet, and a record goes platinum. No one, least of all Olympic athletes, wants to go for the lead instead of the gold.

a SELFIE ON MARS Curiosity used a camera mounted on its seven-foot robot arm to take a self-portrait.

From the time humans first saw the wink of a gemstone or the glint of gold, they have desired to possess that rare

of the Navaratna, the “nine gems.” A ruby stands for the sun and a pearl represents the moon. Seven planets also have corresponding precious stones. When combined in a necklace together, they were believed to have magical power to protect against demons, snakes, and poison. Lot 448 of the Christie’s auction, the blue diamond, comes up at 7:15 in the evening. The opening bid of $8 million is from a dealer in the room. Soon the bidding becomes a contest between two phone bidders, one in Europe, one in China. But it takes only five minutes for the Chinese bidder to take the prized ring for $15.8 million, including fees paid to the auction house for its services. Is the ring an investment, a gift, a collector’s passion? Perhaps it was coveted simply because, as someone said, a diamond is the closest we can get to a star. That’s a pretty thought—and probably not the right answer. For now, both the buyer and his motives remain hidden. Like many treasures, this one can keep a secret.

THE CLOSEST WE CAN GET TO A STAR

2 Compare and Contrast How has the value placed on jewels and precious metals changed over time and how has it stayed the same?

For the Egyptians, gold was the skin of the gods and the ideal funeral decor for pharaohs. To the maharajas of India, dressed in jewels from head to toe, riches reflected the majesty of the ruler and his state. In Hindu belief, gems were a universe of their own. Many Asian countries have examples

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zeroing in on the special paddles participants raise to bid on auction items. He pays close attention, too, to bids coming in by telephone and the Internet. “A good auctioneer can smell the next bid,” he explains later. “I know every face in the room. I know how they will bid. I am,” says this fourthgeneration Mumbai jeweler, “the maharaja of the auction room.” With each crack of the gavel, another treasure is gone. First, the green flash of emeralds. Then the moon glow of pearls, then the red flush of rubies. Gems, Kadakia says, represent wealth in its most portable form. Think of Russian nobles fleeing the Bolsheviks, jewels sewn into the linings of their clothes. “You can’t,” he says, “carry a [large painting] under your arm.” Think, too, of the message of power signaled by showy wealth. One of Alexander the Great’s officials is said to have walked on sandals with silver nails driven into their soles. The Egyptian queen Cleopatra brazenly dissolved one of her huge pearl earrings in a goblet of wine and drank it. How better to show off her fabulous wealth? Think of the gold and silver threads of a Ming dynasty robe, or Catherine the Great’s diamond staff, or the jeweled miters and chalices of Vatican popes.

T H I N K A B O U T I T! 1 Make Predictions Will people continue to value the same materials and types of items as treasures? Explain your answer.

3 Make Inferences Why do you think some people, like Alexander the Great’s official and Queen Cleopatra, treated precious items in a careless or destructive way?

TREASURES FROM AROUND THE GLOBE

1 The funeral mask of the Egyptian pharaoh we call King Tut is made of gold and precious stones. 2 A Yemeni Jewish bride carries a wealth of silver, coral, and amber into marriage. 3 In this photo taken 140 years ago, intricate jewelry adorns the foot of a woman in India. 4 In Thailand, monks admire a reclining Buddha that is gilded from head to toe.

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BACKGROUND & VOCABULARY

Bolsheviks n. (BOHL-shuh-vihks) the revolutionaries who overthrew the government of Russia in 1917 guise n. (GYZ) a way of looking or seeming; appearance

maharaja n. (mah-huh-RAH-juh) a Hindu prince; a ruler of a state of India before India became a democracy

miter n. (MI-tuhr) a tall, pointed hat worn by bishops of the Roman Catholic and several other churches

Midas In Greek mythology, King Midas (MY-duhs) was granted his wish that everything he touched would turn to gold.

Mumbai n. (moom-BY) the most populous city in India, formerly called Bombay

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THE SPACE MARKET

SAIL TO THE SUN This 3,400-square-foot solar sail was tested at a NASA facility in 2005.

REVIVING THE ADVENTURE On the edge of a parking lot at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, stands a relic from a time when our future as a spacefaring species looked inevitable. It is a 35-foot-tall assemblage of pipes, nozzles, and shielding. It’s as grand as a rocket ascending over Cape Canaveral, the site of the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. “This is not a model,” says NASA physicist Les Johnson. “This is an honest-to-goodness nuclear rocket engine.” Long ago, NASA proposed to send a dozen astronauts to Mars. They would travel in spaceships powered by these engines. Marshall director Wernher von Braun presented the plan in 1969, just two weeks after his Saturn V rocket delivered the first astronauts to the moon. He suggested 1981 as the year for the first Mars mission. The nuclear engines had passed every test on the ground. They were ready to fly. The Mars launch date came and went. Thirty years later, Johnson looks sadly at the 40,000-pound engine in front of us. At Marshall, he heads a team that evaluates “advanced concepts” in space technology. The old nuclear engine, called NERVA, just might qualify. “If we’re going to send people to Mars, this should be considered again,” Johnson 33

says.“You would only need half the fuel of a conventional rocket,” he adds. Humans haven’t ventured more than 400 miles from Earth since 1973. This makes the idea of humans traveling to the stars seem less likely now than ever. Why did it seem more reasonable half a century ago? “Of course we were crazy in a way,” says Freeman Dyson. He is a physicist at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton who worked on Project Orion in the late 1950s. Project Orion’s mission was to build a spacecraft that could take astronauts to Mars and the moons of Saturn. The NERVA engine was designed to propel a spacecraft with nuclear reactors. The Orion spacecraft would have used a different approach. It was going to drop small nuclear bombs, that would appear as fireballs, out the back every quarter of a second. The spacecraft would surf on these fireballs and move forward. “It would have been enormously risky,” says Dyson, who planned to go to Saturn himself. “We were prepared for that. The mood then was

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totally different. The idea of a risk-free adventure just didn’t make sense.” Risks aside, these days there are other reasons not to shoot for the stars. They’re too far away; it would be too expensive. The reasons why we might go anyway are less obvious—but they’re getting stronger. Astronomers have found planets around many nearby stars. Soon they may find one enough like Earth to support life. Then there would be a compelling reason to build a starship. Our technology, too, is far more advanced than it was in the 1960s. An atom bomb, a type of nuclear weapon, isn’t cutting-edge anymore. In his office that morning, Les Johnson handed me what looked like a woven swatch of cobwebs. Made of carbon fiber, it was a fabric sample for a giant spaceship sail. Powered by sunlight or laser beams, it might carry a probe beyond Pluto. To get to the stars, we’ll need new materials and engines. But we’ll also need a little of the wild imagination common in the earlier days. A few dreamers have revived that old adventurous spirit—the old craziness for space.

In May 2012, three weeks before I met with Johnson, a private company named SpaceX used one of its own rockets to launch an unmanned capsule. It successfully docked with the International Space Station (ISS), a research station in Earth’s orbit. A month before that, a company called Planetary Resources announced plans to use robotic spacecraft to mine asteroids—rocky masses smaller than planets that orbit the sun— for precious metals. “We’re going to look back at this decade as the dawn of the commercial space age,” says Mason Peck, NASA’s chiefTentechnologist. “It’s about -m companies large and small finding ways to make a ile dia market out of space.” me ter Economics has long spurred exploration on Earth. “Historically, the driver for opening frontiers has always been the search for resources,” says Peter Diamandis, co-founder of Planetary Resources. “The only way to really open up space is to create an economic engine, and that engine is resource extraction.” One resource he and co-founder Eric Anderson have their eyes on is platinum, so rare on Earth that it currently sells for $1,600 an ounce. Sending robots a million miles or more to extract and refine ore on asteroids will require technology that doesn’t yet exist. Elon Musk, the 41-year-old co-founder of SpaceX, has already made a lot of money with other ventures. Now he’s devoting part of his fortune to his own space program. The new rocket SpaceX is developing, the Falcon Heavy, will carry twice the payload of the space shuttle for about one-fifth the price. Musk would also like to help establish a permanent human colony on Mars. NASA has had enormous success on Mars with unmanned rovers, most recently Curiosity. But so far a manned mission is on hold. Musk thinks SpaceX could land astronauts on Mars within 20 years.

TO REACH A STAR The fastest spacecraft ever built, the Helios 2 probe, was launched in 1976 to monitor the sun. It attained a top speed of 157,000 miles an hour. Not bad, but the nearest star, Proxima Centauri,

DAZZLING DISCOVERIES By the time it was officially inaugurated in March 2013, the Atacama Large Millimeter/ submillimeter Array—ALMA—had already begun to deliver results. The year before, with only 16 antennas in operation, researchers started

SOUTH AMERICA ALMA

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spectrum n. (SPEHK-truhm) a continuous sequence or range of light waves, radio waves, etc.

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array n. (uh-RAY) a large group or number of things coherently adv. (koh-HIHR-uhntlee) working closely and well together

static n. (STA-tihk) the noise created in a telecommunications system by electricity or other conditions in the atmosphere

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Four Ways to Propel a Starship

TOURISTS

WELCOME

NUCLEAR PULSE Small nuclear bombs expelled by the spacecraft would explode against a “pusher plate,” propelling the ship forward. Pusher plate Ignition

Pros: Technology almost available Statue of Liberty

SCALE

Robert Bigelow, founder of the Budget Suites hotel chain, made his fortune building hotels right here on Earth. Now he has turned his attention to habitats for visitors in space. The revolutionary technology he’s counting on to make it possible? Inflatable space stations. Bigelow’s company, called Bigelow Aerospace, has been developing space modules made of material that can be compressed and launched relatively cheaply into space. . Currently, NASA is contracting with Bigelow to test the inflatable technology. In 2015, an inflatable room will be attached to the International Space Station. Eventually, Bigelow plans to establish several free-standing space stations. The first of these, the Alpha Station, may be functional as early as 2016. Governments and businesses will be able to rent out larger spaces in the stations to carry out scientific experiments in micro-gravity. And yes, space tourists will also be welcome to enjoy the Earth-view rooms. Hotels in space will not be for the budget tourist, however—at least not right away. At the moment, a stay is expected to cost more than $400,000 per night.

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Pellet injector

Fusion reaction

Pros: Less dangerous than bombs or fission reactors

Cons: Massive radiation hazard; relatively slow

Cons: Deuterium is rare and fusion reactors don’t really work yet

Travel time to nearest star: Centuries

Travel time to nearest star: Decades

is 24 trillion miles away. At top speed, it would take Helios 2 more than 17,000 years to make the journey. Those inescapable facts lead many to conclude that interstellar travel, aside from robotic probes, will never be possible. “It’s Mars or nowhere,” says Louis Friedman, an astronautics engineer and one of the founders of the Planetary Society, a space-exploration advocacy group. Some scientists, however, are not ready to accept being confined to two small planets in a vast galaxy. “If we start now, and we have started, I believe we can achieve some form of interstellar exploration within a hundred years,” says Andreas Tziolas. A physicist and former NASA researcher, Tziolas is a leader of the nonprofit organization Icarus Interstellar. Its aim is “to realize interstellar flight before the year 2100.” One technology that holds out hope for longdistance space travel is not an engnine but a sail—a solar sail (shown on page 34). Sunlight, like all light, consists of photons. These tiny particles exert pressure on everything they touch. At Earth’s distance from the sun, the pressure is

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NUCLEAR FUSION Pellets of a type of hydrogen atom called deuterium are injected into a chamber and heated until the deuterium nuclei fuse and the pellets explode. Powerful magnets would channel the blasts out the back.

weak—only a tenth of an ounce spread over a football field. But a large, thin sheet of reflective fabric, unfurled in the vacuum of space, will feel the gentle force created by the photons and will slowly accelerate. NASA launched a 110-square-foot solar sail in 2010 that survived for several months in low Earth orbit. In 2014 it hopes to launch the Sunjammer, a sail that’s over 100 times as large. It weighs only 70 pounds and will sail two million miles toward the sun on its yearlong mission. But Proxima Centauri lies much farther. “To sail to another star,” Les Johnson says, “we’ll need a sail the size of Alabama and Mississippi combined. We don’t know how to build that yet.” What’s more, sunlight alone couldn’t push the sail to the star within a human lifetime, or even many lifetimes. You’d need powerful space-based lasers. “If you take the total energy output of humanity and put it in a laser on a satellite,” says Johnson, “then you could get trip times of a few decades to Proxima Centauri.” But it could carry little more than a robot the size of a desk.

ANTIMATTER When protons collide with antiprotons, an antiparticle with the opposite charge, they transform into bursts of charged particles that travel at near light speed – ideal thrust for an interstellar rocket.

Spacecraft

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Adapted from “Crazy Far,” by Tim Folger, in National Geographic, January 2013

Tim Folger is an award-winning science writer whose articles have appeared in several national magazines. For this article, he interviewed scientists and enterpreneurs pursuing projects for what may be called a “crazy” idea: human travel to Mars and, eventually, far, far beyond.

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SPACE COLONISTS To reach the stars, humans might need spacecraft like the one imagined here that could house thousands of people for multiple generations.

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BEAMED SOLAR SAIL A giant piece of reflective fabric pushed by solar photons – particles of light – could carry a probe to the edge of the solar system. To go further would require the beam from an orbiting laser focused by a very large lens.

Solar sail

Lens

Laser

Pros: Extremely efficient, high speed

Pros: Basic technology exists, no fuel needed

Cons: Equipment as long as Florida would be needed to get rid of the heat generated by the spacecraft

Cons: Needs a 100,000 square-mile sail, laser would use more electricity than all Earth does now

Travel time to nearest star: Decades

What about humans, with their need for 24/7 life support? Johnson throws up his hands. “When you start thinking about what it takes to supply people,” he says, “and how big the spacecraft would have to be and how much energy it would have to have, you enter the realm of science fiction.”

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ALMA’S 10-MILE ZOOM ALMA consists of two telescope arrays working together. Rearranging the antennas on the wide plateau is like adjusting a camera’s zoom. At maximum spread, shown here, the telescope focuses in on tight sections of the sky and fine details. Clustering the antennas closer together (shown in the box called the Morita Array) is like using a wide-angle lens to take in broader large-scale structures in the universe.

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SCANNING THE STARS In Chile, a giant collection of telescopes searches for information from the distant reaches of the universe.

Visible spectrum Infrared

An eye on the heavens

their work. ALMA gave them views of 26 distant galaxies showing bursts of star formation. They were surprised to find that the galaxies were on average as far as 11.7 billion light-years away. This meant their star production had already begun when the universe was barely two billion years old. It was previously believed that such active star birth had begun at least a billion years later. Since then, ALMA has produced a steady stream of discoveries. In July 2013 the telescope’s observations helped solve a long-standing puzzle. Astronomers had long wondered why massive galaxies are so rare in the universe. ALMA’s high-resolution images of the nearby Sculptor galaxy showed cold, dense gas billowing out from the center of the galactic disk. Astronomers concluded that the gas was being blasted out by winds from newly formed stars. This indicated a huge loss of star-making material that could hinder the galaxy’s future growth. If confirmed in other galaxies, the phenomenon could solve the mystery. True to its promise, ALMA is also helping researchers understand how planets are born. Last year, researchers reported on ALMA’s images of a disk of dust circling a young star—sort of a nursery of planets. The images revealed what appeared to be a dust trap within the disk. It looked like a sheltered region where little grains of dust could stick to one another and, grain by grain, grow large enough to become a planet. This was the first-ever glimpse into the start of the planet-forming process. These observations are just the beginning. When all the antennas come on line, ALMA will conjure even finer details of galaxies and star systems. On an arid plateau a few miles from where shepherds once slept, our eyes will open upon an unseen universe.

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Microwaves

Thus began an almost 20-year effort to transform one of the world’s loneliest spots into a bustling modern observatory. Disagreements sprang up

It had just two telephone lines and a single gas station. “We had to assemble a little city on the mountainside in the middle of nowhere,” says the NRAO’s Al Wootten, the lead North American scientist on the project. The first of the antennas—weighing more than a hundred tons—arrived from the United States in April 2007. Escorted by a convoy of police cars, a truck hauled the gigantic dish up the mountain. The transport went well enough, although progress was occasionally interrupted by herds of llamas crossing the road. The dish-shaped antennas continued to arrive for the next five years. Setting them up to work together as a single telescope required astonishing precision. The antennas would have to swivel together on command. To merge their signals coherently, a massive supercomputer had to be installed. On a bright April morning, a view of the plateau offers a striking contrast between the ancient and the modern. The brown expanse is studded with white dishes that look tiny against the sky’s limitless blue backdrop. Up close, each of the 12-meter antennas towers above the ground. Each dish’s surface shines brightly in the sun. Operated remotely from a base camp, they swivel gracefully in unison at the click of a button. You would never guess that they weigh more than a hundred tons each. Two custommade 28-wheel transporters stand ready to move them to new locations on the plateau as needed.

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and were resolved. The NRAO and ESO couldn’t agree on an antenna design, in part because each side favored manufacturers in their own countries. In the end, they chose two designs and two suppliers for their share of the antennas. The number of antennas per agency was reduced from 32 to 25. Then there was the problem of San Pedro, the little town nearest to the site of the array.

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Adapted from “Cosmic Dawn,” by Yudhijit Bhattacharjee, in National Geographic, April 2014

32 antennas apiece. Each antenna measured 12 meters in diameter, or about 40 feet. The Japanese agreed to provide 16 antennas.

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BY YUDHIJIT BHATTACHARJEE

Witnessing the birth of stars would require a telescope larger in diameter than many cities—a wonder in itself. One revolutionary instrument, ALMA, fits that description perfectly.

is created as the longer waves interact with the water vapor in the atmosphere. As a result, astronomers found it difficult to recognize energy coming from distant galaxies. Secondly, longer waves carry far less energy than visible light does. Even a radio dish with an enormous collecting area could pick up only a weak signal. The solution scientists came up with was to arrange several antennas in an array on a site with very dry air. Combined, the signals worked together as a single telescope. By the 1980s several small arrays were operating in Japan, France, and the United States. Soon technological advances made it possible to imagine a far larger antenna array. All that was necessary was a site that was high and flat enough. It would have to be COLLIDING GALAXIES roomy, to allow the antennas to ALMA helped capture this image of the Antennae Galaxies, about be placed miles apart. Also, the 70 million light-years away. dishes should be portable. The distances between them would need to be adjusted to change One of the astronomers who was also on the the sensitivity of the telescope for trip measured the volume of water vapor in different purposes. Placed far apart, the antennas the air. It was lower than the group had ever could zoom in to focus on a small target such as measured anywhere. “There was no doubt in a disk of dust around a star. Bunched together, anybody’s mind that somewhere nearby was the they could zoom out to capture images of a large place,” Giovanelli says. On a second scouting object such as a galaxy. trip a short time later, Robert Brown from the Hernán Quintana concluded that only the high National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) ground above San Pedro de Atacama would found the actual site. It was the wide, expansive satisfy all the requirements for such an array. But plateau at the bottom of Cerro Chajnantor, a it wasn’t easy to reach. nearby peak. “The trip was slow and painful, because the It was soon clear to the international parties tires kept getting stuck in sand,” remembers scouting the Atacama that they should join Riccardo Giovanelli of Cornell University, who forces. Together, they could build a single accompanied Quintana. When the group made array far more powerful than any one of it to the top of the Jama Pass, a mountain pass them could build alone. In 1999, the National through the Andes between Argentina and Chile, Science Foundation and the European Southern Giovanni recalls, “The sky was beautiful—it was Observatory signed an agreement to work the deepest blue one can expect to see.” together. They settled on a plan to contribute

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Cosmic Dawn

Energy travels from one place to another in waves. Objects in the universe give off energy On a May morning, two pickup trucks passed in various wavelengths. A wavelength is the through the quiet town of San Pedro in Chile’s distance from the peak of one wave to the peak of Atacama Desert and headed up a mountainside the next wave. The range of energy wavelengths, on a dirt road. It was 1994, and the five men taken together, is called the electromagnetic inside the trucks, including Chilean astronomer spectrum. The light we can see, called visible Hernán Quintana, were on a strange quest. They light, is carried in waves that form part of the were looking for the highest, driest, and flattest electromagnetic spectrum. place on the planet. The length of the wave depends on the At that moment, they were searching for a temperature of the object that is radiating the route up to the Chajnantor plateau. At 16,400 energy. Colder objects, such as comets and feet, the plateau is almost as high as the base asteroids, give off waves that are longer than camps that serve climbers on Mount Everest. visible light. The Atacama Desert is one of Much of the universe is the driest places on Earth. On The project would require colder than even the comets average, less than a half-inch and asteroids. The birth some 20 years and more of rain falls there each year. of planets occurs in these The desert is an ideal place for than a billion dollars to cold conditions, seeded by observing the night sky. Before fragments of dust and gas design and build. Quintana’s group arrived, the that clump together within remote Atacama’s thin, dry the swirling fog that rotates air had already lured several large, multinational around newly born stars. telescope projects. For the most part, these were In the 1960s, astronomers attempting to designed to view objects that emit light visible to penetrate this “cold universe” quickly realized the human eye. that ground-based antennas were not very good Quintana and his team were scouting a at detecting energy waves in the longer range, location for a different kind of telescope. They given off by cold objects. wanted to set up a telescope that could penetrate The first problem was how to cope with a the curtains of dust and gas that shroud galaxies, gigantic amount of disruptive static. Visible light swirl around stars, and stretch through the travels through the planet’s atmosphere without expanses of space between stars. The project much interference. That’s why we can see distant would require some 20 years and more than a stars. But longer waves traveling to Earth are billion dollars to design and build. absorbed and distorted by water vapor. Static

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THE QUEST FOR LOCATION

Travel time to nearest star: Centuries

2 Form and Support Opinions Do you agree that business will be the motivator for future space exploration? Support your answer with details from the article or your own knowledge. 3 Summarize How do solar sails work?

T H I N K A B O U T I T! 1 Identify Problems and Solutions What are the barriers to interstellar space travel?

BACKGROUND & VOCABULARY

conventional adj. (kuhn-VEHNshuh-huhl) ordinary; not powered by nuclear energy interstellar adj. (ihn-tur-STEHLlur) traveling or taking place between stars

nuclear reactor n. (NOO-kleeuhr ree-AK-tuhr) a device in a nuclear power plant or other system that can generate energy from breaking apart the nuceli of atoms photon n. (FOH-tahn) a tiny particle of light or electromagnetic radiation

Wernher von Braun (VEHRnehr fuhn brown) German rocket scientist who led the development of rocket technology for the United States space program

37


Explorer series

National Geographic Learning

IC CIRCLE ARCT

North Pole

c IC CIRCLE ARCT

ICE BY SUSAN McGRATH

Adapted from “Polar Bears on Thin Ice,” by Susan McGrath, in National Geographic, July 2011

6

at Sea

North Pole

Sea-ice extent, summer minimum

The minimum extent, or range, of sea ice in summer has declined by about 30 percent since regular satellite monitoring began in 1979. Even in the winter the ice does not fully recover. In some areas, when females return in autumn to the sites where they make their dens, they face daunting expanses of open water. The Canadian high Arctic and northern Greenland could be the last refuges for polar bears, and even in these areas the ice will disappear if greenhouse gases are not reduced.

Continuous ice

IC CIRCLE ARCT

Fragmented ice

2008–2010

North Pole

Sea-ice extent, 2008–2010 Summer minimum

Polar bear denning area

Winter maximum

Polar bear range

ARCTIC CIRCLE

R U SSIA

90°E Novaya Zemlya New Siberian Is. Bear Is.

ARCTIC O CE A N

Wrangel I.

hi Sea ukc Ch

Bering Sea

Barents Sea

North Land

FINLAND SWEDEN

Svalbard

(NORWAY)

North Pole

NORWAY

Offshore polar bear denning area

DENMARK

GREENLAND

Point Barrow

ICELAND

(DENMARK)

ALASKA

(UNITED STATES)

Beaufort Sea

UNITED KINGDOM

IC CIRCLE ARCT

Canadian Arctic Island s

YOUNG FAMILY A female polar bear leads her cubs over floating ice in the Svalbard Archipelago, Norway.

ATLANTIC O CE A N

PA C I F I C O CE A N

°N

60 CANADA Churchill SCALE VARIES IN THIS PERSPECTIVE.

90°W

North Pole

°

THIN

gorged on seals in the spring and early summer, before the ice broke up. They then retreated to land as the ice melted. In a good year, when the ice started to break up, the bears had a thick layer of fat. Once on shore, the bears entered a state known as walking hibernation. Their metabolisms slowed down to hoard the fat stored in their bodies. “Until about the early 1990s at Hudson Bay,” Stirling says, “bears were able to fast through the open-water season of summer and fall because hunting on the spring sea ice was so good.” During their years of bear watching, Stirling and his colleague Andrew Derocher began to notice an alarming pattern. They observed that the polar bears’ population held steady, but the animals were getting thinner. The western Hudson Bay bears were missing weeks of peak seal hunting. In addition, the later winter freezeup was extending their fasting time. By 1999 Stirling and Derocher had connected a steady decline in polar bear health with a decline in sea ice. Bears didn’t grow as large, and some came ashore notably skinnier. Females gave birth less often and had fewer cubs. Fewer cubs survived. Within a few years, scientists in other parts of the Arctic began to see similar changes in sea ice and the polar bear populations. The world didn’t know it yet, but during the summer in the Arctic Ocean, sea ice had been melting earlier and faster. The winter freeze had been coming later. In the three decades since 1979 the extent of summer ice has declined by about 30 percent. The lengthening period of summer melt threatens to destroy the whole Arctic food web. Data now support the early warning signs. Since Muir sailed in the waters off Alaska, the Earth has warmed about 1ºF due in part to greenhouse gases. This may not seem like much, but even one degree of warming can disrupt an environment of ice and snow.

180°

In August 1881, naturalist John Muir was sailing off Alaska, searching for three ships that had gone missing in the Arctic. Off Point Barrow he spotted three polar bears, “magnificent fellows, fat and hearty, rejoicing in their strength out here in the icy wilderness.” If Muir were sailing off Point Barrow today, any polar bears he’d see would not be living in a wilderness of ice. They’d be swimming through open water, burning their precious fat reserves. That’s because the bears’ sea-ice habitat is disappearing, and it’s going fast. Polar bears live in the Arctic where air, ice, and water come together. Superbly adapted to this harsh environment, most spend their entire lives on the sea ice. They hunt year-round, visiting land only to build birthing dens. They prey mainly on ringed and bearded seals. Sometimes they catch walruses and even beluga whales. Sea ice is the foundation of the Arctic marine environment. A surprising variety of organisms live underneath and within the ice itself. The ice is not solid but pierced with channels and tunnels large, small, and smaller. Trillions of tiny sea creatures pepper the ice. In spring, sunlight penetrates the ice. Algae begin to bloom. The algae then sink to the bottom, and in shallow areas they sustain a food web that includes clams, sea stars, arctic cod, seals, walruses—and polar bears. Experts estimate the world’s polar bear numbers at 20,000 to 25,000. Bears in the Norwegian islands, the Beaufort Sea, and Hudson Bay have been studied the longest. In western Hudson Bay, where ice melts in the summer and freezes back to shore in the fall, the creatures’ predicament first came to light. Ian Stirling, now retired from the Canadian Wildlife Service, has monitored polar bears in Canada since the late 1970s. He found that they

1979–1981

50

ON

THEN AND NOW

Bears

THE ARCTIC IS warming fast. By 2050 it may be largely ice-free in summer. Without their frozen hunting platform, how will polar bears survive?

Hudson Bay

VIRGINIA W. MASON AND LISA R. RITTER, NGM STAFF; INTERNATIONAL MAPPING

7

HARD TIMES

SHRINKING SPACE A polar bear stands on a melting piece of floating ice on a summer evening in Manitoba, Canada.

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The sea ice above shallower waters provides the richest food source for polar bears. Recently, though, the ice has been retreating far from those areas. This retreat has reduced the length of the summer habitat bears need most to survive. Whether a polar bear lives in Hudson Bay or Barents Sea, it faces the same problem. Bears are forced to fast for longer periods because of less hunting time on sea ice. Also, thinner sea ice is more easily shifted by winds and currents. Bears may be swept into strange territory, where they must make longer, more difficult swims in open water to find favorable sea ice or get to land. Polar bears are strong swimmers, but swimming long distances in open water can be fatal. In 2008 a radio-collared bear with a cub swam an astounding 427 miles to reach the ice off the northern Alaska coast. The cub didn’t make it. In September 2004, researchers spotted four dead polar bears afloat after a storm in the Beaufort Sea. As many as 27 bears may have drowned in that one storm. Females face especially hard times. Starving males kill and eat cubs—and the cubs’ mothers. This behavior may become more common as food diminishes. Increasingly, getting to the places on land where the bears have made their dens for generations can be an ordeal. On one island, when the sea has frozen late in the year, scientists have seen few, if any, dens the following spring. According to Jon Aars of the Norwegian Polar Institute, they would normally see 20 or more dens. Whether females find other sites or skip a year of breeding, Aars can’t say. From childhood we create a picture of our physical world. The ocean is blue. The Arctic is white. But before this century ends—and perhaps much sooner—most of the Arctic will likely be blue water every summer. Can a blue Arctic support polar bears? Only in the short run, Stirling and others say. Currents still cram drifting sea ice against the Canadian Arctic Islands and northern Greenland in summer. These pockets may hold enough ice to support polar bears through this century. But if the world keeps warming, not even those last refuges will be able to save the polar bear. 10

POWERFUL SWIMMER A polar bear swims toward land in the icy waters off Spitsbergen Island in Norway.

T H I N K A B O U T I T! 1 Summarize In your own words, describe the impact of decreasing sea ice on the polar bear. 2 Make Inferences The article says that the polar bear stands at the top of the Arctic food web. What does this mean? 3 Analyze Cause and Effect What difference has 1º F of Earth’s warming made in the Arctic?

BACKGROUND & VOCABULARY

fast v. to eat no food gorge v. (GORJ) to eat until completely full greenhouse gases n. the gases in the atmosphere that trap heat and contribute to global warming

habitat n. (HAB-uh-tat) the environment where an animal naturally lives or once lived hibernation n. (hy-bur-NAYshuhn) a state of deep, long rest, especially through the winter

metabolism n. (muh-TAB-uhlihz-uhm) the bodily processes involved in turning food into useful energy

11

8

9


01

Explorer series

National Geographic Learning

Red-cockaded woodpecker

Yellowfin madtom

12,210

Last

Columbia Basin pygmy rabbit

0

How many are left? The species featured on this page are endangered, near extinction, or extinct. The numbers in the photos indicate how many of each remain.

BY VERLYN KLINKENBORG Adapted from “Last One,” by Verlyn Klinkenborg, in National Geographic, January 2009 Photographs by Joel Sartore

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SPECIES AND HABITATS Ever since it was signed into law in December 1973, the Endangered Species Act has protected life forms at risk of disappearing. In a way it would be more accurate to call it the Endangered Species and Habitat Act, since the purpose of the law is to identify and then protect a species’ critical habitat, whether it’s an old-growth northern forest or an entire river. The act has been controversial ever since it was signed. Why? Because it tries to save the habitats that plants and animals need to survive. Usually this means preventing humans from altering those ecosystems in any way. This is where the trouble arises. What passed in 1973 was a lean, tough act. It called upon every department and agency in the federal government to work toward protecting endangered and threatened species. It required the federal government to cooperate with state governments. Futher, it pledged the United States would live up to international treaties whose purpose is to protect species facing extinction. It was, in a sense, a bill of rights for the rest of creation. In the beginning the act was inspired by an urgency and an increase in environmental awareness. Humans had suddenly realized that many species were disappearing in great numbers. This was an alarming trend.

THE ACT TODAY Is the urgency any less today? In 1973 there were nearly 100 million fewer Americans and 2.8 billion fewer people lived on the planet. Scientists were just beginning to imagine how climate change might affect wildlife and plants. Today, report after report—on habitat loss, deforestation, the shrinking numbers of ocean fish, the drop in migratory bird populations—clearly shows that the picture for many species is far worse now than it was when the act became law. Yet over time, the act has become a battleground, in part because it has created a conflict between the right to manage property and the need to protect the habitats critical to endangered species. There’s no mistaking the intent of the act. It makes destroying critical habitats illegal, even on private land. 22

Some landowners believe that this part of the act violates their legal rights and they’ve taken their argument to the Supreme Court. Mostly they’ve lost. Some landowners have rushed ahead to develop their property while a species is being considered for listing. To prevent this, the federal government has created programs like Safe Harbor. Participating landowners agree to protect habitats. In exchange, the government agrees not to impose more limits on their property. But the Endangered Species Act is itself endangered. It has not been given multiyear funding since the late 1980s. Instead it has survived with annual funds requested by the Department of the Interior. Also, fewer at-risk species are being brought under the act’s protection. From 2000 to 2008 only 64 species were listed. In contrast, from 1988 to 1992 the total was 235. Adding a species to the list is hard. First, a species has to be proposed, either by a government agency or a conservation group. Then candidates undergo scientific review and a public comment period. Opponents of the act have tried to make the act less effective, proposing changes that would allow federal agencies, not scientists, to decide whether to protect a species. At present, 1,050 species in the United States and its surrounding waters are listed as endangered, at risk of extinction. Another 309 are listed as threatened, or likely to become endangered. Strategies for restoring shrinking populations exist for most of them. These measures include acquiring critical nesting beaches for sea turtles and restoring wetland habitat for the copperbelly water snake. Critical habitat has been designated for only 520 species, however. When it comes to actual recovery, the numbers are not encouraging. Since 1973, only 39 U.S. species have been removed from the endangered and threatened list. Nine of those went extinct. Sixteen were removed when new evidence showed that a listed species was not, in fact, in danger. Only 14 have recovered enough to be removed from the list. Critics say those numbers show that the act is ineffective. But the numbers may instead show just how much opposition the act has faced. There are other ways to measure its success. 23

In the United States as elsewhere, stopping the countdown to extinction means preserving healthy habitats. This is the aim of the Endangered Species Act.

END OF A SPECIES This specimen is all that remains of the dusky seaside sparrow, a species that lived in Florida until its habitat was taken over by humans.

Delhi Sands flower-loving fly

WHO KILLED THE SPARROWS?

Florida’s Merritt Island—would be protected any longer by the Endangered Species Act. What killed the sparrows of Merritt Island? No one ate the dusky seaside sparrow or hunted it for sport. Its nests weren’t destroyed. Nor was it killed off by a newly introduced predator. The sparrows were victims of human action. For example, by spraying with the chemical DDT to control mosquitoes, humans altered the delicate ecosystem of the salt marshes. Humans hoped to improve their own lives by controlling pesky mosquitoes, but discovered, too late, that the seaside sparrow was finely attuned to its home in those salt marshes. That last bottled sparrow is how a species ends up when its habitat vanishes for good.

Palos Verdes blue butterfly

The final resting place of the last dusky seaside sparrow is a glass bottle in the Florida Museum of Natural History (photo above). The bird’s eyes are heavily lidded. Its feathers have been ruffled by the alcohol that nearly fills the bottle. A paper tag states that the bird died on June 16, 1987. Three and a half years after that sparrow’s death, a brief entry appeared in the Federal Register, the publication that contains public notices from government agencies. It announced that the dusky seaside sparrow was now extinct and had been removed from the list of endangered and threatened wildlife. Neither the bird nor its critical habitat—the salt marshes of

LONE FOX This Catalina Island fox was bred in captivity as part of a program to help save the species.

BUGS AT RISK The American burying beetle has lost 90 percent of its original range.

5,800

How many species might have vanished without the Endangered Species Act?

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How many species might have vanished without the Endangered Species Act? Perhaps the best measure of the act’s value is the very conflict it causes. It gives endangered species a day in court, and it helps us see the unintended consequences of our actions. It reminds us that what look like simple decisions—to build houses or plant more corn, for example—have to be considered within the context of nature. There, many lives are in the balance.

It’s easy to see why we take the trouble to save creatures that are cultural icons. The bald eagle was removed from the list in 2007. Its numbers in the lower 48 states have been successfully restored from fewer than 500 nesting pairs in 1963 to about 10,000 pairs in 2007. The grizzly bear in Yellowstone National Park has graduated from the list. So have such impressive species as the peregrine falcon and the American alligator. But what about the Delhi Sands flower-loving fly, an inch-long insect that now lives in only a few locations in southern California? Or the 165 remaining Salt Creek tiger beetles, which live in a few patches of salt marsh near Lincoln, Nebraska? What about Mississippi sandhill cranes, which are down to about 25 breeding pairs? Or the Higgins’ eye pearly mussel, whose range has shrunk to a few pools in the Mississippi River and its tributaries? Most people have never heard of these creatures. They have no immediate appeal except their own beauty. They stand for nothing except their own way of life, which has been threatened by development, pollution, and the spread of invasive species. The Endangered Species Act is really a test—and not just to see whether we can expend enough

24

Loggerhead sea turtle

90,000

4,300

21

A TEST OF PRIORITIES

RARE BEAR Between 1920 and 1940, only about 300 grizzly bears existed in the continental United States. Thanks to the Endangered Species Act, their numbers have improved. National Geographic photographer Joel Sartore photographed this grizzly and other species in this article for his Photo Ark project.

1,000

BACKGROUND & VOCABULARY

controversial adj. (kahn-truhVUR-shuhl) causing disagreement Department of the Interior n. This government department manages land owned by the federal government, including the National Parks and Monuments

effort quickly enough to make a difference for the thousands of species at risk. The act is a test of priorities. After all the lessons we’ve learned about protecting species at risk, will the country recommit itself to the task? Will America return to the idealism of 1973? Again and again, the battle over listing a species comes down to the choices we make in our everyday lives. Listing the greater sage grouse, for instance, would get in the way of natural gas and coal development in Wyoming. But we could offset those losses by conserving energy, something we ought to be doing anyway. Adding species to the endangered list takes the effort of scientists, lawmakers, conservationists, and ordinary citizens. What saves species, ultimately, is human restraint and the ability to balance our needs against the needs of other living beings on this planet. We have no way of guessing how long human beings will survive, but one thing is certain. The better the chances of survival for plants, animals, and insects, the better our own chances will be.

T H I N K A B O U T I T! 1 Identify Problems and Solutions How can human behavior be changed to protect more animal species? 2 Make Predictions Do you believe the Endangered Species Act will be weakened in the future? Use details from the article and your own knowledge to make a prediction. 3 Distinguish Fact and Opinion Is the author of this article for or against the Endangered Species Act? Cite details from the article.

and the country’s natural resources. ecosystem n. (EE-koh-sihstuhm) a community of organisms interacting with their natural environment extinct adj. (ehk-STINGKT) no longer in existence

idealism n. (y-DEE-uh-lihz-uhm) an attitude that people can live up to certain high standards priorities n. (pry-OHR-uh-teez) the things that deserve or require attention before others of their kind

25


01

Grade K - Read Your Own

National Geographic Learning

Read your own Book series include my layout design, all photoshop of images following National Geographic Standars for photography and art and typography design of all tittles. a). Book 29. “The Sun is Up”

Book 29

915-3276 NGSP.com

7362-9824-7

a

Read on YouR own

Book 29

The Sun Is Up by Lada Josefa Kratky


02

Restaurant Menu

El Meson Restaurant

Re-Design of this Dayton, Ohio Latin American Restaurant. All backgrounds, page layouts and graphics elemetns were my creation. a). Cover b). Interior pages


03

Core Reading

McGraw-Hill Education

All Core Reading pages include my layout design, background creation and design , photo /art research and selection, all photoshop of images and typography design of all tittles.

a

GenreGenre • Expository • Expository Text Text DesertsDeserts are challenging are challenging places to places live. to They live. They are dryare anddry often andvery often hot. very Each hot.year Each only year a few only a few inches inches of rain fall of rain in the fallMojave in the Mojave (Mo-HA-vee). (Mo-HA-vee). It It is NorthisAmerica’s North America’s smallest smallest desert.desert. It lies mostly It lies mostly in partsinofparts southern of southern California California and southern and southern Nevada. Nevada. The Mojave The Mojave has both has mountains both mountains and and valleys,valleys, including including Death Valley, Death Valley, the lowest the lowest and and hottesthottest place inplace North inAmerica. North America. On a car Onride a car through ride through the Mojave the Mojave desert,desert, you you may pass may bypass many bymiles manyofmiles bare,ofdusty bare,earth dusty earth and scattered and scattered bushes.bushes. However, However, on a morning on a morning hike you hike canyou discover can discover that a desert that a desert is a lively is a lively place. Birds place.sing. BirdsLizards sing. Lizards scurry after scurryinsects. after insects. Jackrabbits Jackrabbits and roadrunners and roadrunners dash among dash among the the bushesbushes and cactus and cactus plants. plants.

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I AZ RO I N Z A O N

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In what In ways what was ways Susan wasB.Susan Anthony B. Anthony a good citizen? a good citizen? ESSENTIAL ESSENTIAL QUESTION QUESTION Tell about Tellsome aboutother someleaders other leaders you you have read have about. readHow about. didHow theydid they show good show citizenship? good citizenship? TEXT TO TEXT TEXT TO TEXT

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Died in Died in Rochester, Rochester, New York New York

Most desert Most desert animalsanimals also escape also escape the heat the byheat by seekingseeking sheltershelter under under bushes,bushes, rocks, and rocks, other and other shady places. shady places. Black-tailed Black-tailed jackrabbits jackrabbits sprawl sprawl in the in the shade. shade. They lose They body loseheat body heat by panting by panting or breathing or breathing rapidly.rapidly. Heat isHeat also given is also given off fromoff many fromtiny many blood tiny blood vesselsvessels in theirin large theirears. large ears.

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1872

SEL_Text_Gotham_P3_U1-3 SEL_Text_Gotham_P3_U1-3

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1872

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Escaping Escaping the the Heat Heat Help Light Colors

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• Make your •community Make your acommunity a great place to great live!place to live!

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SEL_Text_Gotham_P3_U1-3 bodies after a chilly night. Roadrunners turn

Desert animals have many different ways to avoid overheating. Sometimes, however, they need to get warm! At night, the desert air is quite cool. By dawn, some animals need to warm up. Lizards and snakes crawl to a sunny place. They turn their bodies toward the Sun to raise their body temperature. Desert iguanas have an amazing ability for warming and also for cooling. They change color! In the morning, their skin is dark. This helps them absorb heat from the Sun. Then the day gets hotter and hotter. By early afternoon the iguanas’ skin has turned white, reflecting sunlight. Then, as the air becomes cooler in the evening, their skin darkens again.

• Work peacefully • Workwith peacefully others. with others.

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ideas. Tell them ideas. your Tellideas. them your ideas.

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Like iguanas, some birds need to warm their

Getting Warm in the Morning

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• Get to know • Get yourtoneighbors. know your neighbors.

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cardboard spaceship in her classroom. After Meghan grew up and became a writer, she wanted to write a book that would “not be like any space book out there for kids.” She wanted to explain what astronauts actually go through to become astronauts. Megan has been illustrating books for a long time. She illustrated her first picture book before she even learned how to read! She drew the pictures first. Then she told her grandmother what to write down for the words.

Author’s Purpose Meghan writes this selection as if she’s talking to the reader. She uses the word you. Why do you think she writes this way?

Summarize

Main Idea

Use important details to summarize what happens in the selection. Information from your Main Idea and Key Details chart may help you.

Detail

Detail

Detail

Text Evidence 1. How do you know Astronaut Handbook is expository text? GENRE 2. What is the main idea of the information on page 539? What are some details that support the main idea?

In 1787, the United States was a new nation of thirteen states. The country’s first plan for government had problems. American leaders decided to meet to talk about a new plan. Fiftyfive delegates came to the meetings. A delegate is a person who speaks for the citizens in each state. The country’s first president, George Washington led the meetings.

A Summer of Arguments The Constitution is the highest law in our country.

A Plan for the

People

The United States government started with a plan. Our country’s leaders wrote the plan more than 200 years ago. The plan is called the Constitution. All of our laws come from the Constitution.

The meetings began on a hot day in May 1787. The delegates gathered together in the Philadelphia State House. They closed the windows because the meetings were secret. It was boiling in the State House. When they opened the windows to cool off, bugs flew in. The delegates argued all summer in the hot, buggy rooms. Benjamin Franklin Making a new plan for government worried the delegates was not easy or fun. would never agree. Some delegates wanted one person to run the new government. Others thought a group should be in charge. They all agreed that a group should make laws for the country. But they disagreed on how to pick these leaders. The famous inventor and statesman Benjamin Franklin attended the meetings. He wondered how the group could ever make any decisions.

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3. Use what you know about Greek roots to figure out the meaning of astronaut on page XXX. GREEK AND LATIN ROOTS Genre Informational Text • Expository

4. Write about how you can become an astronaut. Give details about the things you need to do. MAIN IDEA AND KEY DETAILS

what to do if they saw bullying interactions

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like teasing or someone being excluded.

Read about how students work together to stop bullying.

Why is teamwork important for astronauts?

they should speak up if they see bullying interactions. They practiced what to do. They learned to be a friend to someone who

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Bullying makes some kids feel uncomfortable. The students learned

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is being bullied. They helped the person walk away and not fight back. Students who saw bullying also told an adult about it. Each week, they had meetings to talk about bullying problems.

No one likes to be bullied. Bullying is when one person picks on or hurts another

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person. Sometimes a bully teases or calls someone names. A bully might not let someone join activities. Bullying can also be pushing or hitting. Elementary school students in Seattle,

Children from Seattle elementary schools worked together to stop bullying on the playground. They learned how to include others and what to do if someone bullied another person.

Soon there was less bullying at Seattle schools. Students didn’t name-call on the playground. They didn’t pick on others as much. This helped make school more fun

Texas elementary school students learn about bullying in an after-school program. Middle school students brought signs and put on a play to teach children how to stop bullying.

and safe for everyone. The program was a success!

Washington, learned new tools to stop bullying. Everyone in the school community

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A New Government

Read about how early U.S. leaders wrote the Constitution to set the rules for our government.

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her garage when she was six. She also played in a

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Meghan McCarthy built a spaceship in

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Maravillas for Grade 6 includes my layout design, selection of photography and artists to commision illustrated pieces, design of titles and backgrounds for all selections.

Género Género • Texto • Texto expositivo expositivo

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Lee acerca Leede acerca los logros de losdelogros una de de las una de las primerasprimeras civilizaciones civilizaciones del mundo, del mundo, en en el valle del el valle río Indo. del río Indo.

¡Conéctate! ¡Conéctate!

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El Ramayana, El Ramayana, escrito en escrito sánscrito, en sánscrito, se atribuye se atribuye al poeta Valmiki al poeta Valmiki al comienzo al comienzo de nuestra de era, nuestra aunque era, se aunque puso por se puso escrito poren escrito el siglo en el siglo IV d. C., IV end. el C., período en el Gupta, períodocuando Gupta,ya cuando se había ya se convertido había convertido en en una obrauna fundamental obra fundamental de la literatura de la literatura hindú. Como hindú. elComo Mahabharata, el Mahabharata, este poema esteha poema dado ha inspiración dado inspiración a todas las a todas artes las de la artes India de ylaha India y ha sido, sobre sido, todo, sobre modelo todo, de modelo comportamiento de comportamiento humano.humano.

En uno de Enlos uno sellos de los desellos la página de la108 página se ve108 la figura se ve la defigura un hombre de un hombre sentado con sentado las piernas con las cruzadas piernas cruzadas y las manos y lassobre manos lassobre rodillas. las rodillas. Esta imagen Estacon imagen la que con identificamos la que identificamos la disciplina la disciplina del yoga,del es yoga, una es una muestra muestra de que yadeentonces que ya entonces se practicaban se practicaban ejerciciosejercicios relacionados relacionados con el control con eldel control cuerpo delycuerpo la mente. y la mente. HerederoHeredero de esta tradición, de esta tradición, en el siglo enIV el a. siglo C., IV una. sacerdote C., un sacerdote y sabio llamado y sabio llamado PatanjaliPatanjali redactó en redactó sánscrito en sánscrito los Yoga sutras. los YogaEnsutras. En esta obraesta recopiló obra recopiló la antigua la sabiduría antigua sabiduría que permitía que permitía al individuo al individuo alcanzar alcanzar un estado undeestado paz, ajeno de paz, a los ajeno deseos a losmundanos. deseos mundanos. El El yoga se practicaba yoga se practicaba adoptando adoptando posturasposturas beneficiosas beneficiosas física y física y mentalmente, mentalmente, controlando controlando la respiración, la respiración, apaciguando apaciguando los sentidos los sentidos y concentrando y concentrando el pensamiento el pensamiento para la meditación. para la meditación. El objetivo: El objetivo: liberar alliberar ser humano al ser humano del sufrimiento. del sufrimiento. Hoy en día, Hoyelen yoga día,eselun yoga método es un muy método utilizado muy utilizado en todo el en todo el mundo como mundo ejercicio como ejercicio de relajación de relajación física y mental. física y Las mental. virtudes Las virtudes del yoga del hanyoga hecho han que hecho se enseñe que seaenseñe los niños a los enniños muchas en escuelas muchas escuelas y y sea práctica sea de práctica entrenamiento de entrenamiento habitual habitual para los deportistas. para los deportistas.

Uno de los Uno más de admirados los más admirados testimonios testimonios del esplendor del esplendor del imperio del imperio Gupta esGupta el conjunto es el conjunto monumental monumental de Ajanta. deSe Ajanta. trata de Se treinta trata de treinta santuarios santuarios y monasterios y monasterios excavados excavados en las paredes en las de paredes un gran de un gran acantilado acantilado rocoso que rocoso son una que son muestra una muestra de la riqueza de la del riqueza arte del arte de la India. de la Están India. decorados Están decorados con pinturas con pinturas murales murales y esculturas, y esculturas, consideradas consideradas entre lasentre más destacadas las más destacadas obras maestras obras maestras de este arte. de este arte. En ellas se Enreflejan ellas se episodios reflejan episodios de la vidadedelaBuda, vida de pero Buda, sonpero también son también un documento un documento de las costumbres de las costumbres de la altade sociedad la alta sociedad de la época. de la época. Nos muestran Nos muestran una corteuna refinada corte refinada que edificó quebibliotecas edificó bibliotecas y se rodeó y se rodeó de poetas, dedramaturgos, poetas, dramaturgos, músicos,músicos, matemáticos, matemáticos, astrónomos astrónomos y legisladores. y legisladores.

A los hindúes A los hindúes se debe el sesistema debe el numérico sistema numérico basado basado en nueveen cifras nueve y elcifras cero,yoelsea, cero, el o sistema sea, el decimal sistema decimal que utilizamos que utilizamos actualmente. actualmente. Este hallazgo Este hallazgo supera a supera a todos lostodos sistemas los sistemas de numeración de numeración de la antigüedad. de la antigüedad. Anteriormente, Anteriormente, solo se podían solo secalcular podían pequeñas calcular pequeñas cantidades cantidades de objetos. de Gracias objetos. al Gracias uso delalcero, uso del se cero, se pudieronpudieron contar grandes contar grandes cantidades. cantidades. Sin él, enSin él, en la actualidad la actualidad no sería posible no seríalaposible tecnología la tecnología de las de las computadoras. computadoras. Cabe destacar Cabe destacar que en elque continente en el continente americano, americano, los mayaslostambién mayas también llegaron llegaron a concebir a concebir el concepto el concepto del cero,del pero cero, estepero hecho este sehecho descubrió se descubrió muy recientemente. muy recientemente. El avanceElde avance las matemáticas de las matemáticas permitiópermitió también también el desarrollo el desarrollo de la astronomía. de la astronomía. En el añoEn 499 el año d. C.,499 d. C., El astrónomo el astrónomo el astrónomo hindú Aryabhata hindú Aryabhata había llegado habíaallegado la teoría a la deteoría que lade que la El astrónomo Aryabhata Aryabhata llegó a la llegó a la Tierra, alTierra, igual que al igual el resto quede el resto los planetas, de los planetas, daba vueltas dabaalrededor vueltas alrededorconclusiónconclusión de que de que la Tierra y la el Tierra resto y el resto del Sol. Asimismo, del Sol. Asimismo, trazó un trazó mapaun demapa los movimientos de los movimientos de las de las de los planetas de losdan planetas dan estrellas estrellas y describió y describió a la Tierra a la como Tierra uncomo cuerpo unesférico. cuerpo esférico. vueltas alrededor vueltas alrededor del Sol.

Niños practicando Niños practicando yoga en la actualidad. yoga en la actualidad.

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La medicina La medicina de la antigua de la India antigua logró India numerosos logró numerosos avances.avances. Su Su origen seorigen encuentra se encuentra en las escrituras en las escrituras de los Vedas. de losSus Vedas. médicos Sus médicos realizaban realizaban complejas complejas cirugías,cirugías, por ejemplo, por ejemplo, cirugía plástica, cirugía plástica, de los de los ojos, el abdomen ojos, el abdomen y la boca.y Pero la boca. principalmente Pero principalmente esta medicina, esta medicina, conocidaconocida como ayurveda, como ayurveda, empleabaempleaba hierbas yhierbas otras sustancias y otras sustancias y tratamientos y tratamientos medicinales. medicinales. Seguía principios Seguía principios integrales integrales que que buscabanbuscaban tratar lastratar causas lasdecausas las enfermedades, de las enfermedades, no solo sus no solo sus síntomas,síntomas, hasta alcanzar hasta alcanzar un estado undeestado equilibrio de equilibrio del cuerpo delycuerpo la y la mente. La mente. ayurveda La ayurveda forma parte forma de parte los tratamientos de los tratamientos alternativos alternativos disponibles disponibles en la actualidad. en la actualidad.

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El jainismo El jainismo tiene actualmente tiene actualmente apenas dos apenas millones dos de millones de seguidores, seguidores, pero su doctrina pero su doctrina de la no violencia de la no violencia está muyestá muy arraigadaarraigada en la cultura en lahindú. cultura hindú. MahatmaMahatma Gandhi, el Gandhi, gran el gran líder del líder siglo XX del que siglolideró XX que lideró la lucha por la lucha la independencia por la independencia de la India, de es la India, un admirado es un admirado exponente exponente de la no violencia. de la no violencia. SiguiendoSiguiendo su ejemplo, su ejemplo, otras otras conocidasconocidas figuras del figuras siglo XX del siglo XX han liderado han movimientos liderado movimientos no no violentos violentos contra situaciones contra situaciones injustas de injustas opresión. de opresión. Es el Es el caso de Nelson caso deMandela, Nelson Mandela, en Sudáfrica, en Sudáfrica, contra lacontra la segregación segregación racial, o el racial, de o el de Martin Luther MartinKing Luther Jr., en King Jr., en defensa de defensa los derechos de los derechos de la de la poblaciónpoblación afroamericana afroamericana en en Estados Unidos. EstadosEstos Unidos. métodos Estos métodos pacifistaspacifistas lograron lograron el respetoelyrespeto y reconocimiento reconocimiento generalizado generalizado del mundo deloccidental. mundo occidental.

Al igual que Al igual los jainistas, que los jainistas, muchas otras muchas otras personaspersonas de la India de buscaban la India buscaban la paz la paz espiritual, espiritual, retirándose retirándose a las montañas a las montañas y los y los bosques bosques para practicar para practicar meditación. meditación. En el siglo En el siglo VI a. C., VI nació a. C., Siddharta nació Siddharta Gautama, Gautama, príncipe príncipe de un reino de un cercano reino al cercano Himalaya. al Himalaya. RodeadoRodeado de de riquezas,riquezas, gozaba de gozaba una vida de una muyvida afortunada. muy afortunada. Un día, sin Unembargo, día, sin embargo, decidió salir decidió de su salir de su palacio para palacio ver para cómover vivían cómo lasvivían personas las personas comunescomunes del reino.del Alreino. presenciar Al presenciar las diversas las diversas formas del formas sufrimiento, del sufrimiento, como la pobreza, como la pobreza, la enfermedad la enfermedad y el desamparo, y el desamparo, quedó muy quedó muy impactado. impactado. Así fue que Así Siddharta fue que Siddharta abandonó abandonó todos sustodos sus bienes y bienes se convirtió y se convirtió en monje, eninternándose monje, internándose en el bosque en elabosque meditar, a meditar, o estar en o contacto estar en contacto con su interior. con su interior. Tras iluminarse, Tras iluminarse, o liberarse o liberarse del sufrimiento, del sufrimiento, comenzócomenzó a compartir a compartir con otroscon susotros hallazgos. sus hallazgos. En adelante, En adelante, se lo se lo conoció como conoció el Buda, como el o “el Buda, despierto”. o “el despierto”. Sus Sus enseñanzas enseñanzas se basaban se basaban en las cuatro en lasnobles cuatro nobles verdades,verdades, o explicación o explicación del sufrimiento del sufrimiento y su y su remedio,remedio, y en el óctuple y en elsendero, óctuple sendero, que eranque eran reglas dereglas vida que de vida conducían que conducían a eliminar a eliminar el el sufrimiento. sufrimiento. El budismo El budismo produjo un produjo gran cambio un gran cambio social ensocial la India, en la pues India, las pues personas las personas de todosde todos los sectores los sectores de la sociedad de la sociedad podían crecer podían crecer espiritualmente espiritualmente por igual.por Deigual. este modo De este modo nació el budismo, nació el budismo, una de las una principales de las principales religiones religiones en el mundo en elhasta mundo el día hasta deel hoy. día de hoy.

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Estatuilla de Estatuilla un rey de un rey sacerdote, sacerdote, hallada hallada en Mohenjo enDaro. Mohenjo Daro.

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Los templos Los budistas templos budistas de las cuevas de de las cuevas de Ajanta contienen Ajanta contienen numerosasnumerosas obras de obras de arte. arte.

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frijoles, guisantes, frijoles, guisantes, sésamo, sésamo, arroz, cebada arroz,ycebada trigo, obteniendo y trigo, obteniendo gran gran rendimiento. rendimiento. Con las necesidades Con las necesidades de alimentación de alimentación resueltas,resueltas, muchas personas muchas personas podían dedicarse podían dedicarse a oficios adistintos oficios distintos a la a la agricultura. agricultura. Así empezó Así en empezó las grandes en las grandes ciudadesciudades el comercio, el comercio, la la artesaníaartesanía y la construcción y la construcción de viviendas de viviendas y obras públicas. y obras públicas. Incluso Incluso comenzaron comenzaron a fabricara ropas, fabricaryaropas, que fueron ya quelos fueron primeros los primeros en el en el mundo que mundo cultivaron que cultivaron el algodón el algodón y tejierony prendas tejieron prendas con él. con él. Aunque Aunque hubo cientos hubode cientos asentamientos, de asentamientos, las dos ciudades las dos ciudades principales principales fueron las fueron de Harappa las de Harappa y Mohenjo y Mohenjo Daro, cuyas Daro, ruinas cuyas ruinas fueron descubiertas fueron descubiertas en 1921. en Los1921. arqueólogos Los arqueólogos quedaronquedaron fascinados fascinados ante estaante próspera esta próspera civilización civilización urbana que, urbana peseque, a supese antigüedad, a su antigüedad, resultabaresultaba cercana acercana la concepción a la concepción de una ciudad de unacontemporánea. ciudad contemporánea. HarappaHarappa y Mohenjo y Mohenjo Daro tenían Daroalrededor tenían alrededor de 35,000 de 35,000 habitantes. habitantes. Ambas estaban Ambas situadas estaban situadas junto al Indo, junto lo al que Indo, leslo que les permitíapermitía comunicarse comunicarse por las aguas por las delaguas río. Aunque del río. Aunque estaban aestaban a más de 400 máskilómetros de 400 kilómetros una de otra, una eran de otra, ciudades eran ciudades muy parecidas. muy parecidas. Tenían un Tenían desarrollo un desarrollo urbanístico urbanístico armonioso armonioso y muy avanzado. y muy avanzado. Sus amplias Sus calles amplias principales calles principales estaban pavimentadas estaban pavimentadas y otras más y otras más estrechasestrechas las cruzaban las cruzaban en ángulo enrecto. ángulo recto.

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Según los Según los estudiosos,estudiosos, el el gran baño gran tenía baño tenía A partir A departir estas de primeras estas primeras aldeas, sealdeas, desarrolló se desarrolló hacia el año hacia 2500 el año 2500 propósitos propósitos rituales rituales a. C. la civilización a. C. la civilización del valle del del valle Indo.del SusIndo. habitantes Sus habitantes cultivaban cultivaban en Mohenjo enDaro. Mohenjo Daro.

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a). Main Selections b). Paired Piece

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Pilar Lozano Pilar Lozano CarbayoCarbayo

Disponían Disponían de edificios de edificios públicos públicos como graneros como graneros y aljibes yque aljibes que almacenaban almacenaban respectivamente respectivamente grano y agua granopara y agua la población. para la población. TambiénTambién tenían baños tenían y almacenes baños y almacenes portuarios. portuarios. Y lo que Y eslo que es más admirable, más admirable, tenían untenían sistema un de sistema alcantarillado de alcantarillado y servicios y servicios higiénicos, higiénicos, único enúnico el mundo. en el Las mundo. viviendas, Las viviendas, construidas construidas con con ladrillo yladrillo madera, y madera, disponían disponían de vertedero de vertedero de basuradey basura de baño. y de Los baño. Los desperdicios desperdicios y aguas residuales y aguas residuales vertían avertían unas tuberías a unas tuberías de terracota de terracota conectadas conectadas al alcantarillado al alcantarillado público. público. Desde aquí Desde se conducían aquí se conducían hasta pozos hasta situados pozos situados en las afueras en lasde afueras la ciudad. de laEste ciudad. sistema Este de sistema de alcantarillado alcantarillado es el másesantiguo el más que antiguo se conoce que seyconoce no se volvió y no se a volvió a dar en ninguna dar en ninguna otra ciudad otrahasta ciudad el siglo hastaXX. el siglo En esencia, XX. En esencia, y para y para nuestro asombro, nuestro asombro, es el mismo es elesquema mismo esquema que se utiliza que seenutiliza cualquier en cualquier ciudad de ciudad hoy en dedía. hoy en día. Apenas se Apenas han encontrado se han encontrado armas enarmas las ciudades en las ciudades de Mohenjo de Mohenjo Daro y Harappa. Daro y Harappa. Las pocas Las que pocas se han quehallado, se han hallado, eran instrumentos eran instrumentos utilizadosutilizados para la caza, parano la caza, para la noguerra. para laEl guerra. espíritu El pacífico espíritu de pacífico esta de esta cultura quizás culturafue quizás el que fue llevó el que a dos llevó contrincantes a dos contrincantes a resolvera una resolver una disputa de disputa manera de también manera también muy tranquila. muy tranquila. Decidieron Decidieron hacerlo simplemente hacerlo simplemente sobre unsobre un tablero con tablero fichas con que fichas representaban que representaban figuras. Sobre figuras. él Sobre acordaron él acordaron un un reparto justo reparto de la justo propiedad de la propiedad en en conflicto.conflicto. Había nacido Habíaelnacido juego del el juego del chaturanga, chaturanga, antecesorantecesor del ajedrez, del ajedrez, que se desarrollaba que se desarrollaba sobre unsobre un tablero cuadriculado. tablero cuadriculado. El juego El juego de estrategia de estrategia chaturanga chaturanga consistíaconsistía en cuatroenjugadores cuatro jugadores con dos dados con dos y ocho dadospiezas y ocho piezas que representaban que representaban al rey, al rey, elefante,elefante, caballo ycaballo carro y carro de guerra. de guerra.

Ricardo Bessa

Unas de Unas las primeras de las primeras civilizaciones civilizaciones del mundo delnacieron mundo nacieron hace unos hace unos 5,000 años 5,000 en tres añospuntos en tresdel puntos planeta. del planeta. Todas ellas Todas se dieron ellas sejunto dieron junto a grandes a grandes ríos que ríos permitieron que permitieron el desarrollo el desarrollo de la agricultura. de la agricultura. En En Egipto, junto Egipto, al Nilo. juntoEn al Nilo. Mesopotamia, En Mesopotamia, en el valle enentre el valle losentre ríos los ríos Éufrates Éufrates y Tigris. yElTigris. tercerEl foco tercer de civilización foco de civilización surgió alsurgió norte de al norte la de la India actual, Indiaen actual, las extensas en las extensas y fértilesyllanuras fértiles llanuras bañadas bañadas por el Indo. por el Indo. Este río recoge Este ríolas recoge aguaslas delaguas deshielo del deshielo de las nieves de lasperpetuas nieves perpetuas del del Himalaya, Himalaya, el macizoelmontañoso macizo montañoso con los picos con los más picos altosmás del altos mundo. del mundo. Al descender Al descender por las laderas, por las fertiliza laderas, las fertiliza tierras lasdetierras una extensa de una extensa área queárea hoy que ocupa hoyelocupa país deelPakistán, país de Pakistán, al norte de al norte la India. de la India. Las gentes Lasdegentes esta zona, de esta que zona, hastaque entonces hasta entonces vivían devivían la caza deyla caza y la pesca,laasípesca, comoasí decomo la cosecha de la cosecha del granodel silvestre, grano silvestre, dejaron de dejaron ser de ser nómadasnómadas para dedicarse para dedicarse a la agricultura. a la agricultura. Aprendieron Aprendieron a cultivara cultivar cereales cereales y desarrollaron y desarrollaron técnicas técnicas para regar para susregar cultivos. sus cultivos. TambiénTambién comenzaron comenzaron a domesticar a domesticar animalesanimales como el como cerdo,ellacerdo, cabra,la lacabra, oveja la oveja y la vaca.y De la vaca. este modo, De estesemodo, fueronseformando fueron formando pequeñas pequeñas aldeas. aldeas.

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Maravillas Grade 6


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McGraw-Hill Education Género Género • Texto• expositivo Texto expositivo

extensos territorios? extensos territorios? Faltaban milenios Faltabanpara milenios que surgieran para que surgieran los los olmecas, mayas, olmecas, incas mayas, y aztecas. incas y aztecas. Pero lejos Pero de América lejos desíAmérica había otras sí había civilizaciones otras civilizaciones interesadas interesadas en la agricultura, en la agricultura, y en las grandes y en lasconstrucciones grandes construcciones y conocimientos. y conocimientos. Lejos estaba Lejos Egipto, estaba que Egipto, tan bien queaprovechaba tan bien aprovechaba el valle delelrío valle Nilodel río Nilo para sus cultivos; para susy cultivos; lejos estaban y lejoslos estaban sumerios los de sumerios Mesopotamia, de Mesopotamia, que habían que inventado habían inventado la escritura. la Lo escritura. curiosoLo escurioso que a pesar es que a pesar de los océanos de losque océanos las separaban, que las separaban, Caral coincidía Caral con coincidía aquellas con aquellas civilizaciones civilizaciones en su interés en su porinterés las estrellas, por las en estrellas, la búsqueda en la búsqueda de de medir el tiempo, medir elentiempo, hacer construcciones en hacer construcciones monumentales monumentales y en la y en la necesidadnecesidad intrínseca intrínseca de emplear delas emplear matemáticas las matemáticas y otras ciencias y otras ciencias y tecnologías. y tecnologías.

Tan antigua Tancomo antigua las pirámides como las pirámides de Egipto,de Caral Egipto, Caral estuvo enterrada estuvo enterrada durante cinco durante milenios cincobajo milenios rocas bajo y rocas y arena. Susarena. enormes Susedificaciones enormes edificaciones de formasde piramidales formas piramidales emulabanemulaban las colinaslas naturales colinas naturales de su entorno. de suVistas entorno. Vistas desde el cielo, desdelas elsiluetas cielo, las desiluetas las plazas de las circulares plazas circulares o las o las estructuras estructuras rectangulares rectangulares no se parecían no se aparecían ningunaade ninguna de las otras que las otras se descubrían que se descubrían mediante mediante las fotos aéreas. las fotos aéreas. Los caralinos Los habían caralinos replicado habían las replicado colinas,las obras colinas, de la obras de la

A fin de cuentas, A fin denadie cuentas, podría nadie construir podría un construir enormeunedificio enorme edificio en forma piramidal en forma piramidal sin tener la sinopinión tener la deopinión un experto. de un¿Dónde experto. ¿Dónde construirlo? construirlo? ¿Qué materiales ¿Qué materiales usar? Hayusar? que saber Hay que de arquitectura saber de arquitectura e ingeniería, e ingeniería, de geometría de geometría y aritmética, y aritmética, de suelos, de de suelos, hidrografía de hidrografía

naturaleza, naturaleza, en los edificios en losque edificios construyeron que construyeron como como obras humanas. obras humanas.

y geología, y geología, y de tantas y de otras tantas cosas otras quecosas hacenque falta hacen para falta construir para construir una ciudad. una ciudad.

construir su construir ciudad.su Pero, ciudad. ¿cuáles Pero, serían ¿cuáles las serían costumbres las costumbres

En América Ense América hablan se muchísimas hablan muchísimas lenguas autóctonas. lenguas autóctonas. Algunos Algunos lingüistas lingüistas piensan que piensan la lengua que la que lengua se hablaba que seen hablaba Caral fue en Caral fue

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choccllo, que choccllo, es la mazorca que es latierna mazorca de maíz. tierna de maíz.

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la que diolaorigen que dio al idioma origen al quechua. idioma Otras quechua. palabras Otras quechuas palabras quechuas son pacha,son que pacha, significa que“tierra”, significakancha, “tierra”,que kancha, significa que“patio” significa y “patio” y

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En la civilización En la civilización de Caralde existieron Caral existieron talleres con talleres telares conytelares y ruecas, ¡todo ruecas, un¡todo avance un en avance el tema en el textil! temaY textil! teníanYovillos teníande ovillos hilos de hilos y buenasy agujas. buenas Las agujas. agujas Lasson agujas unoson de los unoutensilios de los utensilios más antiguos más antiguos de la historia de la historia de la humanidad, de la humanidad, y las de yCaral las de seCaral hacían se de hacían hueso de hueso o de madera. o de madera. El algodón El algodón tambiéntambién servía para servía hacer parabolsas, hacer cuerdas bolsas, cuerdas y, por supuesto, y, por supuesto, redes deredes pescar. de pescar.

Los caralinos Los caralinos empleaban empleaban quipus quipus como este como paraeste llevar para llevar sus cuentas. sus cuentas.

Un arqueólogo Un arqueólogo realiza realiza su trabajo suen trabajo Caral.en Caral.

como tendedera. como tendedera. En las cuerdas En las cuerdas había nudos había nudos a distinta a distinta distanciadistancia unos deunos otrosde y en otros la y en la

en aquel sitio. en aquel sitio.

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el blanco. el Por blanco. eso Por se podían eso se hacer podíanropas hacerderopas colores de sin colores tenersin que tener que usar tintes. usarEntintes. el valle En de el valle Supede losSupe arqueólogos los arqueólogos encontraron encontraron atados atados de algodón de algodón de colorde marrón color marrón y de tonos y de más tonos claros. más claros.

tiene noticia! tiene noticia! Los quipus Losguardaban quipus guardaban muy bien muy bien la información. la información. Se hacían Se con hacían cuerdas con cuerdas que que se dejaban se dejaban colgar de colgar otro de cordel otroque cordel sirveque sirve

idioma quechua, idioma igual quechua, que la igual palabra que la papa, palabra quepapa, también quesetambién producía se producía en el valleen deelSupe valleyde cuyo Supe cultivo y cuyo se cultivo originó se enoriginó Perú. en Perú.

de sus pobladores? de sus pobladores? Seguramente Seguramente la arqueóloga la arqueóloga pasaría pasaría noches con noches muchas conpreguntas muchas preguntas en la cabeza. en laSolo cabeza. si Solo si se desenterraban se desenterraban las edificaciones, las edificaciones, podría saberse podría saberse realmenterealmente cómo era cómo la vidaera dela lavida población de la población que habitóque habitó

que se capturaban que se capturaban en aquelensitio aquel costero, sitio costero, por donde porpasan dondelas pasan frías las frías aguas de aguas la corriente de la corriente de Perú.de Bien Perú. se sabe Bien se que sabe la costa que la peruana costa peruana es uno de es los unolugares de los lugares del mundo del donde mundomás donde abunda más abunda la pesca.la pesca. Los pescadores Los pescadores de Áspero, de Áspero, con sus redes con sus y anzuelos, redes y anzuelos, capturaban capturaban las valiosas las valiosas anchovetas; anchovetas; tambiéntambién recolectaban recolectaban sardinas,sardinas, bonitos,bonitos,

De aquel Decomercio aquel comercio se podíasellevar podía registros. llevar registros.

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¡Conéctate! ¡Conéctate!

allí dejaron allí lasdejaron shicraslas cargadas shicras de cargadas piedrasde por piedras los siglos porde loslos siglos siglos, de los siglos, como parte como de las parte construcciones! de las construcciones! La palabraLashicra palabra proviene shicradel proviene del

Las telasLas estaban telas estaban hechas de hechas algodón de algodón de colores. de colores. El algodón El algodón que usaban que usaban es natural es de natural América de América del Sur. del PeroSur. en Pero Caralen y aquellas Caral y aquellas regionesregiones de Perú de se cultivaba Perú se cultivaba algodónalgodón de diferentes de diferentes colores, colores, como como el rojo, el el marrón, rojo, el marrón, el crema, el el crema, verde,elelverde, amarillo el amarillo y, por supuesto, y, por supuesto,

Para esoPara existían eso existían los quipus, los como quipus,elcomo que encontraron el que encontraron los arqueólogos. los arqueólogos. ¡El quipu¡Elmás quipu antiguo más antiguo del que del se que se

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Lee cómoLee se descubrió cómo se descubrió la ciudad la considerada ciudad considerada actualmente actualmente la más antigua la másde antigua América. de América.

distribución, distribución, y forma yde forma los nudos, de loses nudos, dondees donde estaba el estaba mensaje, el mensaje, es decires donde decirsedonde “inscribía” se “inscribía” la información. la información. Por ejemplo: Por ejemplo: “¿Cuántas “¿Cuántas pacas depacas de algodónalgodón hay quehay darle que al darle comerciante al comerciante de Áspero de Áspero

AHORA COMPRUEBA AHORA COMPRUEBA

este semestre? este semestre? A ver, revisemos A ver, revisemos en el quipu. en el¡Aquí quipu. ¡Aquí está! Con está! cinco Con pacas, cincoeste pacas, hombre este hombre hoy estará hoycontento estará contento y nos dejará y nosdos dejará cestas dosde cestas pescado de pescado seco, y hasta seco, a y hasta lo mejor a lome mejor me trae de trae regalo deuna regalo de las unalindas de lasconchas lindas conchas de colores de para colores mipara hija”.mi hija”.

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ResumirResumir ResumeResume qué hanqué han reveladorevelado los científicos los científicos acerca de acerca de la alimentación la alimentación de los habitantes de los habitantes del valledel devalle Supede y de Supe cómo y de cómo conseguían conseguían sus alimentos. sus alimentos.

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Género Género • Biografía • Biografía “montaña humeante”, se construyó una una “montaña humeante”, se construyó cabaña en las mismas del propio cabaña enladeras las laderas mismas del propio Popocatépetl. De su afirmaba, Popocatépetl. Decabaña, su cabaña, afirmaba, teníatenía que que sacar las nubes a sombrerazos. sacar las nubes a sombrerazos.

Compara Compara los textos los textos Lee cómoLee un cómo pintorun y científico pintor y científico investigó investigó una de las una fuerzas de las fuerzas que influyen que en influyen la Tierra. en la Tierra.

El Dr.ElAtl sus propios colores parapara Dr.creó Atl creó sus propios colores pintar y losyllamó Atl colors. Sus cuadros pintar los llamó Atl colors. Sus cuadros han han mantenido el brillo original a lo alargo mantenido el brillo original lo largo del tiempo. Sin embargo, el pintor nunca del tiempo. Sin embargo, el pintor nunca divulgó su fórmula. Con Con ellosellos pintópintó muchos divulgó su fórmula. muchos volcanes, y estar frente a susa pinturas es es volcanes, y estar frente sus pinturas mirar lo que Gerardo Murillo vio. mirar lo que Gerardo Murillo vio.

el volcán Paricutín, el volcán Paricutín, según una de según unalas de las versiones del Dr. versiones delAtl Dr. Atl

el volcán Popocatépetl el volcán Popocatépetl

Gerardo Murillo Gerardo nació Murillo en Guadalajara, nació en Guadalajara, y, sobre todo, y, sobre la vulcanología. todo, la vulcanología. Tal era Tal era Jalisco, elJalisco, 3 de octubre el 3 dede octubre 1875 yde murió 1875 y murió su interéssu por interés esta ciencia, por estaque ciencia, el tema que el tema en la Ciudad en ladeCiudad MéxicodeelMéxico 15 agosto el 15 deagosto de principal principal de su pintura, de suapintura, lo largoade lo toda largo de toda 1964. A los1964. quince A los años quince estudió añospintura estudió pintura su vida, fueron su vida, losfueron volcanes, los volcanes, tanto activos tanto activos en su ciudad en su natal ciudad y poco natal después y pocollegó después a llegó como a durmientes. como durmientes.

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viéndose rodeado viéndosepor rodeado el agua, pordecidió el agua, decidióque escribió queen escribió 1950: Cómo en 1950: nace Cómo y crece nace y crece llamarse Atl, llamarse que significa Atl, que“agua” significa “agua” un volcán:un Elvolcán: Paricutín. El Paricutín. en náhuatl. en náhuatl. “Gran parte “Gran de mi parte vidadelami hevida ocupado la he ocupado Su interésSu por interés los volcanes por los lo volcanes hizo lo hizo en escalarenvolcanes, escalar volcanes, estudiarlos, estudiarlos, dibujarlosdibujarlos desplazarse desplazarse a San Juan a San Parangaricutiro, Juan Parangaricutiro, y, de repente, y, de la repente, naturaleza la naturaleza puso en puso en en el estado en el deestado Michoacán, de Michoacán, donde hizo donde hizo la puerta la depuerta mi casa deun mivolcán casa un nuevo”, volcán nuevo”, erupción erupción el Paricutín el Paricutín el 20 de febrero el 20 dedefebrerosolía de decir. solía decir.

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pastel. Regresó pastel.aRegresó México aenMéxico 1903. Entre en 1903. Entre sus principales sus principales aficiones aficiones se encontraban se encontraban la literatura, la literatura, el periodismo, el periodismo, la políticala política

En 1911, durante En 1911,su durante viaje asu Europa, viaje asuEuropa, barco su barco cerca de su cerca cráter de su tomando cráter tomando bocetos bocetos estuvo a punto estuvode a punto naufragar de naufragar debido a debido apara sus cuadros para susycuadros llevandoy allevando cabo una a cabo una una terrible unatempestad. terrible tempestad. En ese momento, En ese momento, documentación documentación minuciosaminuciosa para un libro para un libro

de altura y el yotro con con 5,500; el el metros de altura el otro 5,500; A otro periodista, le confesó: “Me“Me han han metros A otro periodista, le confesó: másmás jovenjoven lanzando fuego y el yviejo con con lanzando fuego el viejo hecho un gran servicio cortándome la la hecho un gran servicio cortándome sus gigantescos glaciares; el recién nacido sus gigantescos glaciares; el recién nacido pierna porque me han fijado en elensitio pierna porque me han fijado el sitio Paricutín, que que es ahora un volcán extinto y y Paricutín, es ahora un volcán extinto donde necesitaba seguir trabajando”. donde necesitaba seguir trabajando”. el viejo Popocatépetl, que sigue en plena el viejo Popocatépetl, que sigue en plena PeroPero eso no puespues con con esofue no tan fue cierto, tan cierto, actividad. Es más, para estar cerca de su actividad. Es más, para estar cerca de su muletas se leseveía ir y venir. Como ya ya muletas le veía ir y venir. Como 96 96

El pintor de volcanes murió El pintor de volcanes murió de un cardíaco a losa los deparo un paro cardíaco 89 años y sus restos descansan 89 años y sus restos descansan en laenRotonda de las la Rotonda dePersonas las Personas Ilustres, en laenCiudad de México. Ilustres, la Ciudad de México.

no podía subirsubir con con una una sola sola pierna a losa los no podía pierna volcanes, entonces los veía desde el aire, volcanes, entonces los veía desde el aire, a bordo de helicópteros o avionetas, a bordo de helicópteros o avionetas, desde los cuales realizaba sus sus desde los cuales realizaba observaciones registrando los rasgos observaciones registrando los rasgos

centro médico cercano era un de de cambiantes del paisaje y trazando sus sus centro médico cercano erahospital un hospital cambiantes del paisaje y trazando maternidad. Allá Allá lo llevaron y le ytuvieron Los llamó aeropaisajes. maternidad. lo llevaron le tuvieron bocetos. bocetos. Los llamó aeropaisajes. que que amputar la pierna. amputar la pierna. Tal vez preferidos fueron Tal sus vez volcanes sus volcanes preferidos fueron “Creí“Creí que que iba aiba tener un niño el Paricutín y el yPopocatépetl: uno uno recién a tener un niño el Paricutín el Popocatépetl: recién —bromeaba—, peropero me cortaron la pierna y el yotro con con una una edadedad aproximada —bromeaba—, me cortaron la pierna nacido nacido el otro aproximada y salíy sin y sinypierna”. de 730,000 años; uno uno con con un cono de 450 salíniño sin niño sin pierna”. de 730,000 años; un cono de 450

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Roma. Participó Roma. Participó en la Exposición en la Exposición anual anual del Salón del de París Salónen de1900, París donde en 1900, recibió donde recibió medalla de medalla plata por de plata un autorretrato por un autorretrato al al

En 1909 bajó En 1909 al cráter bajó del al cráter Popocatépetl del Popocatépetl y quedó y sepultado quedó sepultado por la lava. por El la Paricutín lava. El Paricutín tanto le impresionó tanto le impresionó que tiempo quedespués tiempo después estuvo activo estuvo hasta activo 1952 hasta y durante 1952 yesos durante esos regresó aregresó Italia para a Italia estudiar parasus estudiar volcanes. sus volcanes. nueve años nueve el Dr.años Atl estuvo el Dr. Atl mucho estuvo tiempo mucho tiempo

(t)Peter Langer/DanitaDelimont.com Danita Delimont Photography/Newscom

le otorgó le una otorgó beca una de mil beca pesos de mil para pesos para estudiar en estudiar Europa, endonde Europa, se donde graduóseengraduó en Filosofía yFilosofía Leyes por y Leyes la Universidad por la Universidad de de

En elEnParicutín, donde pasópasó mucho el Paricutín, donde mucho tiempo respirando las emanaciones del del tiempo respirando las emanaciones volcán, se lesionó la pierna derecha. Por Por volcán, se lesionó la pierna derecha. un tiempo padeció problemas vasculares un tiempo padeció problemas vasculares y, finalmente, se lesegangrenó. El único y, finalmente, le gangrenó. El único

Con frecuencia Con frecuencia realizaba realizaba viajes de viajes de 1943. Este1943. volcán Este nació volcán en un nació campo en un decampo de exploración exploración a los dos grandes a los dosvolcanes grandes del volcanescultivo, del decultivo, una pequeña de una pequeña grieta. Cuentan grieta. Cuentan Valle de México, Valle deelMéxico, Popocatépetl el Popocatépetl (montaña(montaña que empezó queaempezó salir humo a salir y cuando humo y cuando humeante) humeante) y el Iztaccíhuatl y el Iztaccíhuatl (mujer blanca). (mujer blanca). sobrevinosobrevino la explosión, la explosión, el pueblo el completo pueblo completo

(t)Peter Langer/DanitaDelimont.com Danita Delimont Photography/Newscom

la CiudadladeCiudad México, dedonde México, ingresó dondea ingresó la a la Escuela de Escuela Bellas de Artes Bellas al mismo Artes al tiempo mismo tiempo que cursaba quelacursaba preparatoria. la preparatoria. En 1897 seEn 1897 se

(b)Lucia Godinez/SUN/Newscom

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¿Qué revelan ¿Quélos revelan científicos los científicos sobre las sobre civilizaciones las civilizaciones antiguas?antiguas?

(b)Lucia Godinez/SUN/Newscom

©PAOLO AGUILAR/epa/Corbis

©PAOLO AGUILAR/epa/Corbis

Pregunta Pregunta esencial esencial

antiguas, los antiguas, habitantes los habitantes del misterioso del misterioso lugar no contarían lugar no contarían con herramientas con herramientas de metal, de ni con metal, másnimateriales con más materiales que que huesos dehuesos animales, de animales, madera y madera otras fibras y otras vegetales fibras vegetales de la región, de la además región,de además la piedra de ylalapiedra tierra,ypara la tierra, para

restos derestos sal en deun salmortero en un mortero de piedra. de La piedra. sal esLaabundante sal es abundante en en aquellasaquellas costas del costas océano del océano Pacífico.Pacífico.

Áspero era Áspero un asentamiento era un asentamiento en la costa en la a 16 costa millas a 16 millas (26 kilómetros) (26 kilómetros) de Caral.deSus Caral. pobladores Sus pobladores necesitaban necesitaban el algodón el algodón que se producía que se producía en el valle en para el valle hacer paralas hacer redeslas deredes pesca. deYpesca. los Y los de Caralde querían Caral querían las anchovetas las anchovetas secas y otros secas pescados y otros pescados y mariscos y mariscos

Gracias Gracias a ese intercambio a ese intercambio la gentelafue gente especializándose fue especializándose para hacer paratrabajos hacer trabajos diferentes. diferentes. Lo que producían Lo que producían podía podía llegar cada llegar vezcada másvez lejos, más y llegar lejos, yhasta llegar otros hasta valles. otros valles.

y otras técnicas y otraspara técnicas que los para terremotos que los terremotos no los derrumbaran. no los derrumbaran. Eran Eran construcciones construcciones sismorresistentes. sismorresistentes. Los caralinos Los utilizaban caralinos utilizaban el métodoel método de tejer bolsas, de tejer llamadas bolsas, shicras, llamadas con shicras, fibras con de algunas fibras deplantas. algunas¡Yplantas. ¡Y

habrían construido? habrían construido? Al igual que Al igual otras que civilizaciones otras civilizaciones

vecinas vecinas tenía gran tenía importancia gran importancia para la economía para la economía de Caral.de Caral. Se trataba Se trataba de Áspero. de Áspero.

róbalos,róbalos, corvinas,corvinas, anchoasanchoas y moluscos. y moluscos. Muestras Muestras de todo de esto todo se esto se encontraron encontraron en los sitios en los arqueológicos. sitios arqueológicos.

Los edificios Losseedificios construían se construían en Caral con en Caral una plataforma con una plataforma ancha ancha

La arqueóloga La arqueóloga peruana Ruth peruana Shady Ruth Solís Shady se sintió Solís se sintió muy intrigada muy por intrigada los enigmáticos por los enigmáticos montículos. montículos. ¿Cómo ¿Cómo eran realmente eran realmente aquellas edificaciones? aquellas edificaciones? ¿Cuándo se ¿Cuándo se

Un bloque Un de bloque sal más de sal grande más que grande unaque pelota unade pelota béisbol de se béisbol halló se halló en el edificio en el edificio piramidal piramidal mayor. Ymayor. para que Y para no quedara que no quedara duda deduda que de que usaban usaban sal en los salalimentos, en los alimentos, los arqueólogos los arqueólogos tambiéntambién encontraron encontraron

El Popocatépetl es unes un El Popocatépetl estratovolcán. El flujo estratovolcán. El flujo piroclástico que despide un un piroclástico que despide estratovolcán en erupción se se estratovolcán en erupción compone de ceniza caliente, compone de ceniza caliente, fragmentos de roca y gases fragmentos de roca y gases ardientes. FluyeFluye en dos ardientes. en capas. dos capas. La capa más más pesada lanzalanza La capa pesada grandes rocas a los alrededores. grandes rocas a los alrededores. La capa superior, más más ligera, La capa superior, ligera, contiene cenizas ardientes. contiene cenizas ardientes.

HazHaz conexiones conexiones ¿Cómo han han contribuido los volcanes a a ¿Cómo contribuido los volcanes PREGUNTA ESENCIAL transformar la Tierra? PREGUNTA ESENCIAL transformar la Tierra? ¿Qué has has aprendido acerca de las ¿Qué aprendido acerca de fuerzas las fuerzas naturales queque influyen en nuestro planeta? naturales influyen en nuestro planeta? ¿De¿De quéqué modos a veces estas fuerzas se se modos a veces estas fuerzas Y OTROS TEXTOS influyen entre sí? EL EL TEXTO Y OTROS TEXTOS influyen entre sí?TEXTO

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Quienes laQuienes construyeron la construyeron hace cincohace mil años cincono milcontaban años no contaban con bronce con ni bronce hierro, ynininguno hierro, yde ninguno sus habitantes de sus habitantes hacía hacía objetos deobjetos vidrio ode cerámica. vidrio o cerámica. Caral era una Caralciudad era una hecha ciudad hecha de piedra,de barro piedra, y quincha. barro y quincha.

En CaralEn noCaral faltaba no el faltaba alimento, el alimento, porque ya porque sabemos ya sabemos que se que se ocupaban ocupaban de cultivar de cultivar la tierrala y llevar tierra adelante y llevar adelante el comercio, el comercio, tanto tanto a los sitios a los alejados sitios alejados como a como los delavalle. los del Una valle. de las Unapoblaciones de las poblaciones

Pasquale Sorrentino/Science Source

de Supe, donde de Supe, se construyó donde se construyó la antigualaCiudad antigua Sagrada Ciudad Sagrada de Caral. No de lejos Caral.está No lejos Lima,está la capital Lima, la decapital Perú, en delaPerú, en la actualidadactualidad con sus edificios con susde edificios estructuras de estructuras metálicas,metálicas, ventanalesventanales de cristal, de pisos cristal, de losas pisosbrillantes de losas ybrillantes fuentes y fuentes luminosasluminosas del siglo XXI. del Pero siglo Caral XXI. Pero es muy Caral diferente. es muy diferente.

Emma Romeu EmmaRiaño Romeu Riaño

Estatuilla que Estatuilla que representa representa el estilo el estilo en el que llevaban en el que llevaban el cabello las el cabello las mujeres caralinas. mujeres caralinas.

La civilización La civilización de Caral yde susCaral vecinos y sus envecinos Perú avanzaban en Perú avanzaban con con sus propiossus adelantos propios adelantos científicoscientíficos y tecnológicos. y tecnológicos. ¿A quién podrían ¿A quién podrían imitar si ellos imitar eran si ellos los que eran iban los más que adelantados iban más adelantados en aquellos en aquellos

©PILAR OLIVARES/Reuters/Corbis

En América Endel América Sur, endel lasSur, vertientes en las vertientes occidentales occidentales de de la cordillera la cordillera de los Andes, de los porAndes, dondepor discurren donde ríos discurren que ríos que desembocan desembocan en el océano en el Pacífico, océanose Pacífico, encuentra se encuentra el valle el valle


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Este día, como Este día, tantos como otros, tantos el Dr. otros, Ramón el Dr.Bonfil Ramón se prepara Bonfil separa prepara para enfrentar enfrentar al gran tiburón al granblanco. tiburónPor blanco. tradición, Por tradición, los encuentros los encuentros entre el hombre entre elyhombre este ser yimponente este ser imponente han dadohan origen dado a historias origen a historias casi míticas. casiCaben míticas. razones: Cabencien razones: millones cien de millones años antes de años de que antes de que los dinosaurios los dinosaurios se pasearan se pasearan por la superficie por la superficie de la Tierra, de la losTierra, los mares ya mares constituían ya constituían el territorio el territorio de caza del detiburón, caza deluno tiburón, de losuno de los depredadores depredadores más extraordinarios más extraordinarios del planeta. delSin planeta. embargo, Sin embargo, el el propósitopropósito que guía aque esteguía investigador a este investigador y sus colegas y susnocolegas es aniquilar no es aniquilar a las majestuosas a las majestuosas criaturas, criaturas, sino evitarsino su extinción. evitar su extinción.

Cuando era Cuando niña,era Adriana niña, Adriana era soñadora era soñadora y muy inquieta. y muy inquieta. Según cuenta: Según cuenta: “me subía “me al techo subía de al techo mi casa depara mi casa observar para observar las estrellas. las estrellas. Me trepaba Mealto trepaba alto para sentirlas para sentirlas un poco un máspoco cercamás y, con cerca utensilios y, con utensilios de cocina, desimular cocina,naves simular naves espaciales”. espaciales”. Sus tripulantes Sus tripulantes eran sus eran muñecos, sus muñecos, vestidos como vestidos astronautas. como astronautas. Su perroSu Tauro perro eraTauro el copiloto. era el copiloto. Así que todos Así que listos todos emprendían listos emprendían imaginarios imaginarios viajes interplanetarios, viajes interplanetarios, cuando aún cuando ningún aúnser ningún humano ser humano había viajado había viajado al espacio. al espacio. Desde pequeña, Desde pequeña, Adriana Adriana ha sido una ha sido viajera unacuriosa viajeraque curiosa ha roto quefronteras. ha roto fronteras. Nació enNació Barranquilla en Barranquilla (Colombia); (Colombia); creció encreció Buenos enAires Buenos (Argentina) Aires (Argentina) y y cuando era cuando una adolescente era una adolescente se trasladó se trasladó con sus padres con susapadres Estadosa Unidos, Estados Unidos, donde vive donde desde vive entonces desde entonces y ha logrado y ha acercarse logrado acercarse cada vezcada más vez al espacio. más al espacio.

Ciertos depredadores Ciertos depredadores han inspirado han inspirado una mezcla una demezcla fascinación de fascinación y temor, como y temor, es elcomo caso es deellos caso grandes de losfelinos grandes y de felinos los tiburones y de los tiburones blancos. Ablancos. estos últimos A estosseúltimos los considera se los considera devoradores devoradores de seres de seres humanos,humanos, lo que ha lo dado quelugar ha dado a que lugar se les a que persiga se lesy persiga extermine. y extermine.

AdAridarnianOacaOmcapmopUoriUar,ia, VerónicaVerónica GuerreroGuerrero MotheletMothelet Gloria Valek Gloria Valdés Valek Valdés

Pregunta Pregunta esencial esencial ¿Cómo puede ¿Cómouna puede persona una persona influir influir en la opinión en la opinión de los demás? de los demás?

Pregunta Pregunta esencial esencial

agua hasta aguaunhasta sistema un sistema satelitalsatelital llamadollamado ARGOS, ARGOS, que calcula que la calcula posición la posición del del Entre 2002 Entre y 2004, 2002 ycuando 2004, cuando colaboraba colaboraba transmisor transmisor y reenvía y reenvía la información la información a una a una con la sociedad con la sociedad conservadora conservadora de la vida de la vidacomputadora. computadora. Así es como Así essecomo conocen se conocen las las silvestresilvestre (Wildlife(Wildlife Conservation Conservation Society)Society) de de rutas y destinos rutas y destinos de los animales de los animales marcados. marcados. EstadosEstados Unidos,Unidos, Bonfil descubrió, Bonfil descubrió, con el con el Uno de Uno ellosde fueellos Nicole, fue Nicole, una hembra una hembra apoyo de apoyo otrosde colegas, otros colegas, que los que tiburones los tiburones adulta de adulta casi cuatro de casimetros cuatro (13 metros pies), (13cuya pies), cuya blancosblancos son capaces son capaces de recorrer de recorrer inmensas inmensas travesíatravesía resultó toda resultó una toda sorpresa una sorpresa para para distancias distancias transoceánicas, transoceánicas, incluso incluso de un de unlos investigadores. los investigadores. AunqueAunque desde 2002 desde se2002 se continente continente a otro, para a otro, luego pararegresar luego regresar a asospechaba sospechaba que el macho que el de macho esta de especie esta especie su hogarsunatal. hogarEsto natal. hace Esto evidente hace evidente que se que se podría viajar podríalargas viajardistancias, largas distancias, se pensaba se pensaba trata detrata una especie de una especie migratoria migratoria y sugiere y sugiere que las hembras que las hembras siempresiempre permanecían permanecían en en que puede queexistir puedeun existir vínculo un vínculo genéticogenético su área su nativa. área Sin nativa. embargo, Sin embargo, Nicole refutó Nicole refutó entre poblaciones entre poblaciones de tiburón de tiburón blanco muy blanco muy esta suposición esta suposición al cruzaralelcruzar océano el océano Índico Índico alejadas,alejadas, como las como de Sudáfrica las de Sudáfrica y Oceanía. y Oceanía. desde ladesde costa la decosta Sudáfrica de Sudáfrica hasta lahasta costa la costa Esta investigación, Esta investigación, publicada publicada en en noroestenoroeste de Australia de Australia en tan solo en tan 99 solo días.99 días. octubreoctubre de 2005de en2005 la revista en la científica revista científica Por si fuera Por si poco, fueraseis poco, meses seismás meses más Science, Science, consistió consistió en colocar en colocar en el lomo en el delomo tarde de lostarde investigadores los investigadores constataron constataron que que 25 tiburones, 25 tiburones, pequeños pequeños aparatosaparatos conocidos conocidos Nicole había Nicoleregresado había regresado al lugar al donde lugar donde como marcadores como marcadores PAT (delPAT inglés, (del Popinglés, Pop- fue marcada fue marcada originalmente, originalmente, completando completando Archival-Tags), Archival-Tags), que sonque microchips son microchips con con un circuito un circuito de más de más 20,000 de kilómetros 20,000 kilómetros sensoressensores y un transmisor y un transmisor de unosde 17unos 17 (12,427 (12,427 millas) en millas) pocoen menos poco de menos nueve de nueve centímetros centímetros (6.7 pulgadas) (6.7 pulgadas) de largo.deEstos largo. Estos meses; todo meses; untodo récord. un récord. instrumentos instrumentos transmiten transmiten por radio por datos radio datos como lacomo profundidad la profundidad y la temperatura y la temperatura del del

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Selección tomada Selección del tomada artículo publicado del artículopor publicado ¿Cómo ves?, por ¿Cómo Revistaves?, de laRevista Dirección de la General Dirección General de Divulgación de Divulgación de la CienciadedelalaCiencia Universidad de la Nacional Universidad de Nacional Mexico, #105. de Mexico, #105.

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La velocidad La velocidad mínimamínima de Nicole, de Nicole, tiburones en riesgo ser capturados tiburones ende riesgo de ser capturados sostenida sostenida a grandes a grandes distancias, distancias, fue de fue de en aguas Actualmente, eninternacionales. aguas internacionales. Actualmente, 4.7 kilómetros 4.7 kilómetros (2.9 millas) (2.9 por millas) hora, por lahora, la países como y Sudáfrica tienen tienen paísesAustralia como Australia y Sudáfrica mayor registrada mayor registrada entre tiburones, entre tiburones, y solo y sololeyes que los que protegen, mas no mas son no son leyes los protegen, comparable comparable a la alcanzada a la alcanzada por los atunes por los atunes suficientes. Como señala Bonfil: Bonfil: suficientes. ComoRamón señala Ramón más rápidos. más rápidos. Además, Además, Nicole realizó Nicole la realizó la “Ahora “Ahora tenemostenemos la prueba de que los la prueba de que los mayor parte mayordeparte la travesía de la travesía nadando nadando tiburones blancosblancos necesitan protección en tiburones necesitan protección en a menosa de menos un metro de un(3.3 metro pies) (3.3 bajo pies) bajo aguas internacionales. Esta demostración aguas internacionales. Esta demostración la superficie. la superficie. Esto hace Esto suponer hace suponer que, que, es el paso para poder dicha dicha es esencial el paso esencial paraobtener poder obtener como otros como vertebrados, otros vertebrados, los tiburones los tiburones protección”. De hecho, información que protección”. De la hecho, la información que blancosblancos podríanpodrían usar guías usarvisuales guías visuales como como obtuvo su equipo sido ha unosido de uno tió que obtuvo su ha equipo de tió que mecanismos mecanismos de navegación de navegación —la posición —la posiciónla especie fuera incluida en el Apéndice la especie fuera incluida en el Apéndice del Sol odel deSol la Luna—, o de la Luna—, ademásademás de utilizar de utilizar II de la Convención sobre elsobre Comercio II de la Convención el Comercio el campo el magnético campo magnético de la Tierra. de la Tierra. Internacional de Especies Amenazadas Internacional de Especies Amenazadas No obstante, No obstante, estos viajes estosextensos viajes extensos de Fauna Flora Silvestre de las Naciones deyFauna y Flora Silvestre de las Naciones a travésade través todode untodo océano un océano ponen aponen los a los Unidas Unidas (CITES,(CITES, por sus por siglas inglés). susensiglas en inglés).

Así como Asíhay como zonas hayyzonas momentos y momentos de de haber confundido haber confundido a algúnaincauto algún incauto nadador nadador riesgo para riesgo encontrarse para encontrarse con otras conespecies otras especies con un con loboun marino lobo marino o una tortuga—, o una tortuga—, en en de tiburones de tiburones —como—como ríos y playas ríos y de playas de ciertas condiciones ciertas condiciones especiales, especiales, si el tiburón si el tiburón agua turbia, agua en turbia, el caso en el delcaso tiburón del tiburón toro; toro; suponesupone que el humano que el humano que percibe que percibe no no los buceos los buceos nocturnos, nocturnos, en el deen la el tintorera de la tintorera muy lejos muy eslejos una presa es unafácil, presa nofácil, vacilará no vacilará en en o el tiburón o el tiburón tigre; los tigre; naufragios los naufragios en alta en alta acercarse acercarse y probarlo. y probarlo. mar, enmar, el caso en el delcaso tiburón del tiburón azul—, uno azul—, uno En general, En general, los tiburones los tiburones blancosblancos puede toparse puede toparse con un con tiburón un tiburón blanco blanco son curiosos son curiosos y sueleny investigar suelen investigar lo que lo que durantedurante un buceo unen buceo una en zona unallena zonadellena de encuentran encuentran en su territorio. en su territorio. PrimeroPrimero focas y focas lobos ymarinos. lobos marinos. miran con miran cuidado. con cuidado. Si el objeto Si el les objeto les AunqueAunque los humanos los humanos no somos no presa somos presa parece parece inofensivo, inofensivo, es posible es posible que quieran que quieran naturalnatural ni el manjar ni el manjar favoritofavorito de ninguna de ningunaprobarlo. probarlo. En realidad, En realidad, los ataques los ataques de de especieespecie de tiburón de tiburón —y en muchos —y en muchos casos casos tiburóntiburón a los humanos a los humanos son menos son menos los ataques los ataques se deben se adeben que elaanimal que el animal pudo pudo frecuentes frecuentes de lo que de nos lo que hannos hecho hancreer. hecho creer.

En aguasEn deaguas Sudáfrica de Sudáfrica Ramón Bonfil Ramón ayuda Bonfila ayuda a un tiburón un blanco tiburónde blanco tres de tres metros (9.8 metros pies)(9.8 a salir pies) a salir de la cuna de de la cuna marcaje, de marcaje, luego deluego que se deleque se le colocaracolocara una marca una marca satelital satelital de tiempo dereal. tiempo real.

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Lee acerca Leede acerca la geóloga de la geóloga de la NASA de la NASA que descubrió que descubrió el cráterelque cráter dejóque el dejó el meteorometeoro causantecausante de la extinción de la extinción de los de los dinosaurios dinosaurios hace 65 hace millones 65 millones de años.de años. 208

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Los padres de Adriana siempre la impulsaron a alcanzar las estrellas y le aconsejaban que estudiar era el camino para acercarse a ellas. Para participar en esa apasionante tarea, debía seguir preparándose. Adriana Ocampo Uria escribió este cuento de divulgación científica, para explicar la Sabía que era la única manera fuerza de la gravedad. de aprender cada vez más y conocer a muchos científicos prominentes. En 1983 Adriana se graduó en geología, ciencia que estudia el interior de la Tierra, y luego hizo la maestría en geología planetaria, en la Universidad Estatal de California. Pero eso no fue todo. Mientras trabajaba como investigadora científica en el JPL, se matriculó en la Universidad de Amsterdam (Países Bajos), donde obtuvo un doctorado.

El granEl tiburón gran tiburón blanco blanco no merece no merece la malala mala lo blanco corresponde solo a lasolo parte lo blanco corresponde a la parte fama que fama tiene, queytiene, que les y que ha costado les ha costado la vida la vida inferiorinferior de su abdomen. El restoElderesto su de su de su abdomen. a tantosa ejemplares. tantos ejemplares. cuerpo cuerpo va del gris oscuro al café grisáceo. va del gris oscuro al café grisáceo. Su coloración le sirvele desirve camuflaje en el en el Su coloración de camuflaje momento de atacar su presa. momento deaatacar a suContra presa. Contra ella arremete desde abajo, un veloz ella arremete desdeen abajo, en un veloz Según Ramón Según Ramón Bonfil, Bonfil, el tiburón el tiburón blanco blanco ascendente, durantedurante el cual su movimiento ascendente, el cual su es un animal es un animal hermoso. hermoso. Puede alcanzar Puede alcanzar movimiento lomo selomo confunde con el agua, se confunde con elloagua, lo casi siete casi metros siete metros (22.9 pies) (22.9 depies) longitud, de longitud,oscuro oscuro que le ofrece la ventaja de la sorpresa. que le ofrece la ventaja de la sorpresa. aunqueaunque en promedio en promedio mide entre mide3.5 entre y 3.5 y Los tiburones no respiran por la nariz, Los tiburones no respiran por la nariz, cinco metros cinco metros (11.5 y 16.4 (11.5pies). y 16.4Llega pies). Llega que, como la pero fosas tienennasales fosas nasales que,acomo a la a pesaramás pesar demás tres de toneladas tres toneladas y, comoy, como pero tienen de sus parientes, les permiten de sus parientes, les permiten sucede sucede con la mayoría con la mayoría de los tiburones, de los tiburones, mayoríamayoría a sus presas una gran a sus mediante presas mediante una gran las hembras las hembras suelen ser suelen másser grandes más grandes que queolfatearolfatear cantidad de órganos sensoriales llamados cantidad de órganos sensoriales llamados los machos. los machos. Tiene una Tiene pigmentación una pigmentación poco poco que se conectan directamente con con que se conectan directamente común,común, ya que ayapesar que ade pesar su nombre, de su nombre, lamellae,lamellae, el centro su cerebro, informando de el de centro de su cerebro, informando de cualquier olor interesante. Esta es Esta la razón cualquier olor interesante. es la razón de que de puedan detectardetectar sangre sangre a variosa varios que puedan kilómetros de distancia. kilómetros de distancia.

AHORA COMPRUEBA AHORA COMPRUEBA

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la evolución de la vida en la Tierra. Fue descubierto por dos geofísicos que trabajaban en México para la empresa PEMEX, a finales de la década de 1970. Como ocurre con grandes descubrimientos científicos, su fin era otro; no buscar un cráter formado por el impacto de un meteorito. En este caso buscaban petróleo. Adriana no solo está alcanzando las estrellas. También indaga en el pasado de los planetas y los enigmas de la Tierra. Trabaja en los misterios que guardan las rocas y los cráteres ocasionados por el impacto de meteoritos. Disfruta entrañablemente la naturaleza y fue niña scout. Ama todo lo que tenga que ver con volar y explorar pues es sumamente curiosa. Le encanta, además, ensuciarse, excavar y trabajar con el lodo y la tierra. Sus consejos para seguir una carrera como la suya se resumen en “primero, soñar y nunca darse por vencido; tener persistencia y hacer todo de corazón pero también vivir la vida con gusto”.

El cráter de Chicxulub se formó hace 65 millones de años.

Los sueños de Adriana la han transportado a todo el sistema solar, pero su disciplina y constancia en la investigación científica la han llevado a participar en proyectos que han logrado llegar a Marte, Venus y Júpiter. Se ha convertido en una experta en planetas y en el uso de instrumentos como distintos tipos de rayos y la más avanzada tecnología satelital. Y a Adriana también le interesan la enseñanza y la publicación de material educativo para motivar a jóvenes como tú a acercarse a las ciencias.

Resumir Resumir ResumeResume por quépor qué el graneltiburón gran tiburón blancoblanco es es un animal un animal muy especial. muy especial.

Ramón Bonfil Ramónprepara Bonfil prepara a un tiburón a un tiburón blanco blanco de 3.8 metros de 3.8 (12.5 metros pies), (12.5 recién pies),subido reciénasubido la a la camilla de camilla marcaje de marcaje despuésdespués de un formidable de un formidable forcejeo,forcejeo, para elevarlo para elevarlo a la plataforma a la plataforma y y colocarle colocarle la marcalasatelital. marca satelital.

Como puedes Comodarte puedes cuenta, darteAdriana cuenta, Adriana ha rebasado ha rebasado fronteras.fronteras. Sus sueños Sus sueños empezaron empezaron a hacersea realidad hacerse realidad cuando, cuando, en Estados en Unidos, Estados teniendo Unidos, teniendo solo solo 14 años, 14 solicitó años,trabajo solicitóen trabajo la NASA. en laNo NASA. le importó No le importó ser muy ser joven muy y que joven y que su lenguasumaterna lengua materna fuera el español. fuera el español. No la contrataron No la contrataron entoncesentonces pero, tanpero, tan pronto como pronto pudo, como diopudo, el gran diopaso el gran al serle pasootorgado al serle otorgado un puesto, unprimero puesto, primero como voluntaria como voluntaria y luego como y luego empleada, como empleada, en el mismísimo en el mismísimo Jet Propulsion Jet Propulsion Laboratory Laboratory (JPL) o Laboratorio (JPL) o Laboratorio de propulsión de propulsión a chorro,aen chorro, California. en California. Ahí se Ahí se construyen construyen y manejan y manejan naves espaciales naves espaciales no tripuladas no tripuladas nada menos nadaque menos paraque para la ¡NASA! la Adriana ¡NASA! Adriana soñaba con soñaba diseñar con colonias diseñar colonias espaciales, espaciales, pero empezó pero empezó trabajando trabajando en algo igual en algo de importante: igual de importante: recolectar recolectar datos dedatos las antenas de las de antenas de radio. Estas radio. sonEstas como son oídos como gigantes oídos gigantes que escuchan que escuchan ondas deondas radio de emitidas radio emitidas por algunas por estrellas. algunas estrellas. Su labor Su comenzó labor comenzó entoncesentonces a ser fascinante a ser fascinante al trabajar al trabajar con los mejores con los ingenieros mejores ingenieros y científicos y científicos del mundo. del mundo.

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Adriana Ocampo and Eliseo Balaguer Calpe

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Credits TK

Credits TK

Credits TK

Lee acerca Leedel acerca trabajo deldel trabajo biólogo delmarino biólogo marino Ramón Bonfil, Ramón que Bonfil, le permite que le conocer permite conocer de muy cerca de muy a una cerca dealas una criaturas de las criaturas más más feroces yferoces fascinantes y fascinantes del reino del animal. reino animal.

NASA/Adriana Ocampo

Cómo puede Cómo una puede investigación una investigación científicacientífica convertirse convertirse en una aventura? en una aventura?

Debido aDebido su empuje a su yempuje a la claridad y a la claridad de sus objetivos de sus objetivos ha podido hacumplir podido cumplir muchas de muchas sus metas. de susHoy metas. es laHoy administradora es la administradora de misiones de misiones científicas científicas de de la división la división de ciencias de ciencias planetarias planetarias del programa del programa de ciencias de ciencias de la NASA de la NASA (Administración (Administración NacionalNacional de la Aeronáutica de la Aeronáutica y del Espacio). y del Espacio). Como tal, Como es tal, es responsable responsable del programa del programa Nuevas Fronteras, Nuevas Fronteras, de las misiones de las misiones Juno a Júpiter, Juno a Júpiter, Nuevos Horizontes Nuevos Horizontes a Plutón ayPlutón de la colaboración y de la colaboración de la NASA, de laen NASA, Venusen Venus Express, de Express, la Agencia de la Agencia Espacial Espacial Europea.Europea.

Uno de los momentos favoritos de su carrera fue la investigación que llevó al descubrimiento del cráter de Chicxulub, en Yucatán (México): una gran depresión topográfica cuyo nombre en lengua maya significa pulga del diablo, que se formó hace 65 millones de años como resultado de la caída en la Tierra de un meteorito gigante que causó la extinción de más de la mitad de las especies que había en el planeta, incluidos los dinosaurios. Adriana ha dirigido expediciones para estudiar ese gigantesco cráter, que cambió 210

Haz conexiones

Detlev van Ravenswaay/Science Source

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Spanish Leveled Readers is a series of books for hispaic srudents in the U.S. These books inlude my page layour design, creationf of all graphic elements, backgrounds and typography on titles. Also selection of art and photography for the different selections.

Comenta cómo ha influido Adriana Ocampo Uria en la vida de muchas personas. PREGUNTA ESENCIAL Describe cómo te ha hecho cambiar tus creencias alguna persona que conozcas o sobre la que hayas leído. EL TEXTO Y TÚ 211


Spanish Leveled Readers I & II

McGraw-Hill Education b

Género Género • Ficción • Ficción histórica histórica

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Respuesta al texto Elena Poniatowska nació en París (Francia) de madre mexicana y padre polaco, y contaba con 10 años cuando llegó por primera vez a México. En 2013, recibió el premio más importante que se concede en el campo de la literatura escrita en español, el Premio Cervantes. Este galardón culminó la carrera de una escritora que aprendió a hablar español de su nana y comenzó humildemente haciendo entrevistas para un periódico mexicano. Elena Poniatowska ha escrito perdurables novelas, biografías y numerosos cuentos para niños, entre ellos, Fuerte es el silencio, Gaby Brimmer, Leonora, La vendedora de nubes y Boda en Chimalistac.

Mucho tiempo Muchoatrás, tiempo enatrás, una ciudad en unade ciudad China,de rodeada China, rodeada de altas montañas de altas montañas y tupidosybosques tupidos de bosques árboles dede árboles diferentes de diferentes tipos, pasaba tipos,un pasaba tranquilo un tranquilo río de aguas río de transparentes aguas transparentes en en donde nadaban donde nadaban patos y peces patosde y peces muchos decolores. muchos colores. Cerca deCerca la orilla dede la orilla la ciudad de lahabía ciudad una había pequeña una pequeña casa casa construida construida con ladrillos con hechos ladrilloscon hechos agua,con paja agua, y lodo. paja Eny lodo. En ella vivíaella la familia vivía laWong. familiaWong Wong. Li,Wong hijo único, Li, hijo cuenta único,las cuenta las experiencias experiencias que vivióque junto vivió a sujunto familia a suenfamilia los preparativos en los preparativos para la celebración para la celebración del Año Nuevo. del Año Nuevo.

Escribir ¿De qué manera los detalles descriptivos le sirven a la autora para reflejar la manera en que Gaby Brimmer superó sus retos personales? Organiza las evidencias del relato a partir de estos marcos de oración: La autora busca… Ella refleja el mundo interior de Gaby… Esto es importante porque…

Desde pequeño, era un muchacho alegre quecon jugaba con Desde pequeño, yo era unyo muchacho alegre que jugaba misyamigos y pescaba en el río varias a la para semana para mis amigos pescaba en el río varias veces a laveces semana llevarle a pescado a miComo madre. era muy no curioso, no era nada llevarle pescado mi madre. eraComo muy curioso, era nada quepiedras juntarade piedras decontara colores,luciérnagas contara luciérnagas raro que raro juntara colores, en las en las y me acostara sobre la ver las nubes. Atrapaba noches y noches me acostara sobre la hierba a hierba ver las a nubes. Atrapaba y lagartijas y, de después de observarlos, loslibres. dejaba libres. insectos yinsectos lagartijas y, después observarlos, los dejaba Pasaba en el observando bosque, observando con detenimiento. Pasaba horas en horas el bosque, todo con todo detenimiento. MiLin madre, Manli, despierta siempre despierta desde muy temprano, Mi madre, Manli,Lin siempre desde muy temprano, parecía una hormiga de tan ocupada. parecía una hormiga de tan ocupada. Cocinaba,Cocinaba, lavaba lalavaba ropa la ropa y hacía padre, Fu, trabajaba y hacía un sinfín un de sinfín cosas.de Micosas. padre,Mi Wong Fu,Wong trabajaba en un en un a unde costado deAhí la casa. Ahíallevaba pequeño pequeño cobertizocobertizo a un costado la casa. llevaba cabo a cabo el oficio varias generaciones de los hombres de la familia: el oficio de variasde generaciones de los hombres de la familia: producir petardos fuegos artificiales. producir petardos y fuegos yartificiales.

¿Es posible que los lectores se sientan inspirados al leer los sucesos que Elena Poniatowska narra en Gaby Brimmer?

Hacer conexiones

Ilustraciones de Laura González; foto: Quim Llenas/Cover/Getty Images

¿Qué probó Gaby ante sí misma y ante los demás al ir más allá de sus límites? PREGUNTA ESENCIAL ¿Sobre qué otros tipos de retos has leído que te hayan inspirado a actuar o pensar de otra manera? ¿Qué te enseñaron esos casos? EL TEXTO Y EL MUNDO

Ilustraciones de Laura González

Judy Goldman Judy Goldman ilustraciones ilustraciones de Renéde Venegas René Venegas

Resumir Utiliza detalles de Gaby Brimmer para resumir cómo se enfrenta la protagonista a sus retos personales. La tabla de punto de vista del autor te puede ayudar.

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Pregunta Pregunta esencial esencial ¿Qué influye ¿Quéen influye el desarrollo en el desarrollo de una cultura? de una cultura?

Capítulo 1

En torno al agua

Lee acerca Leedeacerca un muchacho de un muchacho que que quiere aprender quiere aprender el oficio de el oficio la de la pirotecniapirotecnia en la antigua en laChina. antigua China.

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Una mañana, Una mañana, me desperté me desperté cuando cuando el sol apenas el soliluminaba apenas iluminaba los picos de los las picos de las montañasmontañas coronadas coronadas con blancas connubes blancas nubes cercanas cercanas a mi casa.a Me mi casa. froté Me los ojos frotéy los ojos y bostecé. Todavía bostecé.tenía Todavía sueño tenía porsueño lo quepor lo que me acomodé me acomodé mejor en mejor el k’ang, en el una k’ang, una plataforma plataforma de ladrillos deque ladrillos servía que de servía de cama para cama mis para padres mis y yo. padres Le diy un yo.tirón Le di un tirón a la cobija a para la cobija cubrirme para cubrirme el mentón, el mentón, cerré los ojos cerréy,los unos ojossegundos y, unos segundos después, después, soñé que soñé me trepaba que meatrepaba un árbola tan un árbol alto tan alto que su frondosa que su frondosa copa desaparecía copa desaparecía entre entre las nubes.las nubes. En eso, sentí En eso, quesentí una mano que una sacudía mano sacudía mi hombro. mi hombro. Era mi padre, Era mi quien padre, dijo: quien dijo: ––¡Despierta, ––¡Despierta, Wong Li!Wong ¡Despierta! Li! ¡Despierta! ¡Ya ¡Ya es tarde yeshay tarde mucho y hay que mucho hacerque hoy! hacer Ya hoy! Ya pronto será pronto el Año será Nuevo el Año y los Nuevo petardos y los petardos y fuegos artificiales y fuegos artificiales tienen tienen que estarque listos. estar Sin listos. ellos, Sin la fiesta ellos,para la fiesta honrar para a nuestros honrar a ancestros nuestros ancestros y dioses no y dioses será igual. no será Además, igual. Además, si no hay si ruidos no hay muy, ruidos muymuy, fuertes, muy fuertes, los espíritus los malos espíritus no malos se espantarán no se espantarán y se quedarán y se quedarán a vivir entre a vivir entre nosotros. nosotros. ¡Eso sería¡Eso terrible! seríaRápido, terrible!rápido, Rápido,que rápido, hay que queirhay cuanto que ir cuanto antes porantes más bambú por másverde bambú al bosque. verde al bosque. Eché a unEché ladoalaun cobija lado ylame cobija pusey de mepie puse dede unpie brinco. de un A brinco. mí A mí me encantaban me encantaban todas las todas celebraciones, las celebraciones, desde lasdesde más sencillas las más sencillas hasta las hasta más elegantes, las más elegantes, pero la del pero AñolaNuevo del Año eraNuevo la queera más la que más me gustaba. me Además, gustaba. Además, durante las durante fiestas,lasmis fiestas, amigos misy amigos yo y yo podíamospodíamos hacer muchísimo hacer muchísimo ruido y nadie ruidonos y nadie regañaba. nos regañaba. Al Al contrario,contrario, ¡nos pedían ¡nosque pedían hiciéramos que hiciéramos aún más! aún más! Me estiréMe hasta estiré quehasta los huesos que los me huesos tronaron. me tronaron. Luego, me Luego, calcé me calcé los zapatos losy,zapatos para despertar y, para despertar completamente, completamente, me eché me en la eché caraen la cara agua del agua barril.del barril. Al poco tiempo, Al pocomi tiempo, padre mi y yo padre nos sentamos y yo nos sentamos a la mesaayla mesa y desayunamos desayunamos el humeante el humeante arroz y bebimos arroz y té bebimos muy caliente té muyque caliente que nos sirviónos mi madre. sirvió miDespués, madre. Después, mi padre mi y yo padre salimos y yode salimos la casa. de la casa. 156

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Pero mi padre mepadre acariciaba la cabezalaycabeza decía: y decía: Pero mi me acariciaba ––Todavía––Todavía no es el momento, hijo. Primero no es el momento, hijo. debes Primero debes cumplir con la tradición familiar yfamiliar esperaryaesperar cumplira cumplir cumplir con la tradición dos primaveras más. Así lo tuve que hacer yo, y mi yo, y mi dos primaveras más. Así lo tuve que hacer padre y su padre. Yapadre. me ayudas ordenadoordenado padre y su Ya memanteniendo ayudas manteniendo el cobertizo y acomodando los trozoslos huecos bambú el cobertizo y acomodando trozosde huecos de bambú en una pila. Peropila. la preparación de la pólvora un en una Pero la preparación de laes pólvora es un asunto difícil. Nodifícil. quieroNo que, por que, descuido, un petardo asunto quiero por descuido, un petardo explote yexplote todo ––bambú, papel, madera, cobertizocobertizo y y todo ––bambú, papel, madera, y casa–– secasa–– incendie y desaparezca en un instante. se incendie y desaparezca en un instante. Y, aunque parecía faltaba llegar Y,me aunque meque parecía quemucho faltabapara mucho para llegar a la edadanecesaria, me teníame quetenía conformar con esa con esa la edad necesaria, que conformar respuestarespuesta y esperaryansiosamente a que pasara tiempo. esperar ansiosamente a queelpasara el tiempo.

Dejamos Dejamos atrás el pueblo atrás el y caminamos pueblo y caminamos por una vereda por una que vereda que nos llevó nos a través llevódel a través bosque, deldonde bosque, bandadas donde bandadas de pájaros de pájaros multicolores multicolores llenaban llenaban el aire con elsus airecantos, con susy cantos, grandesy grandes manadasmanadas de gibones deygibones otros monos y otros semonos columpiaban se columpiaban de rama de rama en rama. en Al dejar rama.atrás Al dejar el bosque, atrás elelbosque, caminoelnos camino llevó nos por llevó por las orillaslas de orillas campos desembrados campos sembrados de arroz, de té, arroz, ajonjolí, té,soya ajonjolí, y soya y pepinos. Así pepinos. llegamos Así llegamos a un granabosque un grande bosque bambú. de bambú. Era uno de Eramis uno lugares de misfavoritos lugares pues, favoritos a esa pues, hora, a esa el hora, el bosque parecía bosquepintado parecíade pintado una luz deverde una luz queverde se calaba que se entre calaba entre las hojas. las Erahojas. frescoEra y tan fresco tranquilo y tan tranquilo que se escuchaba que se escuchaba el rumor el rumor de un riachuelo de un riachuelo y el ligeroytintineo el ligerode tintineo la brisa decuando la brisasecuando se colaba entre colaba las entre hojas las de las hojas puntas de las depuntas las altísimas de las altísimas varas. El varas. El bambú crecía bambú tancrecía rápidotan que rápido yo imaginaba que yo imaginaba que se estiraba que se estiraba como si quisiera como sialcanzar quisiera el alcanzar sol. el sol. A mí me encantaba A mí me encantaba acompañar acompañar a mi padre, a mi porque padre,esporque un es un hombre que hombre conoce quemucho conoce del mucho mundo. delCada mundo. vez Cada que salíamos vez que salíamos juntos, yojuntos, prestaba yo prestaba atención atención porque élporque siempreélme siempre contaba me contaba algo sobre algo lo que sobre veíamos lo que por veíamos el camino. por elUna camino. vez fue Unasobre vez fue sobre el panda el que, panda peseque, a supese aspecto, a su es aspecto, un animal es unpeligroso, animal peligroso, y y otra, cuando otra,vimos cuando a unos vimos monos a unos gibones, monos nos gibones, detuvimos nos detuvimos para para oír los ruidos oír los queruidos hacían. queAhacían. mí me parecía A mí meque parecía más que más bien cantaban. bien cantaban. Mi padreMi también padre me también contóme sobre contó los sobre dragones los dragones de de diferentesdiferentes colores que colores surcaban que surcaban los aires, de los los aires, poderosos de los poderosos emperadores emperadores de nuestra detierra nuestra y de tierra los grandes y de losbarcos grandes debarcos de juncos que juncos atravesaban que atravesaban los mares.los mares. Además, Además, me hablóme de habló los insectos, de los como insectos, las como libélulas las ylibélulas y las mariposas, las mariposas, que parecían que parecían joyas conjoyas alas tornasoladas; con alas tornasoladas; de los de los reptiles cubiertos reptiles cubiertos de escamas de que escamas se escondían que se escondían debajo debajo de las piedras; de lasypiedras; nombróyalgunas nombróestrellas, algunas estrellas, entre las entre infinitas las infinitas que iluminaban que iluminaban el cielo. el cielo. Pero lo que Pero más lo me quegustaba más meera gustaba cuando erame cuando hablaba me hablaba de mis ancestros. de mis ancestros.

Por fin llegamos al bosquealybosque mi padre se padre puso ase puso a Por fin llegamos y mi seleccionar y luego aycortar largaslas cañas decañas bambú seleccionar luego las a cortar largas de bambú verde converde un cuchillo Yo filoso. las recogí y las coloqué con unfiloso. cuchillo Yo las recogí y las coloqué a un lado.a La poco a poco un pila lado.fue Lacreciendo pila fue creciendo pocoy,acuando poco y, cuando tuvimos suficientes, mi padremi guardó cuchillo juntos, y juntos, tuvimos suficientes, padreelguardó elycuchillo y cada quien cargando muchas cañas, regresamos a casa a casa y cada quien cargando muchas cañas, regresamos por el mismo por elcamino. mismo camino. En cuanto nos fuimos cobertizo, Enllegamos, cuanto llegamos, nosalfuimos al cobertizo, colocamos las cañaslas con otrascon queotras habíamos traído traído colocamos cañas que habíamos anteriormente y comenzamos a trabajar. Mi padreMi padre anteriormente y comenzamos a trabajar. cortó los cortó bambúes huecos en trozosen y yo los acomodé de los bambúes huecos trozos y yo los acomodé de tal manera empezaron a formar aunformar pequeño montón. montón. tal que manera que empezaron un pequeño Poco a poco, el montón se convirtió en una Poco a poco, el montón se convirtiópequeña en una pequeña montañamontaña tan verdetan como loscomo chapulines que saltaban verde los chapulines que saltaban en el campo. en el campo. MientrasMientras mi padremi cortaba trozoslos detrozos bambú, padre los cortaba de bambú, se detuvo, miró me y me preguntó: seme detuvo, miró y me preguntó: ––¿Sabes ––¿Sabes quién inventó pólvora, Fuehijo? un Fue un quiénlainventó la hijo? pólvora, descubrimiento muy importante para China y para descubrimiento muy importante para China y para nosotros.nosotros. No podríamos celebrar celebrar las fiestaslas enfiestas la forma No podríamos en la forma en que estamos acostumbrados y nosotros no tendríamos en que estamos acostumbrados y nosotros no tendríamos forma deforma ganarnos la vida. la vida. de ganarnos

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Mi padreMi siguió cortando el bambúelybambú continuó: padre siguió cortando y continuó: ––Hay varias leyendas que se cuentan miles de miles años. de años. ––Hay varias leyendas que se hace cuentan hace ¿Quieres ¿Quieres escucharlas? escucharlas? Yo dije que sí y mi padre, cambiando el tono Yo dije que sí y mi padre, cambiandode el voz, tonocomo de voz, como hacía cada vezcada que contaba empezó: hacía vez que algo, contaba algo, empezó: ––Se dice––Se que,dice mucho de antes la invención de la pólvora, que,antes mucho de la invención de la pólvora, nuestros nuestros antepasados echaban echaban pedazos pedazos de bambú a verde a antepasados deverde bambú las fogatas. el Como bambúeltierno tiene huecos dellenos aire de aire las Como fogatas. bambú tierno tienellenos huecos en su interior, produciendo un chisporroteo y una y una en su explotaba interior, explotaba produciendo un chisporroteo hermosa hermosa flama. flama. Yo sonreíYo porque mí también me gustaba bambú sonreíaporque a mí también me echar gustaba echar bambú verde a laverde fogata. a la fogata. Mi padreMi continuó: padre continuó: ––Mucho ––Mucho tiempo después, un cocinero se encontraba en tiempo después, un cocinero se encontraba en el campoelecampo iba a preparar algo paraalgo comer. tenía ya tenía e iba a preparar paraCuando comer. ya Cuando todo listo,todo echó en la fogata, querer, potasio, listo, echó en lasin fogata, sinnitrato querer,denitrato de potasio, que a veces se usaba en vez de sal para sazonar la comida. que a veces se usaba en vez de sal para sazonar la comida. En ella yaEnhabía carbón azufre, ycosas quecosas se encontraban ella ya habíay carbón azufre, que se encontraban fácilmente en el campo. prendió y unos instantes fácilmente en elLe campo. Lefuego prendió fuego y unos instantes después, después, ¡buuuuum!, hubo unahubo explosión tan fuertetan que casi que casi ¡buuuuum!, una explosión fuerte lo mata de susto. de Fuesusto. corriendo a esconderse y solo regresó lo mata Fue corriendo a esconderse y solo regresó cuando vio que todo estaba cuando vio que todotranquilo. estaba tranquilo. Yo me reíYo a me carcajadas. reí a carcajadas. Mi padreMi continuó: padre continuó: ––Ese cocinero se lo dijose a su familia a sus conocidos. A ––Ese cocinero lo dijo a suy familia y a sus conocidos. A algunos les llamóles mucho atención y se lo dijeron otras a otras algunos llamólamucho la atención y se loadijeron personas.personas. Poco a poco gente se gente enterósedel suceso. Pocomás a poco más enteró delPasó suceso. Pasó mucho tiempo apareció un hombre dicen, sedicen, llamaba muchoytiempo y apareció un que, hombre que, se llamaba Sun Simiao. médico alquimista, es decir, es una persona SunEra Simiao. Eraymédico y alquimista, decir, una persona que buscaba el elixir de inmortalidad, porque quería que buscaba el la elixir de la inmortalidad, porquevivir quería vivir por siempre. Por eso, hacía muchos mezclando por siempre. Por eso, hacía experimentos muchos experimentos mezclando químicosquímicos y más químicos. Sin querer, una de y más químicos. Sinen querer, enesas unaocasiones, de esas ocasiones, él y sus asistentes mezclaron nitrato denitrato potasio, él y sus asistentes mezclaron de azufre, potasio,otros azufre, otros elementos y ¡miel dey abeja! Cuando la mezcla, elementos ¡miel de abeja! calentaron Cuando calentaron la se mezcla, se produjo una flama tanflama fuertetan que ¡el lugar donde llevaban a produjo una fuerte que ¡el lugar donde llevaban a cabo los cabo experimentos se convirtió en cenizas unos minutos! los experimentos se convirtió enen cenizas en unos minutos! Yo abrí mucho ojos. los ojos. Yo abrílos mucho

En la época de verano, cuando el sol se ponía sobre la planicie de Quimbombó, el cielo se tornaba naranja y algunos resplandores violetas y rosados cruzaban el horizonte; los atardeceres eran increíblemente bellos en este territorio . Sin embargo, las lluvias cesaban y la tierra comenzaba a resentirse por la falta de agua . El suelo se endurecía y se formaban largas y profundas grietas, producto del calor ardiente de la época .

2 161

161

En medio de aquella planicie, vivían los trasgos, quienes habitaban en pequeños poblados de chozas que construían con ramas y rodeaban con cercas . Su principal sustento venía de la cría de ganado, del que obtenían carne, leche y cuero que usaban para su supervivencia o para hacer canje por otras mercancías con otras poblaciones cercanas, ya que no usaban dinero . Los trasgos sabían que, todos los años, a una corta época de lluvias la sucedía una extensa de verano . Esta vez, a pesar de haber almacenado suficiente agua para la época de sequía, los trasgos estaban preocupados porque las altas temperaturas estaban evaporando el agua de los pozos con alarmante rapidez . Ellos necesitaban el agua para su supervivencia y la del ganado . Era algo de vital importancia para la aldea . Mientras los trasgos adultos se habían reunido para pensar en la forma de encontrar más agua, los pequeños jugaban alrededor de las construcciones de arcilla .

3


04

Biology text book Prototype

Kendal Hunt Religious Publishing

10 10

Gregor Gregor MendelMendel and Meiosis and Meiosis DNA and DNA Genetic and Genetic Changes Changes Rules ofRules Heredity of Heredity Technology Technology and theand Human the Human Genome Genome

a). First version of two prototypes made for a Biology Text Book. Main banners for titles and other gaphic elements are slightly modified between the two versions. b). The second version of these pages include a table of contemts.

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Chapter 10 Gregor Mendel and Meiosis Chapter 11 DNA and Genetic Changes Chapter 12 Rules of Heredity Chapter 13 Technology and the Human Genome

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ext to Come. Individuals within a population come and go, but the population itself can exist for a long time. Fossil evidence indicates the biosphere has endured for more than 3.5 billion years. Thus, there is a continuity in the biosphere. However, there is also change. The fossil record reveals that change usually has occurred slowly and systematically. This means that homeostasis exists between organism and their environment. Unit 2 considers how continuity is maintained in populations and how populations change across time.

Scripture Scripture Spotlight Spotlight The care that TheGod caretook thatwhen God took designing whenEarth designing as ourEarth as our home is evident homewhen is evident you study whenthe youother studyobjects the other in objects in the Solar System. the Solar In this System. chapter, In this youchapter, will connect you will your connect your faith to what faith youtoare what learning you are about learning spaceabout science. space Youscience. You will read thewill following read thepassages followinginpassages this chapter. in this chapter.

Lesson

8

The Hereditary Role Your teacher may assign a unit inquiry activity and a Lifestyle Challenge activity. Use of Genetic Material your Science Journal to record your work.

a

GuidePost How did Mendel solve the mystery of inheritance of traits from one generation to the next?

Heredity is the transmission of genetic information from one generation to another. Genes are the basic units of genetic information, and they also control the basic functions of the cell (see Chapter 5). Geneticists study heredity and the actions of genes together. By studying genes in individuals and populations, geneticists learn what genes are present in an organism or a population and how they work. The information in genes is stored in the sequence of nucleotide bases that make up DNA. This information is a type of molecular code. This code directs the cell processes involved in the development and function of the organism, including the replication of genes and the effects of the genes. The genes passed along through reproduction provide the continuity between generations that is essential for a species to continue. Genes also provide instructions for the structure, function, and development of an organism. How can we predict whether a particular hereditary characteristic will appear in an offspring of two organisms? When you predict something, you make a statement that something will or will not happen with a certain amount of confidence. In the study of heredity, this type of prediction is expressed in terms of probability. Probability is an area in mathematics concerned with predicting the chances of whether a certain event will occur. Geneticists use probability to predict the outcomes of matings. You can develop the rules of probability for yourself by completing Investigation 8.1.

8.2 Mendel’s Work Led to the Concept of the Gene

Figure 8.2 Experimenting with peas in his monastery garden, Gregor Mendel (1822–1884) developed the fundamental principles of heredity that became the foundation of modern genetics.

228

Today, we know that each gene brings about the synthesis of a protein, such as an enzyme, a muscle protein, or a protein pigment that may affect skin color. The instructions for the synthesis of a protein are stored in the form of specific sequences of DNA nucleotides, which make up the genes. The genes are organized into chromosomes. Through the processes of meiosis and fertilization, chromosomes are passed on to each new generation. Although these ideas are well established at present, in the mid-19th century no one knew anything about DNA, genes, chromosomes, or just how traits were passed along from generation to generation. It was known that children look like their parents, but how these physical characteristics were passed along was still a mystery. In 1859, Charles Darwin’s Origin of Species was published, and evolution via natural selection was gaining acceptance within the scientific community. This theory required variations within species to be transmissible, and that traits could change so natural selection could act on them. Additionally, many people believed that traits from parents were blended in their children, instead of remaining distinct characteristics. In support of his theory, Darwin proposed a hypothesis called pangenesis, which suggested that traits (gemmules) from all over the body somehow make their way into the reproductive organs. It is this historical context that makes the work of Gregor Mendel so astonishing.

Jo

How do you Howthink do you objects thinkinobjects the Solar in the System Solar System differ from differ onefrom another? one another?

12

13

R/R

pod gametes

seed b

CONCEPT REVIEW

r/r

R

r

100%

100%

1. What are the chances that a family with three children will have three daughters? After a family has two daughters, what is the probability that their next child will be a daughter? 2. How was mathematics important in Mendel’s explanation of his results?

c

Figure 8.5

Figure 8.3

11

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12

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ovule

pollen

wing sepal

8.1 Genes Determine Biological Potential

10

stigma

petals

en Sci ce

The Big The Big IdeaIdea

Job 26:7 (p. Job 172) 26:7 (p. 172) Genesis 1:16 Genesis (p. 172) 1:16 (p. 172) Matthew 24:29 Matthew (p. 181) 24:29 (p.Psalm 181) 8:3–9 Psalm (p. 188) 8:3–9 (p. 188)

When you look at his photograph of a mother cheetah with her young, what evidence do you see for continuity of living things? What factors are responsible for this continuity?

Two generations of one of Mendel’s crosses using round and wrinkled peas. Note that the alleles of a gene segregate during gamete formation. What is the probability of Rr occurring in the F2 generation?

How self-pollination occurs in the pea flower. The petals of the pea flower (a) completely enclose the reproductive organs. As a result, the pollen from the anthers falls on the stigma of the same flower (b). Pollen tubes grow down through the female reproductive organ to the ovules (immature seeds) in the ovary. The ovules develop into seeds, and the ovary wall develops into the pea pod (c). Gregor Mendel, as an Augustinian monk, did his research at the Monastery of St. Thomas in Brunn, Austria. Mendel was devoted to the church and, as a creationist, a firm believer in the authority of scripture. Mendel’s areas of study included astronomy, meteorology, mathematics, and, of course, heredity. In this latter area, his work was thorough and his record keeping was meticulous. His research project lasted eight years (1856–1863), and, in a controlled experiment, he cross-bred and charted the results of more than 28,000 pea plants from the species Pisum sativum. The record and results of his work represent a blueprint for how the scientific method ought to be performed. The statistical analysis of his results allowed Mendel to articulate the first logical and yet understandable model of heredity containing both male and female reproductive parts, as shown in Figure 8.3. Under natural conditions, the pea plant usually pollinates itself (selfpollination). However, it is possible to collect pollen grains from the flowers of one pea plant and transfer them to the flowers of another plant. This technique, known as cross-pollination, results in seeds that are the offspring of two plants, not just one. Mendel’s work, which we now call Mendelian genetics, is the basis for the modern study of heredity and variation. His experiments were unique in four important ways. First, he concentrated on one trait at a time. Second, he used large numbers of organisms to minimize the influence of chance on his data. Third, he combined the results of many identical experiments. Fourth, he used the rules of probability to analyze his results. By using these methods, Mendel was able to recognize distinctive patterns of inheritance. Mendel’s choice to study pea plants was beneficial for three main reasons. First, pea plants have a relatively short season; so many generations could be quickly produced. Second, pea plants are easily pollinated. The flowers on pea plants contain both male and female reproductive parts, as shown in Figure 8.3. Under natural conditions, the pea plant usually pollinates itself (self-pollination). However, it is possible to collect pollen grains from the flowers of one pea plant and transfer them to the flowers of another plant. This technique, known as cross-pollination, results in seeds that are the offspring of two plants, not just one. Third, pea plants have several visibly distinctive traits that can be isolated for investigation. To begin his work, Mendel collected various strains of peas and tested each strain to make certain it was genetically true, or true-breeding. True-breeding

GuidePost How did Mendel solve the mystery of inheritance of traits from one generation to the next?

Video

Links

Topic: Mendelian genetics Go To: www.scilinks.org Keyword:

229

232

AnAn Introduction Introduction to to Genetics Genetics hroughout hroughout history, humankind history, humankind has recognized has recognized that all living that all living things produce things offspring produce offspring that resemble that resemble themselves. themselves. This is readily This is readily observable observable in plants,ininsects, plants,animals, insects, animals, and humans. and humans. This is what Thiswe is what we should expect shouldtoexpect see if we to see believe if wewhat believe the what Biblethe saysBible in Genesis says in 1. Genesis 1. Ten timesTen it says times that it says living that things livingwere things created wereafter created theirafter “kind.” their “kind.” Plants yield Plants plants yield after plants theirafter kindtheir (vs. kind 11–12). (vs.Sea 11–12). creatures Sea creatures and birdsand birds produce sea produce creatures sea creatures and birdsand after birds theirafter kindtheir (vs. kind 20–21). (vs. Land 20–21). Land animals and animals “creeping” and “creeping” things produce things like-featured produce like-featured land animals land animals and “creeping” and “creeping” things after things theirafter kindtheir (vs. kind 24–25). (vs. Finally, 24–25).“God Finally, “God created man created in his man own in image, his owninimage, the image in the of image God created of Godhecreated him; he him; male andmale female andcreated femalehecreated them”he (vs. them” 27). (vs. 27). Now, offspring Now, offspring don’t usually don’tlook usually exactly looklike exactly theirlike producers, their producers, but usually butshow usually characteristics show characteristics from their from parents, their grandparents, parents, grandparents, and evenand greateven grandparents. great grandparents. Certain features Certain are features passedarealong passed from along from generation generation to generation, to generation, with some with being some prominent being prominent and others and others occurringoccurring less often.less Inoften. fact, humans In fact, have humans learned havethroughout learned throughout time time how to breed how to plants breed and plants animals and in animals order to in produce order to characteristics produce characteristics they findthey favorable. find favorable. The BibleThe records Biblearecords deal between a deal between Jacob andJacob his and his father-in-law, father-in-law, Laban. As Laban. payment As payment for his work for his as Laban’s work asshepherd, Laban’s shepherd, Jacob would Jacob getwould all thegetsheep all the andsheep goatsand thatgoats werethat speckled were speckled or black. or black. Jacob, understanding Jacob, understanding the concept the of concept inheritance, of inheritance, began to began the rear to the rear the animals the so animals that the so size thatofthe hissize flock of his grew flock dramatically grew dramatically at the at the expense of expense Laban’s. of Read Laban’s. about Read it in about Genesis it in 30. Genesis 30. Just over Just a hundred over a hundred years ago,years we still ago,did we not stillfully did not understand fully understand why or how whyinheritance or how inheritance took place, took even place, though evenwe though had witnessed we had witnessed this phenomenon this phenomenon for thousands for thousands of years. of During years.the During 19th the century, 19th century, our knowledge our knowledge of the cellofhad the not cell advanced had not advanced very far. Hence, very far.there Hence, there were many were hypotheses many hypotheses presentedpresented attempting attempting to explaintoinheritance, explain inheritance, such as the such blending as the blending inheritance inheritance hypothesis, hypothesis, Lamarckism, Lamarckism, and and pangenesis. pangenesis. Simply stated, Simplyblending stated, blending inheritance inheritance proposedproposed that that offspringoffspring received traits received thattraits werethat a composite were a composite of both parents. of both parents. That is, ifThat you is, had if ayou tallhad parent a talland parent a short andparent, a shortyou parent, would you bewould be somewhere somewhere in between. in between. Lamarckism Lamarckism suggestedsuggested that parents thatcould parents could pass along pass characteristics along characteristics they acquired they acquired during their during lifetime their to lifetime their to their

Genetics

Module

Heredity: Heredity:

How closelyHow does closely this young does this zebra young zebra resemble its resemble mother?itsHow mother? wouldHow would you explainyou thisexplain phenomenon? this phenomenon? Parents contribute Parents contribute genetic genetic information information to their offspring. to their What offspring. What about you?about Do you you? lookDomore you look like more like members of members your own offamily your own or like family or like people in other peoplefamilies? in other families?

Chapter Chapter Topics Topics

R/r

F1

gametes

F2

R/r

3. Distinguish between the terms gene and allele.

R/r

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R

r

50%

50%

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In a true-breeding plant that produces only round seeds, both alleles are the same in every cell: RR. True-breeding plants that produce only wrinkled seeds also have two alleles that are the same, in this case, rr. True-breeding plants in which both alleles are alike are called homozygous (from the Greek homo, meaning “alike,” and zygo, meaning “a pair”). When the chromosome pairs containing the alleles separate during meiosis, each gamete receives only one allele. A plant homozygous for a particular trait can produce only one type of gamete (written as probability = 1, or 100 percent). When gametes carrying an R allele unite with gametes carrying an r allele, all the offspring have the combination Rr (probability = 1). The new organisms are heterozygous (from the Greek hetero, meaning “different”) with respect to the alleles for round and wrinkled seeds. Heterozygous offspring are called hybrids. In his experimental crosses, Mendel used RR plants as either the male parent or the female parent. No matter which parent contributed which type of gamete, all F1 plants produced round seeds. Apparently, only one R allele is needed to direct the plant to produce round seeds, which is the dominant form of the trait for seed shape. Both the male and female parts of Rr heterozygous F1 plants produce two types of gametes: 1/2 (or 50 percent) carries R and 1/2 (or 50 percent) carries r. If the F1 flowers self-pollinate, fertilization is random. Any sperm nucleus can fertilize any ovum nucleus. Figure 8.5 shows how the probabilities are calculated for a random Rr and Rr cross that gives rise to an F2 generation. By combining the ideas of probability and random mating as Mendel did, the pattern in these crosses becomes clear. If more than one trait is involved in the cross, the explanation is more complicated, but the same basic principles apply.

4. Distinguish between genotype and phenotype, and between homozygous and heterozygous. 5. Explain how the principle of segregation applies to the movement of chromosomes in meiosis.

Patterns of lnheritance 8.4 Dihybrid Crosses Produce a Distinctive Patter Section 8.3 explains Mendel’s results from crossing plants that differed in one trait. Mendel, however, also crossed plants that differed in two traits. For example, he crossed plants that were true-breeding for round seed shape and yellow seed color with plants that were true-breeding for wrinkled seed shape and green seed color. This type of cross is called a dihybrid cross because the offspring that result are heterozygous for two (from the Greek di) different traits. Figure 8.6 illustrates the four phenotypes Mendel saw in the F2 generation of a dihybrid cross. The phenotypes are round, yellow seeds; round, green seeds; wrinkled, yellow seeds; and wrinkled, green seeds. Note that the phenotypes do not occur with equal frequency. Instead, the ratio is 9/16 to 3/16 to 3/16 to 1/16, or a 9:3:3:1 ratio. How can these results be explained? Remember that during meiosis, the chromosome pairs separate independently. When gametes were formed in the F1 generation, the genes for seed shape and color separated independently, resulting in four different combinations of the alleles of these genes. These combinations of alleles can be used to predict phenotypes in the F2 offspring. These results laid the foundation for Mendel’s principle of independent assortment: alleles for one trait segregate independently of alleles for other traits during gamete formation. Mendel’s experiments defined the basic unit of inheritance, but he could provide no information about its physical or chemical nature. Unable to see such a unit in his studies, he inferred its existence from his experiments. Additionally, his research clearly displayed that variation within species did take place; however, it could only occur within distinct boundaries. In other words, his findings did not allow for limitless change, as Darwin’s theory of evolution proposed. Mendel presented his findings at a meeting of the Natural History Society in 1865, and had his paper

GuidePost How does thinking about genes as distinct units of heredity explain different patterns of inheritance?

233

13


Biology text book Prototype

Kendal Hunt Religious Publishing

10 10

Heredity: Heredity:

Chapter Chapter Topics Topics Gregor Gregor Mendel Mendel and Meiosis and Meiosis DNA and DNAGenetic and Genetic Changes Changes Rules Rules of Heredity of Heredity Technology Technology and the and Human the Human Genome Genome

AnAn Introduction Introduction to to Genetics Genetics

How closely How does closely thisdoes young thiszebra young zebra resemble resemble its mother? its mother? How would How would you explain you this explain phenomenon? this phenomenon? Parents Parents contribute contribute genetic genetic information information to their offspring. to their offspring. What What about you? about Doyou? you look Do you more looklike more like members members of your own of your family ownorfamily like or like people inpeople other infamilies? other families?

The care that The care God that tookGod when took designing when designing Earth as our Earth as our home is evident home iswhen evident youwhen studyyou thestudy otherthe objects otherinobjects in the Solarthe System. SolarInSystem. this chapter, In this you chapter, will connect you will your connect your faith to what faithyou to what are learning you are learning about space about science. spaceYou science. You will read will the following read the following passagespassages in this chapter. in this chapter.

TheThe BigBig Idea Idea God created God created our Solar ourSystem Solar System when He when created He created the Heavens. the Heavens. The Solar TheSystem Solar System is made is of made many of many different different objectsobjects in orbitinaround orbit around the Sun. the Sun.

Job 26:7Job (p. 26:7 172) (p. 172) Genesis Genesis 1:16 (p. 1:16 172) (p. 172) MatthewMatthew 24:29 (p.24:29 181) (p. 181) Psalm 8:3–9 Psalm(p.8:3–9 188) (p. 188)

How doHow youdo think youobjects think objects in the Solar in theSystem Solar System differ from differone from another? one another?

12

13

Lesson

8

The Hereditary Role of Genetic Material 8.1 Genes Determine Biological Potential

GuidePost How did Mendel solve the mystery of inheritance of traits from one generation to the next?

Heredity is the transmission of genetic information from one generation to another. Genes are the basic units of genetic information, and they also control the basic functions of the cell (see Chapter 5). Geneticists study heredity and the actions of genes together. By studying genes in individuals and populations, geneticists learn what genes are present in an organism or a population and how they work. The information in genes is stored in the sequence of nucleotide bases that make up DNA. This information is a type of molecular code. This code directs the cell processes involved in the development and function of the organism, including the replication of genes and the effects of the genes. The genes passed along through reproduction provide the continuity between generations that is essential for a species to continue. Genes also provide instructions for the structure, function, and development of an organism. How can we predict whether a particular hereditary characteristic will appear in an offspring of two organisms? When you predict something, you make a statement that something will or will not happen with a certain amount of confidence. In the study of heredity, this type of prediction is expressed in terms of probability. Probability is an area in mathematics concerned with predicting the chances of whether a certain event will occur. Geneticists use probability to predict the outcomes of matings. You can develop the rules of probability for yourself by completing Investigation 8.1.

8.2 Mendel’s Work Led to the Concept of the Gene

Figure 8.2 Experimenting with peas in his monastery garden, Gregor Mendel (1822–1884) developed the fundamental principles of heredity that became the foundation of modern genetics.

228

Today, we know that each gene brings about the synthesis of a protein, such as an enzyme, a muscle protein, or a protein pigment that may affect skin color. The instructions for the synthesis of a protein are stored in the form of specific sequences of DNA nucleotides, which make up the genes. The genes are organized into chromosomes. Through the processes of meiosis and fertilization, chromosomes are passed on to each new generation. Although these ideas are well established at present, in the mid-19th century no one knew anything about DNA, genes, chromosomes, or just how traits were passed along from generation to generation. It was known that children look like their parents, but how these physical characteristics were passed along was still a mystery. In 1859, Charles Darwin’s Origin of Species was published, and evolution via natural selection was gaining acceptance within the scientific community. This theory required variations within species to be transmissible, and that traits could change so natural selection could act on them. Additionally, many people believed that traits from parents were blended in their children, instead of remaining distinct characteristics. In support of his theory, Darwin proposed a hypothesis called pangenesis, which suggested that traits (gemmules) from all over the body somehow make their way into the reproductive organs. It is this historical context that makes the work of Gregor Mendel so astonishing.

stigma

petals

a

R/R

pod gametes

seed b

R

r

100%

100%

Figure 8.3

Two generations of one of Mendel’s crosses using round and wrinkled peas. Note that the alleles of a gene segregate during gamete formation. What is the probability of Rr occurring in the F2 generation?

How self-pollination occurs in the pea flower. The petals of the pea flower (a) completely enclose the reproductive organs. As a result, the pollen from the anthers falls on the stigma of the same flower (b). Pollen tubes grow down through the female reproductive organ to the ovules (immature seeds) in the ovary. The ovules develop into seeds, and the ovary wall develops into the pea pod (c). Gregor Mendel, as an Augustinian monk, did his research at the Monastery of St. Thomas in Brunn, Austria. Mendel was devoted to the church and, as a creationist, a firm believer in the authority of scripture. Mendel’s areas of study included astronomy, meteorology, mathematics, and, of course, heredity. In this latter area, his work was thorough and his record keeping was meticulous. His research project lasted eight years (1856–1863), and, in a controlled experiment, he cross-bred and charted the results of more than 28,000 pea plants from the species Pisum sativum. The record and results of his work represent a blueprint for how the scientific method ought to be performed. The statistical analysis of his results allowed Mendel to articulate the first logical and yet understandable model of heredity containing both male and female reproductive parts, as shown in Figure 8.3. Under natural conditions, the pea plant usually pollinates itself (self-pollination). However, it is possible to collect pollen grains from the flowers of one pea plant and transfer them to the flowers of another plant. This technique, known as cross-pollination, results in seeds that are the offspring of two plants, not just one. Mendel’s work, which we now call Mendelian genetics, is the basis for the modern study of heredity and variation. His experiments were unique in four important ways. First, he concentrated on one trait at a time. Second, he used large numbers of organisms to minimize the influence of chance on his data. Third, he combined the results of many identical experiments. Fourth, he used the rules of probability to analyze his results. By using these methods, Mendel was able to recognize distinctive patterns of inheritance. Mendel’s choice to study pea plants was beneficial for three main reasons. First, pea plants have a relatively short season; so many generations could be quickly produced. Second, pea plants are easily pollinated. The flowers on pea plants contain both male and female reproductive parts, as shown in Figure 8.3. Under natural conditions, the pea plant usually pollinates itself (self-pollination). However, it is possible to collect pollen grains from the flowers of one pea plant and transfer them to the flowers of another plant. This technique, known as cross-pollination, results in seeds that are the offspring of two plants, not just one. Third, pea plants have several visibly distinctive traits that can be isolated for investigation.

GuidePost How did Mendel solve the mystery of inheritance of traits from one generation to the next?

Video

Links

Topic: Mendelian genetics Go To: www.scilinks.org Keyword:

F1

R/r

R/r

gametes

F2

Module

Chapter 1 What is Science/Biology 1.1 Lesson title to come 1.2 Lesson title to come 1.3 Lesson title to come

Chapter 7 How the Cell Works 7.1 Lesson title to come 7.2 Lesson title to come 7.3 Lesson title to come

Chapter 2 Science and Evolution 2.1 Lesson title to come 2.2 Lesson title to come 2.3 Lesson title to come

Chapter 8 Cellular Respiration 8.1 Lesson title to come 8.2 Lesson title to come 8.3 Lesson title to come

Chapter 3 Science and Creation 3.1 Lesson title to come 3.2 Lesson title to come 3.3 Lesson title to come

Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction/Cell Cycle 9.1 Lesson title to come 9.2 Lesson title to come 9.3 Lesson title to come

Cell Structure and Processes

2 Module

Genetics Chapter 10 Gregor Mendel and Meiosis 10.1 Lesson title to come 10.2 Lesson title to come 10.3 Lesson title to come

Chapter 4 The Chemistry of Life 4.1 Lesson title to come 4.2 Lesson title to come 4.3 Lesson title to come

Chapter 11 DNA and Genetic Changes 11.1 Lesson title to come 11.2 Lesson title to come 11.3 Lesson title to come

Chapter 5 The Build Blocks of Life 5.1 Lesson title to come 5.2 Lesson title to come 5.3 Lesson title to come

Chapter 12 Rules of Heredity 12.1 Lesson title to come 12.2 Lesson title to come 12.3 Lesson title to come

Chapter 6 Cellular Organelles and Functions 6.1 Lesson title to come 6.2 Lesson title to come 6.3 Lesson title to come

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CONCEPT REVIEW 1. What are the chances that a family with three children will have three daughters? After a family has two daughters, what is the probability that their next child will be a daughter? 2. How was mathematics important in Mendel’s explanation of his results?

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Figure 8.5

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Contents

Foundations of Science

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hroughout hroughout history,history, humankind humankind has recognized has recognized that allthat living all living things produce things produce offspring offspring that resemble that resemble themselves. themselves. This is This readily is readily observable observable in plants, in plants, insects,insects, animals, animals, and humans. and humans. This is This whatiswewhat we should should expect expect to see iftowe seebelieve if we believe what the what Bible thesays Bible in says Genesis in Genesis 1. 1. Ten times Tenittimes says that it says living thatthings living were thingscreated were created after their after“kind.” their “kind.” Plants yield Plantsplants yield after plantstheir afterkind their(vs. kind 11–12). (vs. 11–12). Sea creatures Sea creatures and birds and birds produceproduce sea creatures sea creatures and birds andafter birdstheir afterkind their(vs. kind 20–21). (vs. 20–21). Land Land animalsanimals and “creeping” and “creeping” things produce things produce like-featured like-featured land animals land animals and “creeping” and “creeping” things after thingstheir afterkind their(vs. kind 24–25). (vs. 24–25). Finally,Finally, “God “God createdcreated man inman his own in his image, own image, in the image in the of image Godofcreated God created he him;he him; male and male female and female createdcreated he them” he (vs. them” 27).(vs. 27). Now, offspring Now, offspring don’t usually don’t usually look exactly look exactly like their likeproducers, their producers, but usually but usually show characteristics show characteristics from their fromparents, their parents, grandparents, grandparents, and even andgreat evengrandparents. great grandparents. CertainCertain featuresfeatures are passed are passed along from along from generation generation to generation, to generation, with some withbeing someprominent being prominent and others and others occurring occurring less often. less In often. fact,In humans fact, humans have learned have learned throughout throughout time time how to how breedtoplants breed and plants animals and animals in orderintoorder produce to produce characteristics characteristics they find they favorable. find favorable. The Bible Therecords Bible records a deal between a deal between Jacob and Jacob hisand his father-in-law, father-in-law, Laban.Laban. As payment As payment for his for work hisaswork Laban’s as Laban’s shepherd, shepherd, Jacob would Jacob get would all the get sheep all theand sheep goats andthat goats were thatspeckled were speckled or black. or black. Jacob, understanding Jacob, understanding the concept the concept of inheritance, of inheritance, began to began the rear to the rear the animals the animals so that so thethat sizethe of his sizeflock of hisgrew flockdramatically grew dramatically at the at the expenseexpense of Laban’s. of Laban’s. Read about Readitabout in Genesis it in Genesis 30. 30. Just over Just a hundred over a hundred years ago, years weago, stillwe didstill notdid fully notunderstand fully understand why or why howor inheritance how inheritance took place, tookeven place,though even though we hadwe witnessed had witnessed this phenomenon this phenomenon for thousands for thousands of years.ofDuring years. During the 19th thecentury, 19th century, our knowledge our knowledge of the cell of the hadcell nothad advanced not advanced very far.very Hence, far. Hence, there there were many werehypotheses many hypotheses presented presented attempting attempting to explain to explain inheritance, inheritance, such assuch the blending as the blending inheritance inheritance hypothesis, hypothesis, Lamarckism, Lamarckism, and and pangenesis. pangenesis. SimplySimply stated, stated, blending blending inheritance inheritance proposed proposed that that offspring offspring receivedreceived traits that traits were thata composite were a composite of bothofparents. both parents. That is,That if you is,had if you a tall hadparent a tall parent and a short and aparent, short parent, you would you be would be somewhere somewhere in between. in between. Lamarckism Lamarckism suggested suggested that parents that parents could could pass along passcharacteristics along characteristics they acquired they acquired during during their lifetime their lifetime to theirto their

Scripture Scripture Spotlight Spotlight

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3. Distinguish between the terms gene and allele.

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Study Figure 8.5 to help you understand Mendel’s results. The diagram shows the alleles in three generations of pea plants. The alleles form the genetic makeup, or genotype, of the plants. The genotype of an individual is responsible for its phenotype: its appearance or observable traits. Mendel found that the RR and Rr genotypes produce the same phenotype: round seeds. The rr genotype only produces the wrinkled-seed phenotype. Thus, using these pea plants, the different crosses will result in three possible genotypes, RR, Rr, and rr, that will be observed as two phenotypes, round seeds (RR, Rr) and wrinkled seeds (rr). In a true-breeding plant that produces only round seeds, both alleles are the same in every cell: RR. True-breeding plants that produce only wrinkled seeds also have two alleles that are the same, in this case, rr. True-breeding plants in which both alleles are alike are called homozygous (from the Greek homo, meaning “alike,” and zygo, meaning “a pair”). When the chromosome pairs containing the alleles separate during meiosis, each gamete receives only one allele. A plant homozygous for a particular trait can produce only one type of gamete (written as probability = 1, or 100 percent). When gametes carrying an R allele unite with gametes carrying an r allele, all the offspring have the combination Rr (probability = 1). The new organisms are heterozygous (from the Greek hetero, meaning “different”) with respect to the alleles for round and wrinkled seeds. Heterozygous offspring are called hybrids. In his experimental crosses, Mendel used RR plants as either the male parent or the female parent. No matter which parent contributed which type of gamete, all F1 plants produced round seeds. Apparently, only one R allele is needed to direct the plant to produce round seeds, which is the dominant form of the trait for seed shape. Both the male and female parts of Rr heterozygous F1 plants produce two types of gametes: 1/2 (or 50 percent) carries R and 1/2 (or 50 percent) carries r. If the F1 flowers self-pollinate, fertilization is random. Any sperm nucleus can fertilize any ovum nucleus. Figure 8.5 shows how the probabilities are calculated for a random Rr and Rr cross that gives rise to an F2 generation.

4. Distinguish between genotype and phenotype, and between homozygous and heterozygous.

3 Module

5. Explain how the principle of segregation applies to the movement of chromosomes in meiosis.

Patterns of lnheritance

Chapter 10 Gregor Mendel and Meiosis Chapter 11 DNA and Genetic Changes Chapter 12 Rules of Heredity Chapter 13 Technology and the Human Genome

8.4 Dihybrid Crosses Produce a Distinctive Patter Section 8.3 explains Mendel’s results from crossing plants that differed in one trait. Mendel, however, also crossed plants that differed in two traits. For example, he crossed plants that were true-breeding for round seed shape and yellow seed color with plants that were true-breeding for wrinkled seed shape and green seed color. This type of cross is called a dihybrid cross because the offspring that result are heterozygous for two (from the Greek di) different traits. Figure 8.6 illustrates the four phenotypes Mendel saw in the F2 generation of a dihybrid cross. The phenotypes are round, yellow seeds; round, green seeds; wrinkled, yellow seeds; and wrinkled, green seeds. Note that the phenotypes do not occur with equal frequency. Instead, the ratio is 9/16 to 3/16 to 3/16 to 1/16, or a 9:3:3:1 ratio. How can these results be explained? Remember that during meiosis, the chromosome pairs separate independently. When gametes were formed in the F1 generation, the genes for seed shape and color separated independently, resulting in four different combinations of the alleles of these genes. These combinations of alleles can be used to predict phenotypes in the F2 offspring. These results laid the foundation for Mendel’s principle of independent assortment: alleles for one trait segregate independently of alleles for other traits during gamete formation. Mendel’s experiments defined the basic unit of inheritance, but he could provide no information about its physical or chemical nature. Unable to see such a unit in his studies, he inferred its existence from his experiments. Additionally, his research clearly displayed that variation within species did take place; however, it could only occur within distinct boundaries. In other words, his findings did not allow for limitless change, as Darwin’s theory of evolution proposed. Mendel presented his

Genetics T

ext to Come. Individuals within a population come and go, but the population itself can exist for a long time. Fossil evidence indicates the biosphere has endured for more than 3.5 billion years. Thus, there is a continuity in the biosphere. However, there is also change. The fossil record reveals that change usually has occurred slowly and systematically. This means that homeostasis exists between organism and their environment. Unit 2 considers how continuity is maintained in populations and how populations change across time.

GuidePost How does thinking about genes as distinct units of heredity explain different patterns of inheritance?

When you look at his photograph of a mother cheetah with her young, what evidence do you see for continuity of living things? What factors are responsible for this continuity?

Your teacher may assign a unit inquiry activity and a Lifestyle Challenge activity. Use en your Science Journal to record your work. Sci ce Jo

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Argentina’s Trip Program Info Book

COTELCO

This book was created for COTELCO while working at Uricoechea Publicidad. The intention of the book was show landmarks and important places in Buenos Aires, Argentina. It was handed to every participant of a international semminar of tourism. a). Cover and computer screenshots b). Interior pages


Argentina’s Trip Program Info Book

COTELCO

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Toys Book

Personal Project

Toys is the topic of this book that incorporates image and typography with theory text that describes how toys are an important part of the child development. The topic is also an excuse to play with the layout of the pages.


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Catalogue

Winery


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Pop culture Magazine

CROMOS

Different layouts I designed for some sections of the magazine and special editions. a). Table of contents b). Miscelaneos of different artciles of the magazine. c). Sales / Merchandise section of magazine.


Pop Culture Magazine

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Pop Culture Magazine

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Editorial- samples 2015