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Chand Baori, Rajasthan
CEPT University by Balkrishna Doshi, Ahmedabad
Mill Ownersâ€™ Association Building, by Le Corbusier, Ahmedabad
LATITUDES GLOBAL STUDIO 2018 TOGETHER! RETHINKING AHMEDABAD
publication edited by Eduardo Pizarro, 2019, and supported by
publication edited by Eduardo Pizarro, Sao Paulo/London, 2019. acknowledgements to the University of Westminster for supporting the workshop and to CEPT University for kindly hosting it.
Latitudes Global Studio 2018 Rethinking Ahmedabad 23-27 july 2018 at CEPT University and Deewanji ni Haveli, in Ahmedabad, India organizers: + Lucy Anne McWeeney (Project Manager, Latitudes Network, UK) + Eduardo Pizarro (Ambassador, Latitudes Network, BR) academic committee: +Mehrdad Borna (University of Westminster, UK) + Urvi Desai (CEPT University, India) + Joana Gonรงalves (University of Sao Paulo, BR) + Hiren Patel (CEPT University, India) + Eduardo Pizarro (University of Sao Paulo, BR) + Rajan Rawal (CEPT University, India) + Rosa Schiano-Phan (Univ. of Westminster, UK) keynote speakers: + Ruturaj Parikh / Charles Correa Found. (India) + Rahul Srivastava + Matias Echanove / URBZ (India)
index foreword 1. about......001 2. emerging challenges in environmental design......005 2.1 a prototypical application as an opportunity for research and development...007 2.2 four challenges from the perspective of building design...015 2.3 environmental rights for the poor...030 2.4 environmental Design...038 2.5 roundtable discussion...042
3. design inputs......046 3.1 Charles Correa and Building for India...048 3.2 design comes as we build...050
4. design workshop......060 4.1 site visit...062 4.2 site introduction...072 4.3 climate introduction...084 4.4 design concepts...088 4.5 reflections...122
5. architectural visits......124 6. LGE......140 people involved......152
FOREWORD FOREWORD FOREWORD
The Latitudes Network was founded in 2014 by Professor David Dernie and is managed by Lucy Anne McWeeney. The agenda is simply that environmental change is best experienced if it is to be understood. The Latitudes Network offers an opportunity to open doors into diverse climates, both real and virtual, for students and staff to engage in interdisciplinary design research and learning by working across different latitudes and climatic regions. In this way our changing climate becomes more tangible. Students and researchers have the opportunity to think across boundaries, to create new ideas for living and working in an age of unpredictable climate. The Latitudes programme creates memories about how important our climate is to the places we build and inhabit. The network comprises universities in Turkey, India, China, Italy, Norway, Finland, the Maldives, Malaysia, Brazil, Colombia and South Africa. Teaching, research interest and current work spans across four thematic areas related to design for environmental sustainability and climate change: Adaptation Design, Green Design, Resilience Design and Arctic Design.
Latitudes workshops compliment and add value to a student’s degree course and learning journey. They are an opportunity for students to practice what their lectures preach and enable them to see and feel the impact. They are taken to the local level rather than the global one. Connecting students to industry experts and like-minded people of the Latitudes ethos. During the past five years, over five hundred University of Westminster students have attended Latitudes Global Studios which have included snow workshops in Tromso, Norway a mud workshop in Nagpur and a design charrette in Jakarta, Indonesia. The International Design Workshops have proved very popular. Students embrace the intense itinerary and enjoy working in multi-disciplinary teams. The Rethinking: Ahmedabad workshop was an excellent example of this. 50 undergraduate, postgraduate and PhD students from 20 different countries spent nearly two weeks in India. This intense learning experience included site visits to Keshav Nagar slums and Sabarmati Ashram, presentations and seminars at CEPT University and lectures from guest experts. One of the many positive outcomes was that a third year Architecture student attended an interview at Balkrishna Doshi’s office and is now working at Sangath full-time during his year out. The trip was very well received and here is an example of the feedback: “I am writing to you to show my gratitude for accepting me to Latitudes for Ahmedabad. It was one of the most amazing opportunities that I have had and you are the person who gave me this chance, I am super grateful. I am writing my dissertation based on the experience we had in the slums. You opened my mind!” – Third Year Architecture student. There are more Latitudes international design workshops being organised and we hope to return to India soon. I would like to thank Urvi Desai and Hiren Patel from CEPT University, Rosa Schiano Phan, Joana Carla Soares Gonçalves, Mehrdad Borna and most importantly Eduardo Pimentel Pizarro whose hard work and dedication made the Ahmedabad workshop a great success! http://www.latitudesnetwork.com/
Lucy Anne McWeeney Project Manager of the Latitudes Network, University of Westminster, London, UK
1. ABOUT 1. ABOUT 1. ABOUT
“TOGETHER! Rethinking Ahmedabad” invites bright minds from different latitudes in the globe to share a common ground and then reflect and build answers regarding environmental, urban and social topics driving everyday life in India. What are the conflicts and potentialities? What is our role in the redesign of the future of the city? How do we do that? The five-days programme is filled with diverse activities ranging from: a Design Workshop; Lectures and Roundtables with invited Professionals and Academics from India, UK and Brazil; visits to architectural sites in Ahmedabad, including the Mill Owner’s Association Building (designed by Le Corbusier) and CEPT University; Latitudes Network Exhibition global opening and related awards ceremony. The Design Workshop tackles environmental, urban and social issues found in Ahmedabad through the development of architectural and/or urban concepts for a specific site in the city, which will be visited. Attendants will be separated in teams which will be supervised and finally reviewed by design tutors and guests. The Latitudes Network Exhibition was launched in Ahmedabad and other Latitudes Partner Universities as a digital display to unveil and celebrate the network’s achievements throughout the years. Through an open call, the Partner Universities were invited to send their contributions which were assessed by an invited jury and recognized in an awards ceremony in Ahmedabad. LGE’s catalogue is available online at Latitudes Network website. Let’s do it, TOGETHER! Eduardo Pizarro, Students’ Ambassador at FAUUSP, Sao Paulo, Brazil 002
TOGETHER! RETHINKING AHMEDABAD
schedule monday [23rd] at CEPT University 9am - 2pm architectural visits [CEPT University, by Doshi]
4 - 8pm welcome speeches keynote speeches
evening exhibition opening
[Rahul+Matias URBZ Mumbai]
tuesday [24th] at Deewanji Ni Haveli 9am - 1pm design workshop [site visit]
2 - 6pm design workshop [context]
evening free + exhibition
wednesday [25th] at CEPT University 9am - 1pm roundtable [Urvi, Suria, Rajan, Rosa, Joana]
2 - 6pm design workshop [concept]
evening free [suggestion: dinner North Lawns]
thursday [26th] at Deewanji Ni Haveli 9am - 1pm design workshop [development]
2 - 6pm design workshop [development]
evening awards ceremony at CEPT University
friday [27th] at CEPT University 9am - 1pm design workshop [presentation] closing speeches
2 - 6pm architectural visits
evening free + exhibition
[Indian Institute of Management, by L. Kahn; Amdavad ni Gufa, by Doshi; Sanskar K Museum by Le Corbusier]
2. EMERGING 2. EMERGING 2. EMERGING CHALENGES CHALENGES CHALENGES IN IN IN ENVIRONMENTAL ENVIRONMENTAL ENVIRONMENTA DESIGN DESIGN DESIGN 005
L AL by Surya Kakani, Joana Gonรงalves, Eduardo Pizarro, Rosa Schiano-Phan and Mehrdad Borna. 006
2.1 A prototypical application as an opportunity for research and development by Surya Kakani
Fig. 01. Culture dissemination - labour as agency. Source: Kakani Associates. 007
Studio 25-B Building from waste In the evolving urban hubris of continual breaking and building, the project sets a possibility of reusing waste generated by debris of broken buildings, as an endeavor to reduce carbon footprint. The attempt is to understand making of building materials from waste along with maintaining ease of adaptability (using existing skills). The challenge is mainstreaming the end result as a credible contemporary alternative of building type through a prototypical application as opportunity for R&D, by: 1. Recycling through Re-manufacturing by maximizing use of manufactured waste as new building material; 2. Cultural dissemination through upskilling and capacity building the agency of labour and craft; 3. High environmental performance through passive engineering for a hot, arid locale.
Material innovation and skill transferability through design Ahmedabad produces about a 1000 tonnes of building debris a day that can potentially be harnessed by Recycling through Re-manufacturing. In view of a large building stock that continues to use masonry construction, the waste was manufactured in a brick module for ease of adaptability. Bricks thus made of building debris and waste lime sludge from a calcium hydroxide plant, with minor addition of cement to speed up binding, are not fired but water cured and compacted. Recycled ceramic tile waste, hydrated lime and sand are processed as ready to use, premixed mortar. An exposed brick, load bearing plan type was configured to give expression to the upskilling of local masons. Screens made of local bamboo were designed to cut off harsh glare and shade the openings.
Fig. 02. Material regeneration. Source: Kakani Associates.
Fig. 03. Re-cycling through Re-manufacturing. Source: Kakani Associates.
A holistic framework to achieve economy of resources through flows of material and energy Ahmedabad uses 12.4 million bricks a day. 0.2 million of these can be produced by mining the cityâ€™s building debris, instead of natureâ€™s rich top soil. Waste thus regenerated as bricks and mortar, not only reduces landfills and the use of virgin materials but also carbon footprint. High environmental performance is achieved through an integrated holistic approach. The thick load bearing walls reduce passive solar heat gain through thermal mass along with passive cooling, bamboo screens for shading and cool of the earth in basement, help stabilize the diurnal temperature variations throughout the day. Solar PV panels that connect to the main grid produce more than the total energy required, making this a net zero cost building.
Fig. 04. Manufactured waste. Source: Kakani Associates.
Developing low cost, high efficiency urban typologies, referencing environmental concerns Fine masonry skills along with recycled and re-manufactured brick and mortar are showcased through an exposed load bearing structure. The architectural language is defined by an ever-changing tectonic play of light over this exposed brickwork and lime structure, layered with bamboo screens and wooden louvers over openings. The plan type rearticulates the traditional Indian typology of court, verandas and screens in a contemporary context making spaces flexibly multifunctional, for ever changing urban demands. The plan incorporates a passive cooling duct built into the central vertical shaft of movement, connecting all floors, moving air from the cool basement upwards to terrace. Brick paved, tree covered court encourages everyday activities to connect with the earth and sky. Fig. 05. Anchoring materiality as landscape. Source: Kakani Associates.
Fig. 06-07. Prototypical application. Source: Kakani Associates.
2.2 Four challenges from the perspective of building design by Joana Gonรงalves
The environmental impact of energy consumption in buildings coupled with two global phenomena: climate change and the growing urbanization of emerging and developing economies, and the consequent risks that come along to the environmental conditions in cities around the world, impose a number of challenges to architectural and urban design to which an environmental approach can offer an alternative future of adaptive and mitigative design strategies. But first of all, it is important to understand the process of environmental design and the multiple opportunities that come with it, when based on analytical procedures rather than deterministic rules, as the ones that characterized the so called “bioclimatic modernist architecture” with iconic examples built mainly after the 2nd World War until late 1960s, which were designed based on principles of building physics and basic design tools such as the solar chart (CORBELLA and YANNAS, 2003). One of the most worldwide well known building of those times is the headquarters of the originally named Ministry of Education, Culture and Health (1936), the MEC Building (Ministério de Educação, Cultura e Saúde), in Rio de Janeiro (see figure 08), design by the Lúcio Costa. This is an example of the slab typology built in cities of warm climates on and near the tropical belt (latitude around 23º S), which because of the concerns with solar protection (particularly in offices) has the longest facades oriented north-south, as the south receives the smallest annual amount of direct solar rays whilst the north can be easily protected with the classic horizontal brise solei of 45º solar mask. The narrowest east and west orientations are blind, given the layout of the rectangular floor plan and the impinging lower solar angles, which are more difficult to block. At this point, it is also important to mention that buildings like MEC are beautiful architectural masterpieces that expresses the aesthetic values and building technology available in those days, with environmental attributes still valid for today’s architecture, but that, on the other hand, also carry issues of environmental performance and internal space quality, as identified by Corbella and Yannas (2003), who monitored the internal conditions during a warm period. The referred studies showed higher internal temperatures in the south zone of the building due to the effect of diffuse radiation through the unprotected glass facade. In addition to that, on the other side of the building, occupants complained about low levels of daylight and compromised views of the outside due to the geometry of the external shading devices, to mention just a few problems. In cities of temperate climates, such as London (latitude 50º 30` N), the deterministic and reductionist approach of bioclimatic design led to the excessive application of single glazing areas on the south orientation of residential buildings, for example, in order to capture solar gains, a strategy that would work well only during cold (but not so cold) and sunny days and, in fact, resulted in internal spaces which were overheated in warm and sunny days and cold in cooler and cloudy days, as shown by Schiano-Phan, et al. (2018), in the publication Spatial Delight and Environmental Performance of Modernist Architecture in London, Golden Lane Estate. Today’s retrofit of changing facades like the one of the Brunswick Centre from single to double glazing does improve the thermal winter 016
conditions, but does not solve the negative impact of an excessive glass area onto the energy performance of buildings in this kind of climate. As opposed to the adoption of over simplified solutions, an in-depth understanding of the complex energy balance of a building in different seasons of the year, taking in account its form and orientation, building components, solar and internal gains versus heat losses as well as occupation patterns, has proved to be the way forward to the exploration of effective passive strategies, for a specific design context. So, here is the first challenge: demystify the dogmas of bioclimatic design and explore the potential of analytical procedures instead, being aware that the smart use of mathematical models of the advanced computer simulations have the power to free-up architectural design from deterministic and formalistic solutions. The studies developed by Cotta (2012) showed the relative impact of reducing glass ratios and introducing shading on four orientations of a typical office space in SĂŁo Paulo. Three scenarios of facade design were simulated being: the first one with window wall ratio (wwr) of 100% (representing the curtain wall) and clear glass; the second with wwr of 100% and external shading; and the third with the wwr of 50% and also with external shading (see figure 09). The simulation results showed a more significant advantage of reducing the wwr in the north and south orientations rather than in the east and West. In the north and South facades the decrease of solar gains due to a reduction of wwr from 90% (curtain wall, the base-case) to 50% was of 30% and 40% respectively, even when the base-case is shaded. Different from what would be expected from the knowledge of basic environmental principles, in the east and west orientations the reduction of solar gains due to a decrease of the wwr was less relevant, when comparing with the results from the scenario of the curtain wall with appropriate shading. In the east and west, the protection of the curtain wall against all the impinging direct solar radiation already promotes 65% decrease in solar gains, whilst the reduction of the wwr contributes to only 10% less solar gains. These results can be explained based on the impact of the diffuse radiation, typical of the climate of SĂŁo Paulo, where in the north and south orientations, the diffuse radiation has a relevant percentage in the total monthly global radiation, therefore, reductions of the glazing ratio affect significantly the sky-view factor of the window and the consequent penetration of diffuse radiation. As opposed to that, in the east and west, the direct component is more relevant, this is why in the last cases the shading is so much more efficient than the reduction of the wwr. Also, to guarantee minimum daylighting levels around 300 lux the shaded glass area should not have a wwr smaller than 75%, in order to compensate for the obstruction created by the shading devices. So, going back to the bioclimatic modernist slab in the tropics, the mathematical exercise described above provides a technical argument against the approach that exposes completely the south facade and makes out of the east and west blind walls. As a matter of fact, if there is an orientation in the tropics to be a curtain wall is the east and/or the west, but with the proper shading strategy, obviously. It is needless to say that without the understanding of principles, one is not able to 018
set up the proper technical investigation. So, it is not a case of disqualifying the role of environmental principles, but to placed it in the right moment of the design process. Gonçalves and Bode (2015) in the publication Edifício Ambiental have demonstrated how the European practice have relied on technical assessments and advanced computer simulations to create unique and performative buildings. However, it should be said here that in countries of developing and emergent economies do not value the importance of such technical studies, once this requires investment on the design process of buildings, which the market is not yet prepared to put in. Besides the few situations in which the design brief shows a true commitment with the environmental performance (often to create an iconic example), strict energy regulations, high energy costs and the lack of reliability in energy infrastructure are some of the factors that can create change in the way that the local market forces in these countries see the importance of serious technical studies of buildings´ environmental performance. Although since at least 1990s the design process has gained the tools to become a much more exploratory and yet precise procedure regarding the environmental performance of buildings, a major challenge to be dealt with since then has been the birth of the so called “green wash” architecture – numbered here as the second challenge for the practice of environmental design. How should a truly environmental building look like? In reality, with the support of advanced technical studies and the consideration of basic environmental principles (for example, provide shade against direct solar radiation during the summer period in warm and hot climates, or opening bigger openings to the south rather than the north in residential buildings located in temperate regions in the north hemisphere), preliminary design proposals of a more conventional architecture approach can be adjusted to an adequate performance, in most cases. But beyond that, environmental variables can also be applied as drivers of the architectural form, such as seen in a number of buildings around the world. A few recent examples of that, widely published are: London 2012 Velodrome, built in the London Olympic Park, the office building of One Airport Square in Accra, in Ghana, the new research office of the Toulouse School of Economics, Toulouse and many others (BODE, 2015). In addition to that, the advent of parametric design associated with the interest for environmental qualities, such as shading, daylight and natural ventilation has generated numerous examples of theoretical and real-life buildings derived by form-finding processes which are environmentally qualified. Notwithstanding, in a number of other cases formalism takes over the performance creating a false reference of environmental architecture for a true performance. The very unusual shapes and the preponderant presence of vegetation that characterize the last generation of Ken Yeang´s building design as mentioned in Gonçalves (2010), creating the architectural approach known as Vertical Urbanism, which sits among those that could be easily questioned: Performance or formalism? But fortunately, many of those design proposals don’t get built. On the other hand, another kind of “green wash” is proliferating across the globe: the 019
certified glass buildings, being many of them glass office towers. Created in 1990 by USGBC (US Green Building Council), Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, LEED, it is the most popular of the green building certificates, used in many parts of the world. However, with more than a decade of existence, the validity of the LEED certificate system has been highly questioned. Newsham, Mancini and Birt (2009) proved that 35 out of a sample of 100 NorthAmerican buildings were consuming more than similar buildings, not certified. Two years later, a publication with data from the energy consumption of an office building in North Caroline, featuring more than the double of its neighbouring buildings, raised more questions about efficiency of such a certification system (APPLEBAUM, 2011). As explained by Buoro, Hernandes e Gonçalves (2015), a closer look at the criteria applied in the LEED system reveals that this system is focused much more on the performance of building systems than on design features associated with the architecture of the building which play a central role in the energy demand to cool or heat the internal spaces, including building form and orientation, internal layout, shading strategies or even operation of windows for natural ventilation and others. So, the certified LEED GOLD and PLATINUM glass office buildings in São Paulo, for instance, are those examples of high environmental and energy performance? The architectural design of the majority of those buildings is the opposite of what the local climatic conditions impose on the design, that just based on basic understanding of applied physics one can say that those buildings will not have a good energy performance at all. As an example, glass towers with double glazing panels are certified as “good environmentally” and “energy performative buildings”, in a climate where the external temperatures are rarely above 28oC but solar radiation can be as high as 1.000 w/m2 on the north or west orientation at certain times of the year, which means that ‘U” value of the glass (that controls gains and losses through conduction) is not so important to the final cooling demand of the building as an external shading strategy would be. In other words, the gains through impinging solar radiation is much more significate than through conduction given the temperature difference between inside and outside, especially if inside is 24 oC or 26 oC and outside is maximum 28 oC or 30 oC. So, how come a deep-plan, consequently badly lit by daylight, that does not even use night time cooling (a simple and efficient strategy to release heat accumulate during the day reducing internal gains at the first hours of the day), sitting in a tropical climate with no solar protection be certified as a very good environmentally responsive building? In cases like this, even simple manual calculations can confirm the building´s poor environmental performance. Furthermore, as discussed by Baker (2009), the behaviour of occupants of an office building in England, for example, can exert a factor of four over the building´s final energy demand, whilst the design and the systems exert factor two each. This is the reason why thinking about adaptive strategies as part of the architectural design for the occupants to find their own particular comfort conditions is so crucial for the success of building´s environmental and 020
consequent energy performance. So, if certification systems are meant to reward really good buildings an assessment criterion about the inclusion and efficiency of adaptive strategies for environmental comfort should be included. So what do we do about the false paradigms created by the green certification? The main strategy to reveal the false marketing from this kind of certification systems is to do what Newsham, Mancini and Birt (2009) as well as Applebaum (2011) have done, which is to expose the real performance of buildings by postoccupancy evaluation (POE) routines on the perception of comfort from the occupants´ point of view and the measurement of energy consumption by enduse. We have to know and disseminate much more about the real performance of buildings than we as an international scientific community and practitioners know now. In summary, we need to look critically at the legacy and question the real performance of buildings to move forward with truly environmentally responsive architectural solutions. Anyway, as already clearly stated in the Green Economy Report (UNEP, 2011), the big shift in the intensity of energy demand coming from the building sector, requested by the IPCC (2007) will not come from voluntary market instruments, such as the LEED or any other certification, but from regional and national energy policies and strict building codes. Linked to the certified “green wash” type of architecture is the desire to perpetuate the old culture of the artificially controlled environments, which has lasted already for almost 70 years, since the beginning of its dissemination and massive adoption in buildings in the United States in 1950s, approximately (BANHAM, 1984). So, now comes the third challenge: to create an alternative to the air-conditioned spaces, a challenge that has been confronted by different sorts of agents of environmental design since the first oil crises in 1970s. According to a number of sources, in the decade of 2000, residential and commercial buildings were responsible for 60% of the worldwide electricity consumption (IEA, 2009). The substantial growth of the commercial sector that has been happening in the last two decades and that projects itself into the immediate future, mainly in parts of East and Middle East Asia (where the hot climatic conditions represent a big challenge for passive design), following the business as usual approach (i.e. the sealed deep-plan glass tower), it is not difficult to predict that this 60% will be pushed up by a massive increase in the demand for space cooling (see figure 10). On the other hand, the potential for energy savings in the conventional model of office buildings in particular is also significant, since internal spaces are normally conditioned and lit artificially for 100% of the occupational time, in other words, there is a lot to be improved and explored in and beyond the glass-box typology in terms of environmental performance. As an example, Vieira (2011) identify by means of analytical studies the possibility to reduce up to 75 % the cooling demand in a typical office building in Rio de Janeiro (latitude 23º S), meaning the equivalent to 42 kWh/m2 per year, versus 167 kWh/m2 calculated for a typical conventional glass tower. The big reduction is due to the combined effect of external shading, night time cooling, internal exposed thermal mass and the 021
rectangular form that facilitates the effectiveness of cross ventilation during the mild days of the year (approximately 1/3 of the annual occupied hours). Despite the climatic restrictions to open up buildings for natural ventilation in warm and hot regions of the planet, and other environmental issues such as noise and air pollution, analytical studies such as the one presented above show how energy demand can be reduced and opportunity for natural ventilation can be found with a responsive design strategy. As a matter of fact, a major barrier for the development of naturally ventilated buildings (at least for part of the year) still is the culture of the air conditioned environment and the image of prestige associated with it. Even though, several recent research works indicate that the majority of occupants of office buildings appreciate the contact with outdoors and would like to experience that within the buildings, especially in cities of mild weather conditions, as explained in the work of Nicol, Humphreys and Roaf (2012). Moving away from the narrow comfort band imposed already in 1970s, on the basis of the adaptive model the discuss about the re-introduction of natural ventilation can then be brought to the table, once that thermal comfort in buildings is then redefined as a function of the external thermal conditions, with the consideration that this strategy requires more than simply operable Windows in curtain wall façade. In other words, it is easier to open the windows when 21 or 22oC +- 2 oC is not the expected comfort zone. On the contrary, a much more variant thermal environment is now the goal. As shown by Gonçalves (2010), in The Environmental Performance of Tall Buildings, icons from a generation of office buildings started to be built already in 1990s confirm that the success of natural ventilation is associated with a holistic architectural approach differentiated from that of the conventional office building of the glass deep-plan tower, portraying alternative solutions for the building form, with narrower floor plans, transitional spaces, shaded facades and operable windows. However, there is something really important to be highlighted about these buildings: in order to bring more sun, light and air inside the relationship between total built and usable are changes dramatically, as more façade area and even multiple-height spaces and transitional spaces are introduced, as seen in the case of the Commerzbank Headquarters in Frankfurt, completed in 1998 and extensively published, including by Gonçalves and Bode (2010 and 2011), (see figure 11). Hence, a new concept of usable area needs to be understood by the market, in which day-lit spaces should have higher values and darker ones and transitional spaces should also be counted as usable-net area, especially in the scenario of the knowledge economy, where good-quality spaces for social interaction is a required asset. The future of the passive design of commercial building, in particular, relies on quality beyond energy performance and on the multiple advantages of transitional spaces and on the myriad of adaptive opportunities for occupants´ environmental comfort and personal satisfaction with the space they use and live in. So far, what was commented here was based on the potential of building´s environmental design process, from an energy and environmental perspective. 022
The first three challenges are nothing more than old-fashion issues inherited from the values and practice of the 20th century building sector in the regulated market of cities. Looking at the building sector in the informal city, a non-stop growing urban phenomena in many cities of developing and emerging economies that also started in the last decades of the 20th, but have reached an alarming magnitude in the first decade of the 21st century (UN-DESA, 2009), one could argue that the challenge is less related to energy issue and more to health and wellbeing conditions. So, here comes the fourth challenge to environmental design: to meet the demands of a global socioeconomic agenda addressing the living conditions in the informal city. In the sub-tropical city of São Paulo, for example, which in the first decade of the new century was already the third biggest city in the world with 12 million inhabitants and the 10th richest, had almost 2 million people living in slums (IBGE, 2012; FRANÇA and COSTA, 2012). The growth of urban slums in São Paulo and in many big cities in the world is associated with the increase of its population density and, in the case of numerous favelas in Latin American, is also accompanied by an increase of electricity demand, adding pressure on the precarious infrastructure and impoverishing even more the living conditions, due to the accumulation of heat gains in every increasing compact irregular and overcrowded housing, agglomerated in informal settlements of poor quality open spaces The second largest favela in the city, named Paraisópolis (City of Paradise), which started in 1960s concentrates nowadays around 100.000 inhabitants (IBGE, 2010). Measurements in loco carried out by Pizarro et al (2014) about the thermal conditions of a residential unit in the favela of Paraisopolis showed that the exposure to solar radiation on the roof coupled with the concentration of internal gains and insufficient ventilation rates resulted in air temperatures as high as 40oC in the living space, when outdoor temperatures oscillated around 30oC. In this context, the question for designers and city planners is how bring daylight, sun and fresh air (natural ventilation), all fundamental variables for the quality of life within buildings. Given the size of some of these slums, architectural and urban planning strategies for the requalification of the residential buildings, to be economic, environmentally and specially socially sustainable will have to acknowledge the existing built fabric and well established socioeconomic structures and work with it, rather than denying it and re-designing on the basis of a tabula raza. Here, one should be looking at interventions and improve the physical and environmental conditions, using local materials and engaging residents. The overall form and materiality of the built environment coupled with social and cultural aspects should give enough clues on how to intervene physically, as done by Pizarro and Gonçalves (2018) in the case of the “Everyday House” project in Paraisópolis, that proposed a replacement of the bear concrete slab roof by a kind of open room, closed by walls of perforated ceramic blocks that offer protection against the sun and constant cross ventilation to serve a space with multipurpose 023
use, including collective and social activities (see figure 12). The replication of such an intervention would not just add a transitional space to other buildings for various uses, but would also modify the roof top the built form, providing another qualified level of semi-opened spaces and protecting the internal spaces from the impact of strong solar radiation of the sub-tropical region. Whatever is the case, the formal or informal, one of the key roles of environmental design is make architectural solutions more environmentally informative and humane. Furthermore, based on principles of environmental design, we can build more than less energy intensive buildings, we can achieve better cities for less wealthy, that acknowledges local cultural activities and social structures, cities for all that the modernist era envisioned but did not deliver anywhere in the world. Other challenges to be explored from a joint architectural and urban design perspective in a future of climate change and not commented here are: the performance of existing urban blocks in compact urban centres for the provision of quality housing, considering the impact of the urban form on buildings; the opportunities to re-inhabiting existing residual and decaying open spaces for outdoor activities, looking at two-scale intervention including changes in the design of open spaces and the inclusion of temporary structures;
Fig. 08. MEC building in Rio de Janeiro. View of the north faĂ§ade. Photo: JoĂŁo Leal Vieira. 024
Fig. 09. Cluster of glass towers in Singapore, exemplifying the model of the latest generation of office buildings in the East Asia. Photo: Leo Shie.
Fig. 10. Commerzbank Headquarters in Frankfurt am Main. View of the internal atrium that connects the multi-storey gardens. Photo: John Perry.
Fig. 11. Calculation of solar gains for four orientations in a
typical office space in Sรฃo Paulo, considering different faรงade scenarios. Source: Cotta (2012).
Figure 12. Intervention in Paraisรณpolis: Everyday House project. Source: Pizarro and Gonรงalves (2018).
Bibliographic references Applebaum, Alec (2011). Can the Green Building Council Polish LEED’s Tarnished Standards? Fast Company, June, 2011. Available at: http://www.fastcompany.com/1714517/the-problem-with-leed-certification Baker. N. (2009). The Handbook of Sustainable refurbishment of buildings. London: Earthscan. Banham, R. (1984). The Architecture of the Well-Tempered Environment. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984. Bode, Klaus (2015). Capitulo 13: Projeto Integrado e o Papel da Simulação Computacional de Desempenho Ambiental, Exemplos de Projeto. In: GONÇALVES, Joana, BODE, Klaus (Orgs.), Edifício Ambiental. São Paulo: Oficina de Textos. Buoro, Anarrita, Hermandez, Alberto Neto e Gonçalves, Joana Carla Soares (2015). Capítulo 21: A Certificação de Edifícios. 21.1 Uma Revisão Crítica e o Caso Brasileiro. In: GONÇALVES, Joana, BODE, Klaus (Org.), Edifício Ambiental. São Paulo: Oficina de Textos. Corbella, Oscar; Yannas, Yannas (2003). Em busca de uma arquitetura sustentável para os trópicos, Conforto Ambiental. Revan, Rio de Janeiro. Cotta, J. P. de O. (2012). The Impact of Window Design in the Environmental Performance of Work Environments in São Paulo (MSc Dissertation). Sustainable and Environmental Design, Environmental and Energy Programme, Architetural Association School of Architecture, London. França, e.; Costa, K. P. (Coord.), (2012). Plano Municipal de Habitação, a Experiência de São Paulo, Volume 1. São Paulo: HABI Superintendência de Habitação Popular. Gonçalves, Joana, Bode, Klaus (Orgs.), (2015). Edifício Ambiental. São Paulo: Oficina de Textos. Gonçalves, Joana Carla Soares, BODE, Klaus. (2011). The environmental value of buildings: a proposal for performance assessment with the reference to the case of the office tall building. In: Innovation, The European Journal of Social Sciences (ISSN: 1469-8412 (electronic). Taylor and Francis. July 2011. Gonçalves, Joana Carla Soares, BODE, Klaus. (2010). Up in the air. In: Tall Order? Meeting the challenge of ever-higher skyscrapers. CIBSE Journal. December 2010, London Gonçalves, Joana Carla Soares (2010). The Environmental Performance of Tall Buildings. Earthscan/James & James, London. IBGE – Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (2012). Anuário Estatístico do Brasil, CD ROM. Available at: http://biblioteca.ibge.gov.br/visualizacao/ periodicos/552/cd_2010_agsn_if.pdf/ IBGS - Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (2017). [Online], Available at: https://cidades.ibge.gov.br/brasil/sp/sao-paulo/panorama/ IEA - International Energy Agency. World Energy Outlook 2009. Available at: http:// www.iea.org/weo/electricity.asp 028
IPPC - International Panel of Climate Change (2007). Climate change 2007: Mitigation of climate change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge; New York. Nicol, F., Humphreys, M., Roaf, S. (2012). Adaptive Thermal Comfort, Principles and Practice. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. Newsham, G. R.C., Mancini, S., Birt, B. J. (2009), Do LEED-certified buildings save energy: Yes, but. In: Energy and Buildings, no. 41, 897-905. Elsevier. Pizarro, E. P., Gonçalves, J. C. S. (2018). Everyday House: Redesigning the Informal Housing in Subtropical Climates, the Case of Paraisópolis Favela in São Paulo. In: Proceedings PLEA 2018: Smart and Healthy within the 2-degree Limit. HongKong. Available at: http://pleahongkong.com Pizarro, E. P., Gonçalves, J. C. S., Mulfarth, R. K. and Carunchio, C., (2014). Examining the Environmental and Energy Challenges of Slums in São Paulo, Brazil. In: Proceedings PLEA 2014, Ahmedabad. Available at: http://www.plea2014. in/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/Paper_6C_2745_PR.pdf [20 June 2017]. Schiano-Phan, R, et al. (2018). Spatial Delight and Environmental Performance of Modernist Architecture in London, Golden Lane Estate. Future Cities and Environment, 4(1): 16, 1–24. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5334/fce.47 UN-DESA (2009), World Population Prospects: The 2008 revision. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, New York. Available at: http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/wpp2008/wpp2008_ highlights.pdf. UNEP - United Nations Environmental Programme (2011). Buildings: investing in energy and resource efficiency. In: The Green Economy Report. Available at: http:www.unep.org/greeneconomy/ Available at: 14 de junho de 2011. Vieira, João Leal (2011). Concrete in Architecture: Thermal Inertia as a Passive Cooling Strategy in Working Environments in Rio de Janeiro (MSc Dissertation). Sustainable and Environmental Design, Environmental and Energy Programme, Architetural Association School of Architecture, London.
2.3 Environmental rights for the poor by Eduardo Pizarro
What is a Brazilian favela nowadays? What are its needs and potentialities? What are the inhabitants rights? How could urban designers propose an innovative and kind way of re-designing it? And what should we learn from the favela to re-design our own city? From these questions rises a re-design for the second biggest favela in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, which started being implemented in small scale as urban prototypes. CITY OF PARADISE? Among 190 million Brazilians, 11 million live in informal settlements. 11 million is also the total population of the biggest city in the country and the seventh biggest one in the world, Sao Paulo. In the city of Sao Paulo, 3 million people live in informal settlements, from which 1.6 million live in favelas (slums). And in-between a wealthy area of Sao Paulo was born the second biggest favela of the city, concentrating a hundred thousand inhabitants. Its name is Paraisópolis, which could be translated by City of Paradise. At first view, this name seems controversial for an informal settlement, although it may be related to its potential future. Since the 1970s, Paraisópolis was a wooden favela built gradually and informally over a 100 acres private urban development, and it was remarked by the lack of health , habitability, infrastructure and public services. However, since 2005 the government has been putting money in housing and infrastructure projects for areas in risk and the population has been gaining higher educational and purchasing power levels. Then, nowadays, Paraisópolis is a consolidated urban reality, mostly composed by brick buildings, 3 to 5 storeys high, articulated by paved streets, with public lighting, garbage collection and other public services. Despite the higher levels of housing, electricity, sewage and water supplies, which are really important, the interventions that took place in Paraisópolis do not dialogue with the favela itself, setting apart lots of urban and environmental subtleties, a hidden dimension which is the microplanning, the territory’s identity and its inhabitants. From this shortcoming, the proposal intends to re-design the Favela de Paraisópolis from its latent opportunities for a new urban future. STRATEGY! The general strategy is based on the understanding of the territory, in regarding to climate, urban fabric, built form, urban dynamics, people’s needs and social interactions. It is fundamentally bottom-up, instead of top-down. The strategy comes from two great potentialities discovered on field: first, inside the favela, public and private instances got blurred in a different way than in the formal city; second, a single building’s floor inside the favela does not correspond to a building’s floor in the formal city, but to an urban plot. It means that each building’s floor may be related to completely different and independent owners, different constructive materials, different horizontal and/or vertical access, and 031
could be freely built, rebuilt, connected, sold or rent. From this potentiality rises the conclusion that the design for favelas should not be based anymore on the removal of entire buildings to create new land for brand new block buildings, as it has been done in Paraisópolis and other informal settlements in Brazil. On the contrary, the re-design of favela should be much more kind and closer to acupuncture, looking for each building’s floor as a minimum unit of design and intervention. Based on this, the strategy focuses the re-design of the spaces in-between the buildings, transbordering, re-drawing and recreating perspectives and spaces for people, sun, wind, landscape, culture and other urban opportunities. For example, a single building’s floor previously occupied by Mrs. Maria’s house may be turned into a public open space, as a pocket park, or a collective laundry, or even just a space to breathe, feel the light and wind, or enjoy the urban views and the life in community. Meanwhile, Mrs. Maria moves to the rooftop or to other floor in the closest neighborhood. On this way it is possible to maintain or even reinforce some favela’s genuine characteristics, as diversity, endless growing and spontaneous changing, movement and livability.
Fig. 13. Typical alley void: 3D printed model. Source: Pizarro, 2014.
Fig. 14. Interstitical infrastructure, invisible spaces in-between buildings. Source: Pizarro, 2014. 033
DESIGN! The spaces in-between the buildings and the buildings themselves are carefully re-drawn through the reallocation of dwellings and street stores for the creation of new public open spaces and urban opportunities, structured in a wide and multiscale network, and also through the buildingâ€™s structural strengthening. The following section shows the proposal for an urban block in ParaisĂłpolis. The re-design looks to the built mass as an overlap of single buildingâ€™s floors (minimum units for design and intervention) which are independently transformed in urban scale, regarding to their meanings, functions and aesthetics. The result is an urban environment much more permeable to insolation and natural ventilation, beyond creating new urban places and pathways, articulated in different levels and promoting different functions and uses.
Fig. 15-16. Redesigning the spaces in-between buildings based on solar , wind and social dynamics - sections. Source: Pizarro, 2014.
The re-design of the facades is also quite important, as they constitute a membrane in-between outdoor and indoor spaces, or public and private instances. As a transitional structure, the facades must provide at the same time protection and interaction, guaranteeing standard levels of solar and wind access for the indoors and creating structures and equipment for catalyzing urban life in the outdoors. The proposal is highly based on the local materials and technologies, as itâ€™s shown in the following perspectives.
Fig. 17-19. Redesigning the faĂ§ades, taken as environmental and social membranes articulating inside and outside. Source: Pizarro, 2014.
As the favela’s arteries, the re-design of alleys and lanes is also a first order intervention. However, the design basically comes from the ordinary existing strategies, developed by the inhabitants to adapt the existing environment to their real needs. So, these strategies are strengthened and articulated to other design inputs. The following sketches constitute a proposal for the São Clemente’s lane, highlighting several tools for promoting better urban, environmental and social territories, as follows: street art, repainting buildings’ facade and standardizing the dwellings’ identification numbers, strengthening the sense of belonging in the neighborhood; sharing or trading spaces; small communal equipment, as a pocket library, a recycling center, an area for urban agriculture, a bike rack, a workshop area, a cinema square, or simply a welcome space to sit, talk, play, stay and interact, promoting urban life; collecting and reusing rainwater; using bioswales and rain gardens. Beyond the lanes and alleys, the formal streets constitute great opportunities for urban re-appropriation, even for a while, promoting and stimulating several functions in specific days and times, such as an urban fair, a soccer field for children, a space for artistic and cultural manifestations, and even a tables’ area in front of restaurants during lunch. The aim is to give back to the streets their sense of public space by birth, providing also better pathways, benches, shaded areas and urban vegetation. So, the re-design seeks to understand the spaces in-between the buildings and then experience guidelines and strategies to turn them into an effective urban, environmental and social infrastructure, which may catalyze changings on this reality. Fig. 20. Design strategies based on small and ordinary practices found in the existing territory. Source: Pizarro, 2014.
FUTURE… The re-design proposed for Paraisópolis shows that the favela should not settle with emergency interventions in mega scale, regarding to big infrastructures implemented top-down and to housing blocks which do not reflect the ’favela way of life’ and the inhabitant’s needs and aspirations. The re-design asks for new favela’s rights, not only rights considered as ’primary’ or ordinary for the ’poor’, but rights to urban life, to environmental opportunities and adaptability, and also to experiencing landscape and culture. And this is much more valuable when we realize that the favela is not something to set apart, absolutely. The favela, despite being singular, is within the city and is the city itself indeed. Besides, the design is provocative when highlights the favela’s inherent qualities and asks how could we, urban designers, take the favela’s lessons and apply them on the re-design of the whole city’s future.
Fig. 21. Informal void - paper collage. Source: Pizarro, 2014. 037
2.4 Emerging Challenges in Environmental Design by Rosa Schiano-Phan
Acknowledging the unfavourable If we look at the history and theory of Environmental Design, the majority of examples, guidelines and criteria have always been based on buildings assumed to be in benign settings where passive strategies are mostly applicable and where few limitations arise from the context. Also, the majority of the historical guidance on the subject mainly deals with the building remit and partially neglects the immediate surrounding or at least is not concerned with its performance. With a growing urban population set to exceed 7 billion people by 2050, exponentially depleting resources and climate change, environmental designers clearly need to widen their perspective. Acknowledging and deal with the non-benign, unfavourable settings of the urban context and the space in between buildings is the very first challenge that we need to take on in order to improve the negative effect that the built environment has on climate change and global warming. Looking at urban microclimates and understanding their effect not only on outdoor comfort but on the indoor performance of buildings is paramount and the only way to make a substantial difference in the field in the future.
Mitigating the microenvironment The importance of â€˜looking outsideâ€™ and embracing the potential that the urban microclimate can have, is founded in the reciprocal effect that buildings have on the outer environment and vice-versa. Also, the well-studied Urban Heat Island effect has already demonstrated the detrimental effect that the dense and congested urban environments can have on the night-time overheating and inability to cool down cities and buildings. This poses enormous barrier to the applicability of passive strategies such as night-time and day-time convective cooling, pushing many urban buildings towards mechanical ventilation and cooling which on turn exacerbate the problem, creating a vicious circle. Moreover, microclimatic design must now move on and consider the compounded effect of not only the thermal environment on comfort, but more crucially on air-quality, acoustics and their effect on health. Air pollution in many cities around the world is responsible for the death of tens of thousands of people every year. These figures are expected to be higher in developing countries but data is often not collected. In the UK alone the EU air quality standards are breached every year and despite the major of London strive to cut harmful emissions from vehicular traffic the levels are still very high. The main issue is with dusts and particulate matter arising from breaks and other anthropogenic activities as these will not be reduced even after a total conversion to electric cars. Hence other more intelligent strategies which combine interdisciplinary thinking are required and urban and building design can contribute substantially to the improvement of the air quality in cities. Adapt to the extreme Other important challenges which as designers we will need to deal with in the future are the ability to prepare our built environment to adapt to extreme weather events such as floods, droughts, heatwaves and cold snaps. The variability and unpredictability of these weather events and their disruptive and destructive power can make the task even harder but we must certainly not give in into the temptation to just start specifying super-efficient and hyper-insulated sealed envelopes as a protection against climate change. This would only exacerbate the problem and create an even further divide and disconnection between indoor and outdoor, reducing the potential for self-cooling and heating exponentially. A much more strategic approach would be to concentrate on comfort improvements rather than focussing solely on efficiency and energy savings. Health and well-being for an aging population As the worldâ€™s population becomes older, the needs and requirements of the elderly people become even more prominent. This is a significant problem also in relation to global warming and more frequent heatwaves which every year claim the lives of those more vulnerable such as the elderly. The biggest challenge will be to not only to improve comfort and health as naturally as possible for this increasing section of the population but also to create additional stimuli for those suffering from the many third age pathologies. So, on one hand the challenge 040
is to find residential models and lifestyle settings which can accommodate the increased demographic pressure, on the other, the opportunity would be to implement sustainable methods and ecological concepts like Biophilia to improve well-being of the elderly, prevent and ameliorate their potential medical conditions. Asset digitalization and data sharing With the advent of Artificial Intelligence and a global push towards automation and digitalisation of assets, greater attention will be given to capturing data for the characterization of human behaviour, building performance and their interaction. The challenge would be to use the opportunities offered by Internet of Things and digitally linked networks of sensors to optimise building performance, improve design stage prediction and reduce the resulting performance gap, towards nearly zero carbon buildings and beyond. In the quest, particular importance will be given to the accessibility of data both in ease of communication and enticing visualization, which are easily understandable not only by expert in the sector but by clients and laypeople as well. This can in turn open up a multitude of opportunities to improve building performance, increase satisfaction and reduce operational energy as initially predicted in the design stage.
2.5 Roundtable discussion by Mehrdad Borna
The presentations were followed by a round table, chaired by Mr Mehrdad Borna, lecturer and doctoral researcher from the University of Westminster. The round table delved deeper into the subject of â€˜emerging challenges in environmental designâ€™ and provided further opportunity for the audience to open a dialogue with the speakers in which many incisive enquiries were made from delegates and students present. The studentsâ€™ responses were lively and inquisitive, reflecting an effective grasp and understanding of the often quite complex concepts entailed by the several presentations and discussions. During the several presentations, speakers collectively addressed environmental threats and proceeded to enumerate the many aspects and facets of the environmental crisis and the measures and technologies instrumental in their resolution. Principal questions that emerged during the round table were: If environmental design is important, what is it really? How do we pragmatically respond to it? And why is it important? How can our cities cope with issues ranging from global warming to air pollution? What does the future look like?
Dr Kakani, Dean of the Faculty of Architecture at CEPT University and founder of Kakani Associates, responded to the raised questions by underscoring the benefit of cradle to cradle processes and how building waste such as concrete, brick and wood either unused or damaged for various reason during the construction phases can be recycled and used as the main ingredients for another process to generate new building material through re-manufacturing. According to a report from Transparency Market Research, the amount of construction waste generated globally every year will nearly double to 2.2 billion tons by the year 2025. Therefore, the spread of good practices such as recycling through remanufacturing by maximising the use of manufactured waste as new building material can play a significant role in the reduction of carbon emissions from the construction of buildings. Moreover, it will reduce the surge of landfills and the use of raw materials. Professor Gonçalves, Head of technology at FAUUSP and the author of the book “The Environmental Performance of Tall Buildings”, expanded the discussion further by referring to some of the good retrofit projects that have cut energy consumption and carbon emissions by improving the energy performance of the building. She also explained that these adaptations and passive strategies are only effective if the provided solutions are context-specific and building features such as form, orientation, building envelop and component, solar and internal gain and occupation patterns are thoroughly studied, and that the result of these observations must be taken into account throughout the design stages. Eduardo Pizarro, who has now completed his PhD programme from FAUUSP, in Sao Paulo responded to the discussion by turning our attention to the social dimension of our cities and how environmental design can improve the quality of life of our urban spaces and increase social interaction in between buildings. We discussed that, evidently, over the past four decades much progress has been made in developing architecture’s functional potential, both materially, structurally and formally, whilst less progress has been made in developing architecture’s potential as an emotional or social tool. He referred to his presentation and reminded us about the several tools for promoting better urban quality, environmental and social boundaries and how to activate urban pockets. His idea of increasing level of activities in-between buildings by reallocation of dwellings and opening up the street storefronts were both refreshing and inspirational. The round table heated up when the chair of the round table and Dr SchianoPhan discussed around the topic of air quality and the so-called invisible killer. Dr Schiano-Phan, who is the principal lecturer and course leader in Architecture and Environmental Design at the University of Westminster, believes that air pollution will be the prime challenge of our future cities and bold actions need to be taken to lessen the further damage on the environment and future generations. These problems are visibly global in extent, encompassing atmospheric pollution emerging from energy productions, transportation, the exhausting of natural 044
resources, and an increase in waste productions; all are contributing to air quality deterioration, acid rain production, global warming, depletion of ozone levels, and our personal health issues. We agreed that environmental design as a criterion is now determined as a necessity. We concluded that a clear sense of international awareness of the multiple threats to our natural environment now prevails globally, which demands from many a pragmatic address of the potential for real on the ground change. The session offered students a better understanding of what needs to be done and students were given the opportunity to learn about the challenges faced by modern cities in adapting to the ever-changing world. They also learned about the technologies and solutions that can help to improve urban life and sustainability. The panel and students jointly agreed that if we are to ensure that future generations can enjoy a satisfactory quality of life, a sustainable approach towards the use of the earthâ€™s natural resources and implementation of environmental design principles is now vital. The application of this idea to architecture, urbanism and land use requires the participation of all parties: policymakers, developers in both the public and private sectors, urban planners, architects, engineers, landscape designers, checking authorities, contractors and builders. The spread, and the success, of environmental quality in the building sector are linked to close collaboration between these different sections of the industry, and the use made of each oneâ€™s expertise. At the end of Mr Bornaâ€™s round table, speakers and students headed for luncheon where discussion and networking between speakers and students ensued, providing useful networking opportunities.
3. DESIGN 3. DESIGN 3. DESIGN INPUTS INPUTS INPUTS
by Ruturaj Parik [Charles Correa Foundation], and Rahul Srivastava + Matias Echanove [URBZ Mumbai]. 047
3.1 Charles Correa and Building for India by Ruturaj Parikh [Charles Correa Foundation]
Charles Correa’s oeuvre, his life’s’ work, had a deep and inseparable connection to the idea of India. From building imaginative housing for low-income communities to truly democratic civic spaces, the work of Charles Correa confronted many critical and urgent questions that were considered beyond the prerogative of architectural practice. In a career spanning almost the entire life of postindependence India, he transcended from being a professional with a conceptual understanding of the landscape of India to the conscious keeper of the profession creating, in its wake, some of the most compelling examples of architecture for India and the world.
Fig. 22. Charles Correa’s Kala Academy in Goa. Photo: Ruturaj Parikh. 049
3.2 Design comes as we build by Rahul Srivastava and Matias Echanove [URBZ Mumbai]
In a context where houses are made without plans and drawings, co-creation practices at urbz make legible the local construction practices that serve millions of people in Mumbai and throughout the world. We refer to incrementally growing neighborhoods as homegrown. In such places it is difficult to execute a pre-fabricated and specific design/plan. The process of execution has to be fast and quick. It becomes affordable because labour and industrial materials are locally available. The complexity of the context demands that one needs to constantly adapt the design to changing circumstances. In such a scenario the best approach is to evolve the design on the spot as the construction unfolds. This is what we call ‘unmediated design’ or ‘live architecture’. “The Design Comes as We Build” project puts the spotlight on small building contractors in Mumbai who are collectively responsible for constructing the tens of thousands of small homes, which accommodate a majority of the city’s population.
urbz invited local builders from Dharavi with a vast experience in construction and asked them to design the best possible house they could imagine. These designs were built into physical models by artisans with expertise in carpentry, welding, pottery, glass cutting and plexiglas.
Fig. 23. Work in progressâ€Ś Multiple activities in a homegrown neighbourhood. Source: URBZ. 052
Fig 24. Pushing up and out A diagram illustrating the propensity of homegrown neighbourhoods, such as Dharavi, to push up, spread out and root themselves into the city. Source: URBZ. 053
Fig. 25. Fictional street in Dharavi Fictional street in Dharavi of Mumbai, based on architectural ideas provided by artisans in Dharavi. Source: URBZ. 054
Fig. 26. SOCIAL WOOD MODEL, DHARAVI, 2017 This corner house was designed to be welcoming. It has a shop on the ground floor, and social gatherings can take place on the second floor which is semi open. Source: URBZ. 055
Fig. 27. MAX GLASS MODEL, DHARAVI, 2017 This humble yet refined house is designed to accommodate many interrelated lives - that of a paanwala, a merchant, a family, and their encounters under the curved roof of the terrace. Source: URBZ. 056
Fig. 28. INTERACTIVE CLAY MODEL, DHARAVI 2017 Balconies on every floor allows for interaction with the neighbourhood. Its structure can be entirely reused when the house is modified or rebuilt. Source: URBZ. 057
Fig. 29. CIRCULAR STEEL MODEL, DHARAVI, 2017 This design brings a new element into Dharaviâ€™s standard vernacular construction: a spiral staircase. It optimizes space and provides an independent access to each floor. This house also lets the air circulate through the floors creating a natural ventilation system. Source: URBZ. 058
Fig. 30. ECO ACRYLIC MODEL, DHARAVI, 2017 This economical house has everything a family needs:A living room, workspace, rental unit and an open rooftop.It is also ecological as it collects rain water and stores it in an underground reservoir. Source: URBZ. 059
4. DESIGN 4. DESIGN 4. DESIGN WORKSHOP WORKSHOP WORKSHOP
by Eduardo Pizarro, Harshil Parekh, Joana Gonรงalves, Rosa Schiano-Phan, and teams of international students. 061
4.1 Site visit by Eduardo Pizarro a site visit to the Chawl Community in Keshav Nagar, in Ahmedabad, India, was conducted in the second day of the workshop in advance to any detailed lecture regarding that neighborhood. This approach intends to allow the students to freely build their own impressions about the settlement based on their different backgrounds. In the next step these opinions are debated in groups and confronted with a local specialistâ€™s vision about this Chawl Community in Keshav Nagar.
Fig. 31. Welcoming people. Photo: PIZARRO, 2018. 062
Fig. 32-34. Physical and Social infrastructures. Photo: PIZARRO, 2018.
Fig. 35. Paved courtyards. Photo: PIZARRO, 2018.
Fig. 36. Flooded areas after storm. Photo: PIZARRO, 2018.
Fig. 38-39. Open spacesâ€™ activities: collecting rainwater and hanging clothes. Photo: PIZARRO, 2018.
Fig. 37. Children in the open spaces. Photo: PIZARRO, 2018. 069
Fig. 40-41. Level of maintainance of the surroundings, along the river. Photo: PIZARRO, 2018.
Fig. 42. Blurring inside and outside. Photo: PIZARRO, 2018. 070
4.2 Site introduction by Harshil Parekh
The introduction for this chawl community is divided into parts â€“ Location and immediate surroundings, brief history and growth, physical structure of place (settlement pattern, provided facility), common facilities, ownership, demographic data, work, daily community activities, and socio-cultural life. Location and immediate surroundings The chawl community for study is near Keshavnagar, Ahmedabad, Gujarat. It is located near the Sabarmati river bank, nearby the Sabarmati Railway Bridge beside Ahmedabad Torrent Power Plant. The map below shows the important landmarks and surroundings around the focused settlement for the workshop.
Fig. 43. Chawl settlement urban insertion, showing immediate surroundings and important landmarks. Source: PAREKH, 2015.
Brief history and growth of chawl community: individual to Community Earlier, this place comprised only four bungalows, built around 1936, surrounded by farmlands owned by J.P.,Gopaldas, KaniyalalIshvarlal and Sursingji. These bungalows are now dilapidated and surrounded by chawl dwellers; with parts of it being occupied by them as their shelter. At that time the owners had been approached by chawl dwellers that came in search of job opportunities to allow them to live on the un-used farmlands, for some rent. Gradually, the inhabitants grew in number and it became a dense settlement of chawl-dwellers. Before 1973, all houses were mud houses with a low height (3’ to 4’) and they were covered by plastic instead of hard roofing sheets. In 1973, Sabarmati was heavily flooded and the water levels went as high as the first floor of houses near the river area, and the entire chawl that was developing on the riverbank was under water. The bungalows, being made out of brick and lime, could survive the flood, but all the chawl-dwellers lost their houses. After the flood, people began to build their houses again in the same place. They used the same materials – mud and wood – and built taller houses that were up to 7’ to 8’. They now used tin sheets as roofing material. With time, whoever could afford began to convert the mud walls into brick walls, and heights also reached up to 8 ½‘ to 9’. With time and with increasing needs, the houses began to expand their limits and territories by the extension of verandahs or plinths. The streets therefore became narrow, from 5’-6’ wide to 2’-3’wide. This happened in most parts of the chawl, and after continuous growth and expansion, the chawl has taken its present shape.
Fig. 44. Picture of one of the bungalows. Source: PAREKH, 2015.
Fig. 45. Wider street becomes narrow street. Source: PAREKH, 2015.
Physical structure of place (settlement pattern, provided facility) Though the entrance is marked with one name (J.P’s chawl), there are actually four interwoven chawls differentiated by special landmarks inside. The names of these chawls came from the bungalow owners. Consequently, the four chawls are called J.P.’s chawl, Gopaldas’s chawl, KaniyalalIshvarlal’s chawl and Sursingji’s chawl. The organisation of the chawl and its street network is such that the houses share common walls with neighbouring houses and the houses open up onto the streets. Many such streets meet and form big open spaces where they intersect. There is an organic network of streets of varying widths and open spaces spread across the chawls. All these streets open onto the main road. In present times, houses are also being built across the main road. To understand the network and division of the streets, I tried to find a specific address. I asked Jyoti for Ayush’s address, a little boy I had once met. She instantly described, “Take a right after our anganwadi, then keep following the curved street till you reach the municipality tap, take a left and keep walking till you see the Saint Kabir’s temple in the open space. Anyone around will direct you to Ayush’s house. He is a really sweet boy”. I noticed the importance of landmarks in the residents’ understanding of their built environment. It is easy for a stranger to get lost in the labyrinth of streets, but the residents know their way about. In a typical house, there are three kinds of spaces; a closed space orado, a semi open osari (in many cases, this is bigger than the closed space) and an open plinth otla. The form of the house depends on the need and constraints of the dwellers: whether they would have just a closed space, a closed and a semi-open space, or all three spaces. Common facilities _Legal electricity supply comes from the nearby Torrent power plant. Common electricity poles light up the streets during night-time. _About fifteen years ago, the NGO Manav Sadhna and the government improved the conditions of the streets by paving them with stone. _The houses have a toilet and a bathroom, with drainage connected with municipal sewage system. _Every house does not receive running water, but there are twelve municipalitytap junctions spread over the chawls, from where water pots are filled for everyday use. The same water is used for drinking and washing. _As per government rules, chawls must have one preschool anganvadi per 200 houses. There are a total of 2 anganvadis in the chawl. For further education, there is one municipality government school in Keshavnagar and one private Englishmedium school nearby. Children go to study in these schools depending on the 076
economic condition of the family. Many girls who leave their studies can join the anganvadi every Saturday. Ownership Four different owners own the four chawls, as mentioned earlier (in the ‘brief history’ section). The owner just rented out the place to live and build the houses. Houses are built by dwellers themselves, with the help of local masons. So the residents don’t have full ownership, as they own the house but not the land. For the land, they pay rent per month. The present rent system is decided by the condition of the house and mainly depends on the size of the plot, and the length of time for which the dwellers have stayed there – with newcomers paying more rent. _People who have kachcha houses pay Rs. 4 for rent. _People who have built their houses with brick and cement pay Rs.15 to 20 per month. _People who have built recent additions in the community pay Rs. 20 to 25. Demographic data According to survey done by the anganvadi teachers, there are around 400 houses in the chawl and the total population is around 1720 to 1730, which includes people of all age groups: children, adults and elders (senior citizens/ aged people). Occupation In the community, men and women both work to fulfil the needs of the family. _Distribution of occupations for males is diverse: they predominantly work as rickshaw/taxi/bus drivers, and about a quarter of the male population works as skilled construction labourers, electricians or painters; some sell fruits and vegetables as hawkers; and very few work at the Torrent Power Plant close to the chawl, or as peons in offices. One can also find some men involved in supplying alcohol. _Women do household work, or work at Gruh-udhyog (cottage industries) and many of them go to work as household help at bungalows in Keshavnagar. _Elderly men and women who cannot go out and work, look after their grandchildren and help in Gruh-udhyog like making of rakhis and other decorative items. They procure materials from elsewhere and then do production. _Majority ofteenagers stop studies after their 10th standard, and out of these, the girls do household works and the boys start finding jobs. 077
Fig. 46. Site plan. Source: PAREKH, 2015. 079
Daily community activity It is important to understand the relationship of activities and the built environment. Open spaces are most important, where the socio-cultural lives of the people are best manifested. These are the places of sharing, celebration, cooking, eating, and enjoying chores of everyday life. Neighbours are often intimate enough with each other to exchange food and eat together in these shared spaces. Peripheral activities: There are two locations (which stand out during the study) in the community where the culture of selling drugs and alcohol is prevalent, and more than five to six places where gambling takes place. Any person can easily be influenced by these activities and choose a wrong path. This also curbs mental, psychological and economic growth of people, which can be related to the built environment. But there is still an issue as to how to control these kinds of activities architecturally. Socio-cultural life within present built space Diversity in the community: The chawl dwellers identify themselves as a mixed community of Thakurs, Marwaries and ‘Hindibhashi (speakers)’. People with the same family name live close to each other. Most of the family-names are Thakur, Vaghela, Zala, Yadav, Rathod, Chouhan, Rajput, Makavana, Kori, Thapa, Bajpai, Parmar, Bhavsar, Marwari, Patani, lahor, Rajbhar, Kuvariya, Kahar, Prjapati, lilar, Vanaliya, Chawda etc. There are also some Brahmin families with family names like Agnihotri, Varma and Sharma. Festivals and rituals: The diversity in the community makes the place richer with different rituals and festivals. They also have bhajan-sandhya (musical evenings with religious songs), and katha (religious readings) in the public place. Big community festivals like Navaratri, Ganesh Chaturthi, Janmashthami are celebrated together by the entire community in the two big community spaces in and around the chawl – one is near Panchmukhi Hanuman’s temple and another is near Joganimata’s temple. One of the biggest festivals they celebrate is that of goddess Dashama near the famous temple of Dashama close to the entrance of the chawl. This space becomes very lively with a fair for everyone, including outsiders, with lots of food stalls and amusement rides. Fig. 47-54. Open spaces as places for people to talk, playgrounds for children, place for household work like cooking, washing vessel and clothes, bathing, practicing gruhUdhyog, resting and sleeping space. Source: PAREKH, 2015. 080
Within the community they have rules and rituals based on the caste system that bind the people together. The majority caste group is Thakur; who still have that tradition of married women covering their heads in front of the older male members of the family to show respect. Here is one example of how this tradition could impact someone’s place of living: one elderly man, Don Kaka, spends most of his time in an auto-rickshaw so that his daughter-in-law can work comfortably inside the house without covering her head. It is strange that traditions can also change the place of living in routine life. Apart from these, there are some common beliefs and superstitions regarding occultism and possession of other’s soul in human body, still present in the community. Community participation and togetherness: This contributes a great deal in the development of community places like the temples of “panchmukhi hanuman”. The funds for the temple were collectively raised from the community, and masons, labourers, painters and ironworkers, collectively built the temple. Today, it is one of the most active community places in the chawl. Poverty is not the only reason for everyone to live in the chawl – some live here out of choice or for work opportunities, and are quite happy. The neighbours have a sense of togetherness and treat each other like members of extended family. They stand united in case of a conflict with outsiders and also solve private conflicts internally at a community level. Territoriality: A sense of collective ownership is shared across many parts of the community, alongside a sense for individual territorialities. There are various ways in which people mark their personal territories, like low-height brickwalls, metal grills, wooden fences, just plinths(otla), paving and planting, or simply by piling a heap of sand among their larger cluster or street. Even if they do not own the land where they are living, they are now attached to the place with their memories.
Fig. 55-56. A) Big community spaces near Panchmukhi Hanuman’s temple. B) Famous temple of Dashama close to the chawl’s entrance. Source: PAREKH, 2015. 082
Fig. 57-61. Ways in which people mark their personal territories. A) low-height brick-walls and metal grills; B) curb wall; C) just plinth (otta); D) paving difference;
Fig. 62. Panchmukhi Hanuman
E) simply by piling a heap of sand.
Temple. Source: PAREKH, 2015.
Source: PAREKH, 2015.
4.3 Climate introduction: Ahmedabad, Latitude 23,07Â°N by Joana GonĂ§alves and Rosa Schiano-Phan
The climate of Ahmedabad shows three clear different conditions throughout a typical year (see Figure 63), with significant variations in temperature and humidity values. The thermal environment is mild for most of the hours between November and February as long as air flow is available (for the so called “comfort ventilation”), with maximum air temperatures varying between 26oC and 34oC and mean values averaging between 18oC and 24oC, when relative humidity stays at still comfortable levels, between 40% and 50%. Conditions change to hot and dry between March and June, with maximum temperatures increasing to figures between 34oC and 40oC and showing mean values between 24oC and 32oC, whilst relative humidity remains between 40% and 60%. Finally, the climate becomes warm and humid between July and October with maximum temperatures varying between 31oC and 35oC approximately with mean temperatures at the range of 26oC to 30oC and relative humidity levels shooting to the mark of 80% and above. This is the time of the year when the region experiences the raining season, which is known as the monsoons. Daily temperature variations show the potential benefit of thermal mass combined with night time cooling (through radiant cooling and night time ventilation) in the “comfortable” and in the hot dry seasons, in particular, varying around 14oC. Furthermore, the low levels of the relative humidity during the hot and dry months point out to the advantage of PDEC – Passive Downdraught Evaporative Cooling technique. During the raining season due to the significant increase of humidity, the most efficient strategy for thermal comfort is constant ventilation. Often, constant ventilation can only be achieved by means of mechanical systems such as fans, defining what is known as “assistant ventilation”. The predominant sky conditions in Ahmedabad is clear, apart from the monsoon months when the sky is most of the time overcast due to the high humidity. Being located at the tropical region (latitude: 23.07O N), shading is the most important strategy to deal with the harshness of the climate. In this context, levels of impinging solar radiation at the horizontal plane are reasonably high the whole year round, reaching values between 5 and 6 kWh/m2 at its yearly pick in the month of May, during the hot and dry season. During the mild period of the year, global radiation upon the horizontal plane don’t follow below 3 kWh/m2. Given the tropical latitude, solar angles are relatively high at north and south orientation, reaching 90o at 12:00 o´clock in the summer solstice and approximately 45 o in the same hour in the winter solstice, being most of the yearly sun hours in the southern part of the sky (see Figures 64-65). In the monsoons, global radiation remains between 3 and 4 kWh/m2, when the diffuse radiation becomes the main component due to the predominance of overcast sky. At ground level, wind speed varies between 1.2 to almost 4.0 m/s, approximately, staying within a useful range for thermal comfort during all those hours when the air temperature does not exceed the mark of 32oC, limit after which minimum air movement through the body is more comfortable. Throughout the centuries, the people of Ahmedabad learnt how to deal with the strong solar radiation as well as with the high temperatures of the hot months and the high humidity of the monsoons in their urban and architecture design, 085
playing with building form and transitional spaces such as courtyards, combined with multiple adaptive opportunities and bioclimatic techniques evaporative for evaporative cooling and natural ventilation, sometimes seen in the case of exuberant water fountains and sometimes with very little and poor resources such as wet cloths hanging on the windows, among other strategies. The people of Ahmedabad has proved to be a resilient kind of people! (see figures 66-67).
Fig. 63. Climate profile of Ahmedabad (latitude 23.07O N).
Fig. 64-65. Sun path diagram for the latitude of 23Â°N, equivalent to Ahmedabad.
Fig. 66-67. Strategies of adaptation to local climate: shading and courtyards. Climate profile of Ahmedabad (latitude 23.07O N). Photo: Eduardo Pizarro, 2018. 087
4.4 Design concepts by seven teams of international students from CEPT University, FAUUSP and University of Westminster
teams: Aiste, Lithuania, UoW Tina, Greece, UoW Nandini, India, UoW Simon, Zimbabwe, UoW Antonio Allegri, Brescia, UoW Gabriela Krebs, Porto Alegre, UoW Ingrid Siqueira, Brasília, UoW Kryzta Castillo, Rome, UoW Eduardo Gasparelo Lima, Sao Paulo, FAUUSP Mariana Auad Proença, Sao Paulo, FAUUSP Patrycja Smola, London, UoW Zsuzsanna Szohr, Budapest, UoW Alessandra Reis, Brazil, UoW Felisa Padilla, El Salvador, UoW Signe Pelne, Latvia, UoW Yuechuan Xi, China, UoW Salome Berechikidze, Georgia, UoW Giulia Koeler, Rio de Janeiro, UoW Zoe Power, Athens, UoW Annabelle Nguyen, London, UoW Polina Bouli, Athens, Uow Petter Elverum , Moscow, UoW Max Fuller, Derby, UoW Seungmin Lee, Seoul, UoW Giuliana Pappalardo, Catania, UoW Aesha, London, UoW Cecilia, La Rioja, UoW Faraaz, Varanasi, SIT Noemi, Heidelberg, UoW Remi, London, UoW
supervision by Mehrdad Borna, Joana Gonçalves, Eduardo Pizarro and Rosa Schiano-Phan. 089
Design concept: ECO RIVER by Aiste, Lithuania, UoW Tina, Greece, UoW Nandini, India, UoW Simon, Zimbabwe, UoW
Design concept: IT’S YOUR CHOICE by Antonio Allegri, Brescia, UoW Gabriela Krebs, Porto Alegre, UoW Ingrid Siqueira, Brasília, UoW Kryzta Castillo, Rome, UoW
Design concept: RE-INVENTING A SELFTBUILT HOUSE by Eduardo Gasparelo Lima, Sao Paulo, FAUUSP Mariana Auad Proenรงa, Sao Paulo, FAUUSP Patrycja Smola, London, UoW Zsuzsanna Szohr, Budapest, UoW
Design concept: SIMPLE + EFFICIENT + BRIGHT by Alessandra Reis, Brazil, UoW Felisa Padilla, El Salvador, UoW Signe Pelne, Latvia, UoW Yuechuan Xi, China, UoW Salome Berechikidze, Georgia, UoW
Design concept: TEMPORARY TO PERMANENT by Giulia Koeler, Rio de Janeiro, UoW Zoe Power, Athens, UoW Annabelle Nguyen, London, UoW Polina Bouli, Athens, Uow
Design concept: TREE TEMPLES by Petter Elverum , Moscow, UoW Max Fuller, Derby, UoW Seungmin Lee, Seoul, UoW Giuliana Pappalardo, Catania, UoW
Design concept: CRAFT & GROWTH, GROWTH AND CRAFT by Aesha, London, UoW Cecilia, La Rioja, UoW Faraaz, Varanasi, SIT Noemi, Heidelberg, UoW Remi, London, UoW
4.5 Reflections by Eduardo Pizarro
The design concepts showcase different approaches to a common issue: how can we environmentally requalify the future of self-built neighborhoods in Ahmedabad, taking into account the social dynamics embedded? The design concepts definitely deal with the existing settlement, regarding both conflicts and potentialities: the proposals assume the importance of shading and natural ventilation in the enhancement of environmental conditions indoors and outdoors, and it can be architecturally translated simply as a bunch of trees, or as a new external envelope; water is taken as a challenge of adaptation during the Monsoons but also as a source to be celebrated in Indian culture; and the concepts take advantage of ordinary strategies found locally, for instance the application of perforated materials for permanent natural ventilation, clay bowls for increasing the relative humidity and decreasing the air temperature, and multifunctional transitional spaces for comfortable and livable spaces. There is indeed a common thread for adaptation, replicability, simplicity and empowerment of the local people. Some of the design concepts claim the lack of social/community spaces. A closer look at the existing settlement shows that it doesn’t constitute a real shortage. They don’t need a formal “European“ square. In the contrary, the inhabitants possess a high sense of belonging and develop diverse and adaptive activities in all the open spaces, taken as an invisible infrastructure, in fact an interstitial infrastructure (PIZARRO, 2019) that can be requalified. So it is important to be aware that sometimes architects see problems that does not really exist. Besides that and despite being site-specific, the design concepts bring light to conflicts, guidelines and strategies which are shared by different parts of the world marked by tropical climates, deprived economies and unequal social rights. Then, the possibility of discussing and impacting wider scales is, undoubtedly, a fantastic additional contribution of the workshop. Ultimately, the workshop plays a homage to the local context, whether climatic, tectonic or social; and highlighting the imbricated articulations between the targeted context and the proponents’ diverse backgrounds. It’s important to remember that regarding design, there is no universal or standard solution; no single solution; there is not right or wrong. Design it is definitely an amalgam of social responsibility and strengthening; economic propulsion; energetic efficiency; environmental awareness; and fun (why not?!). And this is our role. Let’s do it all, together.
5. ARCHITECTURA 5. ARCHITECTUR 5. ARCHITECTUR VISITS VISITS VISITS
AL RAL RAL
during the workshop places with architectural interest were visited in Ahmedabad, as Amdavad ni Gufa and CEPT University, designed by Pritzker Prize laureate B. V. Doshi; Sanskar Museum and Mill Ownersâ€™ Association Building, designed by Le Corbusier; Indian Institute of Management, designed by Louis Kahn; besides traditional Indian temples and neighborhoods. Following these architectural visits are summarized in pictures taken by Eduardo Pizarro and Maria Auad ProenĂ§a. 125
Fig. 68-69. CEPT University, designed by B. V. Doshi. Photo: Eduardo Pizarro.
Fig. 70-72. CEPT University, designed by B. V. Doshi. Photo: Eduardo Pizarro.
Fig. 73-74. CEPT University, designed by B. V. Doshi. Photo: Eduardo Pizarro. 130
Fig. 75-76. Amdavad ni Gufa, designed by B. V. Doshi. Photo: Eduardo Pizarro.
Fig. 77-79. Doshiâ€™s office. Photo: Eduardo Pizarro. 132
Fig. 80-81. Mill Ownersâ€™ Association (top) and Sanskar Museum (bottom), both designed by Le Corbusier. Photo: Eduardo Pizarro.
Fig. 82. Indian Institute of Management, designed by Louis Kahn. Photo: Eduardo Pizarro. 135 xxx
Fig. 83-86. Indian Institute of Management, designed by Louis Kahn. Photo: Eduardo Pizarro.
Fig. 87-88. Indian Institute of Management, designed by Louis Kahn. Photo: Eduardo Pizarro.
6. LATITUDES 6. LATITUDES 6. LATITUDES GLOBAL GLOBAL GLOBAL EXHIBITION EXHIBITION EXHIBITION
curated by Eduardo Pizarro
exhibited at CEPT University, in Ahmedabad, India, July 2018 FAUUSP, Sao Paulo, Brazil, August 2018 MEASI Academy of Architecture, Chennai, India, September 2018 University of Westminster, London, UK, September 2018
the Latitudes Global Exhibition unveils research and design experiences developed in Partner Universities in Ahmedabad, Bologna, Chennai, London and Sao Paulo, and collected through an open call drawn to celebrate the achievements of the Latitudes Networkâ€™s academic community throughout the years. the total of 57 works were submitted in two categories: RESEARCH CATEGORY DESIGN CATEGORY following are summarized the best entries in each category, selected by an academic jury composed by Mehrdad Borna, Joana GonĂ§alves, Rosa Schiano Phan and Eduardo Pizarro. the whole exhibition is published in the Latitudes Global Exhibition catalogue at Latitudes Network website. 141
RESEARCH CATEGORY 1st Prize SPATIAL MAPPING OF THERMAL COMFORT I.E.COMFORT MAPS AS DESIGN TOOL latitude_51°50’74’’ city/country_ London/UK university_ University of Westminster authors_ Salome Berechikidze supervisors_ Rosa Schiano-Phan year_ 2018
RESEARCH CATEGORY 2nd Prize UNIVERSITIES AS SUSTAINABLE ACTORS: THE CASE OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL PLAN OF THE UNIVERSITY OF SÃO PAULO latitude_-23°32’51’’ city/country_São Paulo/Brazil university_Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism of the University of São Paulo – FAUUSP authors_Mariana Auad Proença supervisors_Professor Roberta Consentino Kronka Mülfarth year_2018
RESEARCH CATEGORY 3rd Prize ARTICULATING SPANNING SYSTEMS - THROUGH MAKING latitude_23°2’1.9068’’N city/country_Ahmedabad / India university_CEPT authors_Vicky Achnani / Workshop team WS2017 supervisors_ Vicky Achnani / Rudra Pal / Alisha Raman year_2017
RESEARCH CATEGORY Mention PEDESTRIAN THERMAL AND ACOUSTIC COMFORT IN SÃO PAULO AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABLES INFLUENCE latitude_23°32’51’’ city/country_brazil university_university of são paulo authors_gabriel bonansea de alencar novaes supervisors_leonardo marques monteiro year_2015
RESEARCH CATEGORY Mention HOW CAN PLANTS AND NATURAL VENTILATION IMPROVE INDOOR AIR QUALITY WITH IOT DEVICES? latitude_51°30’36’’ city/country_London_UK university_University of Westminster authors_Minh Van supervisors_Rosa Schiano-Phan, Francesco Anselmo year_2018
DESIGN CATEGORY 1st Prize KHADI WEAVERS’ PLACE latitude_23°03’44’’ city/country_Ahmedabad/India university_CEPT University authors_Viral Mehta supervisors_Leo Pereira, Uday Andhare, Kiran Pandya year_2018
DESIGN CATEGORY 2nd Prize SUSTAINABLE RAILWAY ARCHITECTURE IN CAMEROON latitude_3°87’N,11°51’E’’ city/country_Yaounde, Cameroon university_The University of Westminster authors_Daniel N Buban Ngu supervisors_Rosa Schiano-Phan year_2016
DESIGN CATEGORY 3rd Prize PUBLIC | SHARED | PRIVATE. A MIXED-USE COMPLEX IN THE AREA EX-MERCATO ORTOFRUTTICOLO IN BOLOGNA latitude_44°30’27’’ city/country_Bologna / Italy university_University of Bologna authors_Gianluca Bertoli, Marco Marchetti, Giulia Turci supervisor_Prof. Jacopo Gaspari year_2018
DESIGN CATEGORY Mention WILTON PAES DE ALMEIDA BUILDING RETROFIT latitude_23°32’51’’S city/country_São Paulo/Brazil university_University of São Paulo authors_Amanda Ferreira, Larissa Luiz, Renan Kolda and Rose Raad supervisors_Joana Carla S. Gonçalves year_2017
DESIGN CATEGORY Mention REDEVELOPMENT OF AN ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS RESEARCH CENTRE, NAINITAL (HILLSTATION) latitude_13°.08’N city/country_ Chennai/India university_ Measi Academy of Architecture ( Anna University) author_Ankita Alessandra Bob supervisor_Dr. Monsingh David Devadas year_B.arch 5Th Year 2018
PEOPLE PEOPLE PEOPLE INVOLVED INVOLVED INVOLVED
Mehrdad Borna environmental design lecturer at the University of Westminster and Oxford Brookes University, in the UK; PhD Candidate at the University of Westminster. Urvi Desai visiting professor at the Faculty of Environment and Climate Change at CEPT University, in Ahmedabad; principal at IORA Studio; Desai studied at CEPT University and the University of Texas at Austin. Matias Echanove urbanologist, co-founder of URBZ collective, in Mumbai and Geneva; Echanove studied government and economics at the LSE; urban planning at Columbia University; and urban information systems at the University of Tokyo. Joana Gonçalves head of technology at FAUUSP, in Sao Paulo; visiting professor at the University of Westminster and the Architectural Association Graduate School; Gonçalves is the author of the book “The Environmental Performance of Tall Buildings” by Earthscan. Surya Kakani dean of the Faculty of Architecture at CEPT University, in Ahmedabad; founder of Kakani Associates; Kakani studied architecture in India and in the USA. Lucy Anne McWeeney project manager of the Latitudes Network, University of Westminster, in London. Co-organizer of the Latitudes Global Studio TOGETHER! Rethinking Ahmedabad. Harshil Parekh architect and teaching associate at CEPT University, in Ahmedabad; Parekh was recognized with the Doshi Fellowship in 2018. Ruturaj Parikh former director of the Charles Correa Foundation, in Goa; partner at Studio Matter, in Mumbai. 154
Hiren Patel students’ ambassador of the Latitudes Network at CEPT University, in Ahmedabad; undergraduate student at the Faculty of Architecture at CEPT University. Eduardo Pizarro students’ ambassador of the Latitudes Network at FAUUSP, in Sao Paulo; professor of Environmental and Urban Design at São Judas University, in Sao Paulo; Pizarro has studied at FAUUSP, the Architectural Association Graduate School, and the ETH Zurich. Coorganizer of the Latitudes Global Studio TOGETHER! Rethinking Ahmedabad. Dr. Rosa Schiano-Phan principal lecturer and course leader in Architecture and Environmental Design at the University of Westminster, in London; former lecturer at the Architecture Association, in London; SchianoPhan was the recipient of a commendation by the RIBA President’s Awards for Research in 2011. Rahul Srivastava urbanologist, co-founder of URBZ and The Institute of Urbanology; Srivastava studied social and urban anthropology in Mumbai, Delhi and Cambridge.
list of participants (undergraduate and graduate students) Antonio Allegri, Brescia, UoW Mariana Auad Proença, Sao Paulo, FAUUSP Salome Berechikidze, Georgia, UoW Polina Bouli, Athens, Uow Kryzta Castillo, Rome, UoW Petter Elverum , Moscow, UoW Max Fuller, Derby, UoW Eduardo Gasparelo Lima, Sao Paulo, FAUUSP Giulia Koeler, Rio de Janeiro, UoW Gabriela Krebs, Porto Alegre, UoW Seungmin Lee, Seoul, UoW Annabelle Nguyen, London, UoW Felisa Padilla, El Salvador, UoW Giuliana Pappalardo, Catania, UoW Signe Pelne, Latvia, UoW Zoe Power, Athens, UoW Alessandra Reis, Brazil, UoW Ingrid Siqueira, Brasília, UoW Patrycja Smola, London, UoW Zsuzsanna Szohr, Budapest, UoW Yuechuan Xi, China, UoW Aiste, Lithuania, UoW Tina, Greece, UoW Nandini, India, UoW Simon, Zimbabwe, UoW Aesha, London, UoW Cecilia, La Rioja, UoW Faraaz, Varanasi, SIT Noemi, Heidelberg, UoW Remi, London, UoW
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“TOGETHER! Rethinking Ahmedabad” invites bright minds from different latitudes in the globe to share a common ground and then reflect and bu...
Published on Aug 15, 2019
“TOGETHER! Rethinking Ahmedabad” invites bright minds from different latitudes in the globe to share a common ground and then reflect and bu...