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Contents INTRODUCTION PRIOR KNOWLEDGE SOIL AND DIRT WHERE DID SOIL COME FROM? HOW IS FORMED? WHY DO WE NEED SOIL? WHY DO WE NEED SOIL? TYPES OF SOIL WHAT IS SOIL HORIZONS? WHAT IS A PED AND THEIR TYPES? USES OF SOIL WHY DO PLANTS GROW BETTER IN SOIL THAT IN SAND? CAN WE LOSE SOIL? WHAT IS SOIL FOOD WEB? WHAT IS THE SOIL PERCENTAGE? SOIL DISTRIBUTION SOIL CONSERVATION HOW TO CONSERVE SOIL? NEWS POSTERS GOOD USES BAD USES BIBLIOGRAPHY


Hi! My name is Laura Diaz. I’m a fifth grade student. I was born on March 25th of 2,000. I live in Cali and I am 12 years. I like to watch TV, eat pizza, chat with my friends, and be with my family, I have 2 older brothers, and in this II part of my virtual booklet I’m going to show you what are soil resources how people use them, important facts, etc… This booklet is a project but I think that is very important that everyone can know about soil resources so we can protect it. In this booklet you will know everything of Soil Resources, types, definition of the types (what is), etc… you are going to know how people use the soil resource. I hope you like it!! Welcome!!!


MY PRIOR KNOWLEDGE‌

People are not using correctly the soil resources they are contaminating it.

People aren’t learned to take care of natural Resources, they affect them by throwing trash to the ground, burning forest, putting poison fertilizers on the ground, etc.

There are many imortant types of soil resources that made part of them.


Soil : Dictionary definition: The substance that plants, trees, etc, grow in earth. Internet definition: The unconsolidated mineral or organic on the immediate surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium of the grow of the land plants. Dirt: Dictionary definition: A substance that is not clean, such as dust or mud. Internet definition: A filthy or soiling substance, such as mud or dust.


Most soils were originally created through the breaking down of the solid rock which, at one time, formed the earth. Soil begins as rock and then gets broken and weathered into smaller and smaller pieces until it is fine enough to become sand and dust. Eventually, water and nutrients turn the sand and dust into soil and animals and plants fertilize it. At the end of the nineteenth century, Dokuchaev working in Russia, showed that soils do not form by chance. Instead they are formed by the interplay of five factors: Time Topography Biology Climate Parent Material


There are four basic “ingredients” that go into the “recipe” for making soil: tiny pieces of rock, decayed plants and animals, water, and air. When small pieces of rock break off larger ones, they form the basis of all soil. This breaking can occur in several ways: through the action of glaciers pushing rocks along the ground and grinding them against other rocks; through the action of chemicals in water eating away at rocks; through changes in temperature causing water to freeze in rocks and crack them open; through the force of wind throwing sand and pebbles against rocks; and through the movement of plant roots splitting rocks apart. This rocky, ground-up material is called the parent material of the soil. When a plant or animal dies, its remains are attacked by bacteria which decompose, or break them down. This decaying matter combines with the parent material and provides the soil with many nutrients to help new plants grow. Water and air fill in the spaces between the ground-up rock and decaying matter to provide places for tiny insects to live and for plant roots to grow.


We need soil because from soil life attains certain elements and compounds necessary to maintain, expand, and produce more life (aka vitamins and minerals)...soil is just broken up earth, soil maintains life by allowing plants and microorganisms to flourish within it, thus supporting other life forms...it provides a place to anchor things of our livelihood, and allows us to grow crops and stuff...you can’t grow corn on rock, you know. All life needs soil because it is a vital part of the ecosystem. Without soil, plants could not grow and all animals that eat plants, including humans, would not have anything to eat.


Chalky Soil Sometimes called basic soils, they are always very alkaline. Chalk is a solid, soft rock which breaks down easily. It is very free draining, and chalky soils hold little water and dry out easily. Chalky soils are fertile, but many of the nutrients are not available to plants because of the high alkalinity of the soil, which prevents the absorption of iron by plant roots. Clay Soil The clay forms a heavy mass which makes it difficult for air, water and plant roots to move through the soil when wet. Once dry they form rock-hard clots. Blue or grey clays have poor aeration and must be loosened in order to support healthy growth. Red colour in clay soil indicates good aeration and a "loose" soil that drains well. Plants can take advantage of the high level of nutrients if drainage is adequate. Loam Soil Considered to be the perfect soil, a mix of 40 % sand,, 40% silt and 20% clay. Due to mix variations loam can range from easily workable fertile soils full of organic matter, to densely packed sod. Characteristically they drain well, yet retain moisture and are nutrient rich, making them ideal for cultivation. Peat Soil Provided they are not too acid and have effective sub drainage, these are rich in plant foods. Converting existing soil into a peat type soil is achieved by adding large amounts of organic matter. You must avoid making your soil too acid though, and careful choice of organic matter is needed. Sandy Soils Sandy soils generally have a fine grained texture. They retain very little in the way of water, fertilizers or nutrients which means they are extremely poor. Prone to overdraining and summer dehydration, and in wet weather can have problems retaining moisture and nutrients and can only be revitalized by the addition of organic matter. Sandy soils are light and easy to dig, hoe and weed. Silty Soil Silty soil is considered to be among the most fertile of soils. Silt is often found in river estauries, because the fine particles are washed downstream and deposited when the water flows more slowly. It is also soft and smooth, with individual pieces close together. It too holds a lot of water, but the slightly larger particles make it a little better at draining than clay.


Soils develop into layers. These layers, called horizons, are usually seen along road cuts and other areas where the soil is exposed. In the hypothetical situation, there are four horizons in a soil profile. The thickness of each varies with location, and under disturbed conditions -- heavy agriculture, building sites, or severe erosion, for example -- not all horizons will be present. O = Organic. It consists of fragments of leaf litter, twigs, roots, and other organic material lying on the surface of the soil. This layer is not present in cultivated fields. A = Topsoil. It is usually darker than lower layers, loose, and crumbly with varying amounts of organic matter. This is generally the most productive layer of soil. B = Subsoil. It is usually light colored, dense, and low in organic matter. C = Parent Material. The unconsolidated organic and mineral material in which soil forms.. R = Bedrock. The solid


Ped: A unit or 'chunk' of soil made up of individual particles of sand, silt, clay, and some organic material that stick together into a specific structure. 1. Granule Soil Granule soil peds look like cookie crumbs. These peds have a round or spherical shape that can resemble BB gun pellets. The diameter of a granule ped ranges from less than .039 inches to roughly 0.39 inches (1 to 10 mm) wide, according to the University of Missouri. Granule soil peds can easily be separated, although the outer surfaces don't fit together easily, unlike pieces of a jigsaw puzzle. They're packed loosely and usually found in surface horizons that contain organic matter, such as areas where there are earthworms and grassland vegetation. Platy Soil Platy soil peds, which are larger than granule peds, are rather thin soil plates that lie horizontally. These peds are roughly 0.39 inches (10 mm), notes the University of Missouri. Platy peds are so named because they resembled stacked plates. They're known to occur in surface horizons as products of soil development. Blocky Soil Blocky soil peds, which usually are found in the subsoil, have somewhat of a cube shape with their dimensions having equal lengths. This type of soil ped has a larger diameter than a granule soil ped, as it ranges from less than 0.2 inches to more than 2.0 inches (5 to 50 mm) wide. Instead of being formed individually, blocky peds form their shape from their adjacent peds. Angular blocky soil peds have distinct, sharp edges and rectangular faces. Subangular blocky peds have most of their edges sharp rather than rounded. Columnar, Prismatic and Single Grained Soil Columnar peds are vertical columns of soil. These soil peds have a salt cap on their tops. This type of soil is typically found in arid climates, says Prismatic peds, which are vertical soil columns, are found in lower horizons. They have a length longer than their width, which can be several centimeters long. Single grained peds are broken up into solitary particles that don't bind together. This type of soil ped has a loose consistency and generally found in sandy soils.


1. Agriculture o Plant growth is a primary use of soil. It contains the necessary nutrients and retains water. Its pH is a major factor in how effective soil is for growing plants. The desired range is between 6.0 and 6.5. Fertile soil allows plants to receive the proper chemical reactions in order to stimulate growth. Soil's ability to accommodate a plant's root system is also important for the growth of a plant. Construction o

Soil is a significant part of the construction industry. It is used as a foundation for homes and buildings. Construction professionals use a process called soil compaction to increase the density of the soil and ensure its stability. Compacting the soil also prevents soil settlement and reduces water seepage. Soil scientists often measure the strength of soil before a construction project to determine how easily the soil changes shape and whether it is capable of maintaining under the weight of a building. Working on the wrong type of soil may lead to cracks in the foundation, leaks and floods.

Ceramics o

Clay soil is used to create pottery and ceramics. When combined with water, it turns into a thick substance used for sculpting. Once the substance dries, it retains its shape. Individuals can create cups, bowels, sculptures and plates.


Soil Grows Better Plants 

Soil holds nutrients that plants need a lot better than sand or clay. Clay is hard, so it makes it harder for roots of plants to grow down to reach the water or nutrients under it.

Soil has millions of pores which hold and store nutrients, water, and oxygen so it can distribute it throughout out the plant. Sand has too much ventilation which will no be able to hold anything well. I would add that the contents of the “soil� depend on the plant being grown. Some plants need more or less sand, more or less clay, and more or less organic material. It all depends on the plant being grown. The water from the soil will give off nutrients to the plants so they will grow nicely. Some plants grow better in sand then in soil like Cakile maritima and PIGFACE.


Yes, it “erodes” when it isn’t any supporting point.


Is the community of organism living all or part of their lives in the soil. It described a complex living system in the soil and how it interacts with the environment, plants, and animals.


Soil percentage is the amount of different elements within the soil.

Cation Exchange Capacity 

The CEC is the ability of the soil to hold cations. The higher the CEC value of the soil, the greater its capacity to hold nutrients in the form of cations. The soil percentage also takes into account whether the soil is primarily clay or sand; clay contains negative ions, which attracts cations, and sand is devoid of negative ions and will not attract cations in the form of nutrients.

Percentage Saturation 

Percent saturation is measured in two ways. The “percent nutrient saturation” is the percentage of the soil's cations that are made up of specific nutrients, such as potassium or magnesium cations, and the “percent base saturation” is the sum total of all the cations combined. This data is useful for determining of the nutritional value of the soil to plants and can help in choosing proper fertilizer; for instance, if the soil is deficient in a particular nutrient, the right fertilizer can correct the problem. Precision Radon & Thoron Instrument Test Water, Soil, Air

Soil pH Level 

The acidity of the soil is measured in pH levels. Acid in the soil is conducive to the chemical exchange between the positively charged cation and the negatively charged ion. Therefore the lower the pH level the better the plants will grow. The pH level is measured on a scale from 0 to 14; the pH scale increases in acidity in descending order, so the lower your PH level the higher the soil acidity. The pH level increases by 10 for each whole number; the acid content for a pH level of 5.00 is 10 times higher than a pH level of 6.00, but 100 times higher than the PH level of 7.00.


Type of Mineral Particle

Size Range

Sand

2.0 - 0.06 millimeters

Silt

0.06 - 0.002 millimeters

Clay

less than 0.002 millimeters


Soil conservation is the best way to make sure that we have the land we need to live on or, in my case, live in. If you see your soil eroding, protect it with grass or plants. If you see something that's making the soil sick, do everything you can to make the soil healthy again. If you live on a farm, make sure that the soil on your fields and pastures stays right where it is right now! Call my pals at the Natural Resources Conservation Service. They'll tell you all you need to know to get things going and growing!


Instructions

1.

o

1 Conserve soil and fight erosion problems by planting more aggressively. The roots of shrubs can help to prevent excess storm water from stealing your soil. Leafy plants can also be used to break the force of falling raindrops, preserving your soil.

o

2 Maintain portions of unplowed land between gardens and fields of crops. A patch of rough, grassy land can help to stop erosion caused by draining storm water.

o

3 Grant your livestock plenty of space in which to graze. When herds of grazing animals are allowed to strip the land to the soil, they leave it exposed to the elements. This can make it easier for wind and rain to rob your land of precious soil.

o

4 Grow plants that are indigenous to the region whenever possible. Native plants will have millions of years of evolution on their side to help conserve soil. If you must plant non-native species, use indigenous plants to form a natural border for your crop.

o

5 Use natural materials to form barricades to fight storm water. Instead of constructing artificial borders with concrete, consider using logs or groupings of large stones. Natural resources are more effective and cheaper to install.

o

6 Construct a natural windbreak to line the perimeter of a farm field. Also known as shelter belts, windbreaks can prevent gusts of wind from disrupting the soil when a crop has been recently planted. These can be especially effective in windy, storm-prone areas in the Midwest.

o

7 Water soil along with plants. During dry months, it's important to take steps to keep your soil moist. Use piles of damp mulch to nourish dry topsoil and to keep it from being blown away.

o

8 Conserve your soil between crop rotations by planting cover crops. In addition to fighting erosion, a cover crop will help to lock nutrients in the soil and fight outbreaks of weeds. Cover crops can also retain soil's moisture during winter by catching falling snow.

Read more: How to Conserve Soil | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/how_2163916_conserve-soil.html#ixzz1oryjBHks


Where did soil come from? http://web.bethere.co.uk/fm/soil/formed/f0101.htm http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20111213122229AAx74XH http://www.macaulay.ac.uk/soilquality/soil_beneath_feet.pdf

How is formed? http://www.bigsiteofamazingfacts.com/how-is-soil-formed

Why do we need soil? http://answers.ask.com/Science/Other/why_do_we_need_soil http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20080602205457AAtyIQw.

Types of soil http://www.buzzle.com/articles/different-types-of-soil.html

What is Soil Horizons? http://www.mo15.nrcs.usda.gov/features/wissoil/sld005.htm

What is a ped and their types? What Are the Types of Soil Peds? | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/list_7731537_types-soilpeds.html#ixzz1oAZpWhzu

Uses of soil Uses for Soil | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/list_7595966_uses-soil.html#ixzz1o6Myb6pj

Why do plants grow better in soil that In sand? http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Why_do_plants_grow_better_in_soil_than_sand#ixzz1o68 MCgWT http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Why_is_growing_plants_in_soil_better#ixzz1o68xzSmi


Can we lose soil? Pictures taken from: www.google.com and info from: http://es.ask.com/?o=312&l=dir

What is soil food web? http://www.soilfoodweb.com/sfi_approach1.html#Steps

What is the soil percentage? http://www.ehow.com/info_12080295_soilpercentage.html#ixzz1oAdWXQLA

Pictures taken from: http://www.google.com.co/search?pq=types+of+soil&hl=es&gs_nf=1&cp=11&gs_id=1a&xhr=t&q =soil+distribution&biw=1920&bih=895&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.r_qf.,cf.osb&um=1&ie=UTF8&tbm=isch&source=og&sa=N&tab=wi&ei=kqRTT-WAPIL4gAeQ5_TzDQ

Soil conservation Info taken from: http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detail/national/newsroom/features/?&cid=nrcs143_0 21978 Pictures taken from: http://www.google.com.co/search?tbm=isch&hl=es&source=hp&biw=1920&bih=895&q=soil+distr ibution&gbv=2&oq=soil+distribution&aq=f&aqi=gL1&aql=&gs_sm=3&gs_upl=1859l9740l0l10551l19l19l1l10l10l0l203l828l0.5.1l6l0&gs_l=img.3..0i19 .1859l9740l0l10551l19l19l1l10l10l0l203l828l0j5j1l6l0

Soil distribution: http://www.google.com.co/search?pq=types+of+soil&hl=es&gs_nf=1&cp=11&gs_id=1a&xhr=t&q =soil+distribution&biw=1920&bih=895&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.r_qf.,cf.osb&um=1&ie=UTF8&tbm=isch&source=og&sa=N&tab=wi&ei=kqRTT-WAPIL4gAeQ5_TzDQ

How to conserve soil? How to Conserve Soil | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/how_2163916_conservesoil.html#ixzz1oryjBHks


Soil Resources  

This is my third part of my virtual boklet. I hope you like it!!!

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