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MEET OUR CLIENTS: THE WILDCATS

The Wildcats WILDCAT CONSERVATION LEGAL AID SOCIETY


Meet Our Clients: The Wildcats


A PUBLICATION OF THE

WILDCAT CONSERVATION LEGAL AID SOCIETY WASHINGTON, DC 20006 WWW.WCCLAS.ORG ~ INFO@WCCLAS.ORG


Meet Our Clients: The Wildcats ~ WildCat Conservation Legal Aid Society, 2015

TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction The Felidae Family Geographic Regions CITES & Appendix Listings ESA & Listings IUCN & Conservation Statuses Sources & Works Consulted Commentary

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Meet Our Clients: The Wildcats African Golden Cat Andean Mountain Cat Asiatic Golden Cat Black-footed Cat Bobcat Bornean Bay Cat Canada Lynx Caracal Cheetah Chinese Mountain Cat Clouded Leopard Domestic Cat Eurasian Lynx Fishing Cat Flat-headed Cat Geoffroy’s Cat Iberian Lynx Iriomote Cat Jaguar Jaguarundi Jungle Cat Kodkod Guiña

1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 33 39 43 47 51 55 59 63 67 71 75 79 83 87

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Leopard Leopard Cat Lion Marbled Cat Margay Ocelot Oncilla Pallas’s Cat Pampas Cats Puma Rusty-spotted Cat Sand Cat Serval Snow Leopard Tiger Wildcat

91 97 101 107 111 115 119 123 127 131 137 141 145 149 153 159

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INTRODUCTION No other creature on earth captives us quite like the Felidae family. Lions, tigers, cheetahs, jaguars, pumas, and little wildcats embrace our fascination, imagination, and hearts with their beauty, majesty, ferociousness, vitality, sprit, independence and elusiveness. The origins of the Felidae family in prehistoric times trace back an astonishing 25 million years ago with the extinct “saber-tooth” cats of the Machairodontinae subfamily. The cats we know and recognize today evolved within the last million years and are members of the Panthera or Felis genus’s; all originating from Asian decedents.

WHAT MAKES A CAT A CAT? There are many commonalities that exist within the Felidae family such as genetics, characteristics, physical appearance, senses, vocalization, and diet. Their biological composition requires a very high protein diet (the highest compared to other carnivorous mammals) as such are considered to be “strict” carnivores. It would be difficult to find anyone who did not know or recognize a cat. From the largest Amur tigers to the small domestic cats, all cats have unique yet similar physical appearance and characteristics. Cats are built for survival. As a top predator and being strict carnivores, cats are designed to hunt. Their skulls, legs, muscles, teeth, fur patterns, color and thickness serve them to protect against the elements, camouflage their appearance, fight other predators and hunt their prey. One variation in the cat’s physical appearance is their claws. Most cats have retractable claws. When at rest cats are able to withdraw their claws. Cheetahs have semi-retractable claws;

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however, cheetahs are the fastest land mammal. They can reach top speeds of up to 60 to 70 miles per hour. Their claws serve as “cleats” to aid them in keeping traction while engaged in a sprint. Other physical variations include length of their tails, size of their feet and ears, and length of their canines. With this in mind, these variations aid the individual in their survival depending on their geographic region and prey base. We think of cats as solitary beings. Anyone who has a domestic cat as a companion may agree that they prefer their solitude over being social. Yet even domestic cats display affection and engage in “play” with their human companions and are put together with unrelated cats of varying age. Feral cats will form groups or colonies. Lions live in prides consisting of related females and cubs with male Genetic scientists recently lions. Lone male lions related or discovered that unrelated will form a coalition as do male most cats have a cheetahs. We too think of cats as being common anomaly nocturnal and for the most part, wildcats in which they are do hunt at night, however some of the unable to taste small wildcats and cheetahs are diurnal something meaning that they hunt at dawn and “sweet.” dusk. Another communal characteristic that serves all cats in their survival is their highly developed and keen senses. Cats’ eyes are designed to see at night. As such they are highly sensitive to light and have exceptional night vision. Their sense of hearing is also sensitive to high frequency sounds and they are able to hear the slightest sound emitted from small prey. Cats have a unique ability to taste what they smell known as Flehmen.

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Domestic cats display this ability: their mouth is slightly open while breathing in air through their somewhat curled nose; they are simultaneously tasting Not all cats react to “catnip,” while and smelling. A note some do display a visible reaction about their whiskers: including rubbing and meuwing; an cats do receive overall sense of delight and sensory information via enjoyment. Some cats display similar their deep set whiskers behaviors when introduced to and are able to sense “perfumes” or “flower fragrances.” changes in their environment. If you ever heard a male lion roar you will probably never forget the sound or the pounding vibration in your chest. Not all cats have the ability to roar. Lions, tigers, jaguars and leopards are able to produce a “roar” sound due to the structure of their larynx and hyoid apparatus. All cats communicate with similar sounds that either display relaxation (purr and meuw) aggression (hissing, spitting, growling, and meuwing) or defensiveness (snarl). Some cats, domestic and cheetahs are often heard “chirping” vocalized during play or while hunting. The big cats produce a grunt-meuw or snort-meuw sound that is used as a friendly communication; while little cats produce a gurgle-meuw sound. Cats are innately territorial. The big cats have enormous home ranges and will scent mark their surroundings by rubbing, clawing and “spray” marking. This trail of scent is in a sense communications to others serving as a warning as well as indicating mating availability and overall well-being.

THE BIG PICTURE: TAXONOMY What is taxonomy? Humans are, for the most part, organized creatures. The world and all its inhabitants, require organization in order to understand the environment, beings, plants and organisms that we share the world with. Taxonomy is: the science ENSURING A WILD FUTURE FOR ALL WILDCATS


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of classifying animals, plants, and microorganisms into categories based on shared characteristics. Initially, this was done by grouping based on physical resemblances. Today, genetic matching is also being used. Humans also need to name things. (Cat1 would never do to represent “Tiger”). Hand-in-hand with taxonomy is nomenclature: a system of names given to species in a scientific classification system (taxonomy). Carl Linnaeus, a Swedish botanist, standardized the naming system for animals and plants. His published work Systema Naturae (1st Edition) published in 1735 provided an organized method to the then unorganized taxonomic literature. The Linnaean system was adopted between 1753 and 1758. Taxonomy classifies species from the broad to specific. The Felidae family is classified as: KINGDOM – Animalia PHYLUM – Chordata (PHYLUM is a biological division; Chordata are vertebrates and also represent species that have the following characteristics at some point during their development: pharyngeal slits, dorsal nerve cord, notochord and post-anal tail). CLASS – Mammalia FAMILY – Felidae GENUS – Felis Members of the Felidae family are then classified based on their SUBFAMILY: Pantherinae or Felinae followed by their LINEAGES and SCIENTIFIC NAME. The cats are also classified with a common name.

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For example:

COMMON NAME: SUBFAMILY: LINEAGE: SCIENTIFIC NAME:

Lion Pantherinae Panthera Leo

Generally speaking to identify a particular cat it looks like this: Lion (Panthera leo). In addition there are subspecies too. A subspecies identification looks like this: Lion (Panthera leo ssp. persica) or (Panthera leo persica) translated means a Lion subspecies from another geographic region. In this example the Lion subspecies is the Asiatic Lion that lives solely in the Gir Forest in India. Note however, that researchers evaluating physical and biological data may conclude that some species should be classified as a distinct species and ought to be classified as such and not as a subspecies. Or additional subspecies may be added to denote different conservation statuses for cats in different geographic regions. Overtime, the classifications and names may change and have since Linnaeus established the nomenclature.

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THE FELIDAE FAMILY

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KINGDOM – Animalia | PHYLUM – Chordata | CLASS – Mammalia | ORDER – Carnivora | SUBORDER – Feliformia | FAMILY – Felidae | GENUS – Felis SUBFAMILY – Pantherinae

PANTHERA Jaguar (onca) Leopard (pardus) Lion (leo) Snow Leopard (uncia) Tiger (tigris) NEOFELIS Clouded Leopard (nebulosa)

SUBFAMILY – Felinae

ACINONYX Cheetah (jubatus) CARACAL African Golden Cat (aurata) Caracal (caracal) CATOPUMA Asiatic Golden Cat (temminckii) Bornean Bay Cat (badia) FELIS Black-footed Cat (nigripes) Chinese Mountain Cat (bieti) Domestic Cat (catus) Jungle Cat (chaus) Sand Cat (margarita) Wildcat (silvestris) HERPAILURUS Jaguarundi (yagouaroundi) LEOPARDUS Andean Mountain Cat (jacobita) Geoffroy’s Cat (geoffroyi) Kodkod Guiña (guigna) Margay (wiedii) Ocelot (pardalis) Oncilla (tigrinus) Pampas Cats (pajeros) LEPTAILURUS Serval (serval) LYNX Bobcat (rufus) Canada Lynx (canadensis) Eurasian Lynx (lynx) Iberian Lynx (pardinus) OTOCOLOBUS Pallas’s Cat (manul) PARDOFELIS Marbled Cat (marmorata) PRIONAILURUS Fishing Cat (viverrinus) Flat-headed Cat (planiceps) Iriomote Cat (iriomotensis) Leopard Cat (bengalensis) Rusty-spotted Cat (rubiginosus) PUMA Puma (concolor)

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WILDCAT HABITATS Big and little cats are native to all continents with the exception of Antarctica and Australia. They live on tropical remote islands, rough the cold mountains of Asia and forests of North America. They inhabit the North and sub-Savanah across Africa and roam the rainforests, mountains and dry terrain of Central and South America. Over the past hundred years their native habitats have dwindled and continue to decline due to human encroachment, competition with humans, and depleting prey base. Once native in the southwest United States, Jaguars are rarely seen and have moved south into Mexico, Central and South America. Pumas: the Eastern Cougar is most likely extinct and a small population of the Florida Panther continues to hang on despite continued commercial development in the state. Likewise, Tigers in Asia have lost their territories and continue to be threatened with extinction due to illegal poaching. Snow Leopards are losing ground as well competing with humans for prey, development and illegal hunting. Despite all this some cats are sustaining in their native geographic regions.

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GEOGRAPHIC REGIONS NORTH AMERICA

Bobcat Canada Lynx Jaguar Jaguarundi Ocelot Puma

CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA

Andean Mountain Cat Bobcat Geoffroy’s Cat Jaguar Jaguarundi Kodkod Guiña Margay Ocelot Oncilla Pampas Cats Puma

ASIA AND EUROPE

Chinese Mountain Cat Eurasian Lynx (A&E) Iberian Lynx (E) Jungle Cat (A) Leopard (A) Pallas’s Cat (A) Snow Leopard (A) Tiger (Amur) (Russia) Wildcat (A&E)

ASIA (SOUTHWEST)

Caracal Cheetah Jungle Cat Leopard Lion Sand Cat Wildcat

ASIA (TROPICS)

African Golden Cat Black-footed Cat Caracal Cheetah Jungle Cat Leopard Lion Sand Cat Serval Wildcat

Asiatic Golden Cat Bornean Bay Cat Clouded Leopard Fishing Cat Flat-headed Cat Iriomote Cat Jungle Cat Leopard Leopard Cat Marbled Cat Rusty-spotted Cat Tiger

ANTARCTICA

No native wildcats

AFRICA

No native wildcats

AUSTRALIA

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CONSERVATION Wildcats continue to face increasing threats to their existence. As previously noted most cat populations are declining due to habitat loss from human development, depleting prey bases, human persecution for killing livestock or being perceived as a nuisance, hunting and illegal hunting and trade in living cats, products and trophies. Conservation means the protection of valued resources; preservation, management, care; protection from change, loss or damage. Sounds simple yet there are human factors that make conservation of a species an extremely complicated and confounding endeavor. These factors include cultural and religious differences, economic disparities, politics, corruption, legalities, and confusion between privilege and rights; want and need. There are many governments, organizations, corporations and individuals dedicated to the conservation of wildcats, wildlife, land, oceans and our environment. However, there is the same number if not more governments, organizations, corporations and individuals dedicated to just the opposite. We witnessed in the mid to late 20th century the extinction of three tiger subspecies: Bali Tiger (Panthera tigris balica), Caspian Tiger (Panthera tigris virgata), and Javan Tiger (Panthera tigris sondaica). The cause of their extinction: hunting and loss of habitat. (There are no living tigers of these species in captivity.) Today, there are now four tiger subspecies listed as Critically Endangered. One being, the South China Tiger (Panthera tigris amoyensis); their population remaining in the wild is estimated to be 30 mature individuals. In all likelihood these tigers will become extinct in the wild. Currently there are 13 cat species listed as endangered which means they too are facing a high risk of extinction in the wild. ENSURING A WILD FUTURE FOR ALL WILDCATS


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Without the interference of an international trade ban and regulated international trade, we could have lost a majority of all wildcat species. During the 1960s, 1970s and early 1980s, the demand for cat fur and skins reached a disproportion high. Cats were being killed in the thousands for the sole purpose of consumer goods, namely apparel. In response, all wildcat species were listed on Appendix I and Appendix II of The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Fauna and Flora.

THE CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) (1976 U.N.T.S. 224, 27 U.S.T. 1087) CITES establishes an international system of import and export regulations for the purposes of preventing overexploitation of animals and plants in need of protection. Since trade in wild animals and plants crosses the borders of many countries, international regulation and cooperation become necessary to ensure the future survival of many species. CITES was drafted in 1963, through a resolution adopted by the members of the World Conservation Union. The text of CITES was agreed to by eighty countries in Washington, D.C., on March 3, 1973, and it entered into force on July 1, 1975. The United States ratified CITES on September 13, 1973, effective on July 1, 1975. Today there are 181 Member States (Parties) to CITES. A “Conference of the Parties� is held every two years to carry out duties under the treaty. CITES regulates the international trade movement of animals that are alive and deceased, in addition to animal parts such as fur, skins, bones, and organs. (CITES does not regulate the conservation of animal habitats.) Depending on the level of extinction risk, animals are classified under one of three

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appendices and trade regulations including bans (non-commercial trade) are implemented based on each of the appendices. APPENDIX I: Animals included on Appendix I are threatened with extinction and trade is subject to strict regulation including import and export permits and other restrictions. APPENDIX II: Animals included on Appendix II are not necessarily threatened with extinction but may become threatened if trade is not regulated. APPENDIX III: Animals included on Appendix III are identified by the Parties to CITES and are subject to regulations within their respective jurisdictions and need cooperation in order to prevent or restrict exploitation and control trade. CITES’ U.S. counterpart is the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The United States Department of Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service regulates and enforces both CITES and the ESA.

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Did You Know? Most tiger species and other Asian cats were the first cats listed on CITES Appendix I in 1975; Asiatic Lions listed in 1977; Amur Tigers listed in 1987.

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CITES APPENDIX LISTINGS APPENDIX I

ANDEAN MOUNTAIN CAT (Leopardus jacobita) ASIATIC GOLDEN CAT (Catopuma temminckii) BLACK-FOOTED CAT (Felis nigripes) CARACAL (DESERT LYNX) (Caracal caracal) (ASIA) CHEETAH (HUNTING LEOPARD) (Acinonyx jubatus) CLOUDED LEOPARD (Neofelis nebulosa) FLAT-HEADED CAT (Prionailurus planiceps) GEOFFROY’S CAT (Leopardus geoffroyi) IBERIAN LYNX (SPANISH) (Lynx pardinus) JAGUAR (Panthera onca) JAGUARUNDI (Herpailurus yagouaroundi) (CENTRAL & NORTH AMERICA) LEOPARD (Panthera pardus) (including all Leopard subspecies) LEOPARD CAT (BENGAL CAT) (Prionailurus bengalensis) (BANGLADESH, INDIA, AND THAILAND) LION (ASIATIC) (Panthera leo persica) MARBLED CAT (Pardofelis marmorata) MARGAY (Leopardus wiedii) OCELOT (Leopardus pardalis) ONCILLA (TIGER CAT) (LITTLE SPOTTED CAT) (Leopardus tigrinus) PUMA: EASTERN COUGAR (Puma concolor cougar) PUMA: FLORIDA PANTHER (Puma concolor coryi) RUSTY -SPOTTED CAT (Prionailurus rubignosus) (INDIA) SNOW LEOPARD (OUNCE) (Panthera uncia) TIGER (Panthera tigris) (INCLUDING ALL SUBSPECIES)

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CITES APPENDIX LISTINGS APPENDIX II

AFRICAN GOLDEN CAT (Caracal aurata) BOBCAT (BAY LYNX) (Lynx rufus) BORNEAN BAY CAT (Catopuma badia) CANADA LYNX (Lynx canadensis) CARACAL (DESERT LYNX) (Caracal caracal) (AFRICA) CHINESE MOUNTAIN CAT (CHINESE DESERT CAT) (Felis bieti) EURASIAN LYNX (Lynx lynx) FISHING CAT (Prionailurus viverrinus) IRIOMOTE CAT (Prionailurus iriomotensis) JAGUARUNDI (Herpailurus yagouaroundi) JUNGLE CAT (Felis chaus) KODKOD GUIÑA (Leopardus guigna) LEOPARD CAT (BENGAL CAT) (Prionailurus bengalensis) LION (AFRICAN) (Panthera leo) PALLAS’S CAT (MANUL) (OTOCOLOBUS MANUL) PAMPAS CATS: ARGENTINEAN (Leopardus pajeros); CHILEAN (Leopardus colocolo); PANTANAL CAT (Leopardus braccatus) PUMA (Puma concolor) RUSTY-SPOTTED CAT (Prionailurus rubiginosus) (SRI LANKA) SAND CAT (Felis margarita) SERVAL (Leptailurus serval) & NORTH AFRICAN SERVAL (Leptailurus serval constantinus) WILDCAT (Felis silvestris) (AND ALL SUBSPECIES)

APPENDIX III

No cats are listed under Appendix III

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United States Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA) (16 U.S.C. §§ 1531-1544) The Endangered Species Act (ESA) provides protection of fish, wildlife and plants listed as endangered or threatened in the United States or other countries. Regulations include criteria for listing species, recovery plans, designation of critical habitats; procedures for federal agencies when actions may jeopardize listed species; exemptions and exceptions. The ESA is the domestic counterpart to CITES and provides civil and criminal penalties for violations under the ESA and CITES. The Department of Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) regulates and enforces CITES and the ESA. The ESA prohibits the taking, importing or exporting, selling or offering to sell any listed endangered or threatened species. ENDANGERED SPECIES: any animal or plant that is in danger of extinction. THREATENED SPECIES: any animal or plant that is likely to become endangered in the future. Permits are issued by USFWS for endangered species used for scientific research; enhancement or propagation or survival of the species including conservation and education; and a taking that is incidental to an otherwise lawful activity. Permits are also issued for threatened species used for zoology; education and special purposes consistent with the ESA. A person registered with USFWS may obtain a captive-bred wildlife permit to buy and sell within the U.S. live, non-native endangered or threatened animals which were captive born in the U.S.

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Did You Know? The Florida Panther was the first cat listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Protection Act of 1966; the predecessor to the Endangered Species Act of 1973.

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ESA LISTINGS ENDANGERED

ANDEAN MOUNTAIN CAT (Leopardus jacobita) ASIATIC GOLDEN CAT (Catopuma temminckii) BLACK-FOOTED CAT (Felis nigripes) BOBCAT (MEXICAN) (lynx rufus escuinapae) CHEETAH (HUNTING LEOPARD) (Acinonyx jubatus) CLOUDED LEOPARD (Neofelis nebulosa) FLAT-HEADED CAT (Prionailurus planiceps) IBERIAN LYNX (SPANISH) (Lynx pardinus) IRIOMOTE CAT (Prionailurus iriomotensis) JAGUAR (Panthera onca) JAGUARUNDI (Herpailurus yagouaroundi) LEOPARD (Panthera pardus) (including all Leopard subspecies; except as listed under THREATENED) LEOPARD CAT (BENGAL CAT) (Prionailurus bengalensis) LION (AFRICAN) (Panthera leo) (CENTRAL, NORTHERN AND WESTERN AFRICA) {01.22.16} LION (ASIATIC) (Panthera leo persica) {01.22.16} MARBLED CAT (Pardofelis marmorata) MARGAY (Leopardus wiedii) OCELOT (Leopardus pardalis) ONCILLA (TIGER CAT) (LITTLE SPOTTED CAT) (Leopardus tigrinus) PUMA (Puma concolor) (COSTA RICA, NICARAGUA, AND PANAMA) PUMA (EASTERN COUGAR) (Puma concolor cougar) PUMA (FLORIDA PANTHER) (Puma concolor coryi) SAND CAT (Felis margarita) (PAKISTAN) SERVAL (NORTH AFRICAN) (Leptailurus serval constantinus) SNOW LEOPARD (OUNCE) (Panthera uncia) (CENTRAL ASIA) TIGER (Panthera tigris) (including all subspecies)

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ESA LISTINGS THREATENED

CANADA LYNX (Lynx canadensis) LEOPARD (Panthera pardus) (GABON, CONGO, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO {FORMALLY ZAÏRE}, KENYA, AND UGANDA) LION (AFRICAN) (Panthera leo) (EASTERN AND SOUTHERN AFRICA) {01.22.16}

NOT LISTED

AFRICAN GOLDEN CAT (Caracal aurata) BOBCAT (BAY LYNX) (Lynx rufus) BORNEAN BAY CAT (Catopuma badia) CARACAL (DESERT LYNX) (Caracal caracal) CHINESE MOUNTAIN CAT (CHINESE DESERT CAT) (Felis bieti) EURASIAN LYNX (Lynx lynx) FISHING CAT (Prionailurus viverrinus) GEOFFROY’S CAT (Leopardus geoffroyi) JUNGLE CAT (Felis chaus) KODKOD GUIÑA (Leopardus guigna) PALLAS’S CAT (MANUL) (OTOCOLOBUS MANUL) PAMPAS CATS: ARGENTINEAN (Leopardus pajeros); CHILEAN (Leopardus colocolo); PANTANAL CAT (Leopardus braccatus) RUSTY-SPOTTED CAT (Prionailurus rubiginosus) WILDCAT (Felis silvestris) (AND ALL SUBSPECIES)

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The International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) Founded in 1948, and formerly known as the World Conservation Union, the IUCN comprised of international government and nongovernmental agencies to assess and initiate programs to preserve nature and protect our natural resources. Working with a global network of scientists and field researchers along with the IUCN Global Species Program and the IUNC Species Survival Commission, the IUCN provides the world with the most objective, scientifically-based information on the current status of globally threatened biodiversity. For the past 50 years the IUCN publishes the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. The IUCN Red List provides taxonomy, conservation status and distribution information on animals, plants, and fungi that are evaluated based on the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. The IUCN system is devised to determine the relative risk of extinction. The IUCN Red List categorizes animals and plants that are facing a higher risk of global extinction and are listed as CRITICALLY ENDANGERED, ENDANGERED, AND VULNERABLE. NEAR THREATENED include those that are close to meeting the threatened thresholds or would be threatened if it were not for taxon-specific conservation programs. The IUCN Red List also provides analysis on species that are considered EXTINCT (when there is no reasonable doubt that the last individual has died) or EXTINCT IN THE WILD (when a species is known to only live in captivity). In some instances, there is insufficient information to make an assessment of extinction risk and the species are categorized as DATA DEFICIENT. A further category NOT EVALUATED is used when a species has not been evaluated against the IUCN criteria.

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IUNC RED LIST © 2015

The IUCN’s analysis of data to determine extinction statuses is updated and published at least once every four years. Most members of the Felidae family were reviewed and updated in 2015 and their current extinction statuses under the IUCN Red List are as follows:

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IUCN CONSERVATION STATUSES CRITICALLY ENDANGERED

CHEETAH (IRAN) (Acinonyx jubatus venaticus) CHEETAH (NORTHWEST AFRICA) (Acinonyx jubatus heckii) IRIOMOTE CAT (Prionailurus iriomotensis) LEOPARD (AMUR) (Panthera pardus orientalis) LEOPARD (JAVAN) (Panthera pardus melas) LEOPARD (SOUTH ARABIAN) (Panthera pardus nimr) PUMA (EASTERN COUGAR) (Puma concolor cougar) PUMA (FLORIDA PANTHER) (Puma concolor coryi) TIGER (AMUR) (Panthera tigris altaica) TIGER (PENINSULAR MALAYSIA) (Panthera tigris jacksoni) TIGER (SOUTH CHINA) (Panthera tigris amoyensis) TIGER (SUMATRAN) (Panthera tigris sumatrae)

ENDANGERED

ANDEAN MOUNTAIN CAT (Leopardus jacobita) BORNEAN BAY CAT (Catopuma badia) FISHING CAT (Prionailurus viverrinus) FLAT-HEADED CAT (Prionailurus planiceps) IBERIAN LYNX (SPANISH) (Lynx pardinus) LEOPARD (NORTH PERSIAN) (Panthera pardus saxicolor) LEOPARD (SRI LANKA) (Panthera pardus kotiya) LION (AFRICAN) (WEST AFRICA) (Panthera leo) LION (ASIATIC) (Panthera leo persica) SERVAL (NORTH AFRICAN) (Leptailurus serval constantinus) SNOW LEOPARD (OUNCE) (Panthera uncia) TIGER (Panthera tigris) (and subspecies not listed as Critically Endangered)

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IUCN CONSERVATION STATUSES VULNERABLE

AFRICAN GOLDEN CAT (Caracal aurata) BLACK-FOOTED CAT (Felis nigripes) CHEETAH (HUNTING LEOPARD) (Acinonyx jubatus) CHINESE MOUNTAIN CAT (CHINESE DESERT CAT) (Felis bieti) CLOUDED LEOPARD (Neofelis nebulosa) KODKOD GUIÑA (Leopardus guigna) LION (AFRICAN) (Panthera leo) MARBLED CAT (Pardofelis marmorata) ONCILLA (TIGER CAT) (LITTLE SPOTTED CAT) (Leopardus tigrinus) RUSTY-SPOTTED CAT (Prionailurus rubiginosus) WILDCATS (SCOTTISH) (Felis silvestris grampia)

NEAR THREATENED

ASIATIC GOLDEN CAT (Catopuma temminckii) JAGUAR (Panthera onca) LEOPARD (Panthera pardus) MARGAY (Leopardus wiedii) PALLAS’S CAT (MANUL) (OTOCOLOBUS MANUL) PAMPAS CATS: ARGENTINEAN (Leopardus pajeros); CHILEAN (Leopardus colocolo); PANTANAL CAT (Leopardus braccatus) SAND CAT (Felis margarita)

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IUCN CONSERVATION STATUSES LEAST CONCERN

BOBCAT (BAY LYNX) (Lynx rufus) CANADA LYNX (Lynx canadensis) CARACAL (DESERT LYNX) (Caracal caracal) EURASIAN LYNX (Lynx lynx) GEOFFROY’S CAT (Leopardus geoffroyi) JAGUARUNDI (Herpailurus yagouaroundi) JUNGLE CAT (Felis chaus) LEOPARD CAT (BENGAL CAT) (Prionailurus bengalensis) OCELOT (Leopardus pardalis) PUMA (Puma concolor) SERVAL (Leptailurus serval) WILDCAT (Felis silvestris) (and all subspecies except Scottish)

DATA DEFICIENT

LEOPARD (ANATOLIAN) (Panthera pardus tulliana) LEOPARD (ASIA-CHINESE) (Panthera pardus delacourii) LEOPARD (INDIA SUB-CONTINENT) (Panthera pardus fusca) LEOPARD (NORTH AFRICAN) (Panthera pardus panthera) LEOPARD (NORTH CHINESE) (Panthera pardus japonensis)

NOT EVALUATED NONE LISTED

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Introduction

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SOURCES & WORKS CONSULTED Convention on International Trade in Endangered Fauna and Flora, The. CITES Guggisberg, C.A.W. Wild Cats of the World. New York: Taplinger Publishing Company, 1975. International Union Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. IUCN 2015. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015-4. IUCN Red List. (Wildcat Population Maps Š IUCN 2015) Lumpkin, Susan and John Seidensticker. Smithsonian Answer Book Cats. Washington: Smithsonian Books, 2004. Macdonald, David and Andrew J. Loveridge, eds. Biology and Conservation of Wild Felids. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010. Nowell, Kristin and Peter Jackson, eds. Wild Cats: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. Gland: International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Species Survival Commission, Cat Specialist Group, 1996. SSCCSG Sunquist, Mel and Fiona Sunquist. Wild Cats of the World. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002. United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Endangered Species. USFWS Endangered Species WildCat Conservation Legal Aid Society. Journal of the WildCat Conservation Legal Aid Society, The History & Culture of Wildcats in Captivity, Vol. I. Washington: 2009. WCCLAS WildCat Conservation Legal Aid Society. Journal of the WildCat Conservation Legal Aid Society, Hunting, Trafficking & Trade of Wildcats, Vol. II. Washington: 2009. WCCLAS WildCat Conservation Legal Aid Society. Journal of the WildCat Conservation Legal Aid Society, The Degradation of Wildcat Populations & Habitats, Vol. IV. Washington: 2010. WCCLAS WildCat Conservation Legal Aid Society. Summary of Federal Treaties & Statutes. Washington: 2013. WCCLAS

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Commentary The ratification of CITES in 1975, the U.S. ESA together with the work of other governments and organizations have at best slowed down the extinction process of the worlds wildcats. We note from our analysis the continued threats to wildcat populations (habitat and prey loss and human persecution) and the political and economic environments of those countries in which native wildcat populations are struggling to keep calling home. There is a tremendous amount of work and an obligatory global shift in cultural thought and/or traditions that must be adopted in order to protect and preserve the precious wildcat populations that remain in the wild. This work will absolutely require cooperation among governments, neighboring countries, neighboring individuals whether in North and South America as far away as the mountainous regions of Asia and the southern tip of Africa. We must act in concert. Conservation of the Felidae Family will require a global commitment from everyone in order to finally cease the exploitation of wildcats for commercial purposes, for traditional cultural purposes, for trophies mounted on a wall collecting dust, for persecution for being hungry and not knowing what a fence means, and for the commercial development of their ever decreasing land and habitats. When we think about the definition of conservation: protection of valued resources; preservation, management, care; protection from change, loss or damage; it really is not that difficult to achieve. We are able to stop their decreasing populations, habitat and prey loss by simply letting them be. We need to change and adapt. No more hunting, no more trade, no more captive breeding窶馬o more exceptions. It is mind-boggling to even try to imagine what took a million years to evolve into the forty cat species we know today could all be extinct within a hundred year period. Not caused by a meteorite or by a volcanic eruption but simply caused by human selfishness.

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Introduction

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Meet Our Clients: The Wildcats

ENSURING A WILD FUTURE FOR ALL WILDCATS


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ENSURING A WILD FUTURE FOR ALL WILDCATS


African Golden Cat (Caracal aurata) / Golden Cat (Profelis aurata)

African Golden Cat

Caracal aurata

(Temminck, 1827)

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AFRICAN GOLDEN CAT (Caracal aurata)

GOLDEN CAT (Profelis aurata)

Characteristics African Golden Cats are a relatively small cat weighing on average 34 pounds (15 kg) with long legs, big paws, a small head, and a long tail. Their coat color ranges from red, fawn, brown and silvery grey, with white markings on their face, chest, interior legs and belly. Some cats have small dark brown spots. The back of their ears are black. African Golden Cats are primarily nocturnal and their prey ranges from rodents and tree hyraxes to small forest antelopes.


African Golden Cat (Caracal aurata) / Golden Cat (Profelis aurata)

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Geographic Region African Golden Cats inhabit the equatorial tropical rainforest of Central and West Africa.

Conservation Status VULNERABLE the estimated total population of African Golden Cats is less than 10,000 mature breeding individuals. Their population is declining due to habitat and prey loss and human persecution. Hunting African Golden Cats is prohibited in Angola, Benin, Burkina, Faso, Congo, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, and Democratic Republic of Congo (formally Za誰re). Hunting is regulated in Gabon, Liberia and Togo. African Golden Cats are listed on CITES Appendix II and not listed under the ESA.


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Andean Mountain Cat (Leopardus jacobita)

Andean Mountain Cat

Leopardus jacobita (Cornalia, 1865)

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ANDEAN MOUNTAIN CAT (Leopardus jacobita)

Characteristics Andean Mountain Cats are a small cat weighing only eight to nine pounds (4 kg) their coats are fine and soft with a long bushy tail. Their coat color is a silvery grey, with spots and stripes in brown or orange yellow markings, and white tipped tail with black or brown rings. Andean Mountain Cats are both nocturnal and diurnal, seeking mountain chinchillas at night and mountain viscachas (rodent related to the chinchilla) in the daylight.


Andean Mountain Cat (Leopardus jacobita)

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Geographic Region Andean Mountain Cats inhabit the arid and semi-arid rocky zones of the Andes in Northeastern Chile, Southern Peru, Southern Bolivia, and Northern Argentina.

Conservation Status ENDANGERED the estimated total population of Andean Mountain Cats is 2,500 mature breeding individuals. Their population is declining due to prey loss and human persecution: traditional hunting and cultural practices may represent a significant threat to the species. Hunting of Andean Mountain Cats is prohibited. The cats are fully protected across their entire geographic region. Trade of any kind is also prohibited. Andean Mountain Cats are listed on CITES Appendix I and as ENDANGERED under the ESA.


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Asiatic Golden Cat (Catopuma temminckii / Pardofelis temminckii)

Asiatic Golden Cat

Catopuma temminckii

(Vigors & Horsfield, 1827)

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ASIATIC GOLDEN CAT (Catopuma temminckii)

Characteristics Asiatic Golden Cats are a small cat weighing on average 22 to 33 pounds (10 to 15 kg). Males are noticeably larger than females. Their coat color ranges from grey, red or brown with white and black contour lines on their face. The undersides of their tails have a white streak. Asiatic Golden Cats are nocturnal and their prey ranges from insects, amphibians and reptiles to birds, rodents and small ungulates.

Geographic Region


Asiatic Golden Cat (Catopuma temminckii / Pardofelis temminckii)

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Asiatic Golden Cats inhabit the tropical and sub-tropical forests of South-central China.

Conservation Status NEAR THREATENED the estimated total population of Asiatic Golden Cats is 10,000 mature breeding individuals. Their population is declining due to deforestation, prey loss and human persecution. Asiatic Golden Cats are hunted for their pelts and their bones are used in Asian medicine. Hunting is prohibited in Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Peninsular Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand, and Viet Nam. Hunting is regulated in Laos PDR. No legal protection is afforded to Asiatic Golden Cats outside of their protected areas in Bhutan. There are indications of increasing illegal hunting and poaching in many range countries. Asiatic Golden Cats are listed on CITES Appendix I and as ENDANGERED under the ESA.


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Black-footed Cat (Felis nigripes)

Black-footed Cat

Felis nigripes

(Burchell, 1824)

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BLACK-FOOTED CAT (Felis nigripes)

Characteristics Black-footed Cats are one of the smallest of the wildcats. Males are slightly larger than females weighing on average 3.5 to 4.2 pounds (1.6 to 2.1 kg). Females on average weigh only 2.5 pounds (1.2 kg). Their coats are cream color with brown-black oblong spots, dark stripes on their face and legs and the soles of their paws are black. Black-footed Cats are nocturnal and their prey includes insects, birds and rodents.


Black-footed Cat (Felis nigripes)

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Geographic Region Black-footed Cats inhabit the arid lands of Southern Africa.

Conservation Status VULNERABLE the estimated total population of Black-footed Cats is 10,000 mature breeding individuals. Their population is declining due to prey loss and human persecution. Black-footed Cats are a rare species and are legally protected over their geographic range. Hunting of Black-footed Cats is banned in Botswana and South Africa. No legal protection is afforded to Black-footed Cats in Mozambique, Namibia and Zimbabwe. Black-footed Cats are listed on CITES Appendix I and as ENDANGERED under the ESA.


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Bobcat (Bay Lynx) (Lynx rufus)

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Bobcat

Lynx rufus

(Schreber, 1777)


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BOBCAT (BAY LYNX) (Lynx rufus)

Characteristics Bobcats are a small/medium build cat. Females weigh from 12 to 20 pounds (5.8 to 9.2 kg) and males weigh from 19 to 29 pounds (8.9 to 13.3 kg). Bobcats have a short tail with a ruff of fur about their face. Their coat color ranges from light grey and yellowish brown to reddish brown and are spotted on their bellies. On some Bobcats, the spots extend to their sides and backs. Bobcats look similar to Canada Lynx. In comparison, Bobcats have much smaller feet, shorter hind legs, and shorter ear tufts. Bobcats are active during the day and at night. Their prey ranges from rodents, rabbits and snowshoe hares to deer.


Bobcat (Bay Lynx) (Lynx rufus)

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Geographic Region Bobcats inhabit the mixed forests and coastal swamp areas in the United States and Southern Canada and in the dry forests of Mexico.

Conservation Status LEAST CONCERN the estimated total population of Bobcats is 50,000 mature breeding individuals. Their population is declining due to habitat and prey loss and human persecution: trapping for fur trade and predation. Hunting and trade is regulated in the United States and Canada. Management programs are being developed to protect against over hunting. Opposition to hunting and trade of Bobcats is growing in the United States and internationally. Bobcats are listed on CITES Appendix II and not listed under the ESA. Mexican Bobcats (lynx rufus escuinapae) are listed as ENDANGERED under the ESA.


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Bornean Bay Cat (Catopuma badia)

Bornean Bay Cat

Catopuma badia (Gray, 1874)

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BORNEAN BAY CAT (Catopuma badia)

Characteristics Bornean Bay Cats are a small cat weighing less than 22 pounds (10 kg). Their coat color is a reddish brown, with faint stripes on their face. Their tails have a white streak becoming a solid white at the tip with a black spot. Bornean Bay Cats have rounded ears with dark brown coloring on the back. Because of their rarity, information on the Bornean Bay Cat’s habits and food source is scarce.


Bornean Bay Cat (Catopuma badia)

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Geographic Region Bornean Bay Cats inhabit the forest areas on the island of Borneo and are considered extremely rare.

Conservation Status ENDANGERED the estimated total population of Bornean Bay Cats is 2,500 mature breeding individuals. Their population is declining due to habitat loss. Bornean Bay Cats are legally protected over their geographic region. Hunting and trade of Bornean Bay Cats is prohibited in Indonesia and Malaysia, yet traders have illegally captured cats for their skins and pet markets. Bornean Bay Cats are listed on CITES Appendix II and not listed under the ESA.


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Canada Lynx (Lynx canadensis)

Canada Lynx

Lynx canadensis (Kerr, 1792)

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CANADA LYNX

(Lynx canadensis)

Characteristics Canada Lynx are a medium build cat. Females weigh 19 pounds (8.9 kg) and males weigh 24 pounds (10.7 kg). Like Bobcats, Canada Lynx have a ruff of fur about their face but has longer black ear tufts and longer hind legs. Their coat color is grey or reddish brown with white tips that creates a frosted look. The most striking feature of Canada Lynx is their large paws designed for treading through the snow. Canada Lynx primary prey is the snowshoe hare. Studies show that their population and range are cyclical with the rise and fall of the snowshoe hare.


Canada Lynx (Lynx canadensis)

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Geographic Region Canada Lynx inhabit the boreal forest of Canada and the Northern United States. A small group was reintroduced in Colorado. Continued monitoring is necessary in order to determine their longterm viability.

Conservation Status LEAST CONCERN the estimated total population of Canada Lynx is 50,000 mature breeding individuals. Their population is declining due to habitat and prey loss and human persecution: trapping for the fur trade. In the United States, the Canada Lynx population is THREATENED. The State of Alaska is the only state in the U.S. in which trapping of Canada Lynx for the fur trade is legally permitted. In recent years the State of Maine was challenged in federal court for “incidental� trapping of Canada Lynx. Canada Lynx are listed on CITES Appendix II and as THREATENED under the ESA.


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Caracal (Desert Lynx) (Caracal caracal)

Caracal

Caracal caracal

(Schreber, 1776)

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CARACAL (DESERT LYNX) (Caracal caracal)

Characteristics Caracals are considered to be one of the biggest small cats. Males weigh up to 40 pounds (18 kg) and females weigh up to 35 pounds (16 kg). Their coat color ranges from tawny brown to a deep red. Caracals have large ears: the back of their ears are black with long black tufts. Caracals are nocturnal but are seen during the day. Their prey ranges from rodents, hares, and hyraxes to small antelopes. Caracals have an extraordinary ability to leap high in the air which allows them to catch birds by knocking them down with their front paws.


Caracal (Desert Lynx) (Caracal caracal)

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Geographic Region Caracals inhabit the savannah and woodland of N. Africa, subSaharan Africa, and Central and South-west Asia.

Conservation Status LEAST CONCERN the estimated total population of Caracals is 50,000 mature breeding individuals. Their population is declining due to habitat and prey loss and human persecution. Hunting is prohibited in Afghanistan, Algeria, Egypt, India, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Lebanon, Morocco, Pakistan, Syria, Tajikistan, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan and is protected in most of their home ranges in sub-Saharan Africa. In Namibia and South Africa, Caracals are considered problem animals, which allow landowners to kill the species without restriction. Caracals are listed on CITES Appendix I (Asia) and Appendix II (Africa) and not listed under the ESA.


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Cheetah (Hunting Leopard) (Acinonyx jubatus)

Cheetah

Acinonyx jubatus (Schreber, 1775)

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CHEETAH (HUNTING LEOPARD) (Acinonyx jubatus)

Characteristics Cheetahs are widely known for their ability to run at top speeds estimated between 60 to 70 miles per hour but at short intervals. Cheetahs are the fastest land mammal. They have a small head, long legs, flexible spine, and long tails. On average Cheetahs weigh from 88 to 123 pounds (40 to 56 kg); females are smaller than males. Their coat is a tawny color with round black spots, with pale white coloring on their belly, throat, and chin. Cheetahs have distinguishing black lines running from the corner of their inner eye to the upper lip. Their small round ears are black on the back and lower part of their tails has black bands. Their claws are partially retractable. Cheetah cubs are born with a thick mane


Cheetah (Hunting Leopard) (Acinonyx jubatus)

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running down their back which diminishes as the cat matures and may serve to protect them as they develop. Cheetah cubs resemble honey badgers which are feared by other predators. Cheetahs are diurnal and their primary prey is gazelles. The name Cheetah is derived from the Hindi Chita, meaning "spotted one."

Geographic Region Cheetahs inhabit dry open areas, semi-deserts, grass lands, acacia scrubs, and light woodlands of sub-Saharan Africa. Cheetahs became extinct in the 20th century from their ranges in North Africa and Southwest Asia but a very small number of isolated Cheetahs remain.


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Cheetah (Hunting Leopard) (Acinonyx jubatus)

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Conservation Status VULNERABLE the estimated total population of Cheetahs is 6,700 mature breeding individuals. Their population is declining due to habitat and prey loss and human persecution for being a threat to livestock. Cheetahs suffer from low genetic diversity. In Iran (Acinonyx jubatus venaticus) and in Northwest Africa (Acinonyx jubatus heckii) Cheetahs are listed as CRITICALLY ENDANGERED. All Cheetahs are legally protected in their current and former geographic regions and are listed on CITES Appendix I and as ENDANGERED under the ESA.


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Chinese Mountain Cat (Chinese Desert Cat) (Felis bieti)

Chinese Mountain Cat

Felis bieti

(Milne-Edwards, 1892)

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CHINESE MOUNTAIN CAT (Felis bieti) (CHINESE DESERT CAT)

Characteristics Chinese Mountain Cats are a small stocky cat weighing from 14 to 20 pounds (6.5 to 9 kg); females are smaller than males. Their coat color changes in the winter and summer from light grey to a dark brown with dark stripes on their legs and sides. They have short legs and a short tail with dark colored rings and black tip. The Chinese Mountain Cat is nocturnal and preys primarily on mole-rats, rodents, and birds.

Geographic Region Chinese Mountain Cats are indigenous to China, and are found in limited distribution in the northeast edge of the Tibetan Plateau,


Chinese Mountain Cat (Chinese Desert Cat) (Felis bieti)

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Qinghai province, mountains of Southern Gansu and Northern Sichuan, Datong and Daban.

Conservation Status VULNERABLE the estimated total population of Chinese Mountain Cats is below 10,000 mature breeding individuals. Their population is declining due to prey loss and human persecution: killing via poisons used to control rodents and hunting for the illegal trade in furs. Chinese Mountain Cat pelts are commonly found in markets. Studies are needed in order to determine whether the protections afforded to Chinese Mountain Cats in the designated management areas are effective. Chinese Mountain Cats are listed on CITES Appendix II and not listed under the ESA.


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Clouded Leopard (Neofelis nebulosa)

Clouded Leopard

Neofelis nebulosa (Griffith, 1821)

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CLOUDED LEOPARD (Neofelis nebulosa)

Characteristics Clouded Leopards are a little big cat weighing from 24 to 44 pounds (11 to 20 kg). Clouded Leopards have a luxurious coat with distinctive markings. Their coat color is a tawny silvery grey with dark oval spots contrasted by darker rings, with two black bars on the back of their neck and black bands extending from their eye to beneath their ears. Their long plush tail has black rings. For their size, Clouded Leopards have the longest canines. Clouded Leopards have extraordinary tree living abilities. Their prey ranges from birds, primates, and small mammals to deer, porcupines, and wild boar.

Geographic Region Clouded Leopards inhabit evergreen tropical rainforests, grass land, scrub lands, and mangrove swamps, from the foothills of the


Clouded Leopard (Neofelis nebulosa)

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Himalayas through Southeast Asia and the islands of Sumatra and Borneo. Recent studies show the Clouded Leopards of Sumatra and Borneo are genetically different than the mainland cats and may be classified as a separate species Neofelis diardi.

Conservation Status VULNERABLE the estimated total population of Clouded Leopards is below 10,000 mature breeding individuals. Their population is declining due to habitat and prey loss and human persecution. Clouded Leopards are illegally hunted for their pelts; their bones are used for Asian medicinal purposes and their meat is a delicacy for the affluent Asians and tourists. Clouded Leopards are legally protected over their geographic region. Hunting is banned in Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand, and Viet Nam. Hunting is regulated in Laos PDR. There are no legal protections outside of their protected areas in Bhutan Clouded Leopards are listed on CITES Appendix I and as ENDANGERED under the ESA.


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Domestic Cat (Felis catus)

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Domestic Cat

Felis catus

(Linnaeus, 1758)


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DOMESTIC CAT (Felis catus)

Characteristics Domestic Cats are similar to the African, European and Scottish Wildcats. Researchers note that Domestic Cats are more likely to be related to the African Wildcat because the African Wildcat is more tolerant and less fearful of people compared to the Scottish Wildcat which is aggressive and avoids human interaction. Domestic Cats have diverse coat patterns and colors but are relatively the same size and exhibit the same behaviors. Feral


Domestic Cat (Felis catus)

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Cats are Domestic Cats that live wild with little or no human interaction. Feral Cats live anywhere from back alleys to remote islands and can survive in most climates. They prey on rodents, rabbits, and birds. Feral Cats form social groups which may be a left over condition of domestication. However, domestication did not change the cats’ predatory behavior; their hunting instincts remain. Most indoor cats display their hunting skills and behaviors: laying in-wait, stalking, and chasing. Domestic Cats are most active in the evening and at night while most of their day is spent cat-napping.

Geographic Region Domestic and Feral Cats are found around the world.

Conservation Status Domestic Cats are not a concern as their population continues to increase. However there are regions which find Domestic Cats a nuisance and are considered a potential threat to local bird populations. Domestic Cats are also subject to neglect and abuse by humans. Most states have adopted animal cruelty laws and enforcement actions against abusers are increasing. Animal shelters are at times overburdened with abandoned adult cats and kittens. Not all animal shelters have implemented “no-kill� policies and as a result thousands of Domestic and Feral Cats are euthanized daily. There are a number of nonprofit organizations that care for Feral Cats. They will trap and re-release the cats after they have a physical exam, are vaccinated and spayed or neutered. Their pro-actions help to prevent the spread of disease and reduce the number of cats that are neglected, abused and euthanized.


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Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx)

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Eurasian Lynx

Lynx lynx

(Linnaeus, 1758)


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EURASIAN LYNX (Lynx lynx)

Characteristics Eurasian Lynx are a fairly large, sturdy cat weighing in at 39 to 83 pounds (18 to 38 kg). Their coat is a golden, yellowish-brown which becomes very thick in the winter months. Eurasian Lynx have very large furred paws, long legs, a short black tipped tail, long lush side whiskers, and black ear tufts. Their primary prey is roe deer, chamois, and musk deer but will seek small prey when deer is scarce. Eurasian Lynx are most active in the morning and evening.

Geographic Region Eurasian Lynx inhabit forests and the woodland rocky terrain of Northern Europe, Central Asia, Siberia, and East Asia.


Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx)

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Conservation Status LEAST CONCERN the estimated total population of Eurasian Lynx is 50,000 mature breeding individuals. Their population is declining due to habitat and prey loss: destruction of ungulates a primary food source and human persecution: commercial trapping for the fur industry. Hunting Eurasian Lynx is prohibited in Afghanistan, Albania, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Nepal, Pakistan, Poland, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Hunting is regulated in Estonia, Finland, Iraq, Norway, Romania, Sweden, and Russia. Eurasian Lynx are not protected in Armenia. Eurasian Lynx are listed on CITES Appendix II and not listed under the ESA.


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Fishing Cat (Prionailurus viverrinus)

Fishing Cat

Prionailurus viverrinus (Bennett, 1833)

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FISHING CAT

(Prionailurus viverrinus)

Characteristics Fishing Cats have a compact build with stocky legs. On average, males weigh 26 pounds (12 kg) and females are slightly smaller. Their pelt is a greyish color with dark brown stripes and long spots. They have a short tail, web toes and short claw sheaths which leaves part of the claw exposed when retracted. Fishing Cats are strong swimmers and will dive for prey. They also prey on rodents, frogs, small mammals, and birds. Fishing Cats are active during the day and at night.

Geographic Region


Fishing Cat (Prionailurus viverrinus)

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Fishing Cats inhabit wetlands consisting of swamps, marshes, reed beds, tidal creeks and mangrove areas of Northeast India, Sri Lanka, Southeast Asia, and the islands of Sumatra and Java.

Conservation Status ENDANGERED the total population of Fishing Cats is unknown. Researchers note a severe decline in the Fishing Cat population throughout their range. The decline is due to habitat and prey loss and human persecution: pollution, excess hunting, wood cutting, and fishing. Fishing Cats are protected in their geographic regions. Hunting is prohibited in Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Thailand. Hunting is regulated in Laos PDR. There is no protection afforded to Fishing Cats in Bhutan and Viet Nam. Fishing Cats are listed on CITES Appendix II and not listed under the ESA.


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Flat-headed Cat (Prionailurus planiceps)

Flat-headed Cat

Prionailurus planiceps

(Vigors & Horsfield, 1827)

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FLAT-HEADED CAT

(Prionailurus planiceps)

Characteristics Flat-headed Cats are very small. Males weigh on average 4 pounds (1.9 kg) and females weigh on average 3.5 pounds (1.7 kg). Flat-headed Cats have a protruding flat head with little round ears. Their coat is thick and soft and is reddish brown at the top tapering out to a deep brown, with a white belly, white streaks about their face and on the tips of the hairs. Flat-head Cats have short legs, a little tail, sharp pointed teeth, semi-retractable claws, and close-set eyes. Flat-headed Cats are designed for catching fish. Studies of Flat-headed Cats in captivity note that the cats love water and would rather be in or near water than in dry areas. While fish and frogs are sought before birds, in the wild Flatheaded Cats prey on rodents.


Flat-headed Cat (Prionailurus planiceps)

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Geographic Region Flat-headed Cats inhabit the swampy areas and oil palm plantations in Southeast Asia.

Conservation Status ENDANGERED the guesstimated total population of Flat-headed Cats is below 2,500 mature breeding individuals. Their population is declining due to habitat and prey loss: pollution causing contamination of their prey and human persecution. Flat-headed Cats are very elusive and quite rare making field research difficult and in recent years has not been conducted. Flatheaded Cats are protected across their geographic region. Hunting and trade is prohibited in Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar and Thailand. Flat-headed Cats are not protected by the Wildlife Protection Act of 1984 in Brunei Darussalam. Flat-headed Cats are listed on CITES Appendix I and as ENDANGERED under the ESA.


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Geoffroy’s Cat (Leopardus geoffroyi)

Geoffroy’s Cat

Leopardus geoffroyi

(d'Orbigny & Gervais, 1844)

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GEOFFROY’S CAT

(Leopardus geoffroyi)

Characteristics Geoffroy’s Cats are about the same size as Domestic Cats. Males weigh 11 pounds (5 kg) on average and females are slightly smaller. Their pelt ranges from a tawny gold to light grey and is covered with small black spots, streaks, and lines. Their belly is a light cream color. Geoffroy’s Cats have small rounded ears that are black on the back with a small white spot and their tails are ringed with dark bands. They prey on small rodents, birds, fish, and frogs. Geoffroy’s Cats are most active at night but are out and about early in the morning and early evening.


Geoffroy’s Cat (Leopardus geoffroyi)

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Geographic Region Geoffroy’s Cats inhabit the woodlands and grasslands of Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay.

Conservation Status LEAST CONCERN The Geoffroy’s Cats’ population has stabilized in recent years, however, researchers note, threats to their population includes habitat and prey loss, fragmentation, human persecution and illegal local trade of their pelts. Geoffroy’s Cats were victims of the international cat fur trade in the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s. The commercial exploitation of Geoffroy’s Cats has since declined. However, because so little is known about the cats’ ecological needs researchers are not able to assess the long term effects from hunting and habitat decline. Captive Geoffroy’s Cats are in demand for the exotic pet trade for breeding with Domestic Cats resulting in a hybrid known as the Safari Cat. Geoffroy’s Cats are completely protected over their geographic region. Hunting and trade is prohibited in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Geoffroy’s Cats are listed on CITES Appendix I and not listed under the ESA.


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Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus)

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Iberian Lynx

Lynx pardinus

(Temminck, 1827)


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IBERIAN LYNX (SPANISH LYNX) (Lynx pardinus)

Characteristics Iberian Lynx are closer in appearance and behavioral habits to Canada Lynx and Bobcats than the Eurasian Lynx. Males weigh on average 28 pounds (12.8 kg) and females weigh on average 20 pounds (9.3 kg). Their coats are a tawny color, heavily spotted with short course hair. Their ears have long black tufts and long white hair around their chins. Iberian Lynx prey exclusively on European rabbits and are predominately nocturnal.

Geographic Region

Iberian Lynx inhabit the woodlands and dense scrubs of Spain and Portugal.


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Conservation Status ENDANGERED the total population of the Iberian Lynx is only 156 mature breeding individuals. Their population is declining due to habitat and prey loss and human persecution. Field researchers report that the Iberian Lynx is coming very close to extinction. The Iberian Lynx population plummeted when Myxomatosis spread through the European rabbit population. They are increasingly threatened by human activity including snares, vehicle traffic, and illegal hunting. Iberian Lynx are fully protected in Spain and Portugal. Iberian Lynx are listed on CITES Appendix I and as ENDANGERED (Spanish Lynx) under the ESA.


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Iriomote Cat (Prionailurus iriomotensis)

Iriomote Cat

Prionailurus iriomotensis (Imaizumi, 1967)

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IRIOMOTE CAT

(Prionailurus iriomotensis)

Characteristics Iriomote Cats are one of the smallest cats. Males weigh on average 9 pounds (4.2 kg) and females weigh on average 7 pounds (3.2 kg). Their pelt is a dark brown color with dark spots that form a band appearance. Iriomote Cats have short legs and a small tail. Their claws are semi-retractable. Iriomote Cats prey on rats, flying fox, birds, insects, crabs, and fish. They are good swimmers and tree climbers and are primarily nocturnal. A recent genetic analysis of the Iriomote Cat suggests it may be considered a subspecies of the Leopard Cat.


Iriomote Cat (Prionailurus iriomotensis)

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Geographic Region Iriomote Cats inhabit the coastal areas on the Iriomote Island located east of Taiwan.

Conservation Status CRITICALLY ENDANGERED the estimated total population of Iriomote Cats is only 100 mature breeding individuals. Their population is declining due to habitat loss attributed to commercial development on the Iriomote Island and isolation of a single population. Iriomote Cats and their habitat are fully protected and listed as ENDANGERED on Japan's 2012 National Red List. Iriomote Cats are listed on CITES Appendix II and as ENDANGERED under the ESA.


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Jaguar (Panthera onca)

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Jaguar

Panthera onca

(Linnaeus, 1758)


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JAGUAR

(Panthera onca)

Characteristics Jaguars are the largest and the only cat in the Panthera genus found in the Americas. Jaguars are powerfully built with a large round head and deep chest. Males weigh on average 125 pounds (57 kg) and females weigh on average 92.5 pounds (42 kg). Their top coat is deep golden color with distinctive black rosettes that enclose small black spots, with a white belly. Black Jaguars are common and their rosette markings are seen reflected in the sunlight. Jaguars prey consists of peccaries, tapirs and deer but Jaguars are not finicky eaters. When wild prey is unavailable they will seek cattle from ranches located within their territories. Jaguars are primarily nocturnal and are also active during the day.

Geographic Region

Jaguars inhabit rainforests, grasslands, woodland, and the dry deciduous forests of South America, Mexico, and Southwestern United States.


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Conservation Status NEAR THREATENED the estimated total population of Jaguars is below 50,000 mature breeding individuals. Their population is declining due to habitat and prey loss attributed to deforestation and human persecution: intolerance of ranchers. Jaguars lost their home range in the United States and Mexico. Their strongest home range is in the Amazon Basin. Commercial hunting and trapping for their pelts has significantly decreased yet a demand for their body parts and products still exists. Jaguars are protected across most of their geographic regions. Hunting is prohibited in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, French Guiana, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Suriname, United States, and Venezuela. Hunting is restricted in Costa Rica, Guatemala, Mexico, and Peru. Jaguars are listed on CITES Appendix I and as ENDANGERED under the ESA.


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Jaguarundi (Herpailurus yagouaroundi)

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Jaguarundi

Herpailurus yagouaroundi

(É. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1803)


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JAGUARUNDI

(Herpailurus yagouaroundi)

Characteristics Jaguarundis have their own unique look compared to the other small wild cats. They are slight and long in stature. Males on average weigh 13 pounds (5.9 kg) and females on average weigh 9.7 pounds (4.4 kg). Their coat color ranges from black, brown, greyish-brown and red with no distinctive markings. Jaguarundis prey on birds over small mammals but will seek rodents, rabbits and reptiles. They are most active in the evening hours and are frequently seen traveling in pairs.

Geographic Region Jaguarundis inhabit woodland, dry scrub, swamps, and forest areas of South America, Mexico, and Southwestern United States.


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Conservation Status LEAST CONCERN the estimated total population of Jaguarundis is 50,000 mature breeding individuals. Their population is declining due to habitat and prey loss. Jaguarundis are not sought after for the commercial trade and is quite common over most of their geographic regions. Jaguarundis are fully protected. Hunting is prohibited in Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, French Guiana, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Suriname, Uruguay, United States, and Venezuela. Hunting is regulated in Peru. Jaguarundis are listed on CITES Appendix I (Central and North America) and on Appendix II and as ENDANGERED under the ESA.


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Jungle Cat (Felis chaus)

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Jungle Cat

Felis chaus

(Schreber, 1777)


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JUNGLE CAT (Felis chaus)

Characteristics Jungle Cats are a small robust cat. Males weigh on average 13 pounds (6.1 kg) and females weigh on average 9 pounds (4.2 kg). Their coat is a golden-brown, grey, or auburn with a contrasting darker stripe pattern on their tails and legs. Jungle Cats have a short tail and short black ear tufts. Their primary prey is rodents but they will seek rabbits, birds, young mammals, and fish. Jungle Cats are excellent swimmers and are active during the day.

Geographic Region Jungle Cats habitats range from forests, wetlands, and the desert


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areas of southwest Asia, India, Central Asia, Arabian Peninsula, and along the Nile River in Africa.

Conservation Status LEAST CONCERN the estimated total population of Jungle Cats is 50,000 mature breeding individuals. Their population is declining due to habitat and prey loss and human persecution. Jungle Cats are sought after for the fur trade. Illegal trade is the highest in India with thousands of furs being confiscated. Hunting is prohibited in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, China, India, Israel, Myanmar, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Thailand, and Turkey. Jungle Cats are listed on CITES Appendix II and not listed under the ESA.


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Kodkod (Gui単a) (Leopardus guigna)

Kodkod Gui単a

Leopardus guigna (Molina, 1782)

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KODKOD (GUIĂ‘A)

(Leopardus guigna)

Characteristics Kodkods are the smallest of the wildcats found in South America. Their average weight is only 4.8 pounds (2.2 kg). Their coat is a tawny brown color with numerous small black spots. Kodkods have a small face, large feet for their size and a thick lush tail. They excel at tree climbing. Kodkods prey on small rodents and are expert poultry raiders which have led to persecution by poultry farmers. They are primarily nocturnal but researchers note that captive Kodkods are active during the day.


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Geographic Region Kodkods inhabit the moist forests of Argentina, Chile and the Island of Chiloe.

Conservation Status VULNERABLE the estimated total population of Kodkods is below 10,000 mature breeding individuals. Their population is declining due to habitat and prey loss and human persecution. Kodkods are protected in Argentina and Chile. Kodkods are listed on CITES Appendix II and not listed under the ESA.


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Leopard (Panthera pardus)

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Leopard

Panthera pardus (Linnaeus, 1758)


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LEOPARD

(Panthera pardus)

Characteristics Leopards are one of the smaller big cats. Males weigh on average 127 pounds (58 kg) and females weigh on average 87 pounds (37.5 kg). Leopards are a stocky, powerfully built cat. Depending on their geographic region, their coat color base changes from a lush golden-orange to a pale cream and some are black but all have their distinct rosette spots. Leopards have large skulls and strong jaw muscles. Their prey base is enormous which ranges from beetles to large ungulates. Leopards are exceptional tree climbers and will take prey weighing three times their own size up into trees to avoid competition with other predators such as lions and hyenas. Leopards are most active at night. The Leopard family has ten subspecies classified as:


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Amur Leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) Anatolian Leopard (Panthera pardus tulliana) Asia-Chinese (Panthera pardus delacourii) India (sub-continent) Leopard (Panthera pardus fusca) Javan Leopard (Panthera pardus melas) North African Leopard (Panthera pardus panthera) North Chinese Leopard (Panthera pardus japonensis) North Persian Leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor) South Arabian Leopard (Panthera pardus nimr) Sri Lanka Leopard (Panthera pardus kotiya)

Geographic Region Leopards’ habitat ranges from forests to arid deserts in Africa, Asia and the Middle East.


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Conservation Status LEOPARD: NEAR THREATENED Researchers note that there are no reliable estimates of Leopard populations and suspect they are continuing to decline due to habitat and prey loss and human persecution. Leopards were victims of the international cat skin trade in the 1960s - 1980s. Legal reforms and public opinion significantly reduced the number of Leopards taken for trade but illegal poaching is continuing to


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reduce Leopard populations in East Africa. Leopards are also killed by humans for livestock predation. Leopards are protected and hunting is prohibited across their geographic regions. Hunting of all Leopard species is prohibited. Some Leopard subspecies are listed as either critically endangered or endangered while others are not classified due to lack of insufficient data on population statistics.

CRITICALLY ENDANGERED:

Amur Leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) Javan Leopard (Panthera pardus melas) South Arabian Leopard (Panthera pardus nimr)

ENDANGERED:

North Persian Leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor) Sri Lanka Leopard (Panthera pardus kotiya) All Leopard species are listed on CITES Appendix I and as ENDANGERED and (THREATENED in Gabon, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo {formally Za誰re], Kenya, and Uganda) under the ESA.


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Leopard Cat (Bengal Cat) (Prionailurus bengalensis)

Leopard Cat

Prionailurus bengalensis (Kerr, 1792)

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LEOPARD CAT (BENGAL CAT) (Prionailurus bengalensis)

Characteristics Leopard Cats are the same size as Domestic Cats but are a bit taller. Males weigh on average 8 pounds (3.6 kg) and females weigh on average 6 pounds (2.7 kg). Leopard Cats’ coat color changes depending on their habitat range. In northern areas their coat color is a greyish-brown while in their tropical range their coat color is a yellowish-brown. Their spot patterns vary too from solid spots and stripes to rosettes with black bands on their tails and white streaks about their face. Leopard Cats prey on rodents, hares, birds, reptiles and fish. They are primarily nocturnal but are often active during the day.

Geographic Region Leopard Cats habitats range from all forest types and grasslands of Asia and the Philippine Islands.


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Conservation Status LEAST CONCERN Researchers note that there is a declining population trend in parts of their home range due to habitat loss and hunting. Populations of Leopard Cats is, however, stable in other home ranges. Leopard Cats were also a victim of the international cat skin trade in the 1960s - 1980s. Thousands and thousands of skins were exported until imports were finally stopped over concern for the survival of the species. Leopard Cats are bred with Domestic Cats also known as Safari or Bengal Cats. Leopard Cats are protected over most of their geographic region. Hunting is prohibited in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Cambodia, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Russia, Thailand, and Taiwan. Hunting and trade is regulated in South Korea, Laos PDR, and Singapore. Leopard Cats are listed on CITES Appendix I (Bangladesh, India, and Thailand); Appendix II and as ENDANGERED under the ESA.


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Lion (African Lion) (Panthera leo)

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Lion

Panthera leo

(Linnaeus, 1758)


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LION (AFRICAN LION) (Panthera leo)

Characteristics African Lions, especially male lions, are one the most recognizable of all the wildcats. Adult males weigh on average 400 pounds (181 kg) and adult females weigh on average 277 pounds (126 kg). The Lion’s coat is a tawny color with no distinctive markings except when young. Lion cubs have spots on their bellies and legs but their spot fades with maturity. Lions are the only cat to have a black tuft at the end of their tail and adult males have an enormous mane that ranges in color from light brown to black. Researchers note that the mane serves several functions such as gender recognition, protection and individual fitness.


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Asiatic Lions (Panthera leo persica) are slighter smaller than African Lions and have a fold of skin that runs along their underbelly. Both African and Asiatic Lions form prides that consist of related females and their cubs and at least one male or a coalition of males that reign over the pride. Singleton males will form coalitions with related and unrelated males. Lions take a large range of prey from rodents to elephants. Females lead the hunt and will hunt as a group at night.

Geographic Region African Lions inhabit the bush, scrub, grass and open woodlands of sub-Saharan Africa while Asiatic Lions inhabit the Gir Forest in India.


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Conservation Status AFRICAN LION: VULNERABLE Researchers note that a species population reduction of approximately 43% occurred over the past two decades (roughly three lion generations). The causes of this reduction are primarily attributed to indiscriminate killing of lions in defense of life and livestock coupled with prey base depletion which continues to afflict the species. Population statistics are classified by geographic regions: West, Central, East, and Southern Africa. In West Africa, Lions are classified as ENDANGERED with population estimates from 850 to 1,163 which is below the endangered level of 2,500. Surveys of total lion populations are guesstimated at 16,000 to 39,000 but the numbers are steadily declining. The majority of the lion populations are found in East Africa and Southern Africa. Trophy hunting of lions is very high in Africa. Researchers note that in some places trophy hunting has reached unsustainable levels and suggest that hunters and guides use nose color as a selection tool to remove older males. Lions are viewed as problem animals by local people as being a threat to both livestock and human life. Yet, lions are the most sought after animal to view while visiting Africa. African


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Lions are listed on CITES Appendix II. On January 22, 2016 USFWS will list Lions as ENDANGERED in Central, Northern and Western, Africa and as THREATENED in Eastern and Southern Africa under the ESA. ASIATIC LION: ENDANGERED the total Asiatic Lion population is estimated to be 175 mature breeding individuals residing within the Gir Forest. Researchers note that the lions are moving beyond their protected area and will more than likely fall victim to human intolerance and persecution and are experiencing an increase in illegal poaching. Asiatic Lions are fully protected in India and are listed on CITES Appendix I. On January 22, 2016 USFWS will list Asiatic Lions as ENDANGERED under the ESA.


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Marbled Cat (Pardofelis marmorata)

Marbled Cat

Pardofelis marmorata (Martin, 1837)

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MARBLED CAT

(Pardofelis marmorata)

Characteristics Marbled Cats are a petit version of Clouded Leopards, weighing on average 7 to 14 pounds (3 to 6.3 kg). Their pelt has large oval, black edged spots and smaller black spots on their hind legs. Marbled Cats have a long tail and like the Clouded Leopard, have large canines for the size. Marbled Cats prey on rodents and squirrels. They are excellent climbers and are most active at night.

Geographic Region Marbled Cats mainly inhabit the tropical forest areas of South and Southeast Asia.


Marbled Cat (Pardofelis marmorata)

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Conservation Status VULNERABLE the estimated total population of Marbled Cats is less than 10,000 mature breeding individuals. Their population is declining due to habitat and prey loss attributed to deforestation and human persecution. Hunting of Marbled Cats is prohibited in Bangladesh, Cambodia, China (Yunnan), India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, and Thailand. Hunting is regulated in Laos PDR, and Singapore. Illegal trade of Marbled Cats rarely occurs. Marbled Cats are listed on CITES Appendix I and as ENDANGERED under the ESA.


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Margay (Leopardus wiedii)

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Margay

Leopardus wiedii (Schinz, 1821)


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MARGAY

(Leopardus wiedii)

Characteristics Margays are a small cat weighing on average 7 pounds (3.2 kg). The background color of their pelt is tawny and patterned with black rosettes and long black spots. Margays have extraordinary climbing abilities and agility. They prey on small mammals and birds. Margays are nocturnal and rest in trees during the day.

Geographic Region Margays inhabit the forest areas of Central and South America.


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Conservation Status NEAR THREATENED Margays are continuing to suffer a decline in their population due to habitat and prey loss attributed to deforestation and human persecution. A recent study suggests that where Ocelots coexist, Margay populations are negatively impacted. Viable populations of Margays occur outside of protected areas or where Ocelot populations are low. Margays are victims of the international cat skin trade and illegal activities continue to be a problem. Margays are protected across their geographic region. Hunting and trade is prohibited in Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, French Guiana, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela. Margays are listed on CITES Appendix I and as ENDANGERED under the ESA.


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Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis)

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Ocelot

Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758)


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OCELOT

(Leopardus pardalis)

Characteristics Ocelots are one of the larger small cats. Males weigh on average 23 pounds (10.75 kg) and females weigh on average 20 pounds (9.1 kg). Their fur is short and close to the body with rosettes and elongated black oval spots that run along their sides. Ocelots’ main prey is small rodents. They are nocturnal and rest in trees during the day.

Geographic Region Ocelots inhabit the coastal marshes, forests, and grasslands of South America. A very small population resides north of Mexico and in the Southwest United States.


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Conservation Status LEAST CONCERN Researchers note that Ocelot population estimates are high enough to maintain a long term viable population in the Amazon basin, but some sub-populations are threatened and decreasing. Ocelots are victims of the international cat skin trade and illegal trade persists. Ocelots are protected across most of their geographic regions. Hunting is banned in Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, French Guiana, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Suriname, Trinidad, Tobago, United States, Uruguay, and Venezuela. Hunting is regulated in Peru. Ocelots are listed on CITES Appendix I and as ENDANGERED under the ESA.


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Oncilla (Tiger Cat) (Little Spotted Cat) (Leopardus tigrinus)

Oncilla

Leopardus tigrinus (Schreber, 1775)

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ONCILLA (TIGER CAT) (LITTLE SPOTTED CAT) (Leopardus tigrinus)

Characteristics Oncillas are one of the smallest wildcats. Males are slighter larger than females; on average they weigh 5 pounds (2.2 kg). Oncillas’ coat is short and smooth and their rosettes and other markings are not as dark as the other small cats of South America. They prey primarily on small mammals and are more active at night. Oncillas are rarely seen by field researchers.

Geographic Region Oncillas inhabit the higher elevations of the Amazon Basin in South America.


Oncilla (Tiger Cat) (Little Spotted Cat) (Leopardus tigrinus)

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Conservation Status VULNERABLE Researchers note that estimated populations vary greatly and Oncillas like Margays are affected by the presence of Ocelots. A reduction in population size of 30% is projected due to declining areas of occupancy and habitat quality. Oncillas are among the victims of the international cat skin trade. Hunting is prohibited in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, French Guiana, Paraguay, Suriname, and Venezuela. Oncillas are listed on CITES Appendix I and as ENDANGERED under the ESA.


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Pallas’s Cat (Manul) (Otocolobus manul)

Pallas’s Cat Manul

Otocolobus manul (Pallas, 1776)

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PALLAS’S CAT (MANUL) (OTOCOLOBUS MANUL)

Characteristics Pallas’s Cat is a small cat weighing on average 4.5 to 10 pounds (2 to 2.5 kg). Pallas’s Cats have a thick fur coat, tail, and underbelly. Their fur color ranges from deep silvery grey to dark bright red. Pallas’s Cats have black rings on their legs and have a short black-tipped tail. Pallas’s Cats have a compact build and short legs, small ears, a somewhat “flattened” face, and black spots about their foreheads. They prey on rodents and birds and are most active early in the morning or early evening.

Geographic Region Pallas’s Cats inhabit the colder arid areas of Asia.


Pallas’s Cat (Manul) (Otocolobus manul)

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Conservation Status NEAR THREATENED the estimated total population of Pallas’s Cats is below 50,000 mature breeding individuals. Their population is declining due to habitat loss: land needed for grazing of domestic stock; prey loss attributed to poisoning; and human persecution. Pallas’s Cats were hunted in large numbers for their fur. In recent years, the international trade has declined. Hunting is prohibited in Armenia, Azerbaijan, China, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Russia, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Hunting for household purposes is permitted in Mongolia; their pelts are illegally exported to China; their fat and organs are used in Mongolian and Russian medicines. Pallas’s Cats are listed on CITES Appendix II and not listed under the ESA.


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Pampas Cats

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Pampas Cats (Argentinean Pampas Cat)

Leopardus pajeros (Molina, 1782)


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PAMPAS CATS

ARGENTINEAN (Leopardus pajeros) CHILEAN (Leopardus colocolo) PANTANAL CAT (Leopardus braccatus)

Characteristics The Pampas Cats are small cats weighing on average 7 pounds (3.5 kg). The variation of the Pampas Cats’ coat colors and markings depend on their primary geographic region. In the Andes, their coat is silver with red stripes; in Argentina their coat is brown with red muted stripes; and in Brazil their coat is a deep reddish brown with black stripes. The Pampas Cats prey on small mammals and are highly active at night.


Pampas Cats

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Geographic Region The Pampas Cats inhabit the dry grasslands and forests of South America.

Conservation Status NEAR THREATENED the estimated total population of the Pampas Cats is below 50,000 mature breeding individuals. Their population is declining due to habitat and prey loss and human persecution. Their loss of habitat is attributed to human settlement in the Pampas regions of Argentina and Uruguay. The Pampas Cats are victims of the international fur trade in cat skins. They are protected across most of their geographic regions. Hunting is prohibited in Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Paraguay and Peru. The Pampas Cats are listed on CITES Appendix II and not listed under the ESA.


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Puma (Puma concolor)

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Puma

Puma concolor

(Linnaeus, 1771)


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PUMA

(Puma concolor)

Characteristics Pumas are one of the largest cats in the Americas. Males weigh on average 137 pounds (62.5 kg) and females weigh on average 90 pounds (41 kg). Their coat is a solid tawny to silvery grey with very faint horizontal stripes on their legs. Kittens are born with spots that fade as they mature. Puma’s have large feet and long hind legs. They do not roar but have their own distinct call. Pumas prey ranges from insects to moose. They are nocturnal and are particularly active at dawn and dusk. Depending on their geographic region, Pumas are also known as cougars, mountain lions and panthers. The Puma family has two subspecies classified as: Eastern Cougar (Puma concolor cougar) and the Florida Panther (Puma concolor coryi)


Puma (Puma concolor)

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Geographic Region Pumas inhabit a broad range of forested and rocky areas of Canada, United States, and Central and South America. The Eastern Cougar inhabits the forested and rocky areas of Canada and United States. The Florida Panther currently lives in the State of Florida. They formally resided across the entire southwestern region of the United States.


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Conservation Status PUMA: LEAST CONCERN In the 1990s the Puma population in Canada was roughly 3,500 to 5,000 mature breeding individuals and 10,000 mature breeding individuals in the United States. Their population continues to decline due to habitat loss attributed to deforestation, prey loss, and human persecution: predation and hunting. Pumas are protected across their geographic regions. Hunting is prohibited in Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, French Guiana, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Suriname, Venezuela, and Uruguay. Hunting is regulated in Canada, Mexico, Peru, and the United States. In 1990, the State of California banned hunting by popular referendum. Pumas are listed on CITES Appendix II and as ENDANGERED in Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Panama under the ESA.


Puma (Puma concolor)

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EASTERN COUGAR: CRITICALLY ENDANGERED the estimated total population of Eastern Cougars is less than 50 mature breeding individuals, if they are not already extinct. Eastern Cougars are fully protected in Canada and the United States and are listed on CITES Appendix I and as ENDANGERED under the ESA. In June 2015, USFWS filed a petition (pending) to delist the Eastern Cougar and to classify the species extinct. FLORIDA PANTHER: CRITICALLY ENDANGERED the estimated total population of Florida Panthers is only 30 to 50 mature individuals. The Florida Panther Recovery Team was established in 1976 to preserve habitat and availability of prey. Pumas from Texas were relocated to Florida to help stabilize the population and to increase genetic diversity. Florida Panthers are listed on CITES Appendix I and as ENDANGERED under the ESA.


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Rusty-spotted Cat (Prionailurus rubiginosus)

Rusty-spotted Cat

Prionailurus rubiginosus

(I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1831)

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RUSTY-SPOTTED CAT

(Prionailurus rubiginosus)

Characteristics Rusty-spotted Cats are the smallest cat of the wildcat family, weighing on average only three pounds (1.4 kg). Their fur is short and is a light reddish-grey color with small brown spots and stripes and a white belly. Rusty-spotted Cats prey on small mammals and birds. They are excellent climbers and are most active at night.

Geographic Region


Rusty-spotted Cat (Prionailurus rubiginosus)

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Rusty-spotted Cats inhabit the dry forests and grasslands of India and Sri Lanka.

Conservation Status VULNERABLE the estimated total population of Rusty-spotted Cats is below 10,000 mature breeding individuals. Their population is declining due to habitat and prey loss and human persecution. Rusty-spotted Cats are protected in their geographic home ranges. Hunting and trade is banned in India and Sri Lanka. Rusty-spotted Cats are listed on CITES Appendix I (India) Appendix II (Sri Lanka) and not listed under the ESA.


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Sand Cat (Felis margarita)

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Sand Cat

Felis margarita (Loche, 1858)


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SAND CAT

(Felis margarita)

Characteristics Sand Cats are a petit cat. Males weigh on average 6 pounds (2.75 kg) and females on average weigh 5 pounds (2.25 kg). Their coat color is pale yellow with darker rings on their tail and legs. Their feet are covered with thick fur to protect them on the hot sand and their ears are wide and set apart. Sand Cats are extraordinary diggers. They prey on rodents and are most active at night.

Geographic Region Sand Cats inhabit the desert areas of North Africa and Southwest Asia.


Sand Cat (Felis margarita)

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Conservation Status NEAR THREATENED the estimated total population of Sand Cats is below 50,000 mature breeding individuals. Their population is declining due to habitat and prey loss and human persecution. Hunting of Sand Cats is prohibited in Algeria, Iran, Israel, Kazakhstan, Mauritania, Niger, Pakistan, and Tunisia. Sand Cats are listed on CITES Appendix II and as ENDANGERED in Pakistan under the ESA.


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Serval (Leptailurus serval)

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Serval

Leptailurus serval (Schreber, 1776)


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SERVAL

(Leptailurus serval)

Characteristics Servals are slight but tall in stature. Males weigh on average 29 pounds (13.5 kg) and females weigh on average 24 pounds (11 kg). Serval’s coats are a pale orange yellow with solid black stripes running from their necks and down their backs, sides, and legs. Servals have a small delicate face with large ears and long legs. They prey on small mammals and are most active at night. The Serval family has one subspecies the North African Serval (Leptailurus serval constantinus).

Geographic Region Servals inhabit the tall grass savannah areas of North and subSaharan Africa.


Serval (Leptailurus serval)

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Conservation Status SERVAL: LEAST CONCERN the estimated total population of Servals is 50,000 mature breeding individuals. Their population is declining due to habitat and prey loss and human persecution. Trade in Serval pelts did not reach the international market but was traded commercially in Africa. Hunting is prohibited in Algeria, Botswana, Congo, Kenya, Liberia, Mozambique, Nigeria, Rwanda, and South Africa (Cape Province). Hunting is regulated in Angola, Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Ghana, Malawi, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Tanzania, Togo, Democratic Republic of Congo (formally Za誰re) and Zambia. NORTH AFRICAN SERVAL: ENDANGERED the North African Serval may be extinct in Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia. Servals are listed on CITES Appendix II and as ENDANGERED (N. African Serval) under the ESA.


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Snow Leopard (Ounce) (Panthera uncia)

Snow Leopard

Panthera uncia

(Schreber, 1775)

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SNOW LEOPARD (OUNCE) (Panthera uncia)

Characteristics

Snow Leopards are recognized as one of the big cats. Males weigh on average 110 pounds (50 kg) and females weigh on average 82 pounds (37.5 kg). Snow Leopards have a magnificent coat which is white and silvery grey with dark grey rosettes and spots. Their hair is long with a thick wooly underbelly. Their tails are long and the fur is lush which helps them to maintain their balance on steep, rocky slopes and to wrap around their bodies for warmth. Snow Leopards have a large nasal capacity which is needed for living at high altitudes. They prey on marmots, wild sheep, and goats and can take prey three times their size. Snow Leopards are most active at dawn and dusk.

Geographic Region

Snow Leopards inhabit the shrub lands and arid mountainous areas of Central Asia.


Snow Leopard (Ounce) (Panthera uncia)

Conservation Status

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ENDANGERED the estimated total population of Snow Leopards is below 2,500 mature breeding individuals. Their population is declining due to habitat and prey loss and human persecution. Snow Leopards fell victim to the fur trade and are very valuable. Today there is a demand for their bones as a substitute for tiger bones in the traditional Chinese medicine trade. Their natural prey is either hunted or poisoned. Snow Leopards are persecuted for killing livestock. They are protected across their geographic regions. Hunting bans are in effect in their protected areas of Afghanistan, Bhutan, China, India, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. Snow Leopards are listed on CITES Appendix I and ENDANGERED in Central Asia under the ESA.


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Tiger (Panthera tigris)

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Tiger

Panthera tigris

(Linnaeus, 1758)


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TIGER

(Panthera tigris)

Characteristics Tigers are the largest cat of the wildcat family. Across the subspecies, males weigh on average 198 to 674 pounds (90 to 306 kg) and females weigh on average 143 to 368 pounds (65 to 167 kg). Like Lions, Tigers are very recognizable. Their stripe pattern and number of stripes varies between individuals. Like the human fingerprint, no two Tigers have the same stripe pattern. White Tigers have brown stripes and blue eyes which are due to a recessive gene. Male Tigers have a facial ruff which is a predominate feature of the Sumatran Tiger. Tigers primarily prey on deer and wild pigs. Tigers love the water and will take a long soak during the heat of the day and are most active from dusk to dawn. In the Tiger family there are nine subspecies:


Tiger (Panthera tigris)

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Amur Tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) (Asia, Russia) Bali Tiger (Panthera tigris balica) EXTINCT Bengal Tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) (India, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh) Caspian Tiger (Panthera tigris virgata) EXTINCT Javan Tiger (Panthera tigris sondaica) EXTINCT Myanmar Tiger (Panthera tigris corbetti) Peninsular Malaysia Tiger (Panthera tigris jacksoni) South China Tiger (Panthera tigris amoyensis) Sumatran Tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) The Bali, Caspian, and Javan Tigers became extinct in the mid to late 20th century due to hunting, habitat and prey loss. There is no living Bali, Caspian, or Javan Tigers in captivity.

Geographic Region Tigers inhabit the forested areas of south Asia and currently reside in Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sumatra, China and Russia.


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Conservation Status ENDANGERED the estimated total population of Tigers is below 2,500 mature breeding individuals and is declining due to habitat and prey loss, and human persecution. Commercial poaching of tigers, over hunting of their prey and human settlement in Tiger habitat areas remain major threats. Tigers are shot or poisoned for taking livestock. Tigers are in dire need of protection against illegal poaching and trade as well as habitat preservation to ensure their continued existence. Tigers are protected over most of their geographic regions. Hunting is prohibited in Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Russia, Thailand, and Viet Nam. AMUR TIGER: CRITICALLY ENDANGERED the estimated total population of Amur Tigers is 250 mature breeding individuals and is declining due to poaching, commercial logging, and hunting of


Tiger (Panthera tigris)

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tiger prey. Hunting is prohibited in Russia, China, and North Korea. PENINSULAR MALAYSIA TIGERS: CRITICALLY ENDANGERED the estimated total population of Peninsular Malaysia Tigers is 80 to 120 mature breeding individuals and is declining due to illegal poaching and loss of habitat. Hunting is prohibited. SOUTH CHINA TIGER: CRITICALLY ENDANGERED the estimated total population of South China Tigers is 30 mature breeding individuals. Hunting is prohibited in China. SUMATRAN TIGER: CRITICALLY ENDANGERED the estimated total population of Sumatran Tigers is 250 mature breeding individuals and is declining. Sumatran Tigers are victims of poaching, as well as human settlement in their habitat, and killed for taking livestock. There are four tiger reserves in Sumatra. All Tiger species are listed on CITES Appendix I and as ENDANGERED under the ESA. In November 2010, a Global Tiger Summit was held in St. Petersburg, Russia (2010 was also The Year of the Tiger on the Asian lunar calendar). During the Summit, 13 Tiger Range Countries adopted a Global Tiger Recovery Plan to double the number of wild tigers by 2022.


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Wildcat (Felis silvestris)

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Wildcat

Felis silvestris

(Schreber, 1777)


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WILDCAT

(Felis silvestris)

Characteristics Wildcats are small in stature and most resemble Domestic Cats. Males on average weigh 11 pounds (5 kg) and females on average weigh 7 to 9 pounds (3.5 to 4 kg). In the Wildcat family there are four subspecies:

African (Felis silvestris lybica) and Asian (Felis silvestris ornata) Wildcats are the most similar in appearance to the Domestic Cat. Their coat color varies from tawny, brown and grey to sandy red. They all have the very familiar tabby stripes and spots. African


Wildcat (Felis silvestris)

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and Asian Wildcats prey on rodents, birds, and other small mammals. They are most active at night, early morning, or late afternoon. The African Wildcat is more than likely the direct ancestor of the Domestic Cat. European Wildcats’ (Felis silvestris silvestris) coats are a light greyish brown color with distinguishing black stripes. They prey on rodents but will also seek rabbits. European Wildcats are primarily nocturnal. Daytime activity depends on the presence or non-presence of humans. Scottish Wildcats (Felis silvestris grampia) have similar traits and habits; however, they are less tolerant of humans and will avoid any and all human contact.


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Geographic Region Wildcats inhabit the forests, coastal areas and scrub deserts of Europe, Central Asia, and Africa.


Wildcat (Felis silvestris)

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Conservation Status LEAST CONCERN the estimated combined total population of African, Asian, and European Wildcats is greater than 50,000 mature breeding individuals. Their primary threat and decline is due to hybridization and competition with Domestic and Feral Cats. Asian Wildcats were trapped for the international fur trade markets but currently there is little, if any, trade in Asian Wildcats. SCOTTISH WILDCATS: VULNERABLE and only reside in the United Kingdom. The estimated total population of Scottish Wildcats is 400 mature breeding individuals. Their primary threat and decline is due to hybridization and competition with Domestic and Feral Cats and loss of habitat. All Wildcats are fully protected across most of their ranges in Europe and Asia but is fragmented in Africa. European Wildcats are listed as a protected species in the European Union. Recently, the Asian Wildcat was afforded legal protection in Afghanistan where hunting and trade is banned. All Wildcats are listed on CITES Appendix II and none are listed under the ESA.


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A PUBLICATION OF THE WILDCAT CONSERVATION LEGAL AID SOCIETY

WASHINGTON, DC 20006 WWW.WCCLAS.ORG ~ INFO@WCCLAS.ORG


ENSURING A WILD FUTURE FOR ALL WILDCATS

Meet Our Clients: The Wildcats  

A comprehensive summary on wildcats; their habitats; conservation statuses; threats to their wild existence and what we need to do to ensure...

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