Portfolio - Event Reviews Drawing out the key issues and major names the reader needs to know at industry events
FEATURE MARKETING AND ENVIRONMENT
A need for marketing to make green sense How should brands market their green achievements and credentials in a manner that resonates with consumers? This was one focus of a sustainability conference organised by Brand Management.
very consumer is a multi-faceted individual, and every group of consumers consists of complex networks of beliefs and values. When it comes to views on the environment, that observation is truer than ever, and for brands that want to shout about green achievements, the concept of “the ethical consumer” is therefore problematic. In fact, there’s no such thing according to Chris Arnold of the ethical marketing agency FEEL, and he explains the levels that individuals might fit into in terms of their environmental awareness. At the most environmentally aware end of the spectrum is the Eco Warrior, “who is very nice, and passionate about green issues, but doesn’t spend any money”, said Arnold.
Then there are the Ethical Idealists, who write blogs and influence people. The Good Lifers are “more romantic; they love the idea of recycling, organic products and doing their bit”. Conscientious Consumers are often people who have just had children, as that is when they start thinking about what their children eat and the environment they live in. Then there is the Seen to be Green group, who are only into green issues as it is “fashionable”. There are the Informed Consumer, who is knowledgeable about the issues, and the Suburban Setters, who will spend more on Fairtrade than any other group while “driving a Chelsea tractor”. There are also the Health and Body Conscious, and the Ethically Intent, who would
buy Fairtrade if they could afford it. “The price of Fairtrade is 30% more expensive, but when the price is right people will really use the pounds in their pocket to get their point across,” Arnold said. Finally there are the Slobs, Arnold joked, “who smoke and eat takeaways and don’t care about themselves, never mind the planet”. Arnold pointed out that research into the issues affecting buying habits has found that people start with issues affecting themselves and family first, and are then concerned with the wider community and finally the environment. So, trying to target a green marketing message to a homogenous mass of consumers is a complicated matter. That said, in debunking the “ethical consumer” as a
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FEATURE MARKETING AND ENVIRONMENT
of nuclear power, which has zero carbon footprint but can cause serious environmental problems if it goes wrong. Along with consumers, brands may also be confused about which way to turn for the benefit of the environment, but the manner in which their environmental announcements are made plays a significant part in the response they generate from consumers. Tuxworth said: “The sustainability programme has been great at bashing people around the head, adopting a moral high ground and giving people an unattractive package of hairy, smelly and retro things to do, and if they do them maybe doom will be put back by five years.” Arnold agreed, saying: “The consumer doesn’t like the end is nigh syndrome, where if we don’t do this we’re all going to die. The consumer actually wants to help.” However, Tuxworth said that consumers couldn’t be expected to engage with all green messages. He said: “Labelling is a big part of the strategy. There is a question as
sometimes believe the claims and 14% do believe the adverts. According to Arnold, word of mouth is the most effective method of getting people to believe green claims. “What people say and think about you far outweighs any advertising you may do. People gauge a brand through its reputation for issues such as honesty, trust and environmental concerns,” he said. If a brand tries to pull the wool over consumers’ eyes, Arnold warned, it is only a matter of time before the company is exposed. Brand terrorism is growing, he explained, where people can expose the truth on the Internet. If the bloggers do not catch you, then NGOs or newspapers will expose the truth, he added. So if a brand is to go ‘green’, it really has to commit itself to the cause it selects. According to Arnold, a “people versus planet” situation has arisen, where individuals are choosing to commit either to environmental ‘planet’ issues, or social ‘people’ ones.
mythical creation, there is no doubt that individuals on the whole are more knowledgeable and more prepared to act on environmental stimuli than previously, as noted by Graham Lewis, creative director of green agency Satellite. As long ago as 2002, research showed that 19% of UK consumers made purchases based on a brand’s ethical reputation, 57% had recommended a company on the basis of its responsible reputation, 58% avoided a product or service because of a company’s reputation, and 18% participated in an ethically motivated boycott, said Lewis. “Everyone knows that there is a problem with the environment. The question is now how to get solutions on course that are bigger, faster and sooner,” said Ben Tuxworth, director of strategy at Forum for the Future, a charity that helps organisations create sustainable programmes. While there may not be any straightforward answers to the question, the need for urgency with green matters is apparent, as Tuxworth explained: “We have to talk about these issues together in a way that gives people a sense of empowerment to make a difference.” Businesses have to be involved in this empowerment, if not due to their own ethical values, then because it has become clear that consumers place ethical issues firmly on the doorstep of companies. Forum for the Future asked 50,000 university applicants for their opinions about the future and the environment. The research found that they place governments, individuals and businesses as those with the most responsibility to change things. However, only 6% think that businesses are doing enough with environmental issues. Tuxworth explained that “in reality, businesses are doing quite a lot. I’m not saying it’s enough, but it’s a lot. But this message does not seem to be getting through to the consumer, despite the number of green announcements being made by companies”. It does not help marketers that the media keep moving the goalposts with ethical issues, according to Arnold: “Consumers want to know a lot more now about what’s going on, but knowing what the consumer wants is much more challenging as the media are constantly changing the agenda.” A result of this is that consumers themselves are confused over ethical messages. Arnold gave the examples of Fairtrade, which helps poverty in Africa but if UK consumers want to buy it, it has to be flown across the world, creating a high carbon footprint; and
People gauge a brand through its reputation for issues such as honesty, trust and environmental concerns. Chris Arnold
to how much people will engage in the finer points of labelling. Can we expect them to remember and understand them all?” To overcome all this confusion, consumers are looking at brands to help them make a difference. As Arnold said: “People want easy, green, quick solutions.” Tuxworth gave the example of Marks & Spencer, which conducted research into people’s shopping habits in store, and found that shoppers barely looked at the price of goods, let alone eco labels. So M&S decided to build sustainability into its brand ethos, meaning consumers can shop there reassured that everything is environmentally aware. Virgin also has a different approach to environmental matters, said Tuxworth, operating with “technological optimism”, as it considers green problems to be an unfortunate by-product that can be overcome. Consumers may look to brands to help them be green, but they are not willing to take brands’ claims of eco-friendliness at face value. According to Arnold, US research has found that 70% of people recall seeing green ads, but 20% never believe the claims and simply consider them ‘greenwash’; 66%
Arnold also reminded the audience not to forget about the traditional values consumers care about, such as quality, as “the mix of traditional and ethical values has to be blended”. The issues that strike a chord with consumers evolve, and are on the verge of changing again; so appealing to consumers’ ethical values through marketing is about to become still more complicated. After green, red is the new colour emerging, Arnold said, as companies are starting to get involved with helping to fight HIV in Africa. And according to both Lewis and Arnold, water scarcity will become the next big issue. WWF is currently trying to launch a water footprint, Arnold said. “This time next year you will have to look at your water footprint,” he predicted. Whether the latest topic that marketers, media and consumers latch onto is HIV, water, or something else, one piece of advice clearly emerged from the conference: if a brand claims to care about the environment, consumers demand that it must commit wholeheartedly to the cause and make a real difference.
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Colour ● ● ● management
Colour by numbers The way to create consistent, colour accurate print results is through the use of ISO standards and colour measurement values, as was highlighted at PMM’s recent PrintMedia Forum. Laura Blows listened in.
cience has to replace faith when producing colour consistent print, by no longer relying on ‘eyeballing’ colour and instead using standards and measurements to ensure colour accuracy. This was the message delivered by colour experts speaking at PMM’s PrintMedia Forum. The major obstacle for companies trying to produce colour consistent print is that different presses, different papers, different print standards and different areas of the world all produce different results from the same file, says Paul Sherfield of print consultancy company, The Missing Horse Consultancy. He explains: “The growth in controlling colour has come from clients, as they want their key brand images and corporate colours to look the same across different markets. There are various printing standards across the world for all the different printing processes, so there are a great number of combinations to deal with when trying to control brand colour. “Generally we print in CMYK which is device dependent, so if a CMYK file is sheetfed printed here on coated paper, and then web offset printed in Japan on another paper, the end result will differ, as they have different processes and set-ups. You have to change the file to suit the output. It’s all about control, ensuring that the right file goes to the right press in the right condition.” To overcome these challenges, the key thing to do is to control printing conditions, and to do that, the use of the International Standards Organisation (ISO) 12647 is required, says Alan Dresch of prepress and printing colour consultancy firm, Mellow Colour. Dresch describes the ISO 12647 standard as providing process control details for the production of half-tone colour separations, proofs and production prints. It consists of seven parts, all
detailing specifications for different printing processes in order to provide colour consistent results. Two of the most recognised ISO 12647 segments are 12647-2, which details the web offset and sheetfed process, and 12647-7, which handles proofing. Implementing ISO 12647 may not be something that can be achieved easily though, as Dresch says: “ISO 12647-2 is a minefield. In theory it’s simply getting two jobs of print to look identical, but in practice it is not easy to do.” Even though accreditation companies Fogra, Ugra and PSO offer ISO 12647 accreditation to standards based upon their own implementation, there is not an official ISO certification for ISO 12647. However, Sherfield is involved in changing this situation by heading up the British Printing Industries Federation (BPIF) ISO 12647-2 and 7 certification working group. The aims of the BPIF working group are to certify UK printers to the ISO 12647-2 standard formally under an agreed methodology and using a certification body that is UKAS accredited, to ensure that the certification is meaningful, understood and valued by printers and clients, and to use these standards as the core of the certification
Manual colour management is fraught with subjectivity – so experts recommend using measurable standards
process, which may go on to include ISO 12647-7. Sherfield says: “We now have draft documentation to be presented to UKAS. We will be going live with the certification in the new year, once UKAS has given approval, and we will be training auditors in the new year. People who have implemented ISO 12647-2 cannot be their own auditors, as they must be independently audited. The UK will be the first country in the world to certify the ISO 12647 standard.” According to Dresch, suppliers should not try to implement ISO 12647 without also adhering to the complementary ISO 2846 ink colour and transparency standard and the ISO 3664 viewing conditions standard. While the use of standards such as ISO 12647 helps ensure colour consistency on press, when looking at spot colours there is more work to be done, as Sherfield explains: “Within Photoshop there are many different Pantone CMYK libraries, such as Pantone Color Bridge CMYK EC, Pantone Process Uncoated and Pantone Solid Coated, so clients must define which spot colour library is being used as each system gives different CMYK breakdowns.
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COLOUR ● ● ● MANAGEMENT
“Even within Pantone, the colour in their books varies; people can compare two Pantone books and the colours will look different as they are not printed consistently. The spot colour library used by the designer may not even be Pantone, as there are other libraries available, such as Trumatch, Toyo and Focoltone.” So simply specifying which spot colour was used from which library does not seem enough to guarantee an accurate colour result. To overcome the problems of device dependency, paper types affecting colour, and various printing standards, both Sherfield and Dresch recommend the use of CIELAB for specifying brand colours. Dresch describes CIELAB as a method of measuring colour that closely matches the human perception of differences between colours. CIELAB was created by the French International Commission on Illumination (CIE) which mapped all colours on a 3D model cube, which is device independent. Any colour can be expressed in just three numbers, by specifying the Lightness figure (L) which goes light to dark from top to bottom on the 3D model, along with the colour’s A and B axis coordinates, where A represents the colour’s position between red/magenta and green, and B represents the position between yellow and blue. Sherfield says: “LAB is totally usable within Adobe Photoshop. You can choose the Pantone colour you want in Photoshop and the details of the colour shown include its LAB figures and whether this can be achieved using standard CMYK colours or if it requires specialised printing.” According to Sherfield, it is important to ensure that printers are comparing Pantone colours with LAB values. He questions: “Do your printers understand LAB? If the printer is not checking the Pantone colour used with the LAB coordinates they could be putting the wrong colour on the press, so you can change the densities as much as you like, but it won’t match.” The use of measurements may help to ensure that the right colour is reproduced on press, but the next stage in the colour consistency process is to make sure that you are seeing the colour correctly. To do this, colour has to be viewed under
the Graphic Arts Standard D50 lighting condition, which the ISO standard 3664 recommends to use to view colour, and which is similar to daylight. Sherfield explains: “Controlling lighting conditions and colour is very important. Dyestuffs and colours react differently to spectrums of light. There is software available that allows you to see just how much colour can change, such as GretagMacbeth’s Eye-One Share, which shows how the appearance of colour changes under variable lighting conditions.” Even though D50 lighting is akin to daylight, Dresch says that using office or daylight lighting for proofing will not suffice. “If you do this you will have problems with an Epson proof or a piece of print that looks identical in the office or daylight but in D50 it will look completely different,” he explains. Lighting is just one factor that affects the way we perceive colour. Sherfield notes that while mapping colours for LAB values, the CIE found that people view colour differently in various circumstances; for instance, women can see colour better than men, and if a person is angry or hungry, their ability to view colour accurately changes. Dresch has also found that colour perception is influenced by many factors. He explains: “Until the last few years colour was judged visually, but there are many factors that affect our perception of colour. We have faults, not with our physical eye but in the way our brain perceives colour. “For example, our eyes are very good at seeing differences in colour when two similar colours are placed together but when they are moved apart it is harder to tell if the colours are the same.” The way we perceive colour can therefore affect our ability to accurately judge the colour of proofs. Dresch explains: “As soon as you look at strong colours for more than a few seconds your
From left: The entire CIELAB colour space; ISO coated v2 CMYK within CIELAB; and Adobe RGB 1998 within CIELAB
colour vision deteriorates, so if you look at a strong colour for longer than this your eyes are no good at making judgements. To help with this, printers will often get customers outside once they have been looking at proofs for a while to get light in their eyes and allow them to see colour accurately again.” According to Dresch, designers must also be aware of what can affect colour perception. Describing one example, he says: “It’s important that designers understand that when using brand colours they cannot put a strong colour next to it as the brand colour will look wrong, even if the spectrophotometer says it is right, it will still look wrong.” As colour perception is subjective, Dresch says the only way to overcome this is to use standards and measurements. He explains: “Both printers and print clients can get emotional when discussing colour with each other because they are judging colour using opinion, but if you use colour measurement standards this does not happen.“ Print buyers and production professionals may increasingly find themselves switching from physically judging colour to using standards and measurements, as the responsibility of colour consistency now often lies with them. Sherfield explains: “As repro doesn’t really exist anymore, ensuring colour consistency has gone back to the client. It’s now the client’s responsibility to get good files to the printer that will produce accurate colour reproduction.” • www.missinghorsecons.co.uk • www.mellowcolour.com
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36 | November 2008 | www.printmediamag.co.uk
drupa ● ● ● innovation parc
Unveiling print’s future Drupa is providing a dedicated section, the drupa innovation parc, for showcasing innovative products that may change the future of the print industry. Laura Blows finds out what the drupa innovation parc has to offer.
s the largest print show in the world, navigating through the maze of drupa halls to find all the latest industry innovations can be a daunting process. However, drupa organisers have accommodated for this, placing exhibitors showcasing industry innovations in one place: the drupa innovation parc (DIP). With the DIP slogan as “welcome to the innovation micro-cosmos” the DIP is designed to be an area where the “defining tools of tomorrow will be presented, only the most innovative solutions in the print and media industry will be demonstrated” to print buyers. Drupa project director Manuel Mataré says: “Within drupa, DIP acts not only as the hothouse for cultivating new talent in the form of small exhibitors but also as an information hub that provides drupa visitors with a chance to experience trends up close and personal and above all to grasp them.” The DIP plays host to over 160 exhibitors, showcasing their innovations for the future of publishing in eight themed sections within halls 7.0 and 7.1. It will mainly exhibit small or start-up companies, but a DIP “expert board” decides whether an exhibitor has a suitably innovative product to appear in the DIP. Mataré explains: “The basic idea is to give smaller firms in particular a strong jump start. For the first time, many smaller, but nevertheless innovative, companies will have the opportunity to be represented at drupa. “In the future, their software innovations may be hugely important for the entire industry, as was demonstrated by the DIP premiere of 2004. It is now difficult to imagine the print industry without a lot of applications that were demonstrated in the DIP of 2004. An example of this is webto-print, which we were the first to pick up on as a trade fair and it is now the hot topic around the world.” The chosen DIP exhibitors will be
divided into eight different parcs within the DIP. There is the print buyer integration parc, which will present solutions for web-to-print, print-on-demand, campaign planning tools and online catalogue creation as well as tracking and production integration systems. The creative production parc will show a range of applications for Web 2.0, such as computer generated imaging, creative image retouching and professional illustration. The PDF and XML production parc will highlight the latest software products for PDF, XML and XPS, while the document management parc will showcase solutions for document management, output for transaction printing and conversion solutions. New digital services and online products, such as ASP applications, CRM, DAM and file transfer services will be highlighted at the online communication parc, and the digital picture parc will focus on professional photography, digital camera applications and photo printing systems. The print and publishing parc will reveal the latest technologies for desktop publishing, workflow and editing systems, colour management and proofing. Hall 7.1 will house the JDF experience parc, where applications and systems will be demonstrated in live workflows and showcased on stage. As well as the JDF discussions, another stage will host daily talk shows in English and German on topics such as publishing
innovations and the media of the future. A DIP briefing will also happen every morning, providing an overview of the day’s activities. Expert talks and presentations from suppliers will also occur throughout the day. Target-grouped and topic-based guided tours will run hourly, providing an overview of DIP and its activities. A daily DIP newsletter produced on site features all the latest news from the DIP, and video content is aired on the main stage to ensure that visitors don’t miss a single experience. • www.drupa.de • www.messe-duesseldorf.de/drupa_ca/ dip/
Print4Life Lounge Along with the DIP, print buyers can also find a range of relevant information at The Print4Life Lounge, situated in hall 6. The PrintCity Alliance’s Print4Life Lounge focuses on a range of print topics, including value added printing, transpromo, brand protection and food packaging. It is dedicated to exchanging views and showcasing technologies that reveal how print can add value to positioning, differentiation and branding. This is achieved through personal meetings, briefings and group discussions, along with case studies and samples featuring new ideas for newspapers, packaging and commercial printing. The PrintCity Alliance says that along with print buyers, the Lounge is most suitable for brand owners, designers and publishers. • www.printcity.de
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the confusion Confusion about how to be eco-friendly, and the importance of green accreditations for consumers were the issues on printers’ minds at the ‘Is Print Sustainable?’ conference.
ITHIN THE PRINT industry, confusion reigns, said a panel of five environmental printers at First City Media’s ‘Is Print Sustainable’ conference. According to them, knowing exactly what is green forms a major part of the struggle. Phil Sudwell of Park Lane Press said: “I think there is confusion all the way, even between printers. How do you measure a green printer? Is FSC accreditation enough? Or EMAS? Where can the line be drawn?” Knowing what green practices to do for the best is another headache. Richard Owers of Beacon Press gave an example. “In China there is the biggest, and supposedly greenest, paper mill in the world, but it also transports pulp and paper all around the world,” he said. “This is a major issue for printers, publishers and print buyers. This needs to be in the thinking when sourcing printing.” Knowing exactly how much carbon is produced in the paper manufacturing process, instead of generalisations, would help buyers to source the greenest paper, Owers added. Going green may be hard for printers, but print buyers are increasingly quizzing printers on their green credentials: confusion is not an excuse they are willing to accept. According to Owers, the corporate agenda has changed a great deal, and sustainable procurement is now at the top of the agenda. He added that around 60-70% of customers attributed the company’s environmental procedures as a reason for using Beacon Press. Ian Spicer from Crown Litho took up the theme. He said: “I think print buyers are starting to ask more questions about eco-printing, and I would even question if we would still be here as a small printer if we hadn’t adopted environmentally friendly printing early. “At first, environmentally friendly
Andy York of Warners
Richard Owers of Beacon Press
print looked awful and no one wanted to use it, but we still tried our best to sell it. This has now completely changed, but we still have to convince people that there is so much more to it than just papers, that it’s about the entire process.” Despite this, the printers noted that print buyers have honed in on one particular part of the process, FSC and PEFC accreditation. Andy York of Warners said: “In general I would say that our customers do not know the benefits of ISO 14001. FSC and PEFC yes, but not ISO. We have facility visits to show them how environmentally friendly we are but their main focus is FSC and PEFC.” Carrick Wilkie from Cambrian Printers agreed that FSC and PEFC are the most recognised environmental accreditations by consumers. He gave the example of a customer that came to visit Cambrian’s site and instead of looking at the printing presses, spent the majority of his visit checking Cambrian’s environmental credentials. “This is far more standard now,” he said. “Price is still the main factor when securing print, but this is starting to change. There are only 300 accredited FSC suppliers in the UK so we have something uncommon to offer.” Understanding what each environmental accreditation means, and the
most appropriate ones to obtain is another matter of discussion. The panel debated whether it is possible to maintain the current attitude of obtaining various credentials as proof of green processes. York said: “With all this green confusion we are all going to look at each other and try to get each other’s accreditations.” Having just one target to aim for was discussed as a possible solution. Branching into legislation, Owers said: “I am hoping that we are not going to become a legislation based industry, but will self-regulate, for instance through the BPIF.” Industry interest in accreditations is set to continue as it also provides commercial benefits for printers, the panel said. According to Phil Sudwell, proof of environmental friendliness is “often enough to win a job”. Along with the commercial benefits for printers, eco-conscious printing does not have to mean more cost to their customers. Through “intelligent buying” by Cambrian Printers, its customers have not always needed to pay extra for the use of certified papers, Wilkie said. It’s certain that eco-friendly printing will continue to be the focus for the printing industry, and the printer panel was unanimous: they will keep making their companies greener and will keep working towards the accreditations that buyers want.
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