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THE 14TH COLONY

FINDINGS_PORTFOLIO DRAFT Laura Noble Unit 4


CONTENTS

THE 14TH COLONY_FINDINGS PORTFOLIO Laura Noble: Unit 4

1.0 INTRODUCTION

3

2.0 SITE ANALYSIS

4

Introduction

4

Photographic Analysis

5-15

Journey Map

16

Surrounding Influences

17

Historical Information

18

3.0 ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS

19

3.1 Geology & Soil

20

3.2 Bathymetrics and Topography

21

3.3 Wind Speed

22

3.4 Vegetation

23

3.5 Insect Species

24-26

3.6 Insect Nesting

27-28

3.7 Pollination

29-30

3.8 Pollutants

31

4.0 Critical Evaluation

32

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1.0_INTRODUCTION Brief Imagine our colossal landfills in the UK as sensible resource sheds to build our future urban spaces. If so, what kind of effort is required to reuse their copious contents as housing and infrastructure? Now that the bulk of humanity has chosen to settle in urbanised areas, waste management needs a radical revision. For hundreds of years we design cities to generate waste. It is time we design waste to generate cities. At present, almost all the waste produced in England and Wales is put in about 1,500 landfill sites. About 100 million tones of waste a year is land filled. In the past landfill was an easy route for waste disposal because it was cheap and space was often available in old quarries. This is no longer the case as space approved for landfill is set to run out in the next five to ten years. Ungracefully our English value system is somewhat distressed. The volume of waste being produced by households and businesses is increasing to such an extent that other methods of waste management have to be adopted. Recent European legislation states that landfill must be the last option for waste disposal. All other options, like recycling, minimization, prevention and re-use, must be considered first before the landfill option. About two-thirds of land filled waste is biodegradable organic matter from house- holds, businesses and industry. Other waste includes inert materials, for example from construction and demolition. 1

Introduction The site initially looks bare and poorly maintained, however as you begin to delve into the makings of the location from geology to bathymetrics, routes and landings around the site many complex elements begin to unfold. I have identified three tactical layers in my site analysis, these were movement, prediction and composition. Movement The level movement tracks the activity of people, animals and insects around the site, identifying their migration paths, public walkways and private roads. Prediction Subjects such as weather and the movement of flora and fauna can be estimated but not necessarily correctly identified. The flood defence barrier act as a mechanism against the weather along with the marsh land to protect the nearby town of Dartford. Composition The make up of each element on the site can be related to the next by breaking down its layers to be adapted to create new products.

1.

THE 14TH COLONY_FINDINGS PORTFOLIO Laura Noble: Unit 4

Murray, S. 2012. Part 1_Unpacking Brief Unit 4.

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THE 14TH COLONY_FINDINGS PORTFOLIO Laura Noble: Unit 4

2.0_SITE ANALYSIS 4


2.1_PHOTOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS

Photographs are a key part of the site analysis, the low lying landscape rich with colours, materials and industrial surroundings should be analysed and incorporated suitably. From the journey around the site and photographs take the materials and textures around the side are primarily raw, unpainted or natural paths and tracks. The industrial estate boarding the site creates a harsh boundary of metal fences and solid facades. The old fireworks factory have been overtaken by nature and the erosion and weathering of the metal sheds have created an autumnal feel around the site. The images are numbered accordingly to the corresponding pages. Q RST

P

I

UVW

O J

K

L

A-H N

M

XYZ

THE 14TH COLONY_FINDINGS PORTFOLIO Laura Noble: Unit 4

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2.1_PHOTOGRAPHS

A THE 14TH COLONY_FINDINGS PORTFOLIO Laura Noble: Unit 4

B Abandoned Fireworks Factory 6


2.1_PHOTOGRAPHS C

D

E

F

G

H Abandoned Fireworks Factory

THE 14TH COLONY_FINDINGS PORTFOLIO Laura Noble: Unit 4

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2.1_PHOTOGRAPHS I

J

K THE 14TH COLONY_FINDINGS PORTFOLIO Laura Noble: Unit 4

L Site Views 8


2.1_PHOTOGRAPHS

N

M THE 14TH COLONY_FINDINGS PORTFOLIO Laura Noble: Unit 4

O Fly Tipping Sites

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2.1_PHOTOGRAPHS

P THE 14 COLONY_FINDINGS PORTFOLIO Laura Noble: Unit 4 TH

Historical Features

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2.1_PHOTOGRAPHS

THE 14TH COLONY_FINDINGS PORTFOLIO Laura Noble: Unit 4

Q Marina

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2.1_PHOTOGRAPHS

S

R THE 14TH COLONY_FINDINGS PORTFOLIO Laura Noble: Unit 4

T Flood Defence 12


2.1_PHOTOGRAPHS

U

THE 14 COLONY_FINDINGS PORTFOLIO Laura Noble: Unit 4 TH

View of Dartford Bridge from site

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2.1_PHOTOGRAPHS

V

W

THE 14TH COLONY_FINDINGS PORTFOLIO Laura Noble: Unit 4

X

14


2.1_PHOTOGRAPHS

Y THE 14TH COLONY_FINDINGS PORTFOLIO Laura Noble: Unit 4

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2.2_JOURNEY MAP

I began my journey by driving over the Queen Elizabeth II Bridge to get a view of the site from a distance. Once across the bridge the most direct entrance towards the site is along the A206 and through the industrial estate where the Littlebrook power station is along with other commercial office buildings and warehouses filter off through small streets. A housing community has recently been developed on the old site of the Joyce Green Hospital. A small section of the site has already been developed and sold on but there is construction plans to create housing amongst the rest of the site. The housing community along with the industrial development create a dent in the beautiful landscape that it is blocking, views out to the river are very limited. The main site can be accessed through a country lane called Marsh Lane which is an unmade road that leads up towards the abandoned Fireworks Factory and clay pigeon shooting range. There is also a public footpath which continues onto the high river walk [flood defence] where you can walk along from the flood barrier to Littlebrook factory. Walking towards the power station along this path you will also find the old tramway path which used to connect the hospital ships and Joyce Green Hospital.

Driving Routes Pedestrian Walking Paths

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2.3_SURROUNDING INFLUENCES Boats

Location

Erith Yacht club is located to the North West of the site where people can sail alongside the North of the site. The club holds numerous of events and is located on a large wide stretch of the Thames Estuary.

Dartford Borough lies 25 km south east of Central London in Kent between the North Downs and the River Thames. The smallest of the Kent districts, it covers an area of about 7,000 hectares and has a population approaching 86,000. The Borough occupies an important strategic location within the South East, bordering Greater London to the west, the River Thames and Essex to the north and the remainder of Kent to the south and east. Two of the principal lines of communication within the region intersect here - the M25 London Orbital Motorway and the A2, linking London to Canterbury and the Channel ports - to provide excellent links to the capital, the remainder of the South East and Continental Europe. The Queen Elizabeth II Bridge across the Thames provides a dramatic and strategic landmark in this part of Thames Gateway. The North Kent railway line links Dartford to London mainline stations. [Source - Contaminated land strategy - page 9]

Jetties The nearest jetty to the site is from the Littlebrook power station, this is still operable and has a good road link to the M25 for transport links. The power station transferring materials such as Gas and residual fuel has cause for concern incase of any spillages in the movement over the water could demineralise it and cause harm to the wildlife.

Industry In between the Dartford marshes and the Queen Elizabeth II bridge there is Littlebrook industrial estate providing job and services such as training centres, warehouses for food packaging, electronics manufacturer and suppliers. The industrial estate thrives on the direct and major access routes it has towards the M25.

Waste Management Sites There are various types of waste management sites and recycling centres around dartford, one called ‘Hump it ’n’ Dump it,’ is located in Dartford on the other side of the M25 to our site location. Kent Enviropower Limited is located on the outskirts of Maidstone takes non-hazardous waster from households and businesses in the Kent area for recycling and energy recovery. There is a secondary recycled aggregates and minerals recycling facility centre being proposed at the moment with Kent County council on the Dartford/Gravesend border.

Activities Dartford is located in a central area with many attractions and activities near by. The nearest activity is the Clay Pigeon farm which is located to the north of the site along the river front. The main town centre has a high street with general nationwide retail stores as well as independent stores. The site is around 10-15 minute car journey to a large shopping centre called Bluewater located in Erith. Kent is a very open county with lots of green spaces and open parks, locally to Dartford there are a number of attraction which include wildlife. These include Shorne Country Park, Eagle Heights Bird of Prey Centre and wildlife park. The county is quite historical, with Lullingstone Castle and a Roman Villa located to the South of Dartford near Farnigham.

Public Realm The marsh land has many public walkways through the fields and around the river edge you can walk on the flood defence around the site and get fantastic views of the grazing marshes. The roads leading to the marshes are public however at the end towards the river it does become private property of the Clay Shooting Farm. Within the marshes fly tipping is a major problem around many areas of the site, as can be seen in the photographs detailed.

Educational In the centre of Dartford there is many schooling and educational facilities for all age ranges. There are 82 Primary Schools and 20 Secondary schools within a 5 mile radius of the site. As well as a technology college and other skill and trade learning facilities within the Dartford Industrial estate.

Flight Paths There are only a couple of direct flight paths over Dartford. However in 2009, there was a large debate about a flight path being redirected over the town because of the runway extension at Heathrow airport, but this was not continued.

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2.4_HISTORICAL INFORMATION Littlebrook Power Station

Land Use

The power station was developed in 1939, located on the river was a perfect location for the factory, the constant supply of water for cooling the turbines and active accessible transport. Currently there have been four power stations constructed names A, B, C, D and D is the only remaining operational station. Sections A, B and C were mainly abandoned due to insufficient ability to withstand flooding. 6

The previous land uses of the Dartford Marshes and surrounding areas was mainly used for the grazing of animals. There is a list of the tenants dating from 31st March 1416 called ‘The Dartford Marsh Roll.’ The records show that the tenants included notables such as the prior of St Johns, prior of Rochester and the prioress of Dartford.1 As well as open grassland the marsh also inhabits some ancient trees, which are believed to be over 300 years old. They consisted mainly of willows and they were planted as a shelter to protect the animals. The site has also been part of archeological investigation due to a range of ancient structures found dating from medieval period right through to World War Two. 2 Currently the some of the marsh is used for grazing other areas are of too poor quality to graze on. A clay pigeon shooting range and a motorcross track are other features of the land as well as the flood defence.

World War II Structures

Joyce Green Hospital

A number of World War II structures are located around the Dartford marshes including the anti-aircraft battery and several pill-boxes. They currently have no specific status, they sit amongst the land which is used for animal grazing and have no official public access. 7

Fireworks Factory Wells Fireworks Factory is the only remaining fireworks factory in the UK and it has stood derelict for the past 30 years. In 1938 it opened after being moved from the Colchester works and during the 1960’s there was a series of take overs and when the last Wells Director moved it was effectively the end of the company in the UK. 8 Fly tipping and vandalism has overwhelmed the site to this day, however it has now been taken over by the University of Greenwich.

Hospitals The site is a prime location for transport, being on one of the major links the River Thames into and out of London towards Europe. There was a series of hospital ships at Long Reach, which is now where the main flood barrier stands, that where part of a series of isolated hospitals that helped to deal with the containing of infectious diseases from the capital. The hospital ships continued to run until 1903 when the permanent Joyce Green smallpox hospitals was opened on a nearby site. Two temporary hospitals [Long Reach hospital and Orchard hospital] were opened on a nearby site during a serious smallpox outbreak in 1901-2. 3 Joyce Green hospital admitted refugees from Europe who were suspected of having the smallpox infection and also carried out examinations and vaccinations. It was established a status as one of the top smallpox hospitals in the country. After 1931 it was never again used for smallpox and they lie empty until 1939 for war support. In 1948 the new NHS brought changes to the river hospitals and Joyce Green became training school. The teaching centre was moved in 200 to The Darent Valley hospital which opened on the 11th September 2000. 4 The hospital tramway was set up as a unique ambulance service to link the Long Reach pier with the hospital main gate. The path way route still exists and stopped being used in 1936.

Orchard Hospital

Vickers Airfield Messrs Vickers Ltd in 1910 decided to purchase land at Dartford marshes to become more involved in the field of aviation. It was located towards the east of Joyce Green land and was the main testing ground for prototype aeroplanes, although there was never any proper runway constructed. After running for 8 years at the Dartford marshes, Vickers transferred their aircraft to Weybridge in Surrey in 1919. 5

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PETER BEARD. 2006. Dartford, Crayford and Erith Marshes - Heritage Review. Source - http://www.bexley.gov.uk/CHttpHandler.ashx?id=1155&p=0 [Accessed: 4th October

2012] 4

Payne. F. Dartford Hospital Histories. Source - http://dartfordhospitalhistories.org.uk [Accessed 19th December 2012]

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Wells Firework Factory

Long Reach Hospital [Flooded]

THE 14TH COLONY_FINDINGS PORTFOLIO Laura Noble: Unit 4

PETER BEARD. 2006. Dartford, Crayford and Erith Marshes - Heritage Review. Source - http://www.bexley.gov.uk/CHttpHandler.ashx?id=1155&p=0 [Accessed: 4th October 2012] 8 Anon. UKPS About Wells. Souce - http://www.wellsatamberley.org/aboutwells.html [Accessed 12th December 2012]

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3.0_ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS THE 14TH COLONY_FINDINGS PORTFOLIO Laura Noble: Unit 4

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3.1_GEOLOGY & SOIL CONDITIONS NW

SE

5m OD

5m OD

Geological Research

The Following text was taken from a report where ground works were investigated on a nearby site, along with the observation details taken at a particular point. It compares and describes the different soil and material types from the Fig 8. Schematic section of deposits in Lower Road /SE Barney Sands car park, Observations (55) – (57), bore showing position of samples 10, 11, 16 and 17. Scale 1:100. holes taken.

NW 5m OD

5m OD

‘At [observation] 85 a deep shaft was sunk to a level of -0.75m OD, the upper part of the section obscured by concrete casing. The base of the excavation exposed brown and grey silty sand similar to that seen in the previous observations but also containing lenses of coarse sand. Another pit for an inspection shaft at S T O N E B R I D G E R O A D 86, a further 10m to the south, revealed a sequence of deposits to a level of -1.0m OD. At the base of the excavation Fig 8. Schematic section of deposits in Lower Road / Barney Sands car park, Observations (55) – (57), showing position of samples 10, 11, 16 and 17. Scale 1:100. NE SW between OD level and -1.0 OD three separate deposits were exposed, two of which were sampled. Sample 18 was 5m OD 5m OD derived from deposit 86 (3), a grey-brown plastic sand containing rare pebbles and lenses of iron-rich silt and lenses of chalk or tufa. Sample 19 derived from the adjacent deposit (4), a plastic grey sand containing lenses of coarse angular Dark grey silt sand and small flint `grits’. Samples 18 and 19 derived from weathered horizon in a freshwater laid sand flat (below, 3). Deposit 5 occurred at the same level, on the east side of the trench and consisted of a slightly clayey silt Fig 8. Schematic section of deposits in Lower Road / BarneySSands car park, 17. Scale 1:100. T O N EObservations B R I (55) D –G(57), E showing R O position A D of samples 10, 11, 16 andAppendix Compact chalk rubble sand with dark lenses, perhaps from iron panning. It is possible that this deposit was a silt in a channel cutting the other NE SW 5m OD 5m OD deposits but the depth and site conditions did not allow closer inspection or sampling. The upper sequence was very Clay similar to that previously seen to the north in 82 and 83. NE 5m OD

Fig G 9. Schematic (69) –87 (71). Scale SGravel T O N E B R I D E R Ocross A section D of deposits beneath road south-east of the Stonebridge Roundabout. Observations Observations and 88 1:100. were made between 220 to 320m to the south, close to the Water Treatment works. Between SW these points the trench revealed the make up for the previous road serving the cement works and pre-dating the 5m OD Thames Way. In the area of 87 the chalk road makeup sealed marsh deposits containing domestic waste, apparently Silty clay and gravel part of rubbish dumped in the early C20 date as seen in previous test pits (Sparey-Green 2007b). The trench at 88 only N S penetrated the road make-up but the final section of trench heading south-west across the verge and entering the water Chalk rubble and flint5m OD 5m OD treatment works another area of domestic waste dump at present ground level, beneath the existing bund Fig 9. Schematic cross section of deposits beneath road south-east of the Stonebridge Roundabout. Observations (69)encountered – (71). Scale 1:100. bordering the works at this point.’ Peat

Sandy clay silt

[Page 30 - Northfleet Growth Scheme Document]

N

S OBSERVATION (86) at CHAINAGE 2540m. THAMES WAY, SOUTH OF RAILWAY BRIDGE TQ 617739 Present Ground level 4.25m OD (1) Made ground over Terram. 1.8m thick. (2) Grey-brown to grey clay silt sand . 2.5m thick. S (3) `Plastic’ grey-brown sand and silt containing rare pebbles, lenses of iron rich 5m OD silt and sand and lenses of chalk or tufa flecks SAMPLE 18 (4) `Plastic’ grey sand, at base lenses of gritty sand and small angular flint Fig 10. Schematic section of valley peat and alluvial deposits north of Railway embankment in the Ebbsfleet valley, Observations (79) – (81). fragments <10mm. SAMPLE 19Scale 1:100. (5) Slightly clayey silt sand with black iron pan `blotches’. Waterlogged slightly organic silt ? (3)-(5) were all visible in the base of the pit at c -0.25m OD

Fig 9. Schematic cross section of deposits beneath road south-east of the Stonebridge Roundabout. Observations (69) – (71). Scale 1:100. 5m OD Observation number Soil sample number

N 5m OD

Fig 4. Key to sections of Test Pits.

5m OD

[Page 55 - Northfleet Growth Scheme Document] Fig 10. Schematic section of valley peat and alluvial deposits north of Railway embankment in the Ebbsfleet valley, Observations (79) – (81). Scale 1:100. Plate 7. Detail of clays overlying peat deposits close to the Ebbsfleet channel in the Thames Way. Site of samples 12–15. Observation 81.

Soil Conditions The soil is primarily alluvium deposits, there has been a steady and significant loss and degradation of the once thriving landscape. These results are most likely from the urban and industrial buildings which have been developed around land. The salt marsh is restricted to a tiny strip of land between the tidal defence and the river. Fig 10. Schematic section of valley peat and alluvial deposits north of Railway embankment in the Ebbsfleet valley, Observations (79) – (81). Scalethe 1:100.

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3.2_BATHYMETRY & TOPOGRAPHY Topography The topography of the site is mainly a low lying landscape generally at or below 5m above Ordnance Datum, with the main change near the river edge where the 7m man made flood defence created of built up land surrounds the marsh. There are several characteristic ditches which carry a series of habitats that network across the marsh and are extracted by the River Darent. The River Darent flood barrier is noted as a landmark of significance.

Bathymetry Bathymetric data is the contours which have formed within a rivers bed. The bathymetric data of the Thames Estuary has been quite significant in the past to identify historical items such as medieval coins and instruments. It has also been useful to identify any changes in the rivers path or strength by analysing changes in the contouring of the river bed. The contours and bathymetric data have been created using a 3D modelling programme and inputting the spot heights found on the OS Map to estimate the contour paths.

Patched together bathymetric data

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3.3_WIND SPEED INTRODUCTION The wind on the site is very noticeable and there is not much in the way of shelter for the majority of the site. The wind pattern shown in the map and measurements taken, were taken on one of the first site visits. The day was fair and brisk and as you walk towards the Thames Estuary you notice the uptake in wind speed rapidly. The abandoned fireworks factory is generally the most sheltered location on the side due to its overgrown plantation and lack of maintenance. The wind acts as an attacking agent on the site influencing weathering and deterioration the sheds on the firework site. The wind direction can be noticed across the site by looking at the fall and lay of the long grass and reeds which surround the marsh grazing land.

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3.4_VEGETATION Introduction The Dartford marsh area is mainly open grazing land with low level shrubs and bushes, with a few trees located at the boundary and urban edges. The grazing land is surrounded by dilapidated hedgerows which are a vital piece of vegetation to the British landscape. The tree species is typical of wetlands such as willow and poplar are scattered around the boundary and ditches as well as elm and sycamore trees which mainly cover the wooded area near Joyce Green hospital. Floodplain grazing marsh was created centuries ago when forests in river floodplains were cleared for human settlement and ditches cut to draining the land, making it suitable for grazing by livestock. The main grazing marshes located in Kent are concentrated along the Greater Thames estuary, the Swale estuary, Dartford marshes, Romney Marshes, small areas at Sandwich Bay and Stodmarsh.

Hedgerows Hedgerows were initially built as a barrier between farmers land or for land rights [Parliamentary Enclosure Act]. Some hedgerows were remainders of existing woodlands which had been cut down and ordered to create fields for crops. The age of a hedgerow can be defined by looking at the numbers of species that are in the hedgerow. Hedgerows containing only one species usually hawthorn, can generally be dated to the eighteenth century due to a Parliamentary Enclosure Act that required all towns to enclose their land with a barrier. The hedgerows provide a variety of plant species which makes it a rich habitat for animals and insects to nest in. The largely hawthorn hedgerows help to provide shelter for hibernation and food. Traditional mixed hedges located in the South East consist of hawthorn, blackthorn, field maple, hazel, dogwood and spindle.

Fireworks Factory

High Tide Low Tide

The fireworks factory is a very neglected space with large amounts of overgrown grassland and shrubs. During the summer season the grassland plants help to provide nectar for insects and seeds for birds in winter. The longer grass also helps to create a sheltered environment for the insects such as grasshoppers or frogs thrive in this vegetation. Except for scattered plantations, trees are relatively scarce in the Dartford landscape.

Threats The threats against the grazing marsh lands include saltwater flooding due to sea level rise, localised effects of industrialisation and urbanisation, management and welfare neglect. Directly in Kent the main threats are directed from land-take development, changes in the grazing and mowing regimes that could affect breeding or migration patterns of birds and insects.

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Source: http://www.kent.gov.uk/klis/resources/factsheets/habitat_fr/Grazing_Marsh.pdf [Accessed 20th December 2012]

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3.5_INSECT SPECIES Introduction Today there are over a million different species of insects around the world and they inhabit every continent. They play a vital role in the worlds ecosystem by pollinating blossoms, aerate the soil and decompose dead materials reviving the soil with nutrients. Common Name: Black Garden Ant Latin Name: Lasius Niger Statistics: Length 3mm Conservation Status: Common

Common Name: Carder Bee Latin Name: Bombus pascurorum Statistics: Length 13mm Conservation Status: Common

Common Name: Honey Bee Latin Name: Apis Mellifera Statistics: Length 12mm Conservation Status: Common

Common Name: Red Mason Bee Latin Name: Osmia Rufa Statistics: Length 6-11mm Conservation Status: Common

About The Black Garden Ant is common in many habitats, including gardens where nests form under paving stones, in soil and between brickwork. During hot and humid summer weather, winged adults appear and swarm in large numbers; these ‘flying ants’ mate and eventually disperse to form new colonies. The colonies of the Black Garden Ant are huge, featuring thousands of workers which collect food, keep the nest clean and look after young, and a queen who produces the eggs. The diet of the Black Garden Ant is varied but it includes ‘milking’ (stroking) aphids for their honeydew.

About One of our most common bumblebees, the Common Carder Bee emerges early in the spring and can be seen feeding on flowers right through to November. It is found in gardens, farmland, woodland edges, hedgerows, heathland: anywhere there are flowers to feed on. It nests in cavities, such as old mouse runs, in bird’s nests or in moss mats in lawns. A social insect, nests may contain up to 200 workers. The queen emerges from hibernation in spring and starts the colony by laying a few eggs that hatch as workers; these workers tend the young and nest. Males emerge later and mate with new females who are prospective queens. Both the males and old queen die in the autumn, but the new queens hibernate.

About Honey Bees are well-known as hive bees: semi-domesticated for thousands of years to produce honey for human consumption. They may form colonies in the wild in wooded areas. As with other colonyliving insects, the hive is split into a queen who lays eggs, the workers who look after the young and the drones who are reproductive males. The hive is made of wax ‘honeycombs’, each divided into a number of hexagonal cells that are used to rear young or store food such as pollen and honey (which is actually regurgitated nectar). The larvae pupate in the cell which is capped by wax until they emerge. The first new queen to emerge may sting following queens to death and will either take the place of her mother (who will leave with a swarm) or will create a new colony.

About The Red Mason Bee is a small, common bee which nests in hollow plant stems, in holes in cliffs, and in the crumbling mortar of old buildings. It is a solitary bee so, after mating, each female builds its own nest; she lines each ‘cell’ with mud and pollen and lays a single egg in each until the cavity is full. The larvae hatch and develop, pupating in autumn and hibernating over winter. The Red Mason Bee is on the wing from late March, and feeds solely on pollen and nectar.

I have documented a set of winged insects that live and migrate around the site, the information was sourced from the Kent Wildlife Trust information on the marshes as well as other blogs and websites that encountered sightings of specific insects around the site.

Bees, Wasps and Ants - Order: Hymenoptera

Common Name: Wasp Latin Name: Vespula Vulgaris Statistics: Length 20mm Conservation Status: Common

Common Name: White-tailed Bumblebee Latin Name: Bombus lucorum Statistics: Length 22mm Conservation Status: Common

Common Name: Wood Ant Latin Name: Formica Rufa Statistics: Length 10mm Conservation Status: Common

Common Name: Yellow Meadow Ant Latin Name: Lasius Falvus Statistics: Length 2-3.5mm Conservation Status: Common

About A familiar insect of British summers, the black and yellow Common Wasp is a frequent visitor to gardens, even building its large nest in cavities in houses. The Common Wasp is social, living in large colonies within a nest built out of ‘paper’ that is formed by the queen chewing up wood. Inside the nest, sterile workers hatch and take over looking after the new young produced by the queen. At the end of summer, reproductive males and queens develop and leave the nest to mate. The males and previous queen die, and the new females hibernate, ready to emerge next spring and start the cycle again. Common Wasps catch a wide variety of invertebrates, mainly to feed to their larvae; they feed themselves on high-energy substances like nectar and rotten fruit.

About The White-tailed Bumblebee is a very common bumblebee which emerges early in the spring and can be seen feeding on flowers right through to the autumn. It can be found in gardens, farmland, woodland edges, hedgerows and heathland: anywhere there are flowers to feed on. As with other social insects, the queen emerges from hibernation in spring and starts the colony by laying a few eggs that hatch as workers; these workers tend the young and nest. Males emerge later and mate with new females who are prospective queens. Both the males and old queen die in the autumn, but the new queens hibernate.

About Wood Ants are aggressive predators, equipped with large, biting jaws and the ability to spray formic acid in defence. They feed on a wide variety of invertebrates, which the workers collect from the area surrounding their colony. Wood Ants build large nests out of soil, twigs, leaves and pine needles. They can be found in heathland, moorland and woodland throughout Britain.

About The Yellow Meadows Ant is familiar to us as the common ant that creates anthills in grassland and downland habitats, but also appears in our gardens if the grass is not cut too often. They build a soil dome above the nest - which can extend a metre below the ground - that helps to regulate temperature and humidity. Like all ants, the Yellow Meadow Ant is social and forms colonies; the ‘workers’ are mainly active underground, however, and not often seen unless the nest is disturbed. During summer, winged adults pair and mate, the females dispersing to form new colonies.

THE 14TH COLONY_FINDINGS PORTFOLIO Laura Noble: Unit 4

Information sourced from Kent Wildlife Trust - http://www.kentwildlifetrust.org.uk/wildlife/species-explorer/invertebrates

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3.5_INSECT SPECIES

Common Name: Angel Shades Latin Name: Phlogophora Meticulosa Statistics: Wingspan 4.8cm Conservation Status: Common

Common Name: Brimstone Latin Name: Gonepteryx Rhamni Statistics: Wingspan 5.2-6cm Conservation Status: Common

Common Name: Brimstone Moth Latin Name: Opisthograptis Luteolata Statistics: Wingspan: 2.8-3.5cm Conservation Status: Common

Common Name: Elephant Hawk-moth Latin Name: Deilephila Elpenor Statistics: Wingspan: 6-7cm Conservation Status: Common

Common Name: Common Blue Latin Name: Polyommatus Icarus Statistics: Wingspan: 2.9-3.6cm Conservation Status: Common

Common Name: Red Admiral Latin Name: Vanessa Atalanta Statistics: Wingspan: 6.4-7.8cm Conservation Status: Common

About The Angle Shades is a medium-sized moth, generally seen on the wing from May to October as the result of two broods. The caterpillars are stout and green or brownish, with faint stripes on every segment. Larvae that hatch in autumn overwinter as caterpillars and pupate in the soil the following spring to produce the first generation of adults that year. The caterpillars feed on a wide range of plants including Dock and Stinging Nettles. This moth is quite common in parks and gardens, as well as woodland edges, scrub and hedgerows

About One of the joys of spring is watching a fluttering Brimstone alight on a flower on a sunny day - one of the first signs that the seasons are changing. A fairly large, pale yellow butterfly, Brimstone adults hibernate through cold weather, so may be seen flying on warm days throughout the year, although they are most common in the spring. Usually seen in ones or twos, they are never very common but are widespread. They can be found in damp woodlands, along sunny, woodland rides, mature hedgerows and in large gardens. The foodplants of the larvae are Buckthorn and Alder Buckthorn, two shrubs that both occur on wet woodland, while buckthorn also occurs also on dry chalk and limestone soils.

About The Brimstone Moth is a medium-sized, mainly night-flying moth that is on the wing between April and October when it frequently comes to lights in the garden. It can also be found in woodland, scrub and grassland habitats. The twig-like caterpillars feed on a variety of shrubs in the rose family, including Hawthorn, Blackthorn and Rowan. The Brimstone Moth hibernates as a dense cocoon, usually on the ground.

About The Elephant Hawk-moth is a medium-sized hawk-moth, on the wing from May to July and active at dusk. It is commonly found in parks and gardens, as well as woodland edges, rough grassland and sand dunes. The caterpillars are seen from July to September and are very characteristic: greyish-green or brown with two enormous, black eyespots towards the head. When disturbed, they swell up to show these spots and scare-off predators. The caterpillars feed on willowherbs, fuchsia and bedstraw, and the adults feed on nectar. The caterpillars overwinter as chrysalides, hidden amongst low vegetation or in the soil.

About The Common Blue is a small blue butterfly which flies throughout the summer between April and October. The most widespread of the blue butterflies, it is found in a variety of habitats including heathland, woodland rides, grassy meadows, parks and even large gardens. Caterpillars feed on clovers, Restharrow, Bird’s-foot Trefoil and related plants.

About A fairly large black, white and red butterfly, the Red Admiral is an impressive visitor to our gardens where it can be spotted feeding on Buddleia and other flowers. Adults sometimes hibernate, and may be seen flying on warm days throughout the year, although they are most common in the summer and early autumn. The caterpillars feed on Common Nettles

Butterflies and Moths - Order: Lepidoptera Beetles - Order: Coleoptera

Common Name: White Admiral Latin Name: Limenitis Camilla Statistics: Wingspan: 5.6-6.6cm Conservation Status: Classified as a Priority Species in the UK Biodiversity Action Plan About The White Admiral is a medium-sized butterfly found in shady woodlands, clearings and rides in late summer. Adults are often found on the flowers of Bramble and lay their eggs on honeysuckle leaves, which the caterpillars feed on. Usually seen in ones or twos, it is never very common, but is widespread in southern England.

Common Name: Burying Beetle Latin Name: Nicrophorus Statistics: Length: 3cm Conservation Status: Common

Common Name: Bloody-nosed Beetle Latin Name: Timarcha Tenebricosa Statistics: Length: 2-2.3cm Conservation Status: Common

Common Name: 14-spot Ladybird Latin Name: Propylea 14-Punctata Statistics: Length: 4-5mm Conservation Status: Common

Common Name: Harlequin Ladybird Latin Name: Harmonia Axyridis Statistics: Length: 8mm Conservation Status: Invasive, non-native species

Common Name: Voilet Ground Beetle Latin Name: Carabus Violaceus Statistics: Length: 3cm Conservation Status: Common

About Burying beetles are the undertakers of the animal world - a group of large beetles that bury dead and decaying animals such as mice and small birds. Burying beetles can be found wherever there are corpses for them to feed on, and often fly into lights at night. Males and females pair-up at the corpse and will fight off rivals to take charge of it and bury it. The female lays her eggs on or beside the buried body and the resulting larvae eat the rotting corpse. Burying beetles are unusual in the beetle-world for the fact that both males and females continue to care for the larvae after they hatch - feeding them from the corpse. Their antennae are equipped with receptors that are able to detect rotting bodies from metres, even kilometres, away.

About The Bloody-nosed Beetle is a large, round beetle with long legs that is flightless and can often be seen plodding across paths or through grass. It can be found during the spring and summer in grassland, heathland and along hedgerows. One of our largest ‘leaf beetles’, adults feed on the leaves of Lady’s Bedstraw and related plants, and the larvae can be seen hanging from these plants. The name derives from its defence mechanism, when breathed on, the beetles secrete a blood-red liquid from the mouth which irritates the mouths of mammals.

About The 14-spot Ladybird is a medium-sized ladybird found in a wide variety of habitats, particularly grassland, woodland edge, towns and gardens. Both adults and larvae feed on aphids, making them a friend in the garden. The 14-spot Ladybird has a long hibernation period, emerging as late as May to breed. Its bright colouration is a warning to predators that it is distasteful, although some birds may still have a go at eating it.

About A non-native species, originally from Asia, the Harlequin Ladybird first arrived in the UK in 2004, and has rapidly become one of the most common ladybirds in the country, particularly in towns and gardens. The invasive Harlequin is one of the larger species of ladybird in the UK and is a voracious predator - it is able to out-compete our native species for aphid-prey and will also eat other ladybirds’ eggs and larvae. It can have multiple broods throughout the spring, summer and autumn, which also gives it a competitive edge.

About The Violet Ground Beetle is a common beetle found in gardens, farmland and meadows. Ground beetles are active, nocturnal predators, chasing and catching smaller invertebrates; they are particularly helpful to gardeners as they prey on many ‘pest’ species such as slugs. They can often be found resting during the day under logs and stones and in leaf litter. Adult females lay their eggs in soil and the larvae hatch, becoming active predators themselves.

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3.5_INSECT SPECIES

Common Name: Dark bush-cricket Latin Name: Pholidoptera Griseoaptera Statistics: Body length - 1.5-1.7cm Conservation Status: Common

Common Name: Field Grasshopper Latin Name: Chorthippus Brunneus Statistics: Length: 1.8-2.4cm Conservation Status: Common

About A common animal across the southern half of England, the noisy, irregular chirpings of the dark bush-cricket are a familiar feature of late summer. An animal of gardens, hedgerows and woodland edges, dark bush-crickets can often be seen in quite large numbers sunbathing on bramble patches. However, males are very aggressive, defending their territories against intruders. Females lay their eggs in late summer in rotting wood or bark crevices; they emerge 18 months later, so odd-year and even-year dark bush-crickets never meet.

About Common and widespread, the Field Grasshopper is ubiquitous in any open, sunny, grassy area, including our gardens. Adults are present from June until late autumn, feeding on plants and grass. A gregarious species, males can be seen displaying to females by rubbing their legs against their wings to create a ‘song’ - in this case, it is brief, single chirrup, repeated at short intervals. After mating, the eggs are laid in the soil ready to hatch the following summer.

About There are 51 species of mayfly in Britain. They are common around freshwater wetlands, from fast-flowing rivers to still lakes, where the larvae spend their lives underwater feeding on algae and plants. The adults hatch out, usually in the summer, and have very short lives (just hours in some cases) during which they display and breed; hatchings of hundreds of adult mayflies in the same spot at the same time often occur. Many species do not feed as adults as their sole purpose is to reproduce and once they have mated, they die. The common name is misleading as many mayflies can be seen all yearround, although one species does emerge in synchrony with the blooming of Hawthorn (or ‘Mayflower’).

Common Name: Garden Spider Latin Name: Araneus Diadematus Statistics: Body length: Female 1.8cm Male 9mm Conservation Status: Common

Common Name: Zebra Spider Latin Name: Salticus Scenicus Statistics: Body length: 6-7mm Conservation Status: Common

About The Nursery Web Spider is a common spider of grassland and scrub, and is often seen sunbathing amongst Brambles and Stinging Nettles. The adults are active hunters and don’t spin a web to catch food, instead using a quick sprint to capture flies and other insects. The female carries her large, round egg-sac in her fangs. When the young are about to hatch, she builds a silk sheet among the vegetation to act as a tent, sheltering them until they are old enough to leave on their own.

About The Garden Spider is the UK’s commonest ‘orb web spider’ and is abundant in gardens, grassland and woodland - it can be found almost everywhere, in fact. They build their typical spider webs (spirals with radial threads) out of sticky silk. They sit in the middle of the web, waiting to feel the vibrations of a struggling insect caught in the web, at which point they rush out and wrap it tightly in silk. Once immobilised they will kill their victim with a venomous bite. Adults appear from June to November and the young emerge from their silk egg-sac the following spring.

About The Zebra Spider is a common jumping spider that stalks its prey on walls, rocks and tree trunks in the sun, before leaping on it - they can jump up to 10cm, nearly twice their own body length. Zebra Spiders frequent gardens and sometimes come into houses. Males attract females through a complex courtship dance, moving around the females with their legs waving in the air. The females create a silk cocoon in which the eggs are protected, and guards the nest until the young hatch.

Common Name: Daddy Longlegs Latin Name: Tipula Paludosa Statistics: Body length: 1.6cm Conservation Status: The Daddy Longlegs is common, but other species of cranefly are rare. About The Daddy Longlegs is actually a large type of cranefly, of which there are 94 species in the UK. Familiar to all of us in its adult form as the gangly insect that flits around our homes in summer, the larvae of the Daddy Longlegs are grey grubs (also known as ‘leatherjackets’) which live underground, feeding on plants stems and roots. This habit makes them unpopular with gardeners as they can leave bare patches of lawn, and can also become agricultural pests. The adults are on the wing during the late summer and are common in gardens and fields, often coming indoors. They rarely feed at this time, concentrating on mating and laying their eggs amongst the grass.

Spiders - Order: Araneae Dragonflys - Order: Ordonata

Grasshoppers - Order: Orthoptera

Common Name: Mayfly Latin Name: Ephemeroptera Statistics: Body length - 1-2cm Conservation Status: Mostly common. Yellow and Iron Blue mayflies are classified as Priority Species in the UK Biodiversity Action Plan

Common Name: Nursery Web Spider Latin Name: Pisaura Mirabilis Statistics: Length: 1.5cm Conservation Status: Common

Common Name: Scorpion Fly Latin Name: Panorpa communis Statistics: Body length - 1-2cm Conservation Status: Common ` About The Scorpion Fly is a strange looking insect which is found in gardens, hedgerows and woodland edges, particularly amongst nettles and Bramble. It has a long beak-like projection from its head that is uses to feed, scavenging on dead insects and frequently stealing the contents of spider’s webs. It lives up to its name by sporting a scorpion-like tail, which the male uses in courtship displays. Adults usually mate at night, but mating can be a dangerous game for the male, who might easily be killed by the female. So he presents her with a nuptial gift of a dead insect or a mass of saliva to placate her - the equivalent of a box of chocolates! The resulting eggs are laid in the soil and the emerging larvae live and pupate at the soil surface.

Common Name: Club-tailed Dragonfly Latin Name: Gomphus vulgatissimus Statistics: Length - 50mm Conservation Status: Nationally notable species with local BAP’s in Worcestershire, Shropshire and Cheshire. ` About The club-tailed dragonfly is a medium sized species, on the wing from early May to late June. This species is elusive as an adult, mostly seen on emergence from its riverine habitat. Meandering rivers with silty substrates over a rocky bed are favoured by the burrowing larvae. Adults have a tightly synchronised emergence with dense concentrations being found at favoured sites. Once emerged adults spend most of their time away from the river in adjacent woodland where they spend most of their time in the canopy of trees.

Common Name: Emperor Dragonfly Latin Name: Anax imperator Statistics: Length - 50mm Conservation Status: Common

Common Name: Golden-ringed Dragonfly Latin Name: Cordulegaster boltonii Statistics: Length - 7.4-8.4mm Conservation Status: Common

About The emperor dragonfly is a very large, impressive dragonfly which is on the wing from June to August. It is a common dragonfly of large ponds and lakes as well as canals and ditches and is rarely found away from water. The female lays her eggs in floating pondweed. One of the largest dragonfly species in Europe, the emperor dragonfly flies high up looking for insect-prey such as butterflies and chaser dragonflies. It catches its prey in mid-air and may eat it on the wing.

About The golden-ringed dragonfly is a very large dragonfly which is on the wing from May to September. It is a dragonfly of small, acidic streams in moorland and heathland and may be found away from its breeding sites. The female of this species is the UK’s longest dragonfly because of her long ovipositor. Golden-ringed dragonflies are voracious predators, feeding on large insects such as damselflies, other dragonflies, wasps, beetles and bumblebees. They are fast, agile and powerful flyers.

Information sourced from Kent Wildlife Trust

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3.6_INSECT NESTING

Common Wasps Nest Examples of extant eusocial wasp nest morphologies. (A) Nest architecture of Paravespula vulgaris. (B) Major nest architecture development patterns constructed by eusocial vespid wasps.

Bees Nest Examples of extant solitary to eusocial bee nest morphologies. The basic building blocks of bee nests are fask-shaped cells with or without a spiral cap closure, modi¢ed several ways to construct different types of nest architectures. (A,B) Nest of the communal halictid bee Pseudagapostemon divaricatus. (C) Nest of the colonial orchid bee Euglossa ignita. (D) Cell cluster of the primitively social halictid bee Lasioglossum (Euylaeus) duplex. (E) Nest of the eusocial honeybee Apis mellifera. (F) Nest of the semisocial halictid bee Augochloropsis sparsilis. (G) Nest of the pocket-making social bumblebee Bombus (Fervidobombus) atratus. (H) Nest of the eusocial stingless honeybee Trigona (Tetragona) favicornis.

The nest is created from chewed wood fibres mixed with saliva, to create an open cell with a cylindric column called a ‘petiole’ the attaches the nest to the main substructure. The queen wasp begins by creating around 20-30 cells and laying egg larvae within the cells to create her colony. The queen continue to feed the larvae for a few weeks until they become adult and hatch. When enough of the wasps have hatched they will begin to forage to feed and continue to build the nest, and the queen just concentrates on reproduction.

Solitary Wasps Examples of extant solitary to eusocial bee nest morphologies. (A) Simple nest architectures in soils constructed by species of Diadasia. (B) Simple nests with cells arranged in series and short lateral tunnels constructed by soil (halictid, anthophorid, megachilids) and wood (xylocopid) bees. (C) Simple soil nests with cells arranged in a combination of series and lateral tunnels constructed by colletid, nomad, and melitid bees. (D) Complex cell clusters constructed by halictid, corynurid, neocorynurid, augochlorid, and paroxystoglossid soil bees. (E) Complex architectures of soil nests with cells arranged in a combination as individuals, series, and branches from lateral tunnels constructed by colletid, halictid, periditid, adrenid, and paragapostemid bees.

A bees nest consists of a single queen bee, female workers and male drones. The nest is created from a matrix of hexagonal cells made of beeswax called honeycomb which is used to store food (honey and pollen) and house brood. The nest is created in a similar way to the wasps nest to begin with the queen bee searching for a place to create her colony. She usually locates the nests in trees, crevasses anywhere where it was warm and enclosed. The queen gives off a special pheromone to prevent the other female bees from becoming fertile and a queen be. However when the time is right for the nest to move on she will produce a set of eggs to become new queen bees. If the nest gets to small for the colony then she will send out her workers to go and search for a new location. Once the location is found they return back to the nest and do a figure of eight dance to inform the other bees on where the new nest will be located. They store as much honey and nectar as they can to transport to the new nest to begin the new colony. Sometimes the queen bee will stay with her existing colony and send one of her ‘princess’ bees off to create a new colony. Source - Hasiotis, S. 2002. ‘Complex ichnofossils of solitary and social soil organisms: understanding their evolution and roles in terrestrial paleoecosystems. The University of Kansas, Kansas. [Available at http://www.journals.elsevier.com/palaeogeography-palaeoclimatology-palaeoecology]

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3.6_INSECT NESTING Ants Nest Examples of extant ant nest morphologies. The basic building blocks of ant nests are unlined chambers and galleries arranged in diffuse or concentrated architectures. (A) Nest morphology and ontogeny of Pogonomyrmex occidentalis. Nest morphology of: (B,C) Camponotus turkenstanicus ; (D) Formica pratensis; (E) Camponotus aenescens; (F) Camponotus interjectus ; fungusgardening ants, (G) Trachymyrmex turrifex; (H) Trachymyrmex septentrionalis ; (I) Oxyonomyrmex santchii; (J) Atta texana. The production of an ants nest is very similar to that of a wasp and bees nest. British ants tends to build their nest in damp soil as it is easier to excavate compared to other material such as sand. Simple ants nests are just made up of long paths called ‘galleries’ where as the more complex nests have chambers with flat floors and interconnecting tunnels. The nests need a constant regulated temperature amongst the colonies. One of the most skilled ant in England is the Yellow Meadow ant (Lasius Flavus) which can build their nest more than a metre down into the ground. The Lasius Niger, also know as the Common Black ant chews up wood fibres like a wasp to line the wall of the nest with.

Source - Hasiotis, S. 2002. ‘Complex ichnofossils of solitary and social soil organisms: understanding their evolution and roles in terrestrial paleoecosystems. The University of Kansas, Kansas. [Available at http://www.journals.elsevier. com/palaeogeography-palaeoclimatology-palaeoecology]

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3.7_POLLINATION Key to list:

*Escallonia spp & hybrids Wide range of good garden plants. Evergreen.

** tender. * not reliably hardy. Spp = species. (N) = nectar produced when weather good enough. N = nectar collected. P = pollen collected.

**Abutilon vitifolium May–Jul NP Soft grey/green vine shaped downy leaves, large saucer-shaped flowers, various colours.

NP

Eschscholtzia spp Late summer–autumn N Unusual lovely shrubs, mint-scented leaves, flowers various colours. Good nectar producer.

Olearia spp O. haastii O. macrodonta

*Fuchsia magellanica Late summer N Naturalised in S & W. Free-flowering.

Parthenocissus quinquefolia

Genista spp Gorses. Wide range of garden varieties.

Early NP

*Hebe spp

NP Wide range of sizes from dwarf to large, evergreen, flowering periods vary from early summer to late. Some very tender species.

Helianthemum spp & hybrids Sun roses. Evergreen dwarf shrubs, many colours. Berberis spp Apr–Jul NP Wide range of species, all attractive to bees. Buddleia alternifolia B. globosa B. x weyeriana

Long lilac spikes. Globular orange flowers. Orange panicles.

Jun NP May NP Jun–Oct NP

*Ceanothus spp Wide range of species, all attractive to bees. Range from spring to late summer flowering. Chaenomeles spp Cistus spp

Ornamental quinces.

Rock roses. Evergreen. Range of colours.

*Choisya ternata ‘Mexican Orange Blossom’ Evergreen.

P

Hydrangea Only those varieties with fertile florets are used by bees, not the showy sterile ones (Hortensia). H. petiolaris Climber. Jun NP H. paniculata and H. villosa Late summer NP

Feb–Apr NP May–Jul NP Hedera helix Ivy. Climber, evergreen. Good source of late nectar.

NP

Clematis spp Climbers. Most large flowered hybrids only produce pollen. C. armandii Evergreen, strongly scented. Apr–May (N)P C. cirrhosa Evergreen, small bell-like flowers. Dec–Feb (N)P C. montana Apr–May NP C. vitalba Traveller’s Joy, wild clematis. Jun–Jul NP

Kalmia spp Calico Bush Evergreen, acid soils. K. angustifolia, K. latifolia

Clethra alnifolia

Lonicera spp Honeysuckles. Shrubby honeysuckles have smaller more open flowers, with more available nectar than the climbing varieties. Some flower late winter. L. angustifolia, L. standishii, L. purpusii

Acid soils.

Cotoneaster spp Wide range of good garden plants. Cytisus spp Brooms. Wide range of species & hybrids, mostly early flowering. Deutzia spp Very pretty free flowering shrubs.

Aug–Oct P Jun NP NP

Summer P

Late summer (N)P

Syringa spp & hybrids Lilacs. Spring NP Wide range of medium & large shrubs, mostly spring flowering, all strongly scented.

Jul–Aug NP Jun NP

Tamarix spp May–late summer NP Feathery foliage, profuse masses of tiny, pink flowers. Varying flowering times from May to late summer.

Daisy bushes. White flowers. Virginia creeper.

Perovskia atriplicifolia Aromatic grey foliage & purple/blue flowers. Excellent bee plant.

Aug NP Aug–Sep NP

Philadelphus spp Mock Orange. Jun–Jul NP Large number of species and varieties, most strongly scented. Potentilla fruticosa Many varieties & hybrids. Small shrubs, white or yellow flowers. Long flowering period.

NP

Prunus laurocerasus Cherry laurel. Evergreen. Also has extrafloral nectaries, very attractive to bees in summer.

Apr NP

Prunus lusitanica Portugal laurel. Evergreen.

Jun NP

Jun NP

Kolkwitzia amabilis May–Jun NP Uncommon shrub, easy to grow, beautiful drooping bell-shaped flowers. NP

Mahonia spp Winter/spring P Evergreen shrubs with yellow flowers. Valuable pollen source early in the year. M. aquifolium, M. bealei, M. japonica, *M. lomariifolia

Ulex europaeus, U. minor Gorse. Long flowering periods.

N? P

Viburnum spp Wide range of evergreen & deciduous shrubs. Good species include: V. bodnatense, V. fragrans Winter NP Deciduous, winter flowering, scented. V. burkwoodii Evergreen, scented. Apr NP V. carlesii Scented. Apr NP V. juddii Scented. Apr–May NP V. opulus Guelder rose. Jun–Jul NP V. tinus, V. laurustinus Evergreen. Oct–Mar P Weigela florida & hybrids Pink, red or white flowers.

Pyracantha Firethorn. May–Jun NP Syringa spp & hybrids Lilacs. Spring NP P. angustifolia, P coccinea Wide range of medium & large shrubs, mostly spring flowering, all strongly scented. Rhododendron spp NP Small varieties of rhododendron & azaleas Tamarix spp May–late summer NP can be foliage, worked profuse by honey bees. of Feathery masses R. ponticum can produce poisonous honey occasionally. tiny, pink flowers. Varying flowering times

NP

Apr–Jun P

*Myrtus communis Evergreen, fragrant flowers.

Ribes sppfrom May to late summer. R. sanguineum Apr Ulex europaeus, U. minorFlowering Gorse. Currant. N? PNP Pink, red or white flowers. Long flowering periods. R. odoratum Buffalo Currant, yellow flowers. Apr NP Viburnum spp Wide range of evergreen & deciduous R. speciosum Red flowers. Apr–May NP shrubs. Good species include: Rosa spp N? P V. bodnatense, V. fragrans Winter NP Only single flowered types.scented. Deciduous, winter flowering, V. burkwoodii scented. Apr NP Wild rosesEvergreen, & R. rugosa. V. carlesii Scented. Apr NP Rosmarinus officinalisScented. Rosemary. Apr–May V. juddii Apr–May NPNP aromatic. V. opulus Evergreen, Guelder rose. Jun–Jul NP V. tinus, Evergreen. Oct–Mar Salix spp V. laurustinusWillows. Early spring PNP Weigela floridaNumerous & hybrids small shrubby willows. Good May–Jun N P? species Pink, red orinclude: white flowers. S. apoda, S. boydii, S. hastata, S. lanata, Wisteria Climbers. S.spp melanostachys, S. uva-ursi W. floribunda & W. sinensis Apr–May (N)P Symphoricarpos spp Snowberries. Jun–Aug NP Most produce copious amounts of nectar. S. alba, S. occidentalis, S. orbiculatus, S. rivularis

May–Jun N P?

Wisteria spp Climbers. W. floribunda & W. sinensis

Apr–May (N)P

Bush Fruits Most bush fruits are valuable bee plants, some producing copious nectar (marked §). Flowering time varies with the variety. §Bilberry

Whortle berry

§Blackberries

Wild & cultivated

Black, red & white currants

To find out more about specific plants and their cultural requirements most garden centres and libraries have a reference section with encyclopaedias of garden plants.

Pollination Bush Fruits Bees and plants evolved alongside each other, as the bees would visit the plants for food (pollen and nectar).Leaflet Around Information L3 Most bush fruits are valuable bee plants, some producing 73% of the world crops are pollinated by bees worldwide, and if the bee population began to diminish there would be a copious nectar (marked §). Flowering time varies with the chain effect on the food industry that supplies around the world. Bees are attracted to flowers because of their bright variety. primary colours that are within the light spectrum that they can sense. They can detect every colour of the rainbow §Bilberry Whortle berry Black, red & white currants except for red. Flowers that bloom in early spring and late autumn are sometimes deprived of pollination because bees §Blackberries Wild & cultivated tend not to leave their hive if the temperature is below 10oC, even then they are drowsy and cannot fly very far in the lower temperatures. Producing Honey The fuzziness to the bees hair on their bodies creates an electromagnetic charge allows the pollen to stick to their bodies and hind legs, similar to the balloon and hair experiment. Honey bees and bumble bees both make honey, Syringa spp hybrids of Lilacs. Springand NP more ‘hard working’ than bumble Bushbees, Fruitsas however the& colony honey bees are much larger average worker Shrubs useful totheBees Blueberries Wide range of medium & large shrubs, mostly bumble bees only tend toalllast onescented. season from spring to winter.Most An average honey bee colony around to spring flowering, strongly bush fruits are valuable beehas plants, some20,000 producing Gooseberries copious nectar (marked §). Flowering time varies with the 60,000 workers where as a bumble bee hive only around 200-1000 bees. Tamarix spp May–late summer NP variety.

Feathery foliage, profuse masses of tiny, pink flowers. Varying flowering times Pollinator from Types May to late summer.

§Bilberry Black, red &aswhite currants This leaflet lists a Whortle number berry of shrubs (defined a perennial plant not growing normally on an life single usefulflora for Bees generally crops for fruit andJostaberry vegetables, helping provide a&consistent cycletrunk) for other §Blackberries Wild cultivated Ulexberries: europaeus, U.pollinate minor Gorse. N? Pas well as Hybrid Boysenberry, Worcester berry, providing pollen and/or nectar for bees and other pollinating Long flowering periods. and fauna. To the left is a list of flower and bush plants which insects. are generally pollinated by the bees, and on the next §Raspberry & Loganberry Information Leaflet L3 Viburnum spp the trees Widecommonly range of evergreen & deciduous page displays pollinated by bees. The known flora on the site are highlighted. shrubs. Good species include: V. bodnatense, V. fragrans Deciduous, winter flowering, scented. V. burkwoodii Evergreen, scented. V. carlesii Scented. V. juddii Scented. V. opulus Guelder rose. V. tinus, V. laurustinus Evergreen.

Weigela florida & hybrids Pink, red or white flowers. Wisteria spp Climbers. W. floribunda & W. sinensis

Winter NP Apr NP Apr NP Apr–May NP Jun–Jul NP Oct–Mar P May–Jun N P?

Apr–May (N)P

Shrubs useful to Bees

This leaflet is provided for general interest and information only. No liability is accepted for any injury or loss arising out of the contents of this leaflet.

Blueberries Gooseberries

Hybrid berries: Boysenberry, Worcester berry, Jostaberry §Raspberry & Loganberry

To find out more about specific plants and their cultural requirements most garden centres and libraries have a reference section with encyclopaedias of garden plants.

This leaflet is provided for general interest and information only. No liability is accepted for any injury or loss arising out of the contents of this leaflet.

THE 14TH COLONY_FINDINGS PORTFOLIO Laura Noble: Unit 4 © BBKA 2007

The list includes a wide range of plants suitable for a range of habitats, including small and large gardens and some may also be found in the wild. Brief details are given of the less common species. All will normally flower in the UK, although some will need a Blueberries good summer to flower well. In most cases pollen production is relatively reliable, but nectar production is not, being more Gooseberries affected by the soil and weather. There is an increasing number of species now being grown in the UK which originate from hotter countries and these may be especially variable in flowering and nectar production. Many of these are not reliably in colder Worcester parts of theberry, country but with Hybrid berries:hardy Boysenberry, Jostaberry warmer summers and milder winters some of these plants §Raspberry & Loganberry can be grown far more widely, and may produce more nectar in good weather.

This leaflet lists a number of shrubs (defined as a perennial plant not growing normally on an single trunk) useful for © BBKA providing pollen and/or nectar2007 for bees and other pollinating insects. The British Beekeepers’ Association find out more Centre,Stoneleigh, about specific plants and their TheTo National Agricultural Warwickshire CV8 cultural 2LG requirements most garden and libraries a The list includes a wide rangecentres of plants suitable for ahave range reference withsmall encyclopaedias of garden of habitats,section including and large gardens andplants. some may also be found in the wild. Brief details are given of the less common species. All will normally flower in the UK, although some will need a good summer to flower well. In most cases pollen production is relatively reliable, but nectar production is not, being more affected by the soil and weather. There is an increasing number of species now being grown in the UK which originate from hotter countries and these may be especially variable in flowering and nectar production. Many of these are not reliably hardy in colder parts of the country but with warmer summers and milder winters some of these plants can be grown far more widely, and may produce more nectar Information Source: in good weather.

This leaflet is provided for general interest and information only. No liability is accepted for any injury or loss arising out of the contents of this leaflet.

© BBKA 2007 The British Beekeepers’ Association The National Agricultural Centre,Stoneleigh, Warwickshire CV8 2LG

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3.7_POLLINATION Key to lists: Key to lists: ** tender. * not reliably hardy. Spp = species. tender. when * not reliably Spp = species. (N) = nectar ** produced weatherhardy. good enough. Key to lists: (N) = nectar produced whencollected. weather good enough. N = nectar collected. P = pollen ** tender. * not reliably = species. N =hardy. nectarSpp collected. P = pollen collected. (N) = nectar produced when weather good enough. Hazels N = nectar collected. P = pollen collected.

Maples The decorative Japanese maples rarely flower Thethe decorative Japanese maples rarely flower inMaples the UK, but larger species are all Hazels Early catkins a valuable source of pollen. Mar–Apr P in the UK, but the larger species are all excellent bee plants. Spring (N)P Hazels Early Mar–Apr P Corylus avellana, C. catkins maximaa valuable source of pollen. excellent beerarely plants. Spring (N)P Acer campestris Field maple, native tree. Corylus avellana, C. maxima Maples The decorative Japanese maples flower Acer campestris Field maple, native tree. A. macrophyllum Oregon maple. in the UK, but the larger species are all Early catkins a valuable source of pollen. Mar–Apr P A. macrophyllum A. negundo Box elder. Oregon maple. excellent bee plants. Spring (N)P Corylus avellana, C. maxima **Acacia Beautiful, tender, winter flowering trees. Winter (N)P A. negundo Box elder. A. opalus Italian maple. Acer campestris Field maple, native tree. **Acacia tender,flowers. winter flowering trees. Winter (N)P Masses of Beautiful, yellow, scented A. opalus Italian maple. A. platanoides Norway maple. A. macrophyllum Oregon maple. Masses of yellow, scented flowers. A. dealbata, A. longifolia A. elder. platanoides Norway maple. A. negundo Box Mountain Ash A. dealbata, A. longifolia **Acacia Alder Beautiful, tender, winter flowering Good very early source trees. of pollen.Winter (N)PJan–Mar P A. opalus Sorbus Italian maple. Mountain Ash aucuparia Spring NP Masses yellow, scented Alder Good flowers. very early source of pollen. Jan–Mar P Alnusof glutinosa A. platanoides Norway maple. Sorbus aucuparia Spring NP Many other cultivated species. A. dealbata, A. longifolia Alnus glutinosa Blackthorn Common wild hedge plant. Mar–May (N)P Many other cultivated species. Mountain Ash Sweet Gum Alder Good very early source ofCommon pollen. Jan–Mar Blackthorn plant. P Mar–May (N)P Masses of white flowers.wild hedge Sorbus aucuparia Spring NPSpring (N) Hollies Evergreen, tiny flowers, attractive to bees. May-Jun NP Sweet Gum Liquidambar styraciflua and hybrids. Alnus glutinosa Valuable source Masses white flowers. of of early pollen. tiny flowers, attractive to bees. May-Jun NP Many other cultivated species.styraciflua and hybrids. Ilex Hollies aquifolium,Evergreen, I. opaca and spp. Liquidambar Spring (N) Valuable early pollen. Prunus spinosa Blackthorn Common wild hedge plant.source of Mar–May (N)P Ilex aquifolium, I. opaca and spp. Sweet Gum Honey Locust Long branched spines on trunk, Prunus spinosa Masses of Huge white flowers. Sycamore Valuable nectar source. May NP Cherries group, mainly decorative trees. Hollies Evergreen, tiny flowers, attractive to bees. spines May-Jun Honey Locust Long branched on NP trunk, Liquidambar styraciflua and hybrids. scented flowers. (N) Sycamore Valuable nectar source.Spring (N) May NP Valuable Cherries source of early pollen. Acer pseudoplatanus Huge group, mainly decorative trees. Avoid double flowered varieties. Ilex aquifolium, I. opaca and spp. scented flowers. (N) Gleditsia tricanthos Acer pseudoplatanus Prunus spinosa Avoidwild double flowered varieties. Prunus avium Gean, cherry Apr NP Gleditsia tricanthos spines on trunk, Beanbranched Tree Magnificent, spreading trees with Prunus avium Gean, wild cherry Apr Locust NPIndian Long P. group, cerasusmainly Sour cherry, small tree. May NPHoney Sycamore Valuable nectar source. May NP Cherries Huge decorative trees.shrubby scented flowers. Indian Bean Tree Magnificent, spreading(N) trees with panicles of scented, foxglove-like, P. cerasus Sour cherry, small shrubby tree. May NP Profuse flowers. Acer pseudoplatanus Avoid double flowered varieties. Gleditsia tricanthos panicles of scented, foxglove-like,Jul–Aug NP speckled flowers. flowers. Apr Mar–Apr P. cerasifera Myrobalm, Cherry plum. (N)P Prunus avium Gean, wild cherry Profuse NP speckled flowers. Jul–Aug NP Catalpa bignonioides, C. fargesii, ovata Indian Bean Tree Magnificent, spreading treesC. with P. cerasifera Myrobalm, Cherry plum. Mar–Apr (N)P Wide range of cultivars, some with purple foliage. P. cerasus Sour cherry, small shrubby tree. May NP Catalpa bignonioides, C. fargesii, C. ovata panicles of scented, foxglove-like, Wide range of cultivars, P. padus Bird cherry. Long racemessome of with purple Mayfoliage. NP Profuse flowers. Jul–Aug NP P. padus Bird cherry. Long racemes May NP speckled flowers. white flowers. P. cerasifera Myrobalm, Cherry plum. Mar–Apr (N)Pof Catalpa bignonioides, C. fargesii, C. ovata flowers. subhirtella autumnalis Attractive small tree. Winter P Wide P. range of cultivars, some white with purple foliage. P. subhirtella autumnalis Attractive tree. NP Winter P yeodoensis Joshino cherry. beautiful. Mar–Apr P. padus P. xBird cherry. Long racemes ofSmall, Maysmall NP P. x yeodoensis Joshino cherry. Small, beautiful. Mar–Apr NP white flowers. Chestnuts, Horse chestnuts Large, attractive trees. NP P. subhirtella autumnalis Attractive small tree. Winter P Chestnuts, Horse chestnuts Large, attractive trees. NP Aesculus hippocastanum White flowers. Apr–May Tree of Heaven Large town tree. Jul–Aug N P. x yeodoensis Joshino cherry. Small,slightly beautiful. Mar–Apr NP Aesculus hippocastanum White flowers. A. carnea Red flowers, later. May Apr–May Tree ofaltissima Heaven Large town tree. Jul–Aug N Ailanthus A. carnea Red flowers, slightly later. May Judas Tree Pretty small tree, purple pea-flowers A. indica Indian horse chestnut. Pink flowers. May–Jun Chestnuts, Horse chestnuts Large, attractive trees. NP Ailanthus altissima Tulip Tree Large tulip-like flowers. Jun–Jul (N) Judas Tree Pretty small tree, purple pea-flowers on bare stems. Apr–May NP A. indica Indian horse chestnut. PinkJul–Aug flowers. May–Jun A. californica Buckeye. White/pink flowers. Aesculus hippocastanum White flowers. Apr–May Tree of Heaven Large tree. Tuliptown Treetulipifera Large tulip-like flowers.Jul–Aug N Jun–Jul (N) Liriodendron on bare stems. Apr–May NP Cercis siliquastrum A. californica Buckeye. White/pink flowers. Jul–Aug A. carnea Red flowers, slightly later. May Chestnut, Sweet or Spanish Ailanthus altissima Liriodendron tulipifera Cercis siliquastrum Whitebeam small tree,mespilus. purple pea-flowers JunePretty Berry, Snowy A. indica Castanea Indian horse chestnut. flowers. May–Jun Chestnut, or Pink Spanish sativa Sweet Jul (N)PJudas Tree Tulip Tree LargeSorbus tulip-like Whitebeam ariaflowers.Common whitebeam.Jun–Jul (N) May–Jun NP on bare stems. Apr–May NP June Berry, Beautiful tree,Snowy massesmespilus. of white flowers A. californica Buckeye. White/pink flowers. Jul–Aug Castanea sativa Jul (N)P Crab Apples Beautiful medium sized trees. Spring NP Liriodendron tulipifera SorbusSwedish aria Common whitebeam. Jun NP May–Jun NP S. intermedia whitebeam. Cercis siliquastrum Beautiful tree, masses of white flowers in spring, edible fruits in June. Spring (N)P Chestnut, Sweet or Spanish Crab medium sized John trees. Spring NP Malus spp Apples & hybrids. Beautiful Many named varieties: S. intermedia Swedish whitebeam. Jun NP in spring, edible fruits in June. Spring (N)P Whitebeam Amelanchier lamarckii Castanea sativa Jul varieties: (N)P Malus spp & hybrids. Many named John June Berry, Snowy mespilus. Downie, Profusion, Golden Hornet. Amelanchier lamarckii Sorbus aria Common whitebeam. May–Jun NP Beautiful tree, of white flowersof nectar when Lime Canmasses supply large quantities Downie, Profusion, Hornet. Crab Apples Beautiful medium sized trees. Golden Spring NP Eucalyptus spp. Evergreen, aromatic foliage. S. intermedia Swedish whitebeam. Jun NP in spring, edible in June. Spring (N)P when LimefruitsCan supply large quantities of nectar conditions are right but can be erratic. Malus spp Some & hybrids. varieties: John Eucalyptus spp. aromatic foliage. hardyMany in thenamed UK. Evergreen, Late summer (N) Amelanchier lamarckii conditions are right but can be erratic. Aphids on some species produce honey-dew. (N) Downie, Profusion, Hornet. Some hardy inE.the UK. Late summer (N) E. gunnii,Golden E. niphophila, parviflora. Aphids somelime. species produce honey-dew. (N) Tilia cordata Smallofon leaved Late Jul Lime Can supply large quantities nectar when E. gunnii, E. niphophila, E. parviflora. Eucalyptus spp.Acacia Evergreen, aromatic foliage. False Tiliabut cordata Small leaved lime. §T. x are euclora Crimea No honeydew. Jul–Aug Late Jul conditions right can be lime. erratic. Some hardy in the UK.Acacia Late flowers. summer (N) Jun NP False Robinia pseudoacacia Fragrant white x euclora Crimea lime. No honeydew. x europaea Common Jun–Jul Jul–Aug AphidsT.on some §T. species producelime. honey-dew. (N) E. gunnii, E. E. parviflora. pseudoacacia Fragrant whiteLate flowers. R. niphophila, viscosa Robinia Clammy locust. Jun NP Jun T. leaved x europaea Common T. maximowicziana Japanese lime. lime. Jun Jun–Jul TiliaNP cordata Small lime. Late Jul Clammy locust.May-Jun NP Late Jun T. maximowicziana lime. Jul–Aug Jun False Acacia R. hispida R. viscosa Rose acacia. §T. x orbicularis Hybrid lime. Japanese §T.NP x euclora Crimea lime. No honeydew. Jul–Aug R. Fragrant hispidawild, Rose acacia. May-Jun §T. x orbicularis Hybrid lime. Jun–Jul Jul–Aug Jul–Aug Robinia pseudoacacia white flowers. Jun NP May NP T. petiolaris Weeping silver lime. T. xNP europaea Common lime. Hawthorns Common, small, shrubby trees T. petiolaris Weeping R. viscosa locust. Late shrubby Jun NP trees T. platyphyllos Broad leaved lime. silver lime. Hawthorns wild, small, May NP T. maximowicziana Japanese lime. Jun Jun–Jul Jul–Aug Erratic,Clammy but canCommon, be profuse producers of nectar. T. platyphyllos lime. R. hispida Crataegus oxycantha, Rose acacia. May-Jun NP of nectar. §T. x orbicularis T. tomentosa Silver lime.Broad leaved Jul Jun–Jul Erratic, can be profuse producers Hybrid lime. Jul–Aug C. but monogyna T. tomentosa Silver Jul § Nectar in silver these lime. species canlime. stupefy bees. Crataegus oxycantha, C. monogyna T. petiolaris Weeping Jul–Aug C. prunifolia, C.small, crus-galli, and trees many other species. Hawthorns Common, wild, shrubby May NP § Nectar in these species can stupefy bees. C. prunifolia, C. crus-galli, and many other species. T. platyphyllos Broad leaved lime. Jun–Jul Erratic, but can be profuse producers of nectar. T. tomentosa Silver lime. Jul Crataegus oxycantha, C. monogyna § Nectar in these species can stupefy bees. C. prunifolia, C. crus-galli, and many other species.

Fruit Trees

Fruit Trees

Less Common Trees All are good sources of pollen and many are also excellent Less Common Trees All are good sources of pollen and many are also excellent These are less widely grown but are not difficult and are nectar producers. These are less widely but are not when difficult andisare nectar producers. good bee grown trees. Some flower there little other nectar good bee trees. Some flower when there is little other nectar available. available. Almond Prunus dulcis Almond PrunusEarliest dulcis to flower. Profuse nectar producer. Eucryphia glutinosa, E. nyamansensis Aug–Sep NP Eucryphia glutinosa, E. nyamansensis NPflowers. Earliest to flower. Profuse nectar producer. Evergreen. Large, beautiful, Aug–Sep single white Evergreen. Large, beautiful, single white flowers. Snowdrop tree Halesia carolina May NP Snowdrop tree Pretty, Halesia carolina May along NP branches. small tree. Bunches of flowers Pretty, small tree. Bunches of flowers along branches. Apple Malus pumila Golden Rain tree Koelreuteria paniculata Jul–Aug (N) Apple Malus pumila Golden Rain tree Large, Koelreuteria paniculata Jul–Aug (N) Can be grown as cordons and ‘bush’ loose panicles yellow flowers. Can be grownforms as cordons and ‘bush’ Large, loose panicles yellow flowers. suitable for small gardens. forms suitableRange for small Hop tree Ptelea trifoliata Jun–Jul N of gardens. varieties, flowering from Hop tree Ptelea to trifoliata Jun–Jul N Range of varieties, flowering from Related Tetrodium. Aromatic leaves, small white early April to late May. Good nectar Related to Tetrodium. leaves,Profuse small white early April to late May. Good nectar flowers, Aromatic highly scented. nectar source. producers. flowers, highly scented. Profuse nectar source. producers. Sophora japonica Sep NP Syringa spp & hybrids Lilacs. Spring NPPagoda tree BushSep Fruits Sophora japonica NP Wide range of medium & large shrubs, Pagoda mostly tree Creamy flowers flowers spring flowering, all strongly scented. Most Creamy bush Smaller, fruits areneeds valuable bee plants, some S. tetraptera shelter. Spring NPproducing S. tetraptera Smaller, needs shelter. Spring NP time varies with the copious nectar (marked §). Flowering Deep yellow bunches of flowers. Tamarix spp May–late summer NP Deep yellow bunches of flowers. This leafle Feathery foliage, profuse masses of a numb Chinese variety. bee tree Aug–Oct This NP leaflet lists and/or ne Chinese bee tree Tetrodium (Euodia) danielli, Aug–Oct NP tiny, pink flowers. Varying flowering times and/or nectar list for includ bees (hupehensis) Whortle berry Black, red & white currants Tetrodium (Euodia)§Bilberry danielli, (hupehensis) from May to late summer. wide ran Small tree with strongly scented small white list includes ahabitats, Small tree with§Blackberries stronglyProfuse scented small white habitats, including sma Wild & cultivated flowers. nectar source. Ulex europaeus, U. minor Gorse. N? P Brief deta flowers. Profuse nectar source. Long flowering periods. Brief details are given o Possible Viburnum spp Wide range of evergreen & deciduous Possible sizesaccording are not g shrubs. Good species include: Cherries Prunus cerasus according to the situatio Cherries Prunus cerasus bodnatense, V. fragrans Winter NP Check wi Large V. trees, good nectar producers. Check with a good Large trees, good nectar producers. Deciduous, winter flowering, scented. trees boo for s Medlar Mespilus germanica May trees for smallmay gardens. V. burkwoodii Evergreen, scented. Apr NP vary Medlar MespilusLarge germanica May white flowers. V. carlesii Scented. Apr NP may vary from the usua To find out more about specific plants and their cultural Large white flowers. V. juddii Prunus persica Scented. To Apr–May find out NP more about specific their and cultural Peach & nectarine All of the requirements most plants garden and centres libraries have a Peach & nectarine Early Prunus persicagood nectar V. opulus Guelder rose. Jun–Jul NPmost garden centres and libraries have a All of these trees requirements flowering, producer. somewill willn Blueberries reference section with encyclopaedias of garden plants. tinus, V. laurustinus Evergreen. Oct–Mar P Early flowering, goodV.nectar producer. some will needpollen a good reference section with encyclopaedias of garden plants. pros Pear Prunus communis Mar–Apr pollen production is rela Gooseberries Pear Prunus communis Mar–Apr Weigela florida & hybrids May–Jun N P? is not, bei Weak nectar, rarely collected. is not, being more Weak nectar, rarely collected. Pink, red or white flowers. Limeaffec and Lime and hawthorn are of nectar Wisteria spp Climbers. of nectar, ranging from T increasing W. floribunda & W. sinensis Apr–May (N)P increasing number oforisp which Hybrid berries: Boysenberry, Worcester berry, which Jostaberry originate fromvar hp highly highly variablethe in flower §Raspberry & Loganberry treesi the trees listedcountry are notb This leaflet is provided for general interest and information This leaflet is only. provided for general interestforand T but with No liability is accepted anyinformation injury or loss arisingcountry out arewarme able t only. No liability accepted o are able to be nectar grown far of is the contentsfor of any this injury leaflet.or loss arising out in g Plum Prunus domestica Early Aprof the contents of this leaflet. a nectar in goodnative weather, cou Plum Prunus domestica Early Apr Good nectar source. c native countries. Good nectar source. © BBKA 2007 Quince Cydonia oblonga Spring © BBKA 2007 Beekeepers Association Quince Cydonia Good oblonga Spring A The British nectar source. The British Beekeepers Association Good nectar source. g The National Agricultural Centre,Stoneleigh, Warwickshire CV8 2LG National Agricultural Centre,Stoneleigh, Warwickshire CV8 2LG i To find out more about specific plants andThe their cultural

Trees uT

requirements most garden centres and libraries have a reference section with encyclopaedias of garden plants.

This leaflet is provided for general interest and information only. No liability is accepted for any injury or loss arising out of the contents of this leaflet.

Information Source:

THE 14TH COLONY_FINDINGS PORTFOLIO Laura Noble: Unit 4

© BBKA 2007 The British Beekeepers’ Association The National Agricultural Centre,Stoneleigh, Warwickshire CV8 2LG

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3.8_POLLUTANTS Types of Pollutants There are several types of pollutions that can be identified on and around the site. These include Air pollution Water pollution Soil pollution Noise pollution Thermal pollution Air pollution is defined as any contamination of the atmosphere that disturbs the natural chemistry of the air. This includes excessive gases like carbon dioxide or other vapours. The site is located near to industrial estates that emit fumes via chimneys which is a source of air pollution. The factories also release a great deal of energy in for form of thermal pollution which may affect wildlife migration and behavioural patterns. Similarly adjacent to the site is one of the busiest motorways in the country where vehicle exhausts are constantly held in traffic emitting strong air and noise pollutants. When Littlebrook factory was built in the 1940â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s not as much care was taken when disposing of the waste from the factory. Often oil and materials being transferred from the power station to the boats off the jetties would get spilt and contaminate the Thames Estuary and the surround water basin. Today a great deal of care is taken to ensure that no water pollution is disposed of or leaches into the water system. Fly tipping which has previously been discussed is also another problem on the site that could cause water pollution as the materials begin to decay into the soil and surrounding water supplies. Correct and proper management of the site and local marshes would be ideal to ensure the reduction in water contamination from fly tipping. The abandoned fireworks factory would have produced and contained some strong chemicals which were toxic to the local surroundings. The factory closed during the 1990â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s however the soil may still contain chemicals that are harmful to flora and fauna around the site. A full cleaning process of the soil and ground water around the abandoned factory would be required similar to the clean up of the Olympic park site in Stratford.

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4.0_FINDINGS Critical Analysis Overall, the site has potential to create a telluric architecture which creates a composition to fit into the landscape. There are several issues on the site that could be improved along with my architecture to create a space which creates no waste and can survive off its own means. The main issues are waste pollution from fly tipping and factory waste, management of the site to help enhance the flora and fauna development. A low lying building or structures that will engage the view across the site as integrating a specific feature that will attract walkers and wildlife. The combination of natural and mechanical man made flood defences are located around the outskirts of the site to prevent the outcome of the weather. My building will be able to predict the weather, by using ants and bees from the taxonomy of Hymenoptera to read their behaviour and react before the consequences occur. I would like to investigate the idea of using the structure and architecture of the insects to help influence the architecture and materials used on the site, as well as creating a space for them to inhabit. Researching information on the formation and general properties of the insects and how the nest might react under human scale design.

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9.0_BIBLIOGRAPHY • Bexley Council. Beard,P. 2006. Dartford, Crayford and Erith Marshes - Heritage Review. Available at: http://www. bexley.gov.uk/CHttpHandler.ashx?id=1155&p=0 [Accessed: 4th October 2012] • Payne. F. Dartford Hospital Histories. Available at: http://dartfordhospitalhistories.org.uk [Accessed 19th December 2012] • Groundwork South East. 2006. Managing the Marshes: Landscape Character Assessment. Bexley Council. Available at: http://www.bexley.gov.uk/CHttpHandler.ashx?id=1156&p=0 [Accessed 19th December 2012] • Kent Wildlife Trust. Species Explorer. Available at: http://www.kentwildlifetrust.org.uk/wildlife/species-explorer [Accessed 20th December 2012] • Hasiotis, S. 2002. ‘Complex ichnofossils of solitary and social soil organisms: understanding their evolution and roles in terrestrial paleoecosystems. The University of Kansas, Kansas. [Available at http://www.journals.elsevier. com/palaeogeography-palaeoclimatology-palaeoecology] • Sparey-Green, C. 2010. Northfleet Growth Scheme. Canterbury Archaeological Trust Limited. Canterbury, Kent. • Jon J. Smith, Brian F. Platt, Greg A. Ludvigson, Joseph R. Thomasson. Ant-nest ichnofossils in honeycomb calcretes, Neogene Ogallala Formation, High Plains region of western Kansas, U.S.A., Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, Volume 308, Issues 3–4, 1 August 2011, Pages 383-394. Available at: http:// www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0031018211003026) Accessed 16th January 2013

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Part 1_Findings Portfolio  

The first part of my portfolio for my project called the 14th Colony in Unit 4 at the University of Kent. There will be more development po...

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