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Typographic History Spread Laura Fromme


Typographic History Movable Type in Europe – Finally the commoner can buy a book In 1454, advancements in book production came to movable type. Johann Gutenberg (1397–1468), a trained goldsmith, perfected the system and created a cheap production of books. He used metal molds and alloys, a special press, and oil-based inks. The first replicated and produced book was the Gutenberg Mazarin Bible, with 2 columns and 42 lines each. It had about 1,282 pages and took 5 years to produce 180 copies – of which only 48 have survived. The predesigned and reusable letter allowed for freedom and reproduction of cheaper books. These beginnings of European printing were of black letter, or Gothic.

William Morris and the Kelmscott Press – Quality by Hand The Kelmscott Press by William Morris, with the help of William Bowden, in 1893 was the final phase of the Gothic Revival. The English philosopher and critic John Ruskin inspired him, where Morris found a purpose translating Ruskins utopian ideals. He named it such after the Kelmscott manor. He was an English writer, artist, and textile designer. His love for the printed word led to the illuminating ornamentation and new methods of production. Workmanship and design became more purposeful and necessary than before. Futurism & the visual word – Speed and Technology The Italian Poet Filippo Marinetti published his “Manifesto of

Futurism” in 1909. It was published in the French newspaper Le Figaro. It launched a modern art movement with a rejection of the past, celebration of speed. It advocated modernization in Italy by collaging words and letters for reproduction from photoengraved printing plates. The movement was originally based in Paris. Gabriel Alomar, a Catalan user of the term, first used the term futurism in a 1904 speech. The two share philosophical backgrounds but are foundationally different. Futurism was that of an emotionally charged poetry that defied correct and proper grammar and composition. The term futurist was first used in aesthetic circles during the beginning of the twentieth century throughout Europe. Marinetti’s Futurism was full of war-like and destructive language.

It primed groupthink. According to his Manifesto, the Italian futurists will “destroy the museums, libraries, academies of every kind, will fight moralism feminism, every opportunistic or utilitarian cowardice.” The International Typographic Style – Think Helvetica In the post-war (World War II) period of the 1950’s to the 1970’s, the International Typographic Style, also known as the Swiss Style, transformed design. The key components of the International Style are grid/modular structure, asymmetrical layout, object photography, little to no decoration/ illustration, and sans serif type. The design style was clean, clear, and direct. During this period, logos and

other identifying features became the means of communication. This made larger, more complex organizations seem uniform and as one, also deemed to create a “corporate identity.” A few key graphic designers to mention are Josef Müller-Brockmann, Max Bill, Armin Hoffman, and Jan Tschichold. Tschichold is the most famous proponent of the International Typographic Style. In 1935, he published the book Typographic Design, suggesting a broader view of typography and layouts. He then later changed his mind and decided against the New Typography. The Swiss Style was titled so after the war, in the thought that it was neutral and timeless. Müller-Brockmann recorded automobile statistics that were visually represented. He

then designed the 1955 Beethoven poster. With asymmetrical positioned block text and regulated curves, this composition is fully within the Swiss Style. References: “Type.” Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6Th Edition (2013): 1. Military & Government Collection. Web. 17 Mar. 2014. Bird, David W. “Differentiating Catalan And Italian Futurisms.” Romance Quarterly 55.1 (2008): 13. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 18 Mar. 2014. Drucker and McVarish :Graphic Design History Stephen J. Eskilson: Graphic Design A New History All research courtesy of Milner Library and Google Scholar


Grid Examples The next 10 pages were based off grids found in the “Making and Breaking the Grid” PDF online. These exercises were meant to show hierarchy in grids and make one component the main, whether it be the date, the title, the text, the year, etc.

February

The Vidette’s first issue

The Vidette, located at the Corner of University & Locust in Normal, IL, was founded in 1888. Throughout its 100-plus year history, The Vidette’s basic role has remained the same — to provide a voice for the students of ISU.

The first Videttes were printed as pamphlets. In 1906 the newspaper switched to weekly publication. In 1915 the newspaper began receiving student fees and discontinued charging subscribers. Publication frequency changed from weekly to semiweekly

1888

in 1934, but returned to weekly in 1943. It was not until 1962 that the newspaper was restored to biweekly publication. Frequency of publication increased to three days per week in 1969, four days per week in 1973 and finally five days per week in 1976.


The Vidette, located at the Corner of University & Locust in Normal, IL, was founded in 1888. Throughout its 100-plus year history, The Vidette’s basic role has remained the same — to provide a voice for the stu-

February

The Vidette’s first issue dents of ISU.

The first Videttes were printed as pamphlets. In 1906 the newspaper switched to weekly publication. In 1915 the newspaper began receiving student fees

and discontinued charging subscribers. Publication frequency changed from weekly to semiweekly in 1934, but returned to weekly in 1943. It was not until 1962 that the newspaper was restored to biweekly publication.

Frequency of publication increased to three days per week in 1969, four days per week in 1973 and finally five days per week in 1976.

The Vidette’s first issue

1888

The Vidette, located at the Corner of University & Locust in Normal, IL, was founded in 1888. Throughout its 100-plus year history, The Vidette’s basic role has remained the same — to provide a voice for the students of ISU.

Publication frequency changed from weekly to semiweekly in 1934, but returned to weekly in 1943. It was not until 1962 that the newspaper was restored to biweekly publication. Frequency The first Videttes were of publication inprinted as pamphlets. creased to three In 1906 the newspadays per week in per switched to weekly 1969, four days publication. In 1915 per week in 1973 the newspaper beand finally five gan receiving student days per week in fees and discontinued 1976. charging subscribers.

February, 1888


1888

May The Vidette, located at the Corner of University & Locust in Normal, IL, was founded in 1888. Throughout its 100-plus year history, The Vidette’s basic role has remained the same — to provide a voice for the students of ISU. The first Videttes were printed as pamphlets. In 1906 the newspaper switched to weekly publication. In 1915 the newspaper began receiving student fees and discontinued charging subscribers. Publication frequency changed from weekly to semiweekly in 1934, but returned to weekly in 1943. It was not until 1962 that the newspaper was restored to biweekly publication. Frequency of publication increased to three days per week in 1969, four days per week in 1973 and finally five days per week in 1976.

The Vidette, located at the Corner of University & Locust in Normal, IL, was founded in 1888. Throughout its 100-plus year history, The Vidette’s basic role has remained the same — to provide a voice for the students of ISU. The first Videttes were printed as pamphlets. In 1906 the newspaper switched to weekly publication. In 1915 the newspaper be-

gan receiving student fees and discontinued charging subscribers. Publication frequency changed from weekly to semiweekly in 1934, but returned to weekly in 1943. It was not until 1962 that the newspaper was restored to biweekly publication. Frequency of publication increased to three days per week in 1969, four days per week in 1973 and finally five days per week in 1976.

The Vidette’s first issue February, 1888


1888

May

The Vidette’s first issue February, 1888

The Vidette, located at the Corner of University & Locust in Normal, IL, was founded in 1888. Throughout its 100-plus year history, The Vidette’s basic role has remained the same — to provide a voice for the students of ISU.

The first Videttes were printed as pamphlets. In 1906 the newspaper switched to weekly publication. In 1915 the newspaper began receiving student fees and discontinued charging subscribers. Publication frequency changed from weekly to semiweekly in 1934,

but returned to weekly in 1943. It was not until 1962 that the newspaper was restored to biweekly publication. Frequency of publication increased to three days per week in 1969, four days per week in 1973 and finally five days per week in 1976.

The Vidette, located at the Corner of University & Locust in Normal, IL, was founded in 1888. Throughout its 100-plus year history, The Vidette’s basic role has remained the same — to provide a voice for the students of ISU. The first Videttes were printed as pamphlets. In 1906 the newspaper switched to weekly publication. In 1915 the newspaper began receiving student fees and discontinued charging subscribers. Publication frequency changed from weekly to semiweekly in 1934, but returned to weekly in 1943. It was not until 1962 that the newspaper was restored to biweekly publication. Frequency of publication increased to three days per week in 1969, four days per week in 1973 and finally five days per week in 1976.


February, 1888

The Vidette, located at the Corner of University & Locust in Normal, IL, was founded in 1888. Throughout its 100-plus year history, The Vidette’s basic role has remained the same — to provide a voice for the students of ISU. The first Videttes were printed as pamphlets. In 1906 the newspaper switched to weekly publication. In 1915 the newspaper began receiving student fees and discontinued charging subscribers. Publication frequency changed from weekly to semiweekly in 1934, but returned to weekly in 1943. It was not until 1962 that the newspaper was restored to biweekly publication. Frequency of publica-

tion increased to three days per week in 1969, four days per week in 1973 and finally five days per week in 1976.

February

The Vidette’s first issue

1888

THE VIDETTE’S FIRST ISSUE The Vidette, located at the Corner of University & Locust in Normal, IL, was founded in 1888. Throughout its 100plus year history, The Vidette’s basic

role has remained the same — to provide a voice for the students of ISU. The first Videttes were printed as pamphlets. In 1906

the newspaper switched to weekly publication. In 1915 the newspaper began receiving student fees and discontinued charging subscribers. Publication frequency changed from weekly to semiweekly in 1934, but returned to weekly in 1943. It was not until 1962 that the newspaper was restored to biweekly publication. Frequency of publication increased to three days per week in 1969, four days per week in 1973 and finally five days per week in 1976.


The Vidette’s first issue February

1888

The Vidette, located at the Corner of University & Locust in Normal, IL, was founded in 1888. Throughout its 100-plus year history, The Vidette’s basic role has remained the same —to provide a voice for the students of ISU. The first Videttes were printed as pamphlets. In 1906 the newspaper switched to weekly publication. In 1915 the newspaper began receiving student fees and discontinued charging subscribers. Publication frequency changed from weekly to semiweekly in 1934, but returned to weekly in 1943. It was not until 1962 that the newspaper was restored to biweekly publication. Frequency of publication increased to three days per week in 1969, four days per week in 1973 and finally five days per week in 1976.

Research These next pages show a bit of valuable information that I found. I saught out many books only to find a few, which I had not even been looking for.


Here is the first page of research I used for the Typographic Style. I used Stephen J. Eskilson’s book “Graphic Design A New History.”


I also used Johanna Drucker and Emily McVarish’s book “Graphic Design History; A Critical Guide” to find more information about the International Style.


Here is an example of typography in the International Typographic Style by Adrian Frutiger in London (1954). Here is an example of the early example of the International style in packaging that I found during my extensive research.


I also found a timeline in my research. This came in handy in the overall perspective.


Sketches


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a rorld W , the Inte wn W ( r s ’ a o 0 n w 7 k post n. he 19 , also In the 950’s to t hic Style ed desig m p 1 r a o e r of th al Typog le, transf Interna- , e e n ty natio Swiss S ents of th r structur a n l e ao r u h as t comp grid/mod ct photog , y e k e e j ion The Style ar ut, ob n/illustrat le o y l a a l l ty io tion etrica decorat design s ding m m o y n or he as tle to if type. T irect. Acc ook t i l , y r d e ph ir b ans s r, and in the e and s ean, clea cVarish wiss Styl M cl S “ d s l , n a a y r w ra on Histo r rati ucke to Dr ic Design l basis fo a h her Grap d a neutr nd ot ans a ” e s . o n me claim unicatio riod, log e the e , comm ing this p es becam de larger r r a u u t m D fea em his ns se ifying on. T ident municati ganizatio eemed to m d or of co omplex ne, also .” Accord c o y t e i s t r o a n o b ok m and te ide on in his he m a r r o o f i p s r il “T un a “co . Esk tory, reate tephen J New His in the c S A ld nA ld Desig ing to ic Design le took ho ond Wor of phic History a r c h y t G e up New serif son, Grap tional S er the S a gro e Eskil d f s a t n o f n n u a a y r m o es ew s Inte tates cause it f who beca ly court S d a n elvetica. e d t a e t e e Photo b cal ns r cr Uni ed H ainly ate patro d a politi t and dinge er renam e m , M r e n r ax lat Wa orpo t it provid ed efficie test, 52, M In 19 Haas Gro ing c r l a l i a h t e w p Neue t ap ninced conv l style tha to me x s r e a n a neutr sional.” desig mann, M s k phic c e a f r o o r g h r p key ller-B n Tsc A few Josef Mü , and Ja t famous an re os tion a min Hoffm d is the m al Typon r l o o A i Bill, . Tschich Internat e d l h icho t of t onen prop

A sign ic De istory h p a H Gr New wiss son, Eskil S f is o h y t ned urtes o ig s c e o Phot ann d 5. rockm ter in 195 B r e ll s shed ü o p M fn publi ge Jose eethove h , B , su 935 Style esign . In 1 phy

, arish McV tory d n ra His rucke esign g y of D raphic D emplifyin s e t r u G ex brand. o co logo, Phot IBM a unified e h t g ed tin creat reflec Rand ypes Paul ss logot flawle

ic D typogra tyle raph hic S grap ok Typog r view of hanged c w e o the b g a broad then later st the Ne n i n t i e a i t t g s H s le a . ge youts decided Style wa at it a l d an nd th iss ckind a ught e Sw his m raphy. Th in the tho üller-Bro M , g Typo r the war timeless. statistics n e te le so af eutral and utomobi ted. He th a r. n n was recorded represe en poste y v l l o n man ere visua 5 Beeth 95 that w ed the 1 n g i des


Photo courtesy of Eskilson, Graphic Design A New History In 1952, Max Medinger created a new sans serif Neue Haas Grotest, later renamed Helvetica.

Photo courtesy of Drucker and McVarish, Graphic Design History Paul Rand created the IBM logo, exemplifying flawless logotypes reflecting a unified brand.

BY LAURA FROMME In the post-war (World War II) period of the 1950’s to the 1970’s, the International Typographic Style, also known as the Swiss Style, transformed design. The key components of the International Style are grid/modular structure, asymmetrical layout, object photography, little to no decoration/illustration, and sans serif type. The design style was clean, clear, and direct. According to Drucker and McVarish in their book Graphic Design History, “Swiss Style claimed a neutral basis for rational communication.”

During this period, logos and other identifying features became the means of communication. This made larger, more complex organizations seem uniform and as one, also deemed to create a “corporate identity.” According to Stephen J. Eskilson in his book Graphic Design A New History, “The International Style took hold in the United States after the Second World War, mainly because it found a group of willing corporate patrons who became convinced that it provided a politically neutral style

Photo courtesy of Eskilson, Graphic Design A New History In 1952, Max Medinger created a new sans serif Neue Haas Grotest, later renamed Helvetica.

The International Style phenomenon

that appeared efficient and professional.” A few key graphic designers to mention are Josef Müller-Brockmann, Max Bill, Armin Hoffman, and Jan Tschichold. Tschichold is the most famous proponent of the International Typographic Style. In 1935, he published the book Typographic Design, suggesting a broader view of typography and layouts. He then later changed his mind and decided against the New Typography. The Swiss Style was title so after the war, in the thought that it was neutral and timeless. Müller-Brockmann recorded automobile statistics that were visually represented. He then designed the 1955 Beethoven poster. With asymmetrical positioned block text and regulated curves, this composition is fully within the Swiss Style. Optima (Hermann Zapf), Helvetica (Max Miedinger and Edourd Hoffman), and Univers (Adrian Frutiger) were some of the most popular typefaces, and are still prominent today. According to Drucker and McVarish, these typefaces “defined the era.” According to Eskilson, “the rise of the International Style directly parallels the development of corporate identity.” It held the most ground on both sides of the Atlantic, becoming the corporate standard of design.

Photo courtesy of Eskilson, Graphic Design A New History

Josef-Müller Brockmann designed this Swiss Style Beethoven poster in 1955.


I like this example because of the assymettry. It gives it more character since it is lacking a bit in color.

I like this example because of the simplicity. However, I did not choose it because it was too overtly simple in design.


Final: In t BY h LA the e po UR s 1 t AF 9 w Typ 50’ ar ( RO s o W Sw grap to th MM o rld i E com ss Sty hic St e 197 War y mo pone le, tra le, al 0’s, th II) pe r s d pho ular nts of nsform o kno e Inte iod of s r and togra tructu the In ed d wn as nation e p cle sans hy, li re, as ternat sign. the al t a i and n, cle serif tle to ymme onal S The k t n His McV ar, an ype. T o dec trical tyle a ey a l t d h o r rati ry, “ ish i dire e de oratio ayout re grid n th ct. ona Sw , sig n/il A i n lus obje / l co ss S eir c s mm tyle book cordin tyle w tratio ct n, uni cat claim Grap g to D as ion h .” ed a n ic De rucke r s eut ral ign bas In 1 is f or Ne 952,

Th Sty e Int le p ern hen atio om nal eno n

M u Pho e Ha ax M as t o G edi Ne w H courte rotes nger isto sy o t, la crea ry f Es ter r ted kils ena a ne on, m w Gra ed H san phi elve s se cD r t esi ica. if gn A

Du r fea ing th ture is p Thi s b erio s see mad ecam d, log e cre m uni larg e the os an e m d f a Ste te a “ orm a r, mo eans othe r A N phen corpo nd as e com of co r iden t J r m hol ew Hi . Esk ate id one, a plex o mun ifying d i e s Wa in th tory, lson in ntity. lso de rganiz ication ” e “ cor r, main Unit The I his b Acco emed ations . ed nte r por o l y pro rna ok G ding t to bec Sta ate r o v effi ided patro ause tes aft tional aphic cie n a i S e t D s r t f p y es o nt a th w o l Pau nd litical ho be und a e Se e took ign c l p y g l ca on rofe r n flaw Ran ssio eutra me c oup o d Wo d Pho less l crea onv f w l n s a t ill rld yle l.” i De to co ogoty ted th tha nced ing sig urte pes e t t h IB nH app a isto sy of reflec M log ear t it Dru ry ting o, e ed cke x r an a unifi empl ify d M ed cVa bran ing rish d. ,G rap hic

A fe Jos w key Ho ef Mü grap f h mo fman, ller-Br ic de s s Typ t fam and J ockm igner a the ograp ous p an Ts nn, M s to m c r a b book hic St opon hicho ax Bi ention e l r y He oade Typog le. In nt of ld. Tsc l, Arm are r vi the t r h 1 h a ich in 9 e p aga e 3 n h I Jos ins later w of t ic De 5, he ntern old is w e t y atio sig pu as ch po th th Sty f-Mü l wa title e New ange grap n, su blishe nal e Pho e Bee ller Br so sn h d g d y g T h est afte yp eut rec Ne to co thove ockm o is m and i r o a w H urt n vis rded al an r the graph ind a layou ng ual d w isto esy poste nn de n a y t a s. . t d u i r l m T 195 y r si to of E , ry d r 5 B epre mobi eless in the he Sw ecide ski in 19 gned lso 5 l . e d s t e is th his M eth e n, G 5. Sw ove nted. statis üller ough s Styl rap i t t e s B i np H s hic ost e the cs tha rockm that it pos De e t n r. W a w sig d nA com itione ith esign ere nn d asy e d Op posit bloc mm t t i k etri he Mie ima ( on is text c al H f a u d (Ad inge erma lly w nd re i r r g t n i h a a u n pop n F nd Za in th late tod ular t rutige Edou pf), H e Sw d cur ves ype iss ay. r ) w rd H elv the se Accor faces ere s offma etica Style. , this Acc typ , an om din n), (Ma Inte ordin eface g to D d are e of t and x h U g s dev rnatio to E “defi rucke still p e mo nive rs s s n r r n e k o e min t mo lopm al S ilso d th and n t s bec t gro ent o yle di , “the e era McVa ent .” rish om und f co rect r ing ly ise rp , o the n bot orate para of the llel cor h si i d por des enti s the ty. ate o sta f the ” It he nda Atl l rd o anti d the f de c, sig n.


The International Typographic Style

Summary

In the post-war (World War II) period of the 1950’s to the 1970’s, the International Typographic Style, also known as the Swiss Style, transformed design. The key components of the International Style are grid/ modular structure, asymmetrical layout, object photography, little to no decoration/illustration, and sans serif type. The design style was clean, clear, and direct. According to Drucker and McVarish in their book Graphic Design History, “Swiss Style claimed a neutral basis for rational communication.” During this period, logos and other identifying features became the means of communication. This made larger, more complex organizations seem uniform and as one, also deemed to create a “corporate identity.” According to Stephen J. Eskilson in his book Graphic Design A New History, “The International Style took hold in the United States after the Second World War, mainly because it found a group of willing corporate patrons who became convinced that it provided a politically neutral style that appeared efficient and professional.” A few key graphic designers to mention are Josef

After hours at the library and online, I had settled on the International Style. I decided it was my favorite and most like my own design style. Although the other styles were interesting, I greatly enjoyed the typography and layout of the International Style. I looked through numerous books, online journals, and magazines to find only brief pages on the matter. I thought this was crazy considering the amount of components still used today. The International Typographic Style was all about quality photography, sans-serif type, simple and asymmetrical layouts, and no ornamentation. This project has taught me a lot about layout design, type style, and the history of graphic design.

Müller-Brockmann, Max Bill, Armin Hoffman, and Jan Tschichold. Tschichold is the most famous proponent of the International Typographic Style. In 1935, he published the book Typographic Design, suggesting a broader view of typography and layouts. He then later changed his mind and decided against the New Typography. The Swiss Style was titled so after the war, in the thought that it was neutral and timeless. MüllerBrockmann recorded automobile statistics that were visually represented. He then designed the 1955 Beethoven poster. With asymmetrical positioned block text and regulated curves, this composition is fully within the Swiss Style. Optima (Hermann Zapf), Helvetica (Max Miedinger and Edourd Hoffman), and Univers (Adrian Frutiger) were some of the most popular typefaces, and are still prominent today. According to Drucker and McVarish, these typefaces “defined the era.” According to Eskilson, “the rise of the International Style directly parallels the development of corporate identity.” It held the most ground on both sides of the Atlantic, becoming the corporate standard of design.


THE END


Type History Spread