Issuu on Google+

Locavore Recycling: Collect, Convert, Consume PUTTING THE PIECES TOGETHER FOR POSITIVE PLASTICS Laura Clauson March 2010

© Beautiful Waste 2010

BEAUTIFUL WASTE


Beautiful Waste In 2008, the Brenthurst Foundation published the Tswalu Protocol: Principles and Guidelines for International Peace-Building Missions. They reported, "More than 1/2 of post-civil war countries slide back to war within 10 years. The lessons of success and failure in post-conflict countries consistently point to the need to stimulate entrepreneurial activity and create employment..."

Founded in 2009, Beautiful Waste is focused on the promotion of local recycling models. Manufacturing quality products for the under-served through the transformation of waste nourishes an Industrial Ecology that strengthens and improves communities. We use business to inspire and implement solutions for the health of people, places and economies in post-war countries pursuing peace.

FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT Laura Clauson lauraclauson@beautifulwaste.com www.BeautifulWaste.com

Š Beautiful Waste 2010


Executive Summary --------------------------------- 2

Getting Started --------------------------------------- 4 Collect, Convert, Consume, Communicate ---------------- 5

Plastics 101 -------------------------------------- 8

What are plastics? ------------------------------------ 9 How are plastics identified? ------------------------- 10 How are plastics recycled? --------------------------- 11

Recycled Plastic Building Products --------------- 14

Plastic lumber --------------------------------------- 16 Plastic roof tiles ----------------------------------- 19

‘Green’ Manufacturing ---------------------------- 24

Energy ----------------------------------------------Water -----------------------------------------------Greenhouse Gas Emissions ----------------------------Transport -------------------------------------------Workers’ Rights --------------------------------------

26 26 27 27 27

Around the World: Recycling Case Studies --------- 28

Sri Lanka -------------------------------------------- 29 Egypt ------------------------------------------------ 32

A Case for Haiti --------------------------------- 33

History of Haitian waste collection & recycling ------ 35 Energy Overview -------------------------------------- 38 SWOT analysis ---------------------------------------- 39

© Beautiful Waste 2010


Executive Summary

Š Beautiful Waste 2010


LOCAVORE RECYCLING: COLLECT, CONVERT, CONSUME

3

Executive Summary

THIS REPORT OUTLINES A LOCAL PLASTICS RECYCLING MODEL that can help solve some of the problems facing those at the bottom of the global income ladder. By transforming plastic waste into a useful product, cleaning up the environment and creating jobs in the process, this manufacturing model can genuinely and directly improve conditions in low income communities. The word ‘locavore’ has recently entered our lexicon. Used to describe the movement towards eating locally sourced food, its philosophy of a ‘tastier’ product, environmental stewardship and sustainable communities can also be applied to recycling plastic. Plastic gets a lot of negative press. It is certainly true that its disposal can cause pollution, clog gutters and create an ever growing mountain of non-biodegradable waste, but the material itself has revolutionized our world and brought untold benefits. Think of the yellow jerry cans being used by millions of people around the world to carry water; the plastic sheeting used for immediate shelter in humanitarian crisis; the cheap flip-flops protecting millions of feet from parasites. Most recycling operations currently reduce the size of the plastic material through shredding, grinding or pelletizing and then sell it to China. China then ‘adds value’ to the material by transforming it into a product and sells it back to those that discarded the material as worthless. Nothing in nature is worthless. Nature does not produce waste. What is discarded by one part of the system is food for another. This idea is creating a shift in thinking about plastic waste. There is a burgeoning interest in retaining this valuable resource rather than outsourcing it; to collect, convert and consume it locally. Locavore Recycling: Collect, Convert, Consume offers an overview of the issues to be addressed in the implementation and success of plastics recycling in a developing country. The detailed information presented on two potential end products is intended to inspire and encourage entrepreneurs, intermediate organizations and social investors to seize the opportunity to help local communities improve the environment and economy through a local business recycling model.

GETTING READY FOR RESALE, ETHIOPIA The Mercato Market in Addis Ababa is the largest market in Africa and has an enormous area devoted to manual recycling of all types of material. Photo © Stefan Gara

© Beautiful Waste 2010


LOCAVORE RECYCLING: COLLECT, CONVERT, CONSUME

4

Executive Summary

Getting Started Before the industrial revolution, all waste was managed locally. Organics were fed to animals, manure used for fertilizer, paper and wood burned for heat and rag-pickers collected rags, bones and metal. New methods had to be devised when cities started to swell. “Dilute and disperse” saw waste float away down rivers and then “concentrate and contain” saw the growth of landfills. With the widespread introduction of synthetic materials such as plastic in the 1960s, the problems of waste increased exponentially. The West buried the problem out of sight or ‘exported’ it to poorer nations. The developing world, often lacking reliable municipal infrastructure, watched the problem grow up around them in the street. Recycling inherently has a social mission because of its positive environmental impact and job creation. This mission should extend to workers’ health and safety, which is currently abysmal for most rag-pickers in the world. A social business model allows a sustainable solution to the problems of waste. Many wonderful projects have provided funds for cleaning up urban areas. This has a positive short term result as street sweepers are paid and truck drivers are hired to haul the garbage away, but without a continuous economic incentive in place, as soon as the project ends the garbage grows again. The goal of a recycling business is to combine the production of a low cost, high quality product with sustainability and profitability. When planning, it is important to think through the entire end-to-end operation for the target location. Waste collection often spans both the formal and informal sectors encompassing many stakeholders and a new operation must strive to understand local dynamics in order to integrate activities with a positive outcome. Following is an Action Plan Outline. These guidelines, using the 4 Cs - Collect, Convert, Consume and Communicate - are to direct conversation and planning in order to design, build and implement a local sustainable business model that uses plastic waste to make high quality building materials for the reconstruction and long term development of a country emerging from conflict or catastrophe. Once the information outlined here has been gathered, it will be possible to develop and deliver a robust and exciting business plan that will offer both social business investors and local, underserved communities a wonderful opportunity for a positive social, environmental and financial bottom line.

© Beautiful Waste 2010


LOCAVORE RECYCLING: COLLECT, CONVERT, CONSUME

5

Executive Summary

COLLECT A recycling business and/or recycled product design process must begin with an investigation of current recycling practices and an analysis of both the waste stream and the system for collecting the waste material and transporting it to the reprocessing facility. 1. Information gathering: What is currently happening with waste materials? If there is already a robust recycling industry then reclaimed material can be purchased from local operators in order to manufacture an end product. If not, then an end-to-end operation will need to be planned where collecting and sorting is encompassed within the business plan. If the location is in upheaval, what is the historical memory of waste collection? It is preferable to build upon what is or has been done in the past. 2. Waste Audit: A waste stream analysis must be performed so the business plan has a solid foundation. What type of plastic waste is available? How much? Contamination levels? As a guide to the optimum balance between accuracy and cost, 15-20 “sorts” should be attempted from each socio-economic group that waste will be collected from. These might be households of different economic make up, commercial corner stores as well as large industry, illegal dumping sites and landfills. It would also be highly advisable to gather data, if possible, from any project or business that is already collecting waste. 3. Recovery system: How is waste being collected? Is there both a formal and an informal sector involved? It is important to understand the local dynamics. A new recycling operation should strive to improve the training and working conditions of people already working in the waste sector whether as scavengers or city employees. They have valuable expertise and should be empowered rather than pushed out. Is there a collection system in place or does one need to be developed? Are materials already being collected as an income generating activity or is a recycling education campaign needed? 4. Transport: Because plastics are light and voluminous, transporting them can become very expensive, very quickly. How will recyclables be collected and transported to the manufacturing site? Can this be superimposed on a successful city wide waste management system (i.e. household trash collection) or does it need to be developed? If it needs to be developed, can a system be designed in collaboration with other enterprises collecting waste (paper, metal, organics, glass)?

© Beautiful Waste 2010


LOCAVORE RECYCLING: COLLECT, CONVERT, CONSUME

6

Executive Summary

CONVERT Developing countries should be leapfrogging to “Green” manufacturing. While the West struggles to adapt current manufacturing infrastructure to the increased call for sustainable and environmentally friendly production, the burgeoning manufacturing sector in developing countries, so critical to poverty alleviation, can do it right the first time. 5. Identify manufacturing site with consideration to the problems of land tenure and building ownership following a natural catastrophe or period of conflict. 6. Plan to design and build a manufacturing plant or retool an existing site with attention to operational footprint (energy, water, waste), employee health and safety, and relationship to community. 7. Using information gathered from the Waste Audit, identify end product possibilities. Research case studies and use existing operational examples to inform manufacturing line choice. Post consumer plastic is currently being converted into roof tiles in Ghana, drainage pipes in Istanbul, polyester fiber in India and manhole covers in Egypt. Learn from others and adapt to local needs and conditions.

CONSUME The building materials manufactured need to be used to build safe structures, and also need to incorporate the needs, desires and dreams of the people that will live and work in them. 8. Market analysis: Building materials are needed everywhere, but will the product be acceptable and correctly priced for the local market? One of the biggest pitfalls of serving a poor population is assuming what is needed and wanted. For quality results that can most reliably be counted upon, a robust analyses of expected target markets must be conducted that includes both qualitative and quantitative research. Qualitative: 30 complete in-depth interviews from each target market. One can reasonably expect to contact 150 people per target market in order to achieve 30 complete interviews. Quantitative: 100 multiple choice surveys from each target market. One can reasonably expect to contact 500 people per target market in order to achieve 100 complete surveys.

© Beautiful Waste 2010


LOCAVORE RECYCLING: COLLECT, CONVERT, CONSUME

7

Executive Summary

The qualitative research should be conducted first. This research is conducted through indepth interviews with the purpose of pinpointing the key themes and issues. The themes and issues that emerge from the qualitative research are used to inform the questions asked to a much broader audience in the quantitative survey. The qualitative, interview focused research is most important when trying to grow an existing market or create a new one. 9. Design & Construction Partners: The manufacturer has some responsibility for the product after it leaves the plant. Who are the local stakeholders in the construction industry? How can information about proper and safe use of the building material be communicated to the customer. Organizations with “decent shelter” missions, such as Architecture for Humanity operate all over the world, especially in post-conflict and post-catastrophe areas. They have a wealth of information from building plans to manuals on how to build earthquake resistant buildings, in the local language. They should be sought out and brought into the process of supplying the customer not only with the building material, but with the education to use it in the best way possible. 10. Pricing: Can the product be priced so it is affordable for a local population recovering from chaos and still maintain profitability? Any plastic building material is going to compete with concrete so this can help set a pricing barometer. A a rule of thumb, concrete is mixed in proportions of 1 part cement: 2 parts sand: 4 parts gravel. The local pricing for these materials will allow the calculation of the dry quantities required for 1 cubic meter of concrete: 6.4 50kg bags of cement, 0.45 m3 of sand and 0.90m3 of gravel.

COMMUNICATE The development of improved recycling technology and the reduction of nonrenewable resources will encourage the idea of treating waste as a resource. As ‘Trash-to-Cash’ programs are designed, many will look to the first actors in the field for a workable model and lessons learned. This project will only be innovative, if it is shared and replicated. 11. Plan for multimedia documentation of the entire process. 12. Design metrics to evaluate the impact on the integrated bottom line, social (good jobs created, homes constructed etc), environmental (tons of plastic kept out of ocean, landfill etc, CO2 saved, virgin materials saved by using an alternative resource) and economic (case study of profitable business). © Beautiful Waste 2010


LOCAVORE RECYCLING, COLLECT, CONVERT, CONSUME A Case for Haiti

Plastics 101

© Beautiful Waste 2010


LOCAVORE RECYCLING: COLLECT, CONVERT, CONSUME

9

Plastics 101

Plastic often elicits strong emotional reactions having to do with everything from: toxic chemical concerns; the worry of defaulting to bottle water at the expense of infrastructure-upkeep for free tap water; the horrifying discovery of the plastic garbage patch in the Pacific Ocean; to more nuanced ideas that the West’s throw away culture is eroding other areas of our social fabric. At the same time, we all, without distinction of borders, enjoy the benefits of this extraordinary material. It is helpful to begin with a brief overview of what exactly this material is and how it can be saved from the garbage bin and put to good use.

What are plastics? The word plastic is derived from the Greek word plastikos meaning easily shaped. Plastic is the general term for all synthetic macromolecular materials. It is most often made from petroleum, although there are some bio-plastics that are derived from plant material. Additives are used to give the plastic its particular characteristics. These, among many, might be antioxidants to reduce degradation, plasticizers to soften or flame retardants. Plastics break down into two main categories, those that can be melted (thermoplastic polymers) and those that can not be melted (thermosetting polymers). Mechanical recycling is concerned with those plastics that can be melted, and the majority of plastics belong to this group. There are hundreds of different kinds of plastic, some are simple and produced in mass quantities and some are complex and used in specific high tech applications. The most common types of plastic are: polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyethylene terephthalate and polyvinylchloride. This last one, polyvinylchloride, known as PVC, has been found to release a toxin called hydrochloric acid and is being phased out of many products. Polyethylene (PE) is the most common plastic and includes two categories: • HDPE (High Density PE) (#2) which is opaque and has a linear structure, making it stronger. It is used in items such as milk bottles, buckets and jerry cans.

WAITING FOR PICK UP, TUNISIA Some of the 500,000 plastic bottles collected every month in Tunisia. © Beautiful Waste 2010


LOCAVORE RECYCLING: COLLECT, CONVERT, CONSUME

10

Plastics 101

• LDPE (Low Density) (#4) which is transparent when thin and milky white when thick and has a branched structure making it soft and flexible. It is used in items such as bags and packaging film. Polypropylene (PP) (#5) is a more rigid plastic that is both tough and flexible. It is one of the most versatile and used in items such as yogurt and margarine containers. Polystyrene (PS) (#6) is very chemically stable, with good processing properties and therefore one of the most widely used plastics. It comes in three common forms: Standard polystyrene (PS), High impact polystyrene (SB), Expanded polystyrene (EPS). It is used in packaging, plastic cutlery, CD cases and cups. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) (#1) has very good barrier properties against oxygen and carbon dioxide. Because it is clear, the product it carries is seen to be clean and pure, making the ubiquitous water bottle the most visible use of PET. However, the material is most predominately used for synthetic fibers, simply called ‘polyester,’ and is used to make polar fleeces. About 25 bottles are needed to make one jacket. Recycling PET into fibers is most easily started in countries that already have an active textile industry.

How are plastics identified? Due to varying melt temperatures and other characteristics, most plastics mix very badly with other types. This makes identifying the type of plastic critical to any recycling operation. The Society of Plastics Industry (SPI) developed plastic resin codes in 1988 to assist in the identification of plastic waste for recycling. The code is meant to indicate the primary resin and with the advent of so called “degradable” additives there is much discussion as to how recyclers will be able to identify what plastic includes these additives and therefore would be unsuitable for mechanical recycling. At the moment these additives are very expensive and not widely used. Identification requires a certain degree of practice. It is estimated that it takes two weeks for a person to become familiar with the recognition and sorting of the main plastics. If there is any doubt as to type, the plastic should be tested until a reliable identification can be attained or not used at all. When there is any uncertainty, some simple tests can be conducted

© Beautiful Waste 2010


LOCAVORE RECYCLING: COLLECT, CONVERT, CONSUME

11

Plastics 101

through scratching, burning or checking for density by immersing in a liquid. For example, PET sinks in water, while HDPE floats. Identifying and correctly sorting the plastic is critical to the economic viability of a recycling operation. Small amounts of a different type can have big consequences on both the life of the machines and the quality of the end product.

6 unskilled workers can sort 1 ton of plastic per day.

How are plastics recycled? Once the plastic waste has been properly sorted the next step, which has a critical impact on the value of the recycled material, is washing. Just as the unintended inclusion of a different type of plastic can ruin a recycled stream, so can other contaminates, some that come attached to the waste in the form of labels, glue or food residue and some that get picked up once the material has been discarded, such as dirt, sand and pebbles.

4-5 Workers can wash, dry and sort 235kg of material in a 8-hour period.

Both the washing and drying can be done manually or mechanically. The source of the waste must be assessed in order to plan an appropriate washing system. Dirt will separate in a plain water bath, but other contaminates might require soap and oil will require a caustic soda mix. The quality of the sorting and washing process will determine the possibilities for the recycled material’s second life. Plastics require 2-3 hours to dry at temperatures between 70˚ and 90˚C. Drying with the sun is possible depending on local climate conditions, and if dust can be avoided. Some form of shredding, grinding or agglomeration follows in order to reduce the material size to the required specifications of the intended reprocessing method. The developed world has technically advanced machinery that makes it possible to process used plastic so that it is virtually indistinguishable from the virgin material. This highly sorted and cleaned plastic can be used to manufacture food packaging wrap and new drink bottles.

© Beautiful Waste 2010


LOCAVORE RECYCLING: COLLECT, CONVERT, CONSUME

12

Plastics 101

Shredder with horizontal axis. Vogler. 1984 Recycling machinery in the developing world is usually much less technically sophisticated. Although, there are many different recycling methods the following two, Profile Extrusion and Injection Molding, are the most tolerant of contamination and therefore present the fewest difficulties in getting started. Both Profile Extrusion and Injection Molding require an Extruder. Extrusion refers to the process of pushing a bulk material through a specific shape, just the way that pasta dough is pushed through a pasta maker (extruder) to make macaroni. The Extruder is the ‘cooker.’ The plastic pieces are fed into a hopper at one end of the Extruder and are heated to their particular melting point. A long screw inside the extruder mixes the melted plastic, referred to as the melt, while pushing it to the other end of the Extruder to a nozzle. Profile Extrusion takes place when the melt is pushed from the nozzle through a Die, the steel plate with the required shape cut into it. The melt passes through the Die and emerges into a water bath to cool and set in its new shape, called the profile. Lumber, drainage pipes and window frames are some of the products that are manufactured using profile extrusion. © Beautiful Waste 2010


LOCAVORE RECYCLING: COLLECT, CONVERT, CONSUME

13

Plastics 101

Injection Molding is the process of pushing the melt through the nozzle into a mold. When the mold is filled, it clamps shut and sets the melt into its new shape. The mold is manually emptied and then readied for the next batch.

Injection Molding Diagram. Vogler, 1984

Indispensable Resources for Plastic Recycling Although several of these resources are 15+ years old and there have been great changes in both the quantity of plastics available and in some of the processing technologies, the principles remain the same for recycling in the developing world. Jon Vogler wrote two well known books that are widely cited and used, “Waste from Work” (1981) and “Small Scale Recycling of Plastics” (1984) Intermediate Technology Publications 1984. Reprinted 1986. Inge Lardinois and Arnold van der Klundert (eds) followed with an updated “Plastic Waste. Options for Small-Scale Resource Recovery. Urban Solid Waste Series 2. TOOL Publications and WASTE Consultants. 1995. These two resources are available as e-books: http://www.waste.nl/page/203 Pierre-François Bareel. Assistance Internationale – Ingénieurs sans Frontières (Isf). “Plastics Recovery Manual” 2002. Available at: http://www.appropedia.org/Category:Plastics_recovery_manual

© Beautiful Waste 2010


LOCAVORE RECYCLING: COLLECT, CONVERT, CONSUME

14

Plastics 101

Recycled Plastic Building Products

© Beautiful Waste 2010


LOCAVORE RECYCLING: COLLECT, CONVERT, CONSUME

15

Recycled Plastic Building Products

Plastic building materials are the product of the future. Recycling plastic helps to create new, reusable, eco-friendly products and keep millions of pounds of waste from entering landfills. Recycled plastic building materials have been manufactured since the 1980s. They are mostly made from post-consumer high density polyethylene (HDPE), but linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) and low density polyethylene (LDPE) are also used. With advances in technology, mixed plastics are now being used to make roofing tiles. There are ecologically inferior lumbers on the market that include fillers such as wood and rice grain and stronger lumbers that are created with a plastic-fiberglass mix. The addition of these fillers makes the lumber a ‘composite’ and therefore unsuitable for further recycling and less environmentally friendly. It must be observed that 100% recycled plastic lumber is NOT load bearing. Following an overview of the benefits of plastic building materials, this section will look at two recycled product possibilities, Plastic Lumber & Plastic Roof Tiles, and the estimated costs for machinery and staff training.

Ownership Benefits

Environmental Benefits

Will not rot, crack, peel, or splinter Minimal maintenance Guaranteed to last for at least 50 years Saws, drills and screws just like wood Stain resistant, Graffiti-proof Waterproof—salt water or fresh water UV resistant Impervious to insects and bacteria Not affected by exposure to cleaning products, chemicals, severe weather or intense sunlight • No sealing, staining or painting • Easy to clean • Mold and mildew resistant

• Reduces deforestation • Contains no hazardous chemicals that can contaminate soil or water • Easily recyclable • Non-toxic • Diverts plastic waste from landfills • As long as the product does not contain any recycled PVC, it will not have the potential to emit harmful chemicals into the air and water

• • • • • • • • •

Economic Benefits • No expensive long-term maintenance • No replacement costs © Beautiful Waste 2010

Considerations • Plastic is more flexible than wood and must be properly supported. Typically, plastic lumber should be supported 25% more than wood. • Plastic lumber will expand and contract, especially in warm climates, and it is important that installation instructions are followed to avoid any issues this could cause.


LOCAVORE RECYCLING: COLLECT, CONVERT, CONSUME

16

Recycled Plastic Building Products

Plastic Lumber Plastic lumber’s composition varies widely, from 100% post-consumer recycled content to 100% virgin plastic resin. Some products are made with a single plastic resin, others use combinations of resins, and still others combine other materials with plastic to make a composite. 100% recycled plastic lumber is made from the single resin polyethylene which is available in high and low densities, (#2 and #4 plastic). HDPE, the #2 plastic, is one of the most commonly used plastics and found in milk jugs, detergent and shampoo bottles, and strong plastic bags. In addition to plastic lumber and recycled plastic furniture, recycled HDPE is used to manufacture garden products, buckets, crates, office products and drainage pipes and guttering. Fiberglass is one material often used to increase the load-bearing capacity of plastic lumber. Fiberglass production and use have been linked to pulmonary lung disease, affecting the lungs in a manner similar to asbestos. This is not a recommended additive for developing world, small scale recycling. In order to make recycled plastic lumber, recovered HDPE is cleaned, shredded and ground. This raw material is melted down and mixed with UV stabilizers and pigments. From there, it is extruded into standard lumber shapes. Plastic lumber holds nails approximately 90% better than wood and screws 50% better than wood. Engineers estimate that the workable life of plastic lumber is anywhere from 15-20 years in underwater marine applications and well over 50 years in construction applications such as decks for houses. (“Plastic Lumber” © 2005-2010 American Chemistry Council, Inc.)

370 Milk Jugs

1 Piece of Lumber 2” x 6” x 12’

non-toxic & not harmful

+

Pigment (for uniform color)

& UV Stabilizers

=

(to prevent deterioration due to weather and sun) Each Foot = 3.2 lbs of recycled material © Beautiful Waste 2010


LOCAVORE RECYCLING: COLLECT, CONVERT, CONSUME

17

Recycled Plastic Building Products

Epic Plastics Recycling Story

http://www.epicplastics.com/recycling_story

A Plastic Bottle’s Journey from Trash to Lumber

Courtesy of: www.epicplastics.com/recycling_story

© Beautiful Waste 2010


LOCAVORE RECYCLING: COLLECT, CONVERT, CONSUME Recycled Plastic Building Products

Production of Plastic Lumber: Upfront Costs: Machines, Shipping, Set Up & Training

Sample Refurbished Plastic Lumber Line # Machine Name 1 Extruder Refurbished

Details 4.5” - NRM Extruder; L/D Ratio: 24:1; Heat Control Panel; Electric Heat; Air Cooled; 4 Barrel Zones; 2 - Die Zones; Feed Hopper; 100 - HP, AC Motor & Drive

1 Fill Nozzle - New Conversion Chamber for Hydraulic pressure of the polymer; Manufactured of heat treated D 2 Steel; Tool to accommodate Molds 1 Mold Clamping System

Manually controlled pneumatics; 2.5” Air cylinder, 60 psi.; Single station lever; Wedge style clamping pins

1 Mold Cooling Tank - New

Manufactured out of 3/8” Carbon Steel Dimensions - 4' x 4' x 12'; Painted with a Two (2) Stage epoxy; Cooling Plate Coils

1 Chiller- Used

20 Ton Capacity; Air Cooled; Heat Exchanger and Circulation Pump 460V, 30 AMP Full Load

4 Molds- New

2” x 4” x 10’; 2” x 6” x 10’ Bench Leg; Picnic Table Leg Manufactured !” Carbon Steel Plate Removable End Cap & Hinges Pin Clamp Holders

1 Granulator- Used 16” x 24” Feed Opening Closed Rotor 3 Rotor knives & 2 bed knives. 3/8” Screen Belt driven 50 HP, 230/460V Motor 1 Blender

Price: for all Equipment & Frieght Set up & Training

AEC/Hydreclaim OS-007; Serial number: 14090H; Model: OS-007; Components: 3 Mixing chamber; Air knife gate below mixer weighs batch, mixes, knife opens - dumps batch - closes; Allen Bradley Touch Control This includes shipping freight to Ghana (the sample quote these numbers are derived from) Set up assistance, On-site formulation of plastic blends & testing; 5 Days and travel and expenses.

© Beautiful Waste 2010

$122,500

$10,000

Average production on this lumber line Approximately 400 kg/hour = 70/80 2' X 6" boards/hour

18


LOCAVORE RECYCLING: COLLECT, CONVERT, CONSUME

19

Recycled Plastic Building Products

Plastic Roof Tiles Roofing is a priority in post-conflict and post-disaster areas. Robert Tyldesley and his company Britannica have created a successful method for producing large quantities of good quality plastic from mixed plastic waste. The product has proved ideal for making roof tiles: strong, light, durable and fully waterproof. Mixed plastic waste has previously been very difficult to melt because different plastics melt at different temperatures. This has been resolved by varying the temperature as the plastic passes through the extruder.

A 2006 finalist in the international Shell/BBC World Challenge, which rewards environmentally friendly companies worldwide that make a difference to local communities.

The latest generation of equipment is ideal for a small-scale manufacturer in a location where labor costs are low and there is access to plastic that can be recovered from house hold waste. This machinery line has been installed in, among other countries, South Africa, Ghana, Nigeria, Ethiopia and Venezuela.

Useable Waste Plastic Categories Broadly, the polymer mix for the roof tiles should consist of 40% Hard Polymer (ABS, HIPS, Polystyrene) and 60% Soft Polymer (LDPE, HDPE, Polypropylene).

30% Mixed Plastic Waste 60% Soft Polymer LDPE (#4) Plastic bags and bin liners HDPE (#2) Milk jugs PP (#5) Margarine tubs, yogurt tubs

+

40% Hard Polymer PS (#6) Plastic cutlery, protective packaging Other (#7) Includes ABS and HIPS

Š Beautiful Waste 2010

70% Sand

=


LOCAVORE RECYCLING: COLLECT, CONVERT, CONSUME

20

Recycled Plastic Building Products

Awarded the Order of the British Empire for leading the way in producing innovative technology with environmental benefits. “...to make something really useful from growing mountains of unwanted rubbish.”

The mix used will not be critical, but there will be changes in characteristics with changes to the mix. The recommended mix should be used to start in order to be certain the required product can be manufactured. Then the mix can be experimented with in order to achieve the particular make up required for the local setting . Contamination of the mix with more than 5% PET (#1) or PVC (#3) can cause problems (such as excessive chlorine emissions) and is best avoided.

Sphere, Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Disaster Response Shelter and settlement standard 3: Covered living space Where materials for a complete shelter cannot be provided, the provision of roofing materials and the required structural support to provide the minimum covered area should be prioritised. Shelter and settlement standard 4: Construction Safe local building practices, materials, expertise and capacities are used, maximising the involvement of the affected population and livelihood opportunities whilst minimising adverse impact on the environment. Shelter and settlement standard 5: Environmental Impact The adverse impact on the environment is minimised by the settling of the disaster-affected households, the material sourcing and construction techniques used.

© Beautiful Waste 2010


LOCAVORE RECYCLING: COLLECT, CONVERT, CONSUME

21

Recycled Plastic Building Products

Production of Roof Tiles: Upfront Costs: Machines, Shipping, Set Up & Training Manually Operated Roof Tile Line - Designed to Produce Aprox. 3000M2/Month* Qty Goods Capacity Cost per unit Expect to Expect to Total Value Description (USD$) purchase from purchase locally (USD$) Britanica (USD$) (USD$) 1 Rotary $8,500.00 $8,500.00 $8,500.00 Shredder 1 Film Shredder

2 Extruder

Sufficient for 3000 M2 per month 40kg /hr sufficient for 2

5547 M per month from 2 machines 1 Screwfed Machine with manual control – for aggregate heating

180/kg/hr sufficient

$7,500.00

$7,500.00

$7,500.00

= 9400

$18,800.00

$18,800.00

$11,000.00

$11,000.00

$11,000.00

$9,000.00

$9,000.00

$9,000.00

$18,700.00

$37,400.00

$37,400.00

2 Set of cooling tables including platens

$1,000.00

$2,000.00

$2,000.00

2 Mould for roof tiles

$5,500.00

$11,000.00

$11,000.00

1 Mould for ridge tiles

$4,300.00

$4,300.00

$4,300.00

for3790 M2 per month

1 Screwfed Machine – for sand drying 2 Moulding press with manual control, integrated mold cooling + Hydraulic unit

35 cycles/hr sufficient for 3300 M2 per month from 2 machines

Mould for paving tiles Mould for cobbles 1 Dry ingredients mixer 1 Hand operated fork lift truck 1 Strapping tool 1 Scales TOTAL

$5,000.00 $6,500.00 $1,000

$1,000

$1,000.00

$600

$600

$600.00

$200

$200

$200.00

$200

$200

$200.00

$2,000.00

$111,500.00

$109,500.00

*A month is calculated as 3 shifts of 8 hour shifts for 5 days per week over 4 weeks

© Beautiful Waste 2010

Average production on this roof tile line

62 Roof tiles /hour (M2 = 9 tiles)


LOCAVORE RECYCLING: COLLECT, CONVERT, CONSUME

22

Recycled Plastic Building Products

Shipping

Equipment required for manufacture of 3000 M2 per month will fit into a 40’ Sea container. (Shipping example: a 40’ container from Lugansk to Angola)

Training

Estimate - $5,000 Estimate - $20,000

Production of Roof Tiles: Operating Requirements

Gross quanity

MATERIALS Sand Cost of sand (most types of sand including sea sand are suitable - sand should be free running without lumps or gravel)

required per m2

Gross quantity required per rooftile 12.4" x 15.95" (315mm x 405 mm)

17.34 kg

1.93 kg (4.25 lbs)

7.56 kg

0.84 kg (1.85 lbs)

0,193 kg

0.022 kg 0.046 lbs)

Delivery cost

Installing roof tiles: Resin bonded tiles can be screwed to batons.

TOTAL Sand

Polymer (Plastic) Hard Polymer (ABS, HIPS, Polystyrene) Soft Polymer (LDPE, HDPE, Polypropylene) TOTAL Polymer

Masterbatch Cost per kg approx $3.50 USD Delivery cost TOTAL Masterbatch

Packing to pallet (not essential) Corrugated cardboard and pallet Packing list and label

Factory Costs 0.076 litres

Water (300 litres required for storage)

per m2 8.4 KWH

Electricity Labor

per m2

Sorting & breaking

1 per shift

Shred & operate magnetic separator

2.5 per shift

1st Extrusion

1.5 per shift

Moulding press

1 per shift

Mix preparation & 2nd extrusion

1 per shift

0.0085 litres per rooftile 0.94 KWH per rooftile

TOTAL 5-7 people per shift

Note: (7 people per shift if unsorted mixed plastic is used or 5 if pre-sorted plastics are used)

Overhead Factory space required - 100 sq metres per line Engineering support Administration & management Amortization TOTAL Factory space required per line

© Beautiful Waste 2010

100 sq metres of covered space 100 sq metres of exterior space

If wood is in limited supply, a low spec. galvanized angle metal can be used as an alternatives to batons. Once placed, the tile and baton can be drilled and fixed with a simple galvanized screw. This substitution would improve wind resistance as well.


LOCAVORE RECYCLING: COLLECT, CONVERT, CONSUME

23

Recycled Plastic Building Products

Further output details: The Extruder will deliver 40 kilograms per hour. With the roof tile weighing 2.5/2.6 kg this = 52 tiles/hour (5547 M2 / month from 2 machines) The Screwfed Machine will deliver 180 (+/- 5) kilograms/ hour. With the roof tile weighing 2.5/2.6 kg this = 67 - 75 tiles/ hour – say 71 tiles/hour (3790 M2 /month from 1 machine) The Hydraulic Moulding Press set up for making roof tiles will run at 35 cycles/hour. Operating at 90% efficiency this equates to 31 roof tiles/hour or 62 roof tiles/hour (3300 M2 / month from 2 machines).

There is a pressing need in developing countries “to replace cement-based construction products with alternatives which can be made from locally sourced materials.” - Robert Tyldesley

With 2 extruders, 1 screwfed machine and 2 presses the set up will be close to being in balance. Increased output from the extruder can be accomplished by working additional shifts (a shredder + extruder) at weekend. The extruder is one of least skilled and least labor intensive operations. It is realistic to run 2 extruders with a single operator. Also, there will be sufficient shredding capacity for 3000 M2 of roof tiles per month from 1 rotary shredder and 1 film shredder operating on 3 x 8 hour shifts for 5 days per week.

Regular

maintenance: The extruder and screwfed machine will need regular

maintenance. Wear to the screw can be rectified with simple welding that is used for car body repairs There will also need to be occasional build up of the molding tool. These are simple maintenance tasks that can be done anywhere.

Energy: A capacity of around 50KVA will be required to run the machines. Potential equipment savings: • If shredded plastic can be found locally or can be subcontracted, shredding machines will not be necessary. Savings of $16,000. • If the location has a suitable climate, a satisfactory way of drying sand might be devised that would negate the necessity of a screwfed machine. Savings of $9000. • A smaller setup using outsourced shredded plastic that could manufacture 1500 M2 of roof tiles per month would cost approximately $60,000. (Would exclude shredding equipment, a second extruder, second hydraulic press & second tile mould). Savings of $50,600. © Beautiful Waste 2010


LOCAVORE RECYCLING: COLLECT, CONVERT, CONSUME

24

Recycled Plastic Building Products

‘Green’ Manufacturing

© Beautiful Waste 2010


LOCAVORE RECYCLING: COLLECT, CONVERT, CONSUME

25

‘Green’ Manufacturing

From the hills of Rwanda, to the markets of Addis Ababa, and in the alleyways of the Medina in Tunis, inquiries into the weather are met with the same response. “Igitangaz!” “Abd!” “Magnoun!” “Crazy!” While ‘being green’ is sometimes regarded as a luxury of wealthy westerners, it is the people at the bottom of the pyramid who are the first to suffer from the effects of climate change. Whether through flood or drought, dirty water or deforestation, people living in poverty everywhere are well aware that their survival is inextricably linked to their environment. Manufacturing can pull a community out of poverty. However, it must be thoughtfully planned in order that its solution does not create a greater problem. Sustainable manufacturing is an oxymoron; all manufacturing will have some impact on its surroundings. While every question might not have a feasible ‘green’ answer, it is essential that the effects of manufacturing on both the local and downstream communities are considered with knowledge and understanding. Following is the ‘green’ manufacturing pyramid and a brief overview of the major issues to be considered:

Green Product Green Manufacturing Processes & Systems Green Machines Clean Power

ON THE WAY TO A NEW LIFE, CHINA HDPE #2 plastic being transported to a recycling facility. Photo © Paul Louis © Beautiful Waste 2010


LOCAVORE RECYCLING: COLLECT, CONVERT, CONSUME

26

‘Green’ Manufacturing

Energy The biggest obstacle to private sector development in developing countries is the lack of reliable electricity. Poverty alleviation can not succeed without more energy and there will have to be a move towards clean energy if businesses are to grow. Using a recycled material uses significantly less energy than using virgin material. The reuse of 240 tons of HDPE a year, in comparison with virgin material would save 12,344 BTUs or the equivalent of 2,128 barrels of oil or 99,316 gallons of gasoline. In areas with a poor or non existent electric grid, a recycling operation must be planned with an on site solution. A renewable energy source, although requiring a larger upfront investment, will pay for itself in the long term and keep the business viable.

Water

How Much Energy Does Recycling Save Compared to Non-Recycled Plastic? 1 Pound of Recycled Milk Jugs SAVES the equivalent of 3000 AAA Batteries or enough to power a tv for 3 weeks or enough to run a laptop for a month Source: US Department of Energy, EPA

Every business depends on and impacts on water. A recycling operation uses it initially to clean the waste material and then in the processing step to cool the melted plastic. Globally, water resources are increasingly under pressure and this is especially true in developing countries where clean water is scarce. A ‘green’ manufacturing operation must plan for sustainable water management. Some of the areas to focus on are:

Compared to using virgin LDPE (#4 plastic), using recycled LDPE in the production of plastic bags saves 70% in energy use; 90% in water use and; 60-80% emissions. (Warmer Bulletin, “Plastics recycling vindicated,” No. 36, February 1993. p12)

© Beautiful Waste 2010

1. Measure usage in order to have the data needed to assess efforts to use less water more efficiently. 2. C a p t u r e w a t e r t h r o u g h r a i n h a r v e s t i n g . Manufacturing facilities are usually built with roofs that are perfectly suited to this low tech and inexpensive water capture method. 3. Manage the water quality of the used water leaving the facility.


LOCAVORE RECYCLING: COLLECT, CONVERT, CONSUME

27

‘Green’ Manufacturing

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Developing countries are predicted to be the hardest hit by global warming because so many are located in areas that will suffer the worst effects of climate change through floods or droughts. Recycling plastic, as opposed to landfilling or incinerating, reduces greenhouse gas emissions. A small scale recycling operation might process 1 ton of HDPE per day for 20 working days in a month. Reusing 240 tons of plastic a year would save: 94 MTCE (Metric Tons of Carbon Equivalent) if the waste was kept out of a landfill, and; 160 MTCE if the waste was kept out of an incinerator. (Source WARM, EPA Waste Calculator) Greenhouse gas emissions are rising rapidly in developing countries and successful ‘green’ manufacturing models are critical to illustrating that a profitable business can not only operate in harmony with its environment, but it is in its own benefit to do so. (“Global Warming: An Opportunity for Greatness, By David Wheeler, Center for Global Development Policy Brief)

Transport The site of the recycling facility should be carefully chosen to minimize transport costs. The greatest use of energy in the life of a product is transportation and it is greatly beneficial from both an environmental and a financial standpoint to locate the facility as close to the waste stream as possible. Plastic is a bulky, low density material and takes up an enormous amount of space until its size is reduced .

Workers’ Rights

“Green and clean recovery and reconstruction... Materials and design should be selected using environmental and climate change-oriented criteria, such as energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, the sustainability of production chains, the use of water, and the potential for recycling and reuse.” "Safer Homes, Stronger Communities: A Handbook for Reconstructing after Natural Disasters." World Bank. Jan 2010 www.housingreconstruction.org

‘Green’ Manufacturing refers to all resources used in creating a product and people are one of the greatest resources required. Informal recycling activities in developing countries usually do not conform to health, safety and labor regulations and workers are often subjected to hazardous conditions both in the collection of waste and in the processing. Occupational health and safety standards should be implemented to prevent diseases, accidents and injuries to workers throughout the recycling chain. © Beautiful Waste 2010


LOCAVORE RECYCLING: COLLECT, CONVERT, CONSUME

28

Around the World: Recycling Case Studies

Around the World: Recycling Case Studies

© Beautiful Waste 2010


LOCAVORE RECYCLING: COLLECT, CONVERT, CONSUME

29

Around the World: Recycling Case Studies

Recycling is taking place on some scale in every country in the world. Cities such as Istanbul, Cairo and Calcutta are manufacturing end products from recycled material for a local population, while Bangladesh, among others, is selling on plastic flake or pellets. It is informative to examine other operations both for inspiration and know how. Here we will briefly cover two case studies: The first from Sri Lanka, with a relatively small population, where several plastic recycling projects were started after the 2004 tsunami to create livelihood opportunities, especially for the most vulnerable, who found it difficult to find additional income. The second from Egypt, with a large population, which has the highest recycling rates in the world.

Sri Lanka Here, a project started plastic recycling plants in the towns of Hambantota and Kalmunai. Both sites collected waste plastic, shredded it into pellets and then sold it onwards to plastic recyclers in the capital city, Colombo. As with all recycling, training the collectors was critical in achieving the requirements needed to sell the pellets for a good price.

RECYCLING SCHOOL, CAIRO A scene from the 2010 documentary ‘Garbage Dreams.’ Photo © New York Times/ Wynne Films

© Beautiful Waste 2010

“After the Tsunami struck Sri Lanka in December 2004, waste management systems virtually collapsed and waste was disposed of indiscriminately. The local authorities were faced with a post-tsunami situation which was beyond their resources. This led to unplanned coastal zone dumping practices, poor urban environment planning, substandard water management and sanitation practices and a general waste of resources.” - Valentin Post, CORDAID Tsunami Reconstruction 6


LOCAVORE RECYCLING: COLLECT, CONVERT, CONSUME

30

Around the World: Recycling Case Studies

Shredding

Transport

Drying

The training focused on the segregation of plastic waste materials by type which increases the price per kilo substantially, and then segregation by color which brings a further increase. Plastics were collected from households and businesses through the formal sector’s urban council workers, and the informal sector. Both benefited from the home composting system already in place that initially separated waste in the home. The following chart illustrates the financial break down of these two recycling businesses. Variations in plastic waste prices are due to the level of contaminates in the plastic.

Saru Recycling

Viridis Recycling

Output

1-1.5

2-3

Employees

80

50

Monthly Salary Range

$9. - $131.

Buying Plastic Waste/kg

$.17-$.70/kg

$.08 - $.21/kg

Selling Plastic Pellets

$1.05/kg

$.43-$1.05/kg

How Plastics are collected

Both delivered to company by industry and collected by company from industry, collection centers and individuals

Collect from other plastic traders, urban councils and rural committees

Outputs

Pellets

Pellets

Š Beautiful Waste 2010


LOCAVORE RECYCLING: COLLECT, CONVERT, CONSUME

31

Around the World: Recycling Case Studies

The Kalmunai facility bought plastic from 17 informal collectors who were all Tsunami victims. In one month they were able to collected 7 tones of plastic waste. In addition to waste being brought directly to the facility, four ‘collection points’ were established on the premises of four collectors. The collection points typically stocked from 130 – 600 kg of plastic waste. The biggest threat to these businesses is their ability to sell the pellets onwards. Just like American recyclers started to go out of business in 2008 because demand slowed from the normally hungry Chinese market they relied on, these Sinhalese businesses are dependent on being able to get their pellets to Colombo and sell them once there. When the projects started the security situation in Eastern Sri Lanka and the transport route to Colombo were uncertain. Post, Valentin; Haenen, Ivo “Solid Waste Management in Sri Lanka: Plastic Recycling” CORDAID Tsunami Reconstruction 6, Dec 2007

Recycling in Asia Plastic recycling on developing countries.

dumps

has

become

fairly

common

in

In the Republic of Korea and Thailand, plastics recycling involves six processing phases by different groups of scavengers, each purchasing the plastic from the previous group, adding value by sorting, cutting, pelletizing and bulking or baling the material. The value of the dirty, unsorted plastic extracted from the dumping grounds increases five−fold by the time it is cleaned and sold in pelletized form or in standardized sheets to plastic industries. As described by the UN Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat) in their manual ‘Community Participation − Solid Waste Management in Low−Income Housing Projects: The Scope for Community Participation.’ Nairobi, 1989

© Beautiful Waste 2010


LOCAVORE RECYCLING: COLLECT, CONVERT, CONSUME

32

Around the World: Recycling Case Studies

Cairo, Egypt Cairo’s recyclers are the best in the world. The Zabbaleen (Garbage People) recycle up to 80% of the waste they collect. The 20,000 Zabbaleen in the Moqattam area alone are making an estimated 400,000 Euro a week through pre-processing, selling and recycling waste. Waste collection in Cairo is entirely in private hands and largely financed by the recovery of materials from waste products. The government only pays for the street sweepers, resulting in the lowest cost for waste collection per inhabitant in the world. Every ton of garbage produced by Cairo households generates work in collection and sorting for 3.5 persons. The waste is initially sorted at collection and then taken to one of the Zabbaleen settlements on the outskirts of the city. The system is organized around family sorting compounds where the waste is divided into about 15 marketable items. Organic material is processed by pigs and goats and composted. Compost is used to improve desert land for agriculture. Markets have been found for almost all waste materials and only 15% of the original waste volume is discarded on their dump sites. In 2000, The Association for the Protection of the Environment (A.P.E) helped the Zabbaleen start a “Rejects of the Rejects” project in the Khattameya area to reprocess some of the material that was not salvable. They are a pioneer in recycling plastic and manufacturing the recycling machines. Products being manufactured from this rejected mixed plastic material combined with sand are pavement tiles, manhole covers, and road ramps. This project has now been replicated in two smaller Egyptian cities.

International brands lose substantial income when their discarded bottles are refilled and sold on the contraband market. Some companies have begun to play a critical supportive role in the recycling sector. Procter & Gamble assists a local recycling school and pays for each of its recovered bottles.

The effective sorting of recyclable materials by the Zabbaleen has promoted the development of a commercial and industrial network based on the supply of raw materials extracted from waste. This creates an economically viable eco-system for the great environmental problem of waste while simultaneously creating jobs. (UN HABITAT 2006 Best Practices, “Recycling the Rejects of the Rejects: An Environmental Innovation.” Aziz, Hossam,”Improving the livelihood of child waste pickers: experiences with the ‘Zabbaleen’ in Cairo, Egypt” Evaluative field study conducted for WASTE, Gouda, The Netherlands, Aug 2004

© Beautiful Waste 2010


LOCAVORE RECYCLING: COLLECT, CONVERT, CONSUME Around the World: Recycling Case Studies

A Case for Haiti

© Beautiful Waste 2010

33


LOCAVORE RECYCLING: COLLECT, CONVERT, CONSUME

34

A Case for Haiti

“Haitians are eager to help themselves. Refugees are forming settlement councils and electing representatives to collaborate with the nongovernmental organizations. They are building homes themselves, clearing rubble themselves, burying the dead themselves, organizing security brigades themselves. But they are as overmatched as everyone else by the scale of the disaster. There is a burning need to tap the energies of Haitians — not just the devastated national government. That means at the grass-roots, church, business and neighborhood groups that know the country, speak its languages, and are deeply committed to its rebirth.” (NYT Editorial: Haiti, Two Months Later Published: March 11, 2010)

PEOPLE ARE AT THE HEART of the waste management problem. People generate waste and without their active cooperation and participation it is not possible to successfully implement any kind of solution, whether it be recycling or a sustainable integrated waste management system. The planning of a recycling program must be built upon an extensive understanding of current waste management practices and any memory of previous systems as well as an ongoing dialogue with participating communities. Currently, Haiti's trash collection system is so bad that on the streets of Port-au-Prince garbage blocks roads and clogs the city's drainage system and canals. Locals report that garbage is intentionally thrown into these places to be burned or "taken into the sea by the rains." The uncollected waste also poses a security hazard as armed gangs have used the mounds of trash as barricades. Following is a brief look at the history of waste collection and recycling in Haiti; an overview of the energy situation; and a draft SWOT analysis based on preliminary findings.

SCAVENGING, HAITI Children look for value at the dump in Port-au-Prince. Photo © Logan Abassi, UN

© Beautiful Waste 2010


LOCAVORE RECYCLING: COLLECT, CONVERT, CONSUME

35

A Case for Haiti

History of Haitian Waste Collection & Recycling Haiti’s history of waste management can be described as sporadic and ineffectual, but there has been some system of both collection and recycling over the years, interrupted by political upheaval and natural disasters. There are several examples illustrating that there are untapped opportunities for small business development, job creation and poverty alleviation initiatives linked to the waste sector, both in respect to waste disposal services and waste recovery at a local level.

1997: USAID IN THE DOLDRUMS WITH SHIPPING PLASTIC In 1997, A feasibility study was undertaken by USAID/Haiti's Program for the Recovery of the Economy in Transition (PRET) in an attempt to find a solution to the lack of efficient garbage disposal services and the resulting “plague of waste.” A proposal was developed to collect the profusion of plastic bottles from the streets and recycle them. Concern World Wide agreed to assist in collecting the first 40-foot container of material to be recycled. The 6,600,000 bottles that would need to be collected to fill the first five 40-foot containers with ground material would have put an estimated 1,500 unemployed people to work. People were to be paid a price for turning in the bottles. These were in turn to be sold and shipped by Europlast, based in Port-au-Prince, to either Ekon, a Dutch firm, or US-based brokers. It was unanimously agreed by the assessment team that the recycling proposal was feasible and cost-worthy and that there were sufficient project funds for the initiative. USAID did not accept the recommendations and the project did not go forward. The reason cited was that the costs involved for efficiently recycling the necessary quantity of bottles and the related transport costs to ship the recycled material to Holland to be reprocessed into new products, compared to the probable proceeds from these sales and the uncontrollable variables surrounding the sales price, would not make the recycling project profitable and therefore, not sustainable. Imptementation of USAID/HAITI's Program for the Recovery of the Economy in Transition (PRET) Project No. 521-0256-3-50135 Prepared by DATEX, Inc. Under Contract No. 521-0256-C-00-5059-00 With Development Alternatives, Inc.

© Beautiful Waste 2010


LOCAVORE RECYCLING: COLLECT, CONVERT, CONSUME

36

A Case for Haiti

2005-Ongoing: Waste Collecting & Separating, Briquette End Product Carrefour-Feuilles, one of the largest slums in Port-au-Prince, is home to what has been called a “simple but revolutionary” recycling project. Funded by a partnership dubbed the “SouthSouth” cooperation, Brazil, South Africa, India and the UNDP have joined forces to clean up Haiti. When the project started in 2005, the slum was known for its gangs and crimes; now it is known for its lack of garbage. The idea was to fix the garbage problem on the local level, and in the process, create jobs that require little education or training. The waste stream is 30% paper based and the center produces cooking briquettes made out of this recycled paper. One thousand briquettes are produced per day. Since cooking in Haiti is done with charcoal, the cooking briquettes serve as a cheaper, more environmentally friendly alternative. They sell the other material and the collected plastic is going to a Canadian company. 385 people work at the cooperative that owns the recycling center and there are jobs for street sweepers, garbage collectors, recycling center operators, and briquette makers. One person from each household in the community is employed through the program. 60% of the employees are women, empowering them with the ability to enter the workforce, bring home money, and keep their children in school. In 2008, the South-South partnership donated a little million dollars to the project. Funding lasted until the 2009. The plant will keep revenues flowing through the metal scraps, plastic, and glass materials, along with the the cooking briquettes which are sold at 1 cent/briquette.

Sample briquettes on display at the UN (Photo: Mary Slosson)

over a end of sale of sale of

Patrick Massenat, the head of the cooperative, says that the South-South help is unlike most development aid given to Carrefour-Feuilles because of its long term commitment and community engagement.

© Beautiful Waste 2010

25 sorters separating compost from recyclables earn $6/ day for an eight hour shift * 80% of Haitians live on under $2/ day

Gislene La Salle working at the waste management plant in Carrefour Feuilles (Photo:P.Chatterjeeinnovative)


LOCAVORE RECYCLING: COLLECT, CONVERT, CONSUME

37

A Case for Haiti

Given that the waste management facility managed to bring jobs, improved health and sustainable energy sources to a conflict-ridden community, it might be a model particularly suited to replicating into immediate post-conflict situations. The effect of the earthquake on this operation is unknown at this time. (Excerpted from ‘India, Brazil, South Africa encourage Haitian Community Project’ by Mary Slosson for Media South and National Public Radio, 2009, ‘India helps Haiti slum dwellers turn trash to cash’ By Patralekha Chatterjee for Indo Asian News Service, India )

2007: ENGINEERS WITHOUT BORDERS, SOLE-LESS BUT FINDING ALTERNATIVES In the fall of 2007, the University of Minnesota chapter of Engineers Without Borders (EWB) became involved in work to bring environmentally responsible sanitation to Haiti's poor. They initially wanted to transform water sachet refuse (HDPE) into affordable footwear for children and plastic toilet molds. They won KEEN Footwear's "STAND up/out/for" contest to help with start up costs. However, upon further research they found that if plastic waste were melted and reused, the material would be too stiff for shoe soles. So in addition to the affordable toilet molds, the plastic will be recycled into sporting equipment for youths. They also hope to help local Haitians find a way to transform the pervasive plastic waste into a profitable recycling enterprise for themselves.

Trash Collection & Recycling Brings less violence * more employment * gender empowerment * decrease in infectious diseases * strengthened local governance

Hope for Haiti : UMNews : University of Minnesota, Engineers Without Boarders, University of Minnesota Chapter. (1999-2008). “EWB-UMN Recycling Project” <http://www.tc.umn.edu/~ewb/projects_haiti.php>, (Sept. 29, 2008).

© Beautiful Waste 2010


LOCAVORE RECYCLING: COLLECT, CONVERT, CONSUME

38

A Case for Haiti

Energy in Haiti Haiti needs manufacturing. Manufacturing needs electricity. Haiti has the lowest coverage of electricity in the western Hemisphere and this lack is the biggest limiting factor to development. 70% of electricity generated comes from three run down thermal power plants and 30% from the old hydro-electric Peligre Dam. Thermal requires fuel, making its viability susceptible to unstable oil prices. Hydroelectric needs running water and many water sources dry up outside of the rainy season.

Solar Power Yearly average = 5 hours of sun/day Estimate $8/Watt (with batteries and inverters included)

The earthquake damaged the port from where the necessary fuel is imported and any damage to the physical plants are unknown at this time. Due to the nonavailability of electricity, Haitians turned to wood as an energy source. Wood is now the major source of energy, accounting for 70% of energy consumption in 2006. The people and institutions that can afford it are running diesel generators to meet their electrical needs. A recycling operation solely dependent on diesel for its power is going to find it difficult to produce a product priced within the means of a local population. Non-grid electrical solutions must be explored if a viable manufacturing industry is going to progress. Some options include solar, wind, geothermal and other renewable and off-grid energy sources. These are less prone to collapse in a disaster, are free from the instability of oil prices, but do require significant up front costs. (Circle of Blue Water News “Perspective: Water, Energy, Economy, Poverty and Haiti” January 28, 2010 By Dr. Paul J. Sullivan)

© Beautiful Waste 2010

25% of Haitians have access to electricity (12% of access is stolen)


LOCAVORE RECYCLING: COLLECT, CONVERT, CONSUME

39

A Case for Haiti

SWOT Analysis Strengths:

Weaknesses:

• Recycling plastic requires significant human capital in the areas of collection and sorting. Haiti has high unemployment and a large force of available workers.

• Using Market Based Solutions to meet a social challenge is a relatively new idea. Much of the literature on successful results is reported from countries with large populations. Economies of scale are important. In Haiti’s case, with a small population of 9 million, there is not an extensive repository of lessons learned from which to benefit.

• Producing a product for the local market with a local resource avoids many of the uncertainties found in international recycling industries where the bottom line is held captive by the price of oil. • Advantages of local markets include longer term price stability for producer and customer. Recycling manufacturers and the collection infrastructure contribute substantial benefits to the state.

• The purchase of plastic waste requires cash money. Many recyclers around the world have seen their business limited or fail due to liquidity problems. • Machines need a reliable energy source and Haiti’s electrical grid can not provide one. Generators require a dependence on increasing and uncertain oil prices. Alternative energy will require significant upfront capital.

Opportunities:

Threats:

• There is a tremendous need in Haiti for quality materials that can help with rebuilding. Plastic products are durable and long lasting.

• The “UN Effect.” When many NGOs are competing for a limited supply of suitable housing/ warehousing, costs often skyrocket without notice.

• Customers will be more willing to try a new product due to the impossibility of rebuilding in wood and the fear of poor cement construction that resulted in the collapse of many buildings. • The large number of organizations offering assistance in Haiti will help facilitate synergies with suitable good partners.

© Beautiful Waste 2010

• After such a cataclysmic event, the security situation is volatile. There are already no-go zones in Port-Au-Prince. A further deterioration in security could have a significant impact on costs related to insurance and protection. • Government Policy. Dramatic changes in government policy regarding taxes, ownership or business partnership structure could have enormous implications for business viability.


Laura Clauson lauraclauson@beautifulwaste.com www.BeautifulWaste.com

Š Beautiful Waste 2010


Locavore Recycling: Collect, Convert, Consume