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DELIBERATELY TEMPORARY AN EXPLORATION OF ACTIVATING VACANT SITES

MASTER THESIS LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN DESIGN COPENHAGEN UNIVERSITY JANUARY 2016

LASSE RYBERG HANSEN


DELIBERATELY TEMPORARY AN EXPLORATION OF ACTIVATING VACANT SITES

MASTER THESIS LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN DESIGN COPENHAGEN UNIVERSITY JANUARY 2016 TUTOR BETTINA LAMM ZKJ734

LASSE RYBERG HANSEN


LIST OF TERMINOLOGIES BRICOLAGE

FRENCH TERM WHICH IS RELATED TO THE EXPRESSION “DO-IT-YOURSELF”. IT DESCRIBES A CONSTRUCTION PROCESS MADE OF WHATEVER MATERIALS ARE CURRENTLY AVAILABLE AND MADE THROUGH A TRIAL AND ERROR APPROACH.

CREATIVE CLASS

DICTIONARY (BRICOLAGE)

A SOCIOECONONOMIC CLASS IN THE SOCIETY WHO IS A ECONOMICAL DRIVING FORCE IN POST INDUSTRIAL CITIES KNOWN FOR ITS UNTRADITIONAL WAY OF WORKING, OFTEN WITH OUT-OF-HOUR WORKING TIMES AND PLACES SUCH AS WORKING IN WEEKENDS AND EVENINGS IN CAFÉS AND OTHER PUBLIC ACCESSIBLE PLACES.

FORDISM

WIKIPEDIA (CREATIVE CLASS)

A PHILOSOPHY THAT AIMS TO ACHIEVE HIGHER PRODUCTIVITY BY STANDARDISING THE OUTPUT, USING CONVEYOR ASSEMBLY LINES, AND BREAKING THE WORK INTO SMALL DESKILLED TASKS. THE PHILOSOPHY WAS TO BE AS EFFICIENT AS POSSIBLE DISREGARDING THE INDIVIDUAL PEOPLE. WIKIPEDIA (FORDSIM)

LIQUID MODERNITY

SOCIOLOGIST ZYGMUNT BAUMAN EXPLAINS HOW THE SOCIETY OVER THE LAST 50 YEARS HAS MOVED FROM A “SOLID” MODERNITY. IN THE SOLID MODERNITY IT WAS BELIEVED THAT “A FULLY RATIONAL AND PERFECT WORLD” COULD BE ACHIEVED ONCE SUBSTANTIAL TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE WAS ACHIEVED. UNCERTAINTIES AND THE UNKNOWN WOULD BE REMOVED THROUGH OVERCOMING NATURE RESULTING IN A FULLY HIERARCHICAL BUREAUCRACY WITH RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR EVERYTHING. BAUMAN ARGUES THAT THE WORLD HAS EVOLVED TO A “LIQUID MODERNITY” ACKNOWLEDGING CONSTANT EVOLUTION AND ACCEPTED THAT CHANGE IS A ‘PERMANENT CONDITION OF HUMAN LIFE’.

NOWISM

BISHOP AT EL. (2012) PAGE 21

THE CONCEPT OF NOWISM WAS FIRST DEFINED BY THE THINK-TANK TRENDWATCHING. IT DESCRIBES HOW CONSUMERS DESIRE NEW EXPERIENCES INSTANTLY. PEOPLE ARE LIVING IN THE PRESENT WITH A GROWING DESIRE TO WANT NEW THINGS AND EXPERIENCES FASTER THAN BEFORE. THE TREND EFFECT EVERYTHING FROM CULTURAL EXPERIENCES TO OUR RELATIONSHIP ACTUAL PRODUCTS. TRENDWATCHING (NOWSIM)

SEEDS PROJECT

THE SEEDS CONFERENCE WAS THE CULMINATION OF A 3 YEAR LONG PROJECT ADDRESSING PROBLEMS CAUSED BY VACANT SPACE AND BUILDINGS BY PROMOTING AND INVESTING IN THEIR TEMPORARY USE. SEEDS AIMED TO CHALLENGE THE CURRENT PERCEPTION OF TEMPORARY USES AND ‘...SHOW HOW ABANDONED PLACES CAN BECOME CATALYSTS FOR TRANSFORMATION AND CHANGE INSTEAD OF HARBINGERS OF DOOM AND DECAY.’ THE PROJECT SPANNED ACROSS EU AND DEALT WITH THE ISSUES THROUGH PHYSICAL HANDS-ONSTUDY CASES. A CHARTER WAS CREATED AS AN OUTCOME AND WAS SIGNED BY A NUMBER OF ACTORS WITHIN THE FIELD.

SEEDS PROJECT

TACTICAL URBANISM

A TEMPORARY USE CREATED THROUGH A BOTTOM-UP APPROACH CAN BE DEFINED AS TACTICAL URBANISM. THE INTENT OF TACTICAL URBANISM IS TO IMPROVE THE URBAN FABRIC, SUCH AS LOCAL NEIGHBORHOODS, THROUGH A COLLECTION OF LOW-COST, TEMPORARY CHANGES. IT IS ALSO REFERRED TO AS GUERRILLA URBANISM OR D.I.Y. URBANISM. THE PROJECTS OFTEN BEINGS ON A GRASSROOT LEVEL BUT CAN VARY IN SIZE AND SPREAD TO OTHER CITIES AND IF SUCCESSFUL EVENTUALLY SET NEW STANDARDS OF BEST PRACTICE FOR MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENTS. WIKIPEDIA (TACTICAL URBANISM)

TERTIARY SECTOR

THE TERTIARY SECTOR OF THE ECONOMY (ALSO KNOWN AS THE SERVICE SECTOR) IS ONE OF THE THREE ECONOMIC SECTORS, THE OTHERS BEING THE SECONDARY SECTOR (MANUFACTURING) AND THE PRIMARY SECTOR (AGRICULTURE, FISHING, AND EXTRACTION). WIKIPEDIA (TERTIARY SECTOR)

TRANSUMERS

THE CONCEPT IS DEFINED BY THE THINK THANK TRENDWATCHING AS A CONSUMER WHO VALUES EXPERIENCE OVER OWNERSHIP. TRANSUMERS ARE MORE INTERESTED IN THE EXPERIENCE THE PRODUCT PROVIDES THAN THE ACTUAL PRODUCT ITSELF. TEMPORARY USES HAS BECOME A POPULAR WAY OF PROVIDING NEW EXPERIENCES TO TRANSUMERS. TRENDWATCHING (TRANSUMERS)


CONTENTS

ONE 1.1 1.2 1.3 TWO 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 THREE 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 FOUR 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 FIVE 5.1 5.2

LIST OF TERMINOLOGIES

01

ABSTRACT

04

INTRODUCTION PROBLEM STATEMENT RELEVANCE METHODOLOGY PROBLEM FIELD REGENERATION & GENTRIFICATION TEMPORARY USES: A HISTORY NØRREBRO & VACANT SPACES

08

LESSONS LEARNT TEMPORARY STRATEGIES TEMPORARY USES IN MODERN SOCIETY MODERN PLANNING PROS & CONS OF TEMPORARY USES POP-UPS TEMPORARY USES IN LONDON LESSONS LEARNT SITE NØRREBRO & CONTEXT NØRREBRO URBAN FABRIC SITE CONNECTIONS & CONTEXT THE SITE-JAGTVEJ 69 SITE INTERVENTIONS RECAP OF RESEARCH STRATEGIC CONCEPT CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY

12

28

46

68

96 99


ABSTRACT AT CURRENT, THE COMMON APPROACH TO VACANT SPACES IN THE CITY IS TO LEAVE THEM AS UNTOUCHED GREY SPOTS UNTIL A PERMANENT DEVELOPMENT IS INITIATED. THIS THESIS ARGUES THAT SUCH AN APPROACH IS NOT ONLY DETERIORATING THE SPACE IT SELF BUT ALSO THE CONTEXT IT SITS WITHIN. ACTIVATING SUCH SPACES CAN CREATE URBAN LIFE AND REJUVENATE AREAS THAT WERE PREVIOUSLY IGNORED. PERMANENT DEVELOPMENT IS OFTEN CONSIDERED AS THE ONLY SOLUTION TO ACTIVATING VACANT SPACES. HOWEVER, PERMANENT DEVELOPMENT IS NOT ALWAYS FEASIBLE AS OUTER OBSTACLES SUCH AS FINANCIAL ISSUES AND ILLEGAL OCCUPATION CAN INTERFERE NEGATIVELY OBSTRUCTING THE PROCESS. TEMPORARY USES CAN IN SUCH INSTANCES BE OF USE TO FILL THE GAP AND CREATE ACTIVITY BENEFICIAL FOR THE SITE ITSELF AND THE URBAN CONTEXT. SUCH USES HOWEVER, CAN BE DIFFICULT TO PLAN AND CAN PROVE TO BECOME A BURDEN ONCE A PERMANENT DEVELOPMENT IS PLANNED FOR. THE USERS OF THE SPACE CAN BECOME ATTACHED TO THE SITE AND FIGHT AGAINST PERMANENT DEVELOPMENT. THE PROPOSED SITE FOR THIS THESIS’ DESIGN RESEARCH INVESTIGATION IS THE VACANT SITE AT JAGTVEJ 69 SITUATED IN THE BOROUGH OF NØRREBRO, COPENHAGEN. IT IS A SITE THAT REPRESENTS A MULTITUDE OF IDENTITIES AND HAS A LONG HISTORY OF OCCUPATION AND PUBLIC INTEREST. THE SITE HAS BECOME A LEFT OVER SPACE CAUSED BY A FAILURE TO CONTROL THE SITUATION OF THE SITE. THE SITE IS OWNED BY A DEVELOPER AIMING TO CREATE A MIXED-USE DEVELOPMENT BUT IS CURRENTLY OCCUPIED BY AN ACTIVIST GROUP WHO CLAIM THE OWNERSHIP OF THE SITE AND REFUSE TO LET DEVELOPMENT BE INITIATED ON THE SITE. THE ACTIVIST GROUP IS PROMOTING THE SITE AS A PUBLIC GARDEN BUT IS BADLY MAINTAINED AND OCCURS MORE AS A VACANT SITE THAN A GARDEN. GIVEN THE SITES’ HISTORY IT IS A SITE OF IMPORTANCE TO THE CITY; HOWEVER, IT ACTS AS, AND IS THEREFORE PERCEIVED AS, A LOST SITE, A PLACELESS PLACE FOR THE GENERAL PUBLIC. THE PRINCIPAL OBJECTIVE OF THIS RESEARCH THESIS IS ON THE ONE HAND TO CHALLENGE THE WAY WE PERCEIVE THE CURRENT WAY OF DEALING WITH VACANT SITES THROUGH PERMANENT DEVELOPMENT PROCESSES AND ON THE OTHER HAND TO CHALLENGE HOW WE DEAL WITH THE SPACES IN A WAY THAT WILL ENABLE THE CITY TO BENEFIT FROM SUCH SITES WHILST OUTER FACTORS PREVENT DEVELOPMENT. THEORETICAL RESEARCH AND PHYSICAL CASE STUDIES HELP GUIDING THE DESIGN PROPOSAL OF THIS THESIS. THE FINAL DESIGN IS A FRAMEWORK STRUCTURE ALLOWING A DIVERSE RANGE OF USES TO BE INITIATED ON THE SITE GENERATING AND SLOWLY HABITUATING THE SURROUNDINGS TO THE IDEA OF A MORE PERMANENT DEVELOPMENT IN THE FUTURE.


ONE

INTRODUCTION THIS CHAPTER WILL FIRSTLY HIGHLIGHT THE PROBLEM FIELD OF THIS THESIS. THIS WILL BE FOLLOWED BY A DISCUSSION ON THE RELEVANCE OF THIS THESIS AND THE PROPOSED RESEARCH METHODS TO BE USED.

1 See list of terminologies

1.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT

living near them and tend to reduce the value

Copenhagen is - as many metropolises are- in a

of adjacent properties.4 Vacant spaces and

2 BISHOP AT EL. (2012) page 21

state of urban growth. The population is expected

buildings are therefore currently thought off as a

to increase by 100,000 inhabitants over the next

negative asset. However, as the report identifies,

3 COPENHAGEN COUNCIL (unknown year), page 6

ten years. This not only catalyses a constantly

such spaces could be rethought and become

increasing demand for accommodation, but

a welcoming opportunity to improve the urban

also introduces a need for new public spaces.

fabric. As vacant sites are scattered around the

4 ANDERSON & TOFT-JENSEN (2006), page 13

This increased pressure on the inner city makes

city there is great potential to create a network

it necessary to exploit every possible space

of interesting activities throughout the city. This

available.

would not only activate the local urban fabric,

5 COPENHAGEN COUNCIL (unknown year), page 6

Western society has entered a new

but would contribute to the city as a whole.

era that is increasingly dominated by a now-

This vision is supported by the Copenhagen

ism.1 People expect more of the city than the

Masterplan which states that authorities should

mere provision of a roof above their head; they

embrace temporary initiatives in vacant spaces

are seeking new experiences and have higher

until a more permanent use is developed:

expectations of what the city should offer.2 This

‘…temporary uses and activities should assist

puts a new form of pressure on the city: urban life

in creating urban life and build a framework for

is now a key attractor for a city.

the creative industries and temporary workshops

Copenhagen Municipality published a report called ‘Opportunity for temporary uses’ which concludes that urban life is a vital

for artists by realizing the potential that exists in vacant sites… ‘5 Compared to the long tradition of urban

element for the city. Copenhagen has therefore

planning, temporary uses are relatively new

set a goal to improve its urban life to meet the

concepts. Therefore, how to exploit the potential

citizen’s expectations: ‘We will prioritize daily

of the temporary in a useful manner is uncertain.

urban life highly whilst simultaneously allowing

Most knowledge about the subject is gained from

for the secret, the eccentric and the temporary

bottom-up processes that are difficult to plan for.

to flourish. In this way we will create more

Furthermore, it is evident there is a discrepancy

urban life for everybody with a variety of urban

between bottom-up and top-down approaches.

spaces and activities twenty-four hours a day

Both approaches have their weaknesses and

all year round.’3 The report identifies the vacant

strengths that could be of benefit to the other.

spaces and buildings that are ideal places for

For example top-down processes are often

such improvements. Currently neglected, these

resourceful and hold the capacity to make great

spaces often feel unsafe, dangerous and tend

impact, but tend to ignore and overrule bottom-up

to smudge the urban fabric by collecting rubbish

initiatives often resulting in minimal commitment

and debris. As a consequence vacant spaces

from the users. On the other hand, bottom-up

are degrading the life quality of the people

initiatives are often require less resources and


tend to fight an ideological fight against the

intervention can achieve long-term social

developers, however they often experience great

impacts.

commitment from users making the projects

• Social priority - Rather than the physical project

more resilient. If these two approaches can

itself, the social aspects are often the priority for

be combined and the negatives overcome, a

people working with temporary uses.

symbiosis could occur where both approaches

The design project of this thesis is

benefit from each other and at operate at the

proposed on Jagtvej 69 in Copenhagen which

same time.

has been vacant for a long period. The site has

Lastly is it important to acknowledge

previously been home to many social institutes

how and where urban life thrives. In the report ‘A

such as the Youth House and has known a

metropolis for people’ made by Gehl Architects

convoluted history with many different interests

for Copenhagen Municipality, it becomes clear

and opinions of the site. An investment company

that urban life arises when people are safe,

currently owns the site with the intention to

spaces are clean and users are involved in the

develop the site. However, the site is currently

space: ‘We will create urban space which invites

illegally occupied by an activist group claiming

people to participate in urban life. We know that

ownership of the site. This thesis aims to look

urban life arises if people feel safe, if it is clean, if

at the situation from a neutral point of view and

there is something to sit on and something to look

aims to be observant rather than concluding.

at. We know it is good for urban life when there is

However as this thesis is exploring temporary

a mix of homes, culture, work place and shops.’6

strategies from a developer’s perspective the

The above is in direct contrast with how vacant

design proposal will be viewed from this angle.

spaces are currently perceived. As vacant spaces

This leads to the final question:

in the urban context often become developed at some stage, the approach of temporary use is

• Can the top-down and bottom-up approach

ideal for sites like these. The key questions of this

to temporary uses meet in symbioses and

thesis are as follows:

create a new temporary typology?

• What can temporary uses offer to vacant sites? • How can developers exploit the potential of temporary uses whilst respecting the context? Having attended the SEEDS 20157 conference some key points for creating a successful temporary project have been listed below. These points will be considered throughout this thesis and will be an underlying theme in the end design. • Focus on local people - A successful temporary project is often initiated by or is involving local people from the very beginning. • Projects are always site specific - Temporary uses often grow out of local needs in the specific area. • Long-term effect - A physical short-term

6 COPENHAGEN COUNCIL (2009), page 3 7 See list of terminologies


10

1.2 RELEVANCE

architecture and urban design processes can

Being a landscape architect and urban designer

be long and cumbersome. It can take years

the urban environment has always been of great

and require countless alterations to achieve

interest to me. The identified issue of vacant

planning permission or to build something. It is

spaces in the city – being unsafe spaces that

therefore interesting to explore how temporary

are reducing quality of life - is therefore of great

interventions can be used as a strategic tool

concern. So far such spaces in Copenhagen

to improve spaces instantaneously whilst still

have not been dealt with and are currently a lost

acknowledging the permanent transformation of a

opportunity. Vacant spaces could be activated

space as the final goal.

temporarily until a more permanent function takes

Lastly it is important to mention the relevance of the 2015 SEEDS conference, which

place. There are many examples of successful

highlights some of the abovementioned points.

temporary uses, however these are often initiated

The conference acknowledges the blight of

though a bottom-up process which is intangible

vacant sites and their serious negative effects

and difficult to plan for. As a professional it would

on local economy, growth, and on community

be of great help to be able to use the temporary

health and wellbeing. The SEEDS project aims

approach as a strategic tool rather than merely

to promote the temporary re-use of vacant land

providing the suggestion of such. ‘Urban Catalyst’

and buildings as an important and legitimate

by Philipp Oswalt et al. and ‘The temporary City’

part of longer-term planning and development

by Peter Bishop and Lesley Williams are both

and as a tool for stimulating regeneration and

comprehensive publications describing temporary

sustainability. This thesis is therefore aiming to

uses. However they only briefly touch upon the

work from the SEEDS charter points listed below:

field of top-down approaches and tend to favour

• Reactivate - Stalled spaces increase decline,

the bottom-up. This reflects how professionals

so that vacant land and buildings should not lie

generally perceive temporary uses: as bottom-

passive, but be reactivated by temporary uses

up grassroot initiated projects, sometimes

wherever possible.

started illegally. The ‘NV-Park’ in Copenhagen

• Enhance - Buildings are best maintained

is a great example of this bottom-up approach.

through use. Temporary use can bring places

It is well researched and acknowledged that

that have lost their former purpose back to life,

bottom-up temporary uses can provide positive

protecting, rejuvenating and enhancing valuable

elements to the city such as an improved

social and cultural heritage.

community feeling and enhanced creativity. It

• Experiment - Temporary intervention is an

is therefore interesting to investigate if a top-

effective and engaging way to improve a place

down approach could achieve the same. Rather

instantly responding to immediate needs, foster

than further exploring the bottom-up approach

design experiments and explore new creative

of temporary uses, emphasis will be put on the

public experiences.

less investigated top-down developer minded

• Create - Temporary projects can act as

approach. The top-down strategy often has more

transformative agents of stalled areas and

resources and could become a tangible tool for

create local ownership through involving people,

planners and developers to improve constrained

institutions and businesses in common acts of

and challenging sites. On a larger scale it could

place making.

create networks of ever-changing temporary

• Learn - Temporary activities can harness local

places across the city, evoking new life and

resources and foster new skills and capabilities.

activities in less successful parts of the city.

• Ripen - Reconciling interim approaches with

Having worked as a professional it has become evident to me that landscape

formal planning procedures, allowing a slow ripening of places through site specific initiatives


11

should be an integral part of developing resilient

resulted in the creative use of vacant spaces

environments

where temporary interventions have become an

• Value - Value should be defined not only

integrated part of the urban strategy. I visited and

in terms of finance, but also include cultural,

researched a series of case studies in order to

aesthetic, entrepreneurial, environmental and

gain knowledge of how temporary interventions

social activities that can act as a significant

deal with issues similar to Jagtvej (the selected

catalyst for community development

site in Copenhagen). This research has been

• Support - Decision makers must be encouraged

translated into an analysis of the sites in the

to adopt a mind-set that actively supports

form of text and drawings. In addition, I have

temporary use and bottom-up initiatives that can

visited Jagtvej multiple times to gain an in depth

create better and more interesting urban and

understanding of the site itself. This included

rural environments.

an exploration of the surrounding area to gain

• Enable - Policies and procedures should be

an impression of the physical environment,

streamlined, accessible and responsive, enabling

atmosphere and general site constraints. Lastly,

temporary use, discouraging vacancy, and

I attended the SEEDS conference in 2015 to

minimising bureaucracy and cost.

obtain a deep understanding of temporary uses.

• Recognise - Short-term use should be

Literature

recognised as valuable and inherent part of

A broad literature review formed the foundation

long term planning. It should not be excluded or

for the thesis and is used as guidance to make

dismissed; it is an enhancement, not a threat.

realistic and achievable assumptions for the final design proposal. Online blogs and websites

1.3 METHODOLOGY

have been used to identify new trends and

This thesis engages with the subject of temporary

interventions, whilst books and publications form

uses on three different scales: the society, the

the theoretical base. In addition, an historical

city and the site. Through precedents studies and

analysis of temporary uses that have existed

literature reviews all scales will be analysed to

on the selected site have been completed

bring together a unique set of criteria to frame the

through studies of available literature and online

final design proposal. However, at the large scale

resources. Finally, the condition of society today

of society, a more theoretical analysis of how

is summarised in order to demonstrate how and

and why planners, authorities and developers

why temporary interventions are becoming an

can exploit the subject of temporary uses will

integrated and important part of the city.

be explored. At the urban scale, an exploration of how neighbourhoods can be improved strategically through temporary interventions will be carried out, and at the site-specific scale, emphasis will be put on how temporary interventions can improve urban life. Own experience I have gained substantial knowledge of temporary projects after having lived and worked in London for more than four years. London is a fast growing city with issues similar to, but more extreme than, Copenhagen. An increasing pressure on the accommodation and an expectation of high quality urban spaces makes every little plot of land in London valuable. This pressure has


TWO

PROBLEM FIELD THIS THESIS EXAMINES THE CURRENT STATE OF VACANT SPACES IN CITIES, MORE SPECIFICALLY IN LONDON AND COPENHAGEN. USING THIS KNOWLEDGE IT WILL THEN EXPLORE THE POSSIBILITIES OF USING TEMPORARY INTERVENTIONS AS A TOOL TO TRANSFORM VACANT SPACES INTO ATTRACTIVE HUBS FOR URBAN LIFE. IN ORDER TO FRAME THE RESEARCH THIS CHAPTER FIRSTLY INTRODUCES THE TERMS REGENERATION AND GENTRIFICATION. SECONDLY IT WILL LOOK CLOSER AT THE HISTORY OF TEMPORARY USES. THIRDLY, EMPHASIS WILL BE PUT ON VACANT SPACES IN NØRREBRO, COPENHAGEN, AND HOW THESE SPACES ARE CURRENTLY DEALT WITH. AS THE OUTCOME OF THIS CHAPTER, A SINGLE TEST SITE WILL BE SELECTED AS A CASE STUDY. 1 See list of terminologies

2.1 REGENERATION AND GENTRIFICATION

urbanists such as Jan Gehl and urban collectives

The city is a dynamic entity: old buildings

such as Rebar a shift in urban strategies began

2 BISHOP AT EL. (2012), page 5

disappear and new ones appear. This process

to emerge. Governments are allowing - and in

produces vacant buildings and sites that create

some cases even encouraging - the intermediate

intermediate empty pockets in the urban fabric.

and uncontrolled to take place in the process of

These pockets have historically been perceived

shaping the future city. Planners and architects

as undesirable elements in the urban context and

are rethinking regeneration as something where

have typically been dealt with through permanent

the quirky and unplanned cannot only help

redevelopment as the tool for regeneration.

generate a better outcome, but can also be a

Both regeneration and gentrification

catalyst for urban life.

have historically been aiming to solve issues through ordered and structured permanent

2.2 TEMPORARY USES: A HISTORY

processes without any breathing space for the

The term “temporary use” will now be explained

‘quirky’ and the ‘unstructured’. For example, the

briefly to illustrate the challenges and possibilities

gentrification of Inner Nørrebro in the 1980’s

of this process; from its birth in Berlin as a

sought to improve the quality of life by decreasing

bottom-up illegal alternative to development,

the population density and by improving the

to the current accepted and to some extent

building standard. Various densely built buildings

integrated, strategy of city planning.

in poor condition were selected for demolition

Europe

in an attempt to create more open space for the

Temporary uses have existed for centuries in

remaining citizens. The process provided great

all sorts of scales and timeframes; from small

improvement of the building standard, but the

market spaces operating on an hourly basis,

outdoor spaces were virtually left untouched and

to large shantytowns existing for decades. The

unimproved. This structured approach resulted

common characteristic of these uses is that they

in a neglected urban environment lacking people

operate on the basis they are not permanent,

and activity.

even though the lifespan for some might be

Regeneration and gentrification have

extensive or even without end date. As Peter

historically been associated with top-down

Bishop explains ‘Temporary use is an intentional

strategies not focussing on urban life. The

phase which is not temporary until it has proved

ideals of classical modernism, Fordism1 and the

to be so, by disappearing’.2 Despite being a well-

corporate city have been acting as role models

known phenomenon today, temporary uses have

for these top-down strategies. However, with

not been a recognised urban tool throughout


history and are rarely initiated by authorities. Until

Left 2.1 Corporate city island development neglecting the in-between territory.

recently, these uses were perceived as a last resort if development could not take place. The term as many know it today - being a hub for urban and creative life with pop-ups, markets and so forth - took its initial shape in Berlin in the late 80’s and early 90’s with the collapse of the European socialist states and the fall of the Iron Curtain. At that time Berlin went through a transition from Fordism to a knowledgebased society, resulting in more informal trades and economies. As industrial production was

controlled investment areas. Informal, temporary

relocated to eastern low-wage counties, Berlin’s

and innovative uses had found their breeding

economic and urban structures were entirely

space. Some of the first and perhaps most well

reformed. Permanent and life-long employments

known temporary uses were those of Berlin’s

in the secondary sector were replaced with

underground parties occupying old industrial

dynamic and flexible jobs in the tertiary sector.

buildings turning them into large clubs and

The city ‘s buildings vastly became vacant, as the

venues. Some of these uses have been a part of

new tertiary jobs required less physical space.

shaping the city as we know it today and are now

Simultaneously new shopping malls, leisure

implemented as key factors in policies for the

parks and office districts were built in the outskirts

city. The former mayor of Berlin, Klaus Wowereit

of the city. The relocation of the industrial

expressed it ‘Berlin is Poor, but sexy’ and ‘Berlin

production and the new exurban centres created

is change, Berlin is the place to be’.5 Before the

a spatial polarization of high development

temporary uses were acknowledged as being

pressure in the outskirts on the one hand and

productive for the city of Berlin the uses were

of a city facing stagnation and shrinkage on the

considered as flaws in the system and were met

other hand.4 Berlin’s urban planning ideals of

with scepticism due to their illegal occupation and

classical modernism - which had been put into

uncontrollability. Over time they were gradually

practice since the end of World War II - had to

recognised for their new ways of creating jobs

be rethought and were replaced by the concept

and perhaps more importantly, creating life in the

of the corporate city. A new type of public-private

vacant and deserted areas of Berlin.

3

partnership was initiated in urban planning. This

The example of Berlin has set many

generated a type of island urbanism where only

precedents and temporary uses are becoming

economically interesting areas were developed.

recognised as a tool for architects and planners.

The private sector, being profit driven, was solely

Temporary uses are being used to initiate

interested in developing their own land, which

activities in derelict spaces often introduced by

consequentially led to the in-between territory

grassroots (fighting hard for their case) or by

being ignored, including its socially and financially

the authorities (in order to create urban life).

weaker residents. The classical modernism ideal

However, many developers are often still vigilant

of a city in continuum, was suddenly lost.

towards the approach, as history has proven that

These neglected areas became interesting for the creative and experimental sector which had no place in the corporate

users of these temporary places can often be reluctant to let go once initiated Copenhagen

urban policy. The derelict and ignored spaces,

To understand the scepticism towards temporary

such as old industrial sites, became places to

uses from private developers in Copenhagen

experiment in ways that could not happen in the

it is necessary to look back at how temporary

3 See list of terminologies 4 OSWALT AT EL. (2012) page 9 5 BERLINLISTS

Next pages 2.2 Informal underground party in Berlin 2.3 The activist group BZ occupation of a building in Baldersgade on Nørrebro.


14

2.2


15

2.3


16

6 Christiania became accepted as a social experiment and is today acknowledged as is own entity. (CHRISTIANIA)

uses were introduced in the city. Copenhagen

to demolish buildings as soon as they where

has undertaken a substantial transformation

vacant out of fear for occupation. The remaining

of the urban fabric in the years 1970 to 1990.

vacant buildings were no longer fit to live in, as

Prior to this many buildings in the city were in

the majority were industrial buildings. Secondly,

such bad condition that they were uninhabitable

the political conflict of how the city should be

7 Islandsbrygge harbor park was originally planned to be developed but action made by local citizens led to one of Copenhagen’s most visited parks today. ANDERSON & TOFTJENSEN (2012), page 12

under civil law and were therefore scheduled to

developed dissolved. This was partly because

be demolished. This urban decay became the

of an economical crisis and partly because of

starting point for a youth organisation called The

political consensus taking a more preserving

BZ whom in the late 1960’s began to occupy

view on temporary uses through the introduction

empty buildings and consequently initiated

of more integrated and controlled temporary

the famous youth-rebellion in Copenhagen.

projects with legally binding contracts between

The core principles of the group were to go

the landlord and the users.9

8 Folkets park (Park of the people) was created by activist and rebellion groups in 1971. The area was left as such b the authorities until 2000 where it was recognised as an official park and got founding. POLITIKEN (13.09.2008)

general law in order to order seek new ways of

the breaking point for modern temporary uses

using the city. The BZ’s new agenda combined

in Copenhagen. Landlords, developers and

with vast derelict areas resulted in extensive

temporary promoters experimented with ideas

illegal occupation of both buildings and land.

giving birth to project such as Basecamp

The occupiers quickly created new parks and

and Mindship. The extent of temporary uses

playgrounds in the adjacency of the squatted

expanded in the 2000s when developers and

buildings. The movement rapidly reached a

investors started to realise its potential to

substantial size creating a subculture within

generate urban life. Old industrial areas started

the city forcing the authorities to interfere.

to invite temporary uses to use their spaces.

Though many occupiers where removed by the

Halvandet, an urban ‘beach harbour’ cafe

9 ANDERSON & TOFT-JENSEN (2012), page 13

authorities some squats were accepted by the

located on Resfhaleøen, is still active and is

government and granted temporary permission.

perhaps the most famous example. Since then,

Some occupations, such as Christiana6,

a consistent flow of temporary uses emerged

Islandsbrygge Harbor Park7 and Folkets Park8,

throughout the city. One of the most substantial

even achieved permanent permission.

initiatives in recent times is the redevelopment

10 More information on projects can be found on the respective websites Nyvalby.dk/ and Carlsbergbyen.dk

against authorities, traditional conventions and

The playground Byggeren was

In many ways the 1990s became

of an entire area in Valby with a masterplan

built illegally in 1973, but was granted official

focused around temporary uses, heavily inspired

temporary approval the following year by

by Carlsberg city.10 However, there is still a clear

the City of Copenhagen. Five years later the

tendency to only use temporary initiatives for

government had new plans for the site and

developing larger sites, whilst smaller vacant

therefore withdrew the occupier’s temporary

spaces are largely still ignored.

permission in order to demolish the playground. Local citizens refused to accept the withdrawal and initiated riots that lead to physical fights against the authorities, delaying the demolition significantly. It was the beginning of an era where riots and demonstrations became the norm when occupiers were evicted from squatted buildings. As Copenhagen slowly became gentrified in the 1990’s, the illegal occupations became more rare and the city cooled down. This was a result of two main factors. Firstly, investors had learnt from previous decades


17

2.4 A

2.5 B

2.6 C

2.7 D

2.8 E

2.10

E

C

D

2.9 F

F

B

A

Map of Copenhagen A Christiania B Islandsbrygge park C Folkets Park D Byggeren E Youth house 69 F Halvandet


Provstevej 5

Jagtvej 155

Nordre Fasanvey 176 Jagtvej 69

Griffenfeldsgade 4

Ă…boulevarden 37


19

2. 3 NØRREBRO & VACANT SPACES Vacant spaces in the city will always exist

11 ANDERSON & TOFT-JENSEN (2012), page 13

regardless of its economic status. In prosperous times buildings will be demolished and rebuilt, often leaving a site vacant for a period. In times of crisis developers tend to leave vacant sites undeveloped until better times ahead. Furthermore vacant sites and buildings occur as a natural process in the city when areas change uses or simply decay and become uninhabitable. Research shows a decrease in real estate prices for properties close to a vacant site as the latter often acts as a dead zone collecting rubbish and debris. Research also reveals that vacant sites make people feel unsafe and degrade the quality of life for people living in close proximity to such sites.11 These facts indicate that vacant sites are undesirable elements in the urban context. The city of Copenhagen has several badly maintained and derelict vacant spaces. Figure 2.3 marks the location of selected vacant spaces within the borough of Nørrebro that are visible to the public. To provide a general indication of how vacant spaces are being used in Copenhagen, a brief summary of the current state of and future plans for these sites can be found in the following.

Left 2.11 Map of selected public visible vacant sites within the borough of Nørrebro


20

12 JYLLANDS POSTEN (04.04.2003)

Minimal activity: Åboulevarden 37 The first site formerly know as “The blue house” is located in Outer Nørrebro on the heavily trafficked Åboulevarden (37) on the edge of Frederiksberg. The street is mainly being used as a thoroughfare and the surrounding area is largely residential with low-activity retail on the street level (e.g offices, a driving school). In 2003 the owner proposed to demolish a fully functioning building on the site because of multiple illegal occupations. Ever since the demolition the site has been vacant with weed and litter filling the space. The future plan for the site is to build student housing, however these plans have yet to be realised, resulting in fenced off site, left in decay12

2.12

2.12 Current situation of site 2.13: The blue garden 2.14: Map highlighting site on Åboulevarden 37

2.13

2.14


21

Minimal activity:

13 Griffenfelds gade has in recent years experienced an urban revival with cafés, bars and restaurants. Prior to development named a Danish the site ‘the hole’. AOK, (10.5.2013)

Griffenfeldsgade 4 The second site, a former vacant space on Griffenfeldsgade 4, was derelict for numerous years without being used for anything else than littering. With the improved economy and urban revival of Griffenfeldsgade the site was developed into a residential building with retail on the ground floor. Prior to the development the site acted as a grey spot without any activity. As Griffenfeldsgade 4 is located adjacent to the busy and vivid main street Nørrebrogade, which features shops, bars and restaurants, it had great potential for temporary activities whilst being vacant, however no such potential was realised.13

2.15

2.15 Former state of site aka ‘The hole’ 2.16: Current state of site

2.16

2.17

2.17 Map highlighting site on Griffenfeldsgade 4


22

Minimal activity:

14 POLITIKEN, (11.01.2007)

Jagtvej 155 The third site is located on Jagtvej (155) which acts as a main traffic vein connecting Copenhagen’s boroughs. The adjacent uses are mainly of industrial character and low-activity retail such as car dealers. The site used to house a car workshop that remained vacant for several years after its close down. Several proposals suggested converting the workshop into a temporary youth house, however the landlord refused this proposal. The building was demolished in 2013 following illegally squatted numerous times. During the illegally occupation, the workshop was heavily vandalised; however a more controlled temporary use could have averted such damage. Currently the site is being developed into a part of Copenhagen University.14

2.18

2.18 Map highlighting site on Jagtvej 115 2.19 Building occupied prior to demolition

2.19


23

Partly planned activity:

15 Local plan and Neighborhood renewal of Nordre Fasanvej report. FREDERIKSBERG MUNICIPALICY (2001 & 2013)

Nordre Fasanvej 176 The site Nordre Fasanvej (176) is located next to Bispeengsbuen underpass on one side and a residential building block on the other side. The street is connecting Frederiksberg borough with Nørrebro and has a relatively high amount of traffic. The site has a public feel to it, however it is not maintained resulting in an unwelcoming spot in the city. The adjacent underpass has recently been appointed to house a number of temporary uses, but these bear no relationship to the site on Nordre Fasanvej. A local planning document issued by the authorities describes the current state of the site as feeling unsafe and in misuse. However in recent years, the site has experienced a more positive view as it has been used for minor festivals and is now planned to become a new small mixed-use development.15

2.20

2.20 Map highlighting site on Nordre Fasanvej 176 2.21

2.21 View of site


24

16 POLITIKEN (20.07.14) & REDPARKEN & NV AUTO PARK FACEBOOK

Grassroot activity: Provstevej 5 Provstevej 5, which is also known as North West Auto Park, was as the name suggests, a former car workshop. The site is located within a residential area mainly consisting of apartment blocks. When the site became vacant after demolition of the workshop local residents quickly started to cultivate the space by setting up a small park. Not long after, the landowner ordered a clean up of the site including the removal of the newly created green area. Undefeated, the locals responded with a new and larger park that became well known in the area. For several years, many local residents used the park daily and a strong community feeling occurred. Today the space is cleared and awaiting construction of permanent student housing. Many users of the park, including some famous local residents, spoke publicly to try to save the park in the time leading up to the clearance. This site clearly demonstrates how positive urban life and activation can occur through illegal occupation. Unfortunately these initiatives are often entirely removed by the landowner when he wishes to develop the site permanently.16

2.22 Map highlighting site on Provstevej 5 2.23 View of site with the park implemented

2.23

2.22


25

Grassroot activity:

police have tried to evict the activists several

Jagtvej 69

times only to see them reappear again shortly

Jagtvej 69 has been subject to temporary uses

after. Due to pressure from negative publicity,

for many years and on many levels. Upon

Faderhuset was dissolved in 2009 and the site

vacancy, the building was occupied by illegal

was sold to the investment group Procasa. The

squatters, which eventually lead to the use of the

latter has officially offered the activist group a

building as a youth house. This gave space to

two year contract for temporary uses which they

activities such as concerts, a community kitchen,

have refused as they feel the site belongs to the

and more importantly the youth house acted as

public already. The developer has plans to create

a sanctuary for the local youth. In 2007 - after

commercial and residential use on the site.17

17 WIKIPEDIA (Ungdomshuset)

heated political debate and the refusal to sell the site to the youth house organisation - the state finally sold the building to the Christian congregation Faderhuset. Soon after the youth were evicted and the building demolished, fueling severer riots initiated by the users and its supporters. Since demolition, the site has met strong resistance towards development from the previous users leaving the site vacant ever since. Recently, a group of grassroot activists called City Garden 69 claimed that the site belongs to be public and created an informal green area inspired by Folkets Park (Park of the People) on Griffenfeldsgade. The landowner has been greatly dissatisfied with this evolution and the

2.24

2.24 Map highlighting site on Jagtvej 69 2.25

2.25 View of site


26

2.4 LESSONS LEARNT

supported by the observations made at the

There is a tendency to neglect and ignore vacant

SEEDs conference.

sites and only initiate minimal temporary uses.

project site because of its location, its contentious

the municipality of wanting to generate more

history and the multiple unresolved challenges it

urban life and activation though temporary uses

faces. The site is currently used in an interesting

in vacant spaces.

manner that if dealt with sensitively, has the

The case studies above illustrate the current situation of vacant sites in Copenhagen and clearly divide them into three categories. In all cases there is a tendency to neglect and ignore these sites, often for years. When the site is not strategically used for the creation of urban life (as in Norde Fasanvej) this results either in no remarkable activity (other than illegal squatting) or in grassroots activities with its informal use through parks and community space. Whereas minimal activity undervalues the potential of the site to contribute positively to the city, the grassroots activities can both positively and negatively engage with its surroundings. The park at Provstevej succeeded in creating a real community feeling that reached out to a broad group of people such as the local retirement home and nursery. This could be explained by the well maintained look of the park and its play equipment. On the contrary the City Garden 69 group had a clear public agenda, but declined the offer to use the site in a legal manner on a temporary basis. This refusal is contradictory to the grassroots’ own agenda of openness an inclusiveness. Today the site is little visited by the general public which could be explained by its littering, graffiti and poor quality furniture and planting. It is interesting to observe how people working from a grassroots perspective often gain a sense of ownership of the space resulting in resistance towards permanent development. With this is mind, is it interesting to see that even student housing, which is often characterized as being positive, can be perceived as negative development once a informal bottom-up process has been initiated on the site. From a developer’s point of view, it is therefore imperative to 2.26 View of site on Jagtvej 69.

The site Jagtvej 69 is chosen as the

This is in contrast to the official statement from

understand and acknowledge the bottom-up approach. The above observations are further

potential to benefit future development.


27

2.26


THREE

TEMPORARY STRATEGIES CHAPTER THREE ELABORATES ON THE SUBJECT OF TEMPORARY USES BY LOOKING AT THE THEORETICAL TERM AS WELL AS SPECIFIC CASES STUDIES. IN ORDER TO ACHIEVE SUCCESSFUL TEMPORARY USES, IS IT IMPORTANT TO UNDERSTAND THE SOCIETY WE LIVE IN. FOCUS WILL THEREFORE NOT ONLY BE PUT ON THE TERM ITSELF, BUT SPAN A WIDER RANGE OF CONCEPTS RELATED TO TEMPORARY USES. FOR EXAMPLE, APPROACHES THAT PREVIOUSLY WORKED, MIGHT NOW BE OUT-DATED. IT IS THEREFORE IMPERATIVE TO UNDERSTAND TRENDS AND MOVEMENTS THAT ARE SHAPING THE SOCIETY WE LIVE IN ORDER TO ENSURE THE MOST SUCCESSFUL PROPOSAL CAN EMERGE. FOLLOWING THIS THEORETICAL RESEARCH ON TEMPORARY STRATEGIES, SELECTED CASE STUDIES FROM HACKNEY, LONDON WILL BE ANALYSED AS PRECEDENTS.

1 TRENDWATCHING on nowism 2 TRENDWATCHING on transumers

3.1. MODERN SOCIETY

Such fragmented lives require individuals to be

Sociologist Zygmunt Bauman describes the

flexible and adaptable — to be constantly ready

modern society as being in a phase of ‘Liquid

and willing to change tactics at short notice, to

Modernity’. He argues that the society has

abandon commitments and loyalties without

acknowledged that it is impossible to achieve

regret and to pursue opportunities according to

complete perfection and instead has embraced

their current availability. In liquid modernity the

the thought of a constantly evolving situation

individual must act, plan actions and calculate the

where everything is in process. This eventually

likely gains and losses of acting (or failing to act)

means that each individual must act and react

under conditions of endemic uncertainty.’1

to the current situation in order to pursue new

Bauman’s view on the society is further backed

opportunities: ‘Liquid Modernity’ is Bauman’s

up by new trends that have evolved over the

term for the present condition of the world

last decade. The influential trend-researching

as contrasted with the ‘solid modernity’ that

blog Trendwatching is describing this through

preceded it. According to Bauman the passage

nowism and transumerism: ‘This (referring to

from ‘solid’ to ‘liquid’ modernity has created a

nowism) focus on experiences, this living in the

new and unprecedented setting for individual

now, instead of in the future, this lust to collect

life pursuits, confronting individuals with a series

as many experiences and stories as soon as

of challenges never before encountered. Social

possible, is addictive. It’s about detachment,

forms and institutions no longer have enough

fractional ownership or no ownership at all,

time to solidify and cannot serve as frames of

trying out new things, escaping commitment and

reference for human actions and long-term life

obligations, dropping formality, and of course

plans, so individuals have to find other ways to

collecting endless new experiences.’1

organize their lives. Individuals have to splice

‘Transumers are consumers driven by

together an unending series of short-term

experiences instead of the ‘fixed’, by

projects and episodes that don’t add up to the

entertainment, by discovery, by fighting boredom,

kind of sequence to which concepts like ‘career’

who increasingly live a transient lifestyle, freeing

and ‘progress’ could be meaningfully applied.

themselves from the hassles of permanent


ownership and possessions. The fixed is

created new trends and ways of interacting and

replaced by an obsession with the here and now,

living, where social showcasing and self-staging

an ever-shorter satisfaction span, and a lust

have become an almost embedded part of our

to collect as many experiences and stories as

everyday life. We post and check-in everywhere

possible.’

2

we go and expect to be seen and see what

The combination of above trends and

others are doing constantly. As such the notion

the fact that people in cities have generally

of privacy has changed radically; today people

become wealthier implies that we are living in a

post publicly what was considered private just a

society where time has become more valuable.

decade ago. This self-staging has put its mark

Spare time and money are increasingly being

on architecture as well. For example, when one

used for experiences such as cultural events and

takes a trip out to Ă˜restanden, Copenhagen,

activities. This increase in experience seeking

he or she will notice large windows showcasing

and outgoing lifestyles has great impact on

the everyday life of families in their homes. The

how we use, interact with the city and what we

need for social showcasing is further reflected

expect from it. The success of a city is no longer

in how people use urban spaces today. An

measured through its amount of citizens and

example of how this has affected the physical

jobs, but increasingly through living standards

city can be seen on Dronning Louises Bridge in

and cultural events. Quality public spaces are

Copenhagen. Here people are sitting along one

today becoming one of the most important factors

of the busiest roads in Copenhagen not only to

for a city.

observe people passing by, but also to stage In addition, the Internet has had an

3 A widening of the sidewalk on Dronning Louises Bridge has made the place a popular gathering space. Because of its location, being the main connection between inner and outer city, more than 36.000 people are using this bridge every single day making it the perfect place for people watching and be watched. BERLINGSKE, (06.08.13)

themselves by dressing up, playing loud music

immense impact on society and the city itself. It

and having parties on the street.3 A quick look

has become an everyday phenomenon that is

on the social photo-sharing platform Instragram

surrounding us and enabling us to communicate

shows how popular this trend is.

instantly with others. This instant world has

3.1

3.1 The WM-house has a large window facade where entire flats, including bedrooms, are visible from the street.


30

3.2

3.3


31

The Internet has also created the

4 The well known project Ville Radieuse by the French architect Le Courbier can – even though unbuilt - be seen as a symbol of that times approach. ARCHDAILY

possibility of working in new ways; working itself has become more flexible. For example people are not bound to a place, such as a desk or an office as we were just a decade ago. Emails, texts and calls can be made from anywhere with smartphones, laptops and tablets. This opportunity to work anywhere is reflected in the way we increasingly hold meetings in public or semi-public spaces, such as cafés or even parks on sunny days. Interestingly, this new mentality has changed the way we perceive and use spaces. New creative ways of using the city constantly occur and previously singleuse spaces are increasingly being transformed into multi-purpose spaces; e.g. car parks are transformed into markets in the evenings. One of the most powerful and embraced phenomena is the PARK(ing)-day where a single parking space is transformed into a small park for a day. Simultaneously we are experiencing an increasing trend of sharing objects and spaces. Car-sharing schemes, public bike schemes, shared workspaces and workshops are only a few examples of this. This trend is slowly reconfiguring the entire infrastructure of retail and retail spaces. These evolving social changes impact the kind of spaces that are needed in a city as the requirements of spaces are becoming

Previous page 3.2 - 3.3 Instragram posts of Dronning Louises Bridge in Copenhagen.

more dynamic.

3.2 MODERN PLANNING When looking at the traditional tasks of master planning and development these have historically been led by the philosophy of Bauman’s solid modernity, opposed to liquid modernity. It was a highly bureaucratic top-down system where a single authority would have the power to carry out large-scale urban changes to the city, sometimes with devastating consequences.4 As society has become looser and more process oriented, planning and development processes have had to slowly adapt. Developers and professionals are starting to approach the field with a more open and experimental attitude. For example today’s masterplans are often

3.4

3.4 The Park(ing) day movement started in 2005, when a San Francisco studio decided to rent a parking space for the maximum two hours allowed on the meter and convert it into an inviting oasis for the public. The phenomenon has spread to all over the world and each year are parking spaces being transformed into a small park for a single day. PARKINGDAY


32

5 For more info see nyvalby.dk/ and carlsbergbyen.dk/

developed as a design framework rather than

short-terms leases and temporary uses as they

the rigid masterplan seen in previous decades.

can come with disadvantages such as being

The framework acknowledges the process

insecure and difficult to manage. Furthermore,

6 BISHOP AT EL., (2012) page 5

itself as being positive and allowing designs to

the temporary occupiers can attempt to overtake

change and adapt. Furthermore, implementing

leases and make them permanent. In the most

7 BISHOP AT EL., (2012) page 38

smaller phased initiatives can collectively create

extreme cases, the temporary tenants can take

a greater change. In this process, temporary

landowners to court and gain public and political

projects are often assisting change through

support in doing so. In cases like these the

instant implementation in early stages of the

landowner can experience negative publicity,

development. When the area has matured the

impacting their reputation and making them less

temporary projects are often removed to give

attractive in the eyes of the public. However

way for more permanent uses. Examples of this

with correct management and care from both

can be found in the developments of Carlsberg

the landlord and the temporary tenants, the

City and “Ny Valby” where temporary uses are in

partnership can become a useful tool for both

focus.5

parties:‘The reliability of temporary occupiers as Simultaneously, the process of planning

partners is an important criterium for success.

has to some extent become more cumbersome

Temporary uses generally flourish where there

as plans have often had to be approved by

is a good working relationship between landlord

several authorities and regularly involve public

and tenant. Central for this is a clear and mutual

consultations. Developers are slowly starting to

understanding that a temporary use is just that,

see the benefit of a looser approach. Dividing

and that it will grow and move on, or fail and

large plans into several stages with smaller

disappear. One of the key success factors is

interventions has merits on many levels. It is

certainty around repossession dates.’7

often easier to achieve planning permission

In addition to simply paying rent, temporary

in a phased approach as it becomes more

occupiers can provide many supplementary

manageable and coherent. This phasing strategy

benefits for the landowner. Perhaps most

also has the benefit of generating added attention

importantly is the fact that the occupants are

on the site. Additionally, the landowner is given

using otherwise vacant spaces. As the tenants

a low cost opportunity to explore new ideas for

are taking care of the space this tends to

the site. This approach was embraced during

decrease the risk of vandalism. This makes

the recession where the property market was

it less costly to the landlord by keeping down

uncertain and economy was slow. Today this

costs related to insurances, security and

approach has maintained its success and has

maintenance. Furthermore, temporary occupiers

transformed into a new approach to developing.

can often attract other uses to the area as the initial new uses generate a need for other uses.

3.3 PRO AND CONS OF TEMPORARY USES

For example, a workshop needs supplies or a

Temporary uses as a tool in planning is still in its

theatre attracts people that can generate services

infancy, there is therefore expected uncertainty

such as café, restaurants and kiosks. This can

on how to exploit its full potential. Temporary

generate a surplus of benefits that outweighs the

uses are in the process of being defined and

disadvantages multiple times. A less physical

are sometimes still referred to as an ‘interim’ or

benefit for the landlord is that smaller and more

‘stop-gap’ solution, only used when a permanent

creative uses often create positive publicity for

solution is not viable.6 Temporary uses have

the spaces resulting in a better reputation for both

qualities of their own however and should not

the developer and the landlord.

be viewed as merely a substitute for the ‘real thing’. Some landowners have concerns using


33

3.4 POP-UPS

ability to respond and meet the requirements of

As temporary uses have evolved over time, even

the modern society previously described. As the

more flexible approach emerged: the pop-ups.

society is increasingly chasing experiences the

Pop-up is in essence an extremely short-term

use of pop-ups have rapidly increased. Pop-

temporary use used for everything from art to

ups can be used for more than merely selling

events to retail. It is often used as a tool for

products and experiences; they receive instant

launching start-ups or new products, whilst

feedback from costumer that is then often used

developers can use this approach to promote

in marketing and research. Furthermore pop-ups

and create a profile for a future development.

can indicate if a location will be sustainable for

One can argue that the phenomenon of pop-ups

a future permanent development. Small start-

is not new however, for example market stalls,

up businesses are using pop-ups as they offer

vans selling ice cream etc. have been around

cheap exposure and are often located in, or

for a long time. However it is the introduction of

soon to be, trendy areas sometimes adjacent to

contemporary uses that distinguishes the modern

established shops and brands. The symbioses

pop-ups from these traditional forms. In recent

of start-ups and established brands can prove to

years pop-ups have gained acceptance as a

be beneficial for both parties. Bigger brands tend

strategic tool. Larger cities such as New York

to attract a wider audience while the smaller and

and London are increasingly embracing pop-ups

creative start-ups often attract a more creative

and they are now commonplace in the urban

customer. The different clientele start-ups

landscape. Pop-ups are used as a conscious

attract is something commercial brands value,

tool in new and exciting ways. As journalist

whilst smaller businesses can enjoy the general

Zoe Williams describes it: ‘(Referring to: Pop-

popularity of the established brands.

8 BISHOP AT EL., (2012), page 69

up,) trying to replicate what’s cool about the Internet, compared to the old media. It’s instant, it’s temporary, but most of all, it doesn’t need a huge amount of cash to set it up, so the door opens to people who are outside the wealthy elite, younger, cooler, more subversive and less conventional.’8 The success of pop-ups can be attributed to its

3.5

3.5 The corporate fashion and sports brand Adidas are using the pop-up phenomenon as a marketing strategy.


The Curve Garden

Containerville

Urban Food Fest Shoreditch Food Village Shoreditch Box Park


35

3.5 TEMPORARY USES IN LONDON An overview of local London newspapers and online resources reveals a monthly stream of new pop-ups. This reflects a great media interest in temporary uses providing free publicity for both the retail itself and more importantly for the area in which the pop-ups are taking place. Temporary activities are used to such an extent in the borough of Hackney, London that they have now become an embedded part of the city. Below is a series of selected temporary initiatives in former vacant spaces, mainly introduced by developers and landlords themselves. They demonstrate how temporary uses can create urban life from a landlord and developers perspective. The case studies are chosen for their relevance to this thesis i.e. projects related to vacant sites and/ or developer initiated. For a broader view on the potential of temporary uses the book “The temporary city� by Peter Bishop and Lesley Williams is recommended.

Left 3.6 Map of case study sites in London


36

9 URBANFOODFEST

Urban Food Fest Urban Food Fest was founded by lawyer and investment banker Jessica Tucker. Her great passion for food gave her the idea to create a food market combined with entertainment events. The event started as a market reoccurring only in the weekends on a car park in Shoreditch, London. The site is conveniently located on one of the main streets in Shoreditch, close to major public transport. The project illustrates how space used only during the day, such as a car park, can be transformed into active urban spaces through simple temporary initiatives. Interestingly the Urban Food Fest team managed to take the project further than simply being a market. Stalls (including staff) and entertainment events can be hired for corporate and private events. This additional service is beneficial for the traders as they gain exposure to an even broader audience than just those visiting the site. The space is in a sense working as an advertising event that is beneficial for all parties: traders, founders and the city. The project should therefore be considered for its urban activation and entrepreneurship. As the Urban Food Fest market became increasingly popular a new market has emerged adjacent to it. The new market called “The Pumpstation food market� is located on a former gas station and is open on a daily basis with more permanent structures, whilst the stalls on the parking space are still taken down each weekend.9

3.7 Map highlighting the two markets, Urban Food Fest (North) and Pumpstation Food Market (south) are located adjacent to each other 3.8 Urban Food Fest event 3.9 Pumpstation Food Market


37

3.7

3.8

3.9


38

10 BISHOP AT EL. (2012 page 60

Shoreditch Box Park

to work and live.

Shoreditch Box Park is the world’s first pop-

Box Park quickly caught the media’s

11 LONDON ARCHITECTURE BLOG (19.08.13)

up shopping mall located in a former railway

attention and has been published in several

yard in Shoreditch, London.10 The project was

formats from trendy Internet blogs to conventional

founded in 2011 by creative entrepreneur Roger

newspapers. This attention has created a public

12 EVENING STANDARD (24.12.13) & VIMEO (09.03.15) & CONTAINERCITY

Wade together with developers Hammerson

awareness of the project and has attracted a

and Ballymore and is planned for a life span of

broad audience. One of the key strengths of

5 years. Constructed of sixty stacked shipping

the project is the affordability and possibility

containers the architecture is clearly supporting

of short-term leases. Small business have the

the temporary feel of the project. The structure

opportunity to rent affordable store-frontage to

provides small retail units on the ground floor

test their business. The short-term lease ensures,

and bars and restaurants at first floor level. The

if the business is unsuccessful, that the tenant

use has undertaken a transformation from being

can pull out with reduced loss compared to

mainly start-up and small business towards

traditional leasing contracts. More established

becoming a mixture of cafés and restaurants,

brands are using Box Park to re-brand and

combined with established and start-up retail.

experiment with their products for a relative low

This combination ensures the project appeals

cost. The constantly shifting uses of Box Park

not only to the local area, renown for its young

provides important insight to developers as they

designers and creatives, but also to a wider

gain first-hand knowledge on what is working in

audience from the city and beyond.

the area. One of the key factors for the success

Each container unit measures

of the project is that it is run on the developer’s

approximately 1 x 2.5 x 2.5 m and is finished

terms, minimising the risk of resistance once the

in a clean and monotone dark grey colour with

future permanent development is initiated. The

logo and lettering above the entrances of the

project is well recognized which is reflected by

unit. On the first floor level wooden flooring

the amount of similar projects that are starting

has been provided within the circulation and

to appear throughout the city of London.12 The

amenity spaces of the cafes and restaurants. The

project is especially interesting for its combined

container’s interiors can be easily refitted and

success of activating vacant space as well as

personalised according to their specific use.

being a developer-initiated project.

11

Each unit in the Box Park can be leased for periods as short as three months up to the whole five years. These extremely flexible rental opportunities provides a platform for small businesses that are otherwise unable to afford the large financial commitments associated with larger shopping malls or shopping districts. This gives the tenants an ideal possibility to explore and adapt their businesses to accommodate new trends whilst still being part of a larger project. 3.10 Map highlighting Shoreditch Box Park

The team behind the Box Park is further curating a wide range of free public events such as concerts, open galleries, screenings of major

3.11 - 13 Shoreditch Boxpark hosts public events whilst having a range of retail and bars on street level.

football events etc. resulting in further activation. Box Park has functioned as a catalyst for the area that has experienced an urban revitalization and now is one of London’s most attractive areas


39

3.10

3.11

3.12

3.13


40

Hackney Containerville

13 ESTATEOFFICE

work community. Whilst Hackney Containerville

Hackney Containerville is a newly initiated project

does lack activation of urban life for the general

run by real estate manager ‘The Estate Office

public, it is an important demonstration of how

Shoreditch’.13 It is an intentionally temporary

developers are starting to use the temporary as a

project located on a former industrial site in

designated type of development.

Hackney, London located some distance from 3.14 Office space inside a container in Containerville. Containerville provides affordable desk space for small businesses and start-ups.

main streets and public transport. The project, similar to Shoreditch Box Park, is made out of a series of stacked containers, however it distinct as a result of the framework. It hosts small creative start-ups businesses that are not retail oriented, unlike Box Park. Further to this, it is possible to rent an entire container or

3.15 3.17 Containerville from outsite 3.16 Map highlighting Contianerville site

a single desk space, something that is hard to find in London. The project nurtures the startups and creative businesses and brings different people together creating a strong and diverse

3.14

3.15

3.17

3.16


41

Shoreditch Food Village

consists of one large semi-transparent red tent

Shoreditch Food Village relates directly to

with different food stands inside. The Food Village

the subject of small urban vacant spaces. The

is open on weekdays as well as weekends. Site

site is to some extent similar to the sites on

visits indicate that the Food Village has fewer

Åbulevarden and Jagtvej 69 in Copenhagen.

visitors than Box Park and Urban Food Fest. The

It is located on a vacant space in between two

reason for this could be that the project is only

buildings on a high street in Hackney, London.

a secondary objective for the site and that it is

Prior to the Food Village, the site had been

purely developer driven. Dissimilar to the Urban

vacant for years with no activation other than

Food Fest, the food stalls at Shoreditch Food

large advertisement boards. The site is planned

Village are well-known fast-food chains offering

as a gateway into a larger area behind, where a

nothing unique other than the space itself.

developer is proposing to create a large mixed-

The project lacks the creative elements where

use development consisting of retail, cafés, hotel

guests can be surprised and offered a unique

and residential use. As the planning process was

experience. However, the project can be learnt

expected to take several years it was decided in

from as a developer’s approach to temporary

early stages to initiate a temporary use on the

uses as a strategic tool to establish awareness of

site until the planning permission was achieved.

a site and generate a future successful site.14

The temporary project is simple, but efficient. It

3.18

3.20

3.19

14 ELLIS-MILLER & ARCHITECTS JOURNAL

3.18 Map highlighting Shoredtich Food Village. The intervention is a true infill project on a vacant site. The site is located less that 50 meter from the Urban Food Fest market and Shoredtich Box Park. 3.19 - 20 Atmospheric collage of Shoreditch Food Village. The red tent makes it an iconic place


42

15 DALSTONEASTERN CURVEGARDEN

The Dalston curve garden

throughout the year, which are often free and

The Dalston curve garden, unlike the above

have an educational purpose. In addition, the

case studies is a bottom-up community driven

garden has been successful in reaching out to

16 LONDONIST (15.07.09)

project. It was formerly part of a railway network

the less wealthy children and youth in the area.

linking together two lines, but was closed in

However, there is clash of interests between

17 HACKNEYGAZETTE (26.02.14)

1944.15 The tracks were removed in 1965 leaving

the Dalston curve garden and the landowner

behind a sliver of derelict land. The whole space

who has plans for a residential and mixed-use

was boarded up, abandoned and left to become

development on adjacent sites where the garden

urban wasteland. The context the garden sits in

itself would be transformed into a pathway linking

has in the past decade (and still is) experiencing

the new developments. The community is actively

extreme gentrification. As a comment to the

fighting against the plans in order to save the

neighbourhood’s development an art installation

garden, arguing: ‘When the original plans for the

was set up in 2009 by the architectural collective

DAAP (Dalston Area Action Plan, editor) were

EXYZT. The installation was a small reproduction

created the garden did not exist so people did not

of Agnes Denes’ Wheatfield art installation in

have an opportunity to choose it over a pathway.

Manhattan; a wheat field was installed together

Dalston is changing so much and the garden is

with a sixteen meters high and fully functional mill

one of the things people like about the area. It

to process the wheat. Beyond being an art piece

delivers on lots of policy objectives that Hackney

the mill hosted a number of events including

Council has got. To get rid of it seems short-

theatre and talks all curated by the renowned

sighted and unimaginative. It does not continue

Barbican Art Centre. As part of the art installation

to exist as a garden when it’s a walkway.’ - Brian

the flower produced by the mill functioned as an

Cumming17

18 DALSTONIST (26.02.14)

alternative currency called “the bread currency” that could be used in local shops.16 The installation was reinstated the

Right. 3.21 Map highlighting Dalston Eastern Curve Garden, a bottom-up project involving the local community. 3.22 - 3.24 Atmospheric collage of the garden

The garden’s community have succeeded in creating significant publicity and has featured in the national media in an effort

following year after the landowner agreed on

to save the space. It currently seems unlikely

extended temporary use of the site and the

though that the garden will remain in its current

community involvement evolved into the current

form in the future. The community has managed

use of being a community garden space. The

to ensure some involvement in the future and the

gardenspace was designed by the architectural

development plans now involve small sections

studio MUF and completed in 2010. The design

of the garden. This project demonstrates how

was grounded in the existing qualities of the

a community can influence public opinion even

space with wildlife, trees and shrubs, and aimed

though the landowner hasn’t done anything

to transform the wasteland into a welcoming

wrong as such. Throughout the entire process

garden that would be embraced by the locals.

the landowner has been consistent and clear on

As a central point of the design, raised beds are

the future plans for the site. Unlike earlier case

provided for food production for local residents.

studies, the community runs the project with no

The garden has won several prizes and is

interest in financial gains. The real success of

maintained as a successful community garden to

the Dalston Curve Garden therefore lies in how it

date. Marie Murray and Brian Cumming manage

has managed to involve locals and its evolution

the garden on a daily basis and are assisted

beyond a simple confined space.

by a number of volunteers. A café serving light refreshments during the day and pizzas in the evening helps to generate a small income to maintain the space. The garden arranges several events


43

3.21

3.22

3.24

3.23


44

3.6 LESSON LEARNT The above case studies provide a range of different strategies for temporary interventions each with their unique approach and qualities. On the one side of the spectre are projects such as Box Park and Shoreditch Food Village that are top-down developer led projects. Box Park is embracing food and retail, with events as a secondary objective, whilst Shoreditch Food Village is purely focused on food . Drawing a parallel to how society is heading towards an increasingly experience minded state with transumers and nowism , this is a logical move from a top-down perspective. Both projects produce economically viable business, however even though they helped to put the area on London’s cultural map, they don’t directly involve the local community in their daily operation. The temporary users and their landlords maintain good relationships and no political debate about their end date have occurred so far. This is in sharp contrast to the grassroot Dalston Curve Garden where financial gains are a focus, local involvement is high and debates on the removal of the garden are heated. In the middle of the spectre one can find Urban Food Fest and Containerville. These temporary uses prove that many hybrid forms between the developerinitiated consumer oriented uses and grassroot community initiatives, can emerge. Finally, it is remarkable to note that the consumer minded projects are within walking distance from each other yet all the projects are well visited and even new temporary spaces keep popping up. This supports the concept for vacant spaces to be turned into a network of urban activity.


45


FOUR

SITE THIS CHAPTER CONCENTRATES ON THE SITE JAGTVEJ 69 AND ITS CONTEXT. DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSES FROM THE LARGER CONTEXT AND DEMOGRAPHICS OF NØRREBRO TO THE SITE OF JAGTVEJ 69 IT SELF, ARE MADE TO PROVIDE A PROFOUND UNDERSTANDING OF THE SITE’S CONDITION. THIS IS IN ORDER TO ESTABLISH THE MOST SUITABLE INTERVENTION FOR THE SITE.

1 WIKIPEDIA (Nørrebro)

Bottom-up local communities or activist groups

one of the most densely populated areas in

with a special interest in and an inherent

Copenhagen.1 The borough is located between

2 BT (21.10.12)

knowledge of, the place, often initiate temporary

Frederiksberg and Østerbro making it one of the

uses. This bottom-up process is often the result

most central boroughs in the city. Historically,

of an evolving personal need or desire generated

Nørrebro has been a mixture of light industrial

by the area itself. The process for a developer

and residential use. Gentrification has however

is inevitably different from this. Developers will

changed the character of the borough into mainly

not necessary take a personal interest neither

residential with retail and services along the high

in the site nor the urban context. It is therefore

streets. The area has a diverse population made

beneficial for a developer led process to analyse

up of mixed religious and ethnic backgrounds

the area before initiating the intervention. By

and varied income and age groups. Almost thirty

undertaking an in-depth site analysis, it becomes

percent of Nørrebro’s residents are immigrants

apparent which temporary intervention might be

making it the most poly-cultural borough in

successful on a given site.

Copenhagen. It is also the area with the largest

3 See chapter of Nørrebro history for more information

As discussed earlier in this thesis one

amount of low-income residents and the highest

of the key strengths of temporary uses is that

concentration of unemployment and students.2

they can evolve and merge into new uses. The

Throughout history Nørrebro has been exposed

proposed intervention should therefore be viewed

to unrest, such as the great riot when the youth

as a temporary proposal with the possibility to

house on Jagtvej 69 was demolished.3 In recent

morph and change character during its lifetime.

years significant political and private efforts have

The site analysis will provide the developer with

been made to improve areas within the borough.

valuable information, enhancing the possibility

This has resulted in new and redesigned parks

of making a successful intervention from the

that have provided the area with high quality

onset. The site study will identify key issues and

public spaces. This has impacted Nørrebro,

features of the site, including context such as

which has become safer and more attractive with

demographics, site constrains and opportunities.

many new shops and cafes opening in the area.

It should begin at a city scale and slowly scale

In addition, families with children have begun to

down to the specific site.

move to the area of which some areas are now amongst the trendiest places to live. There are

Right 4.1 Map of Copenhagen. The borough of Nørrebro highlighted.

4.1 NØRREBRO AND CONTEXT

still ghetto-like areas that are undesirable for the

The site is located in the borough of Nørrebro,

general public however.

one of Copenhagen’s ten boroughs. It has an area of 3.8 km square and a population of approximately 72,000 citizens resulting it


O

R

EB

R

R

Ø

N

SITE

North


48

4.2 - 4.5 Nørrebrogade is a busy and vivid main street in Copenhagen with a social and cultural diversity (4.2 & 4.3). Events like ‘the worlds largest chalk painting’ (4.4) and small informal city garden areas are features of Nørrebro which should be taken into consideration when designing a new space in Nørrebro. Vivid street life, events and small intimate green spaces are therefore all to be included in the future proposed intervention on Jagtvej 69.

4.2

4.3


49

4.4

4.5


50

4.2 NØRREBRO URBAN FABRIC Nørrebro is considered to be one of Copenhagen’s most socially diverse and vibrant areas. The vibrant streets Stefansgade and Jærgersborggade are examples of this and are both located in close proximity to the site of Jagtvej 69. These streets have become some of Copenhagen’s most liked places, famous for their independent shops, cafés, restaurants and bars. Further towards the city centre are Sankt Hans Square and Elmegade, which offer another energetic area famous for the nightlife and independent shops and cafés. In the centre of Nørrebro and opposite Jagtvej 69 is Assistens Cemetery, which provides a wellused green space. A yellow wall surrounding the cemetery has become an icon for Nørrebro, but is essentially a dead zone on the otherwise busy streets of Nørrebrogade and Jagtvej. In recent years the wall has become activated during summer through flea markets on weekends. Another well used green area is Nørrebro Park which runs through a large stretch of Nørrebro almost surrounding the site of Jagtvej 69. The park ends in the recently redesigned Red Square that hosts a large flea market and a range of other events. The main street Nørrebrogade is split into three sections: inner, central and outer. Each section has its own character, from trendy restaurants in the inner part close to Sankt Hans Square towards a more local feel with independent grocers in the outer part. The central part consists mainly of fast-food places that have gained success since the widening of the pedestrian sidewalk made it possible to facilitate al fresco dining. Perpendicular to Nørrebrogade runs Jagtvej, which is less populated by retail. The intersection of the two streets is called Nørrebro Runddel (Nørrebro roundabout) and functions as a central point within Nørrebro. Right 4.6 Map of site and context highlighting urban interesting areas on Nørrebro.


51

OUTER NØRREBROGADE Commercial retail Kiosks Fast food Supermarkets

NØRREBRO PARK Recreation Sports

ZOOM STEFANSGADE Bars Cafes Independent retail

SITE CENTRAL NØRREBROGADE Kiosks Fast food Weekend flea market

JÆRGERSBORGGADE Bars Cafes Restaurants Independent retail

SANKT HANS TORV Cafes Entertainment Independent retail ASSISTENS CEMETERY Recreation

INNER NØRREBROGADE Commercial retail Kiosks Fast food Supermarkets Restaurants

BLÅGÅRDS SQUARE Kiosks Fast food Restaurants Cafes

North


52

4.7 - 4.12 Small independent cafes and shops in Nørrebro creating a local atmosphere. Flea markets and small events are popping up, bringing people out on the street. This street life should be considered and incorporated in a future new development on Jagtvej 69, both for temporary initiatives as well as for a permanent development. It should encourage people to use and interact with the outdoor space. 4.7

4.8

4.9


53

4.10

4.11

4.12


54

4 POLITIKEN (03.08.13)

4.3 SITE CONNECTIONS AND CONTEXT

5 DR (11.03.15)

Jagtvej which is one of the main traffic veins

The site sits on the major thoroughfare street in Copenhagen connecting east to west. As a result of this location, Jagtvej is often troubled by traffic congestion during peak hours. The site is located adjacent to Nørrebrogade that connects inner and outer Copenhagen. The high street had similar issues as Jagvej before it was transformed into a partly car-free street in 2010. Due to this transformation to reduce vehicle traffic, it has become monotone in character with many fastfood places and mainstream shops.4 Bus stops are located at Nørrebro roundabout less than 50 meters from the site and a metro-station just opposite the site is scheduled to be completed in 2018. A network of secondary streets links the site when arriving by cycle or as a pedestrian. A city wide green link through Nørrebro Park links the site to the main cycle infrastructure of the city. As the preferred mode of transport in Copenhagen is cycling, this creates an extremely flexible transport infrastructure.5 These combined factors and the relatively small size of the city, mean Jagtvej 69 is easily accessible.

Right 4.13 Map of site and context of Nørrebro highlighting transportation links.


55

2 ZOOM

B B

B

B

SI TE M

1

1

Street of urban interest - JĂŚrgersborggade

2

Street of urban interest- Stefansgade

B

Bus stop

M

Future metro station Main movement line Secondary movement line Assistens cemetery wall

North


56

4.14 - 4.17 The traffic in Nørrebo has become more cycle and pedestrian friendly resulting in increased street life. A wider pavement on Nørrebrogade has allowed for al fresco serving; retail are using the street as an outdoor showroom. The concept of blending the line between interior and exterior should be carried through in a future intervention on jagtvej 69.

4.14

4.15


57

4.16

4.17


6 FACEBOOK (City Garden 69 group)

4.4 THE SITE – JAGTVEJ 69 The site is officially marked as vacant, but the activist group City Garden 69 has illegally initiated public garden use on the site with a clear ideological agenda: ‘The purpose of City Garden 69 is to create a green open space for the residents of Nørrebro. The site of the city garden has been empty for over seven years while waste has piled up. With this urban garden we can create a space where we can mingle, learn from each other and strengthen social community in the local environment. At the same time we can send a strong signal that this space, with its historical importance, must continue to belong to the pepole of Nørrebro. The owner Procasa initiates nothing new and the space has accumulated a lot of negative feelings. Therefore we have started to transform the place into a fine city garden, so people no longer need to look at a boring dump but instead can enjoy a place where you can be with friends, children and family.‘6 Despite the above statement, the site is currently in such a declined condition that the status of city garden can be questioned. Even though signs state everyone is welcome, the area is uninviting for visitors not involved in the activist group. Most of the garden elements area concentrated in the north-eastern corner of the site, whilst small elements are scattered throughout the rest of the site. Weeds and shrubs have taken over in most of the site, materials used are clearly homemade or found and a leather sofa, which is not suitable for external use, is used as the central furniture. Empty alcohol bottles and other rubbish are spread throughout the site. As a consequence, the site feels unwelcoming, unsafe and the proposed agenda seems unlikely to be achieved and maintained over time.

Right 4.18 Map of Jagtvej 69, highlighting main intervention area of City garden group 69 to the north east.


59

Nørrebro Runddel Parking

SITE

Jagtvej

North


60

4.19 Sun study of Jagtvej 69

21.03 - 9am

21.03 - 12am

21.06 - 9am

21.06- 12am

21.09 - 9am

21.09 - 12am

21.12 - 9am

21.12 - 12am


61

21.03 - 3pm

21.03 - 6pm

21.06 - 3pm

21.06 - 6pm

21.09 - 3pm

21.09 - 6pm

21.12 - 3pm

21.12 - 6pm


62

Right top 4.20 Plan of current situation

4.5 SPATIAL EXISTING CONDITION

event space. The concept of a gathering and

The site is approximately 55 m deep and 22

community space should therefore also be used

Right bottom 4.21 Cross section of site

meter wide making it 1100 meter square. A

in the future process. Lastly, the City garden 69

thoroughfare paved path along the western edge

agenda (figure 4.23) is publicly displayed on the

connects Jagtvej with the residential area behind.

site. Future development could take inspiration

The main entrance in the southern end opens up

from this agenda of being an inclusive place, in

towards Jagtvej and ends in a parking space at

the spirit of Nørrebro.

the rear. A fence is separating the north east side with an adjacent residential courtyard, whilst a 10 meter tall solid building facade naturally contains the western side of the site. The future building height along this edge should be kept low to ensure that residents maintain their view as well as sun and daylight. The eastern side of the site receives day and evening sun and is therefore ideal for outdoor activities. The western edge is shaded the majority of the day by the adjacent retail buildings. Building heights along this edge can therefore be taller. A combination of the interventions made by the City garden 69 group and the trees in the adjacent residential courtyard makes the site appear green during summer The existing condition and elements can provide a profound understanding of the site. A majority of the City Garden 69 elements (e.g. furniture, benches, planters etc.) are located in the northern end of the site; away from the main road and in the sun. Along the eastern edge, which receives sun light most of the day, the majority of the existing seating furniture can be found. The elements on Jagtvej 69 are poorly maintained and do not resemble the public

LEGEND

garden space which City Garden 69 group claims City garden space

it to be. The elements are however, indicating that the site is being used by the group it self. Such elements do therefore represent a conceptual

City garden elements

value of interest for a future development and the spatial arrangement can be of inspiration for the future interventions and development.

Sun areas

Planting beds and seating (figure 4.21) in various forms and shapes are important elements for the

Thoroughfare route

current City Garden and the concept of these should be implemented in a future development. An unfinished pavilion structure (figure 4.19)

Entrance

and a tent are (figure 4.22) in the rear of the site are indicating a need for a gathering and


a

63

m

.5

17

A

m .5 54 10 m

PUBLIC

PRIVATE

10 m 3m

A

20 m

a


64

4.22-4.26 Image collage of current state of Jagtvej 69 site elaborated on page 50.

4.22

4.23


65

4.24

4.25


66

4.26


67


FIVE

SITE INTERVENTIONS THE FIFTH CHAPTER DISCUSSES THE PROPOSED INTERVENTION FOR THE SITE AT JAGTVEJ 69. BEGINNING WITH A SUMMARY OF THE EARLIER RESEARCH THE CHAPTER WILL THEN OUTLINE THE STRATEGIC CONCEPT FOR THE SITE. DRAWING ON LONDON BASED CASE STUDIES AND THE STRATEGIES DISCUSSED IN THE BOOK ‘URBAN CATALYST’, A HYPOTHESIS THAT CAN FACILITATE A CHRONOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE SITE WILL BE ESTABLISHED. THE PROPOSED DEVELOPMENT CONSISTS OF DESCRIPTIONS OF EVENTS AND PHYSICAL INTERVENTIONS ON THE SITE.

1 MODKRAFT (28.11.14)

5.1 RECAP OF RESEARCH

municipality sold the building and site to a private

The city of Copenhagen has recently announced

sector. The latter quickly evicted the occupiers

an objective to create more “daily urban life

and demolished the building in 2007. Since then

whilst simultaneously allowing for the secret,

the site has been vacant, however 7 years later

the eccentric and the temporary to flourish”.

a grassroots movement called “City Garden

The borough of Nørrebro has multiple vacant

69” claimed the use of the site promoting it as

sites that are currently acting as grey spots in

a public garden. The group is questioning the

the urban context and currently have little or

future use of Jagtvej 69 and persists using the

no intervention on site. This contradicts the

site as a city garden instead of the previously

aforementioned goal of creating more quality

proposed development of mixed commercial

urban life. It is assumed that Nørrebro is open to

uses. Site visits have however indicated that the

explore new ways of developing and will allow

site is in such poor condition that the public is not

for more experiential processes in order to meet

using the space. The materials used on the site

the goal of creating more quality urban life. The

indicate that the City Garden 69 group is lacking

borough is a poly-cultural area experiencing

resources. The current legal owner, Procasa,

bottom-up gentrification where locals are

has previously made an attempt to indirectly

increasingly included. The area has become

claim back the site by offering the City Garden

accustomed to change, experimental ideas and in

69 group a 2-year “rights of site” agreement.

recent years has experienced a revival of urban

However, the group rejected this offer and

life around the borough. Nørrebro is therefore

continues the dispute in the public eye hoping

a suitable test site in Copenhagen for new

to gain citizen support. City Garden 69 declared

temporary initiatives.

that the site already belongs to the public and

Throughout the site’s history, Jagtvej 69

this is their reason for declining Procasa’s offer.1

has been a public subject. Firstly as the “House

Research indicates that neither the general public

of the people” built by the labour movement

nor the context are benefiting from the current

and later as the famous “youth house”. This

use of Jagtvej 69. This contradicts City Garden

has led to a prohibition by the authorities of

69 agenda to establish a space for the public

purely commercial development due to the

to meet and socialise. The above description

historic public importance of the site. The site

therefore suggests this site is ideal for testing

has changed owner multiple times after the

new and innovative processes.


Cities such as Berlin and London are pioneers within the field of temporary uses. Berlin established the bottom-up temporary uses two decades ago, whilst in the last ten years London has embraced the developer lead process proving the later approach can be beneficial both for the site and its context. Unlike the bottom-up approach, research implies that a top-down processes can obtain significantly more resources to transform the site, impacting on both the site and city positively. The Boxpark project in London for example has a clear strategy for improving the urban life using the temporary approach, demonstrating that the consumer market is a popular and successful way to create urban life. This is supported by Bauman’s description of the modern society, which is constantly seeking new experiences rather than the traditional static life. On the other side of the spectre research has shown that bottom-up users tend to get a sense of belonging to the space, in turn resulting in a more resilient intervention. It is therefore imperative to be inclusive of bottom-up approaches as part of a top-down, developer lead strategy. In addition, SEEDS charter supports temporary interventions recognising the strengths of temporary uses when implemented sensitively. According to the charter the landowner should be encouraged by the authorities to collaborate with bottom-up process. Policies and procedures should enable the landowner to reactivate and enhance the space through temporary uses; an experimental approach to a temporary framework can act as a transformative agent and create new citizen involvement on the site. The proposed interventions assume that this charter will be effective and supportive of the project, allowing the new experimental approach to flourish.


70

2 For a deeper analysis refer to OSWALT ET AL. (2012) pages 197 to 371

5.2 STRATEGIC CONCEPT

path should ensure the legacy for its users and

The site will test an alternative to the traditional

the site itself though a coaching (4) process and

developer minded approach to development that

a possible permanent development (5) that draws

can be described as a ‘direct goal oriented path’.

on previous step outcomes, can be developed.

The ‘direct goal oriented path’ process is effective and fast when no external obstacles influence the development. However, the process can be fragile and can fail when factors such as economy or occupants intervene negatively. It is evident that Jagtvej 69 has experienced such obstacles. The site has been vacant for substantial time and an insensitive development initiated directly and immediately to the site could trigger riots due to the site’s conflicted history. A 4-step “multiple intermediate goals oriented path” is therefore proposed to initiate a more focused, yet dynamic landowner-initiated activity on the site optimising the possibilities of creating a successful and positive outcome. The 10 points of the Seeds charter are drawn on as the foundation of the path; Reactivate, enhance, experiment, create, learn, ripen, value, support, enable and recognise. The four-step path uses temporary initiatives to create intermediate goals that support the idea of development whilst activating the site in the process. The path also draws on different tactics for action from the book “Urban catalyst” to develop sites via temporary interventions.2 In addition, the path is to introduce developer-initiated activity on the site through strategically structured steps over time. The path ensures collaboration and marries the gap between the developer and the grassroots group. The agenda of the City Garden 69 Group is incorporated by creating open spaces where people can mingle, learn and strengthen social communities in the local environment. Furthermore, the historical values of the site as a public bottom-up initiated project, should be evoked and nurtured. Firstly, through dialogue, the landowner will reclaim (1) the site from the occupying group and work (2) with them through collaboration. When common goals are Right 5.1 Diagram showing 4 stepped path

agreed upon, a physical framework establishing the temporary use is initiated (3) and potential site users will be attracted. Lastly, the four-step


71

TRADITIONAL DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY Directly goal oriented path

Current situation

Permanent

DELIBERATELY TEMPORARY STRATEGY Multiple intermediate goal oriented path

Current situation

1

2

3

4

Permanent


72

STEP 1: RECLAIM

symbiosis that results in valuable public space far

The City Garden 69 group declared that they

greater than the current situation.

intended to stay on Jagtvej 69 to promote the site as a public space. However, the site is badly maintained and lacks resources that have made it difficult to meet the expectations from the public. As their last proposal to collaborate was turned down, Procasa should try to understand the needs and the agenda of the City Garden 69 group in an effort to establish an alternative perspective and approach. Keeping the SEEDs charter of being inclusive in mind, Procasa should then incorporate the City Garden 69 agenda in the future plans of the site and enusre they have partial influence. The first step for Procasa is therefore not to be claiming the site back through physically action or to provide full ownership as before, but instead to initiate a constructive dialogue between both parties. The aim should be to agree on a common goal for the site that is beneficial for both parties. City Garden 69 has not managed to gain substantial support from the general public resulting in an ideological fight against Procasa. It is therefore of interest for the group to pursue a future influence of the site with substantially more resources than before through a collaborative approach. The Curve Garden in London is an exemplar precedent City Garden 69 can draw on. The Curved Garden team has managed to gain some influence in the future development of the site, but more importantly succeeded in creating a well-used public space on a former vacant area. In addition, Procasa has an interest in initiating dialogue and accommodating parts of City Garden 69’s agenda, as current situation is unviable for the landowner and has a negative impact on the city. Additionally, if City Garden 69 group is evicted by force it is likely that a potential large group of Jagtvej 69 supporters could cause riots resulting in delays, negative press or stop the development entirely. It is therefore clear Right 5.2 Diagram of benefits of working together for City Garden 69 and Procasa.

that Procasa and City Garden 69 must work collaboratively and coherently in a partnership to achieve each of their goals and establish coexistence well into the future. This will create a


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BENEFITS OF WORKING TOGETHER Procasa

City Garden 69

Developer initiated activity Public acceptance Awareness Public popularity Income Branding New market

Financial aid More users Legalised Green open space Diverse Community Maintain history Generate positive feelings Influence the site


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STEP 2: COHERE Once dialogue is initiated a mutually agreed agenda should be established to ensure both parties needs and interests are fulfilled. To meet the City Garden 69’s original objective of being open and conducive to socialising, and to gain a positive public perception of Procasa, the collaboration should aim to create local engagement beneficial for the site and its surroundings. Procasa has a vision of creating a mixed use development with student housing and retail.3 The interventions should therefore incorporate similar uses in order to initiate and test this vision. Pop-up shops and desk spaces for students for example, should be a driving force for the agenda. An agreed agenda will draw upon the strengths of the two parties and thereby create a greater place than if the two parts were established in isolation. Procasa can contribute with resources, a broader vision and outcome, whilst the City garden 69 group has a strong community that can be drawn on to contribute to the site through time and knowledge improving and maintaining the site. Lastly, the local authorities should also be actively encouraging the newly established collaboration to accommodate the overall goal of activating the site and creating urban life. A proposal of the common agenda is written below and should be agreed upon for a 5-year period, which would 3 PROCASA

Right 5.3 Possible new agenda for Jagtvej 69

then follow with a revaluation.


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AGENDA FOR PROMOTING ACTIVITY AND URBAN LIFE THROUGH TEMPORARY USES ON JAGTVEJ 69

Historical use: 1. The existing use of being a public space will be maintained. 2. The site will be transformed into a destination for the area. 3. Procasa will provide reasonable resources to enhance the existing use making the site suitable to the public. 4. City Garden 69 will agree to a reduced open area in order to allow for other uses and will be managing the allocated space. 5. City Garden 69 will have control of site wide planting and will maintain all planting throughout the site. 6. City Garden 69 will respect the neighbours at all times. Local use: 1. The site will favour the local context, but will also be appealing to a greater audience. 2. Activities and cultural events will be complementary to the local area yet not compete against what is already present. 3. Programming and uses will involve local people and organisations as much as possible to support and enhance local enterprises and community initiatives. Local support 1. The project will support local groups and encourage new creativity and initiatives. 2. Cultural and creative organisations will be encouraged to use the space. 3. City Garden 69 and Procasa will both act as role models for the area. Create awareness and information 1. A balanced programme will be generated to create awareness of the space. 2. Educational events and courses will take place to create future employment opportunities for local people. 3. City Garden 69 will invite educational groups into the City garden, promoting the entire space. Maintain 1. Future plans of the site will seek to ensure that the knowledge and activities obtained during the process are not lost. 2. Communities and tenants will be guided at all times. 3. Procasa will assist the users promoting the free flow idea, advocating the users to move to the next deliberate temporary space when/if Jagtvej 69 changes use. 4. Procasa will, if possible, work together with City Garden 69 to maintain and promote the idea of a City garden in any future development as well as on new sites around the city.

PROCASA

CITY GARDEN 69


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STEP 3: INITIATE & ENABLE

consumer-based tenants, community and start-up

When a unified agenda is agreed upon the third

uses should be encouraged as observed in most

step is to activate the site. For this, a physical

of the case studies. The pop-up approach will

framework facilitating and materialising the

be used to attract new and unexpected users to

aspects of the agreed agenda is needed. Firstly

the site. This could be a community space for

a dedicated area for the city garden is located.

local organizations and sports clubs or perhaps

Secondly the best aspects from each of the

a space for local food enthusiast interested in

London based case studies are extracted to

renting a small space for a few weeks, fulfilling

generate the foundation of the framework. Once

a lifelong dream of opening a café or restaurant.

the framework is created the uses and users

Most of the London based case studies have

can be attracted. It is only once the tenants are

integrated cultural events to attract the broader

occupying the physical framework that the real

public. This use will therefore be tested on the

use of the site will emerge. This process will be

proposed site through multiple cultural events

made in collaboration between Procasa and

catering for the poly-cultural area of Nørrebro.

City Garden 69 whom will both select the future

Food and drink uses such as cafés and bars

tenants and assist them in their needs. Analysis

will further provide diversity and activity on

and research of other temporary interventions

the site. As research has indicated society is

can help to understand what kind of uses should

accepting new ways of working and socializing,

be tested on the site. The following explores

cafes will be combined with appropriate spaces

key spatial and physical factors influencing the

to accommodate professional meetings and

arrangement of the intervention as well as the

the general service sector. Commercial and

uses of the physical framework. Factors such

independent retail will attract a wide range of

as sun/shadow, movement, use, circulation and

visitors and ensure a flow of activity on the site,

attraction points are included in the study.

similar to Shoreditch Box Park, whilst a new

Uses

and enhanced city garden will contribute to

Site visits and research of existing projects

the site with a varied user group. In addition to

show that a wide range of uses can be initiated,

these contemporary top-down uses, it should

from local second hand shops and café’s to

be ensured that community spaces, allotment

large commercial retail brands. Given the newly

gardens and flea markets remain accessible to

established agenda on Jagtvej 69 emphasising

the local citizens as seen in the Dalston Curve

and supporting the local environment, local

Garden. The City Garden 69 group should play

shops and café’s are of preference. London case

a key role in maintaining these community uses

studies are particularly relevant precedents,

on the site, providing the group with a sense of

as areas such as Hackney are comparable to

ownership.

Nørrebro. It is therefore assumed that such uses

Materiality

could also be prosperous at Jagtvej 69. The

It is crucial to use the right materiality for the

tenants will be chosen in collaboration between

proposed interventions. Research indicates that

the City Garden 69 group and Procasa and

euro pallets and similar materials are common

will attempt to establish a diverse user group.

materials for temporary interventions. Such

The mix should consist of community groups

materials are often used because of low budgets

and commercial businesses such as retail and

forcing the interventions to use the cheapest and

offices to ensure activity throughout the day and

often found, materials. The aesthetics of such

evening. Inspired by Shoreditch Box Park and

materials attracts a certain type of visitor who is

Containerville rent should be capped and kept

often familiar with the scene of temporary uses

low to allow local businesses and startups to

already. However there is a tendency that such

move into the framework. Instead of focusing on

materiality can make projects seem unfinished


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CONTEXT

INSPIRATION

USER GROUPS Allotment garden

Urban Food fest Students

Community space

Young people

Left 5.4 Diagram showing exploration of user groups and uses for the framework

Start up Box Park Offices

Grassroots Children families

Stage Containerville

Main traffic vein

Flea market

Trendy streets

Independent retail Food Village Commercial retail

Nørrebrogade City Garden 69

Service Curve Garden Rent´a´day

and unattractive for the wider audience resulting

facilitating constant change as new uses and

in exclusion.4 Given the site aims to attract

users appear and old ones disappear.

a wider audience the intervention on Jagtvej 69 should aim to reinterpret the aesthetics of precedent temporary uses yet incorporate higher quality materials as well. Inspired by Shoreditch Box Park and Containerville, a series of refitted shipping containers will form the foundation of the physical framework. They will act as a test ground for possible arrangements on the site that can eventually be relocation to a different site. Shipping containers are ideal for exploring different arrangements as they are easy to move and adapt. To accommodate the site’s history and context, the character of self-initiated bottom-up intervention has been chosen for the material palette. This includes a wide range of high quality reclaimed industrial materials celebrating the historical context of the site. Similar to Shoreditch Box Park the interior of the containers will be adaptable and users will be encouraged to personalise the design. This is providing a bottom-up feeling, allowing people to interact and add value to the site rather than merely using it. Furthermore, this approach offers flexibility,

Next page 5.5 - 5.12 Collage of materiality and atmosphere of proposed intervention.


78

5.5 High quality timber are used as a material throughout the project to provide a consistency. Examples of use are plating beds, benches and decking etc. 5.6 Light in evening makes the site attractive throughout the day and evening 5.7 and 5.8 Planting beds and greenwalls are places where possible to make the site as green and garden as possible.

5.5

5.6

5.7

5.8


79

5.9 - 5.11 Containers can be refitted and personalised. 5.11 Glasshouse pavilion with a personalised community feel.

5.9

5.10

5.11

5.12


80

4 BYG DET OP (17.04.13)

General Arrangement Through several site visits it has been identified that the site consists of several qualities and opportunities. A sub-division of the site creates the opportunity to analyse it further and provide each space with its own identity. Entrance To draw people into the site a grand entrance is proposed. The entrance will act as a gateway and landmark visible from a distance, making it an obvious destination attracting visitors to the site. The new entrance will indirectly inform the context about the new intervention. The entrance will have retail on the lower level and a bar on the upper level which will additionally encourage passing cyclists and pedestrians to enter the site. It is located in-between the two solid façades identifying the site instantly, whilst not disturbing the adjacent neighbours. Thoroughfare route The site will remain open at both ends to maximize public interaction, resulting in an enhanced thoroughfare for the greater context. The link will be further advantageous when the future metro station just opposite the site is completed, benefiting local tenants who will experience increased exposure. Active frontage such as retail and cafÊs should be located on both sides along the thoroughfare path on the lower level to invite bypasses into the site.


81

5.13 Current thoroughfare route (orange) and entrance (blue)

5.14 Proposed thoroughfare route (orange) and entrance (blue)


82

Framework The height of the proposed framework should be carefully considered ensuring no neighbours are affected negatively. Building heights on the eastern side should therefore be kept low in order to prevent shading of the adjacent residential courtyard and to prevent blocking the views from within the flats of the buildings. The western side of the site can be built higher as this is located adjacent to a solid wall of a supermarket. Where the framework is identified as higher, uses such as student desk spaces and small business are introduced, as they do not require active frontages. The arrangement of the framework is therefore following the context the site sits within and the thoroughfare route. Inspired by Shoredtich Box park will the framework consist of refitted shipping containers in two levels.

5.15 Current density section

PUBLIC

PRIVATE

10 m 3m

20 m

5.16 Proposed general building density and height in section.

PUBLIC

Fare through route

High development

PRIVATE

Low development

10 m 3m

20 m


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5.17 Current density layout

Low

High

5.18 Proposed building density and height.

low low High


84

5 See chapter 4 for extended shadow study

City garden The City garden 69 Group has currently initiated the majority of their activity in the northeastern corner of the site. The area is protected from the main traffic on Jagtvej and is conveniently located in a sunny part of the site. In order to maintain the existing concept initiated by City Garden 69 group, whilst also utilise the site’s qualities in this corner, it will be retained as garden space. A large lawn and flowerbeds will provide an open green area for the public in line with the agreed agenda. The city garden space will have a greenhouse structure, inspired by the Dalston Curve Garden in London. Inside the structure raised planting beds will provide the site with small allotment gardens for local food production and generate a community on site. Use of the greenhouse will be free of charge and will have educational purposes for local children and schools. Additional raised flowerbeds will be placed around the site increasing the garden feel on the site. Additionally the greenhouse will act as a community house. Mini Plazas A sun study determines the location of the outdoor spaces on the site.5 The site is slightly tilted to the southeast with openings to both ends of the site receiving morning and early evening sun. The buildings to the southwest are shading the centre of the site, however the eastern wall receives evening sun in the summer and the western wall receives morning sun. The large open car park provides the northeastern area with sun during the entire day and evening. Lastly the northwestern area has the most evening sun and is located in such a way that it is naturally sheltered from neighbours and the main road. This area is therefore ideal for evening al fresco dining. Small urban plazas along the eastern wall invites the public into the site in the evening, whilst a small plaza opposite offers morning sun. High quality timber decking could identify these places of interest.


85

5.19 Current sun (yellow) areas and city garden 69 intervention area. (green)

5.20 Proposed mini plazas are located according to the sun study and the city garden space take inspiration from the existing pavilions.

NW SE Next pages 5.21 Plan and section of existing condition

SW

5.22 Plan and section of proposed arrangement. 5.23 Axonometric of proposed arrangement.


86

Current situation on Jagtvej 69

10 m

PUBLIC

PRIVATE

10 m 3m

20 m


87

Proposed situation on Jagtvej 69

10 m

PUBLIC

Fare through route

High development

PRIVATE

Low development

10 m 3m

20 m


88

Gateway

Morning plaza

Evening plaza

Fare through route

Retail / F+B

Flowerbed

New city garden

Community greenhouse


89

Upper level office spaces

Lower level retail

Upper plaza Protected plaza


90

STEP 4: COACH The fourth step is to ensure that the site stays vibrant and attractive. The agenda aims to attract start-ups and students who often lack experience, know-how and a network. Inspired by the Shoreditch Street Feast, Procasa and City Garden 69 will be coaching the tenants, enabling them to reach their goal. Procasa will be supportive through entrepreneurial coaching and financial and legal assistance, whilst City Garden 69 can contribute with cultural coaching providing knowledge and networks. By doing so, the uses will generate a more successful platform, benefiting both the project itself and the users. In this phase some tenants will mature to become successful and move to a more permanent location, whilst others may fail and disappear opening up space for new uses. It is therefore the most dynamic phase of the path, with an ever-changing scene that provides visitors with a sense of exploration and an expectation of a new experience every visit; this gives users a reason to revisit. This aligns with today’s understanding of society where nowsim and transumers have become the norm.

Right 5.24 Proposed intervention showing the Gateway from Jagtvej. Next page 5.25 Atmospheric illustration of proposed intervention with a newly established city garden space.


91


92


93


94

STEP 5: TOWARDS PERMANENCY Once the agenda is reached and the developerinitiated activation on the site is operating, a more permanent development process can be initiated. The outcome will be determined by how and what was successful in the 4 step approach. The 4-step “multiple intermediate goals oriented pathâ€? should have provided direction on how a permanent development could be inclusive of the City Garden 69 as well as future tenants and the general arrangement of the development. This could include an allocated space for a future public garden and perhaps community spaces within the development itself. The process could also include future plans for other vacant sites within Nørrebro to be activated and should further ensure that users and tenants of the site have been coached and guided to ensure their future success on other sites.

Right 5.26 Sketch illustrating possible configuration of permanent development inspired by the four step process intervention.


95


CONCLUSION THE STUDY SET OUT TO EXPLORE WAYS OF GENERATING MORE AND ENHANCED URBAN LIFE IN VACANT SPACES; IDENTIFYING TEMPORARY USES AS A SUCCESSFUL APPROACH TO ACTIVATION. THE STUDY SOUGHT TO EXPLORE WHAT KIND OF TEMPORARY USES CAN BE EFFECTIVE FOR ACTIVATING SPACE AS PART OF A TOP-DOWN APPROACH. THE GENERAL THEORETICAL LITERATURE ON THIS SUBJECT AND SPECIFICALLY IN THE CONTEXT OF A TOP-DOWN PERSPECTIVE IS INCONCLUSIVE ON SEVERAL VITAL QUESTIONS WITHIN THE FIELD. IN THE CONTEXT OF A SERIES OF VACANT SPACES IN NØRREBRO, THE SITE ON JAGTVEJ 69 HAS BEEN CHOSEN FOR FURTHER EXPLORATION. THE SITE HAS A CHALLENGING HISTORY AND IS CURRENTLY OCCUPIED BY AN ACTIVIST GROUP PROMOTING THE SITE AS A PUBLIC CITY GARDEN. HOWEVER, THE PUBLIC IS NOT CURRENTLY USING THE SITE DUE TO POOR MAINTENANCE THAT HAS LEAD TO A DETERIORATED AND UNATTRACTIVE SPACE. IN ADDITION, THE RECENT HISTORY OF THE SITE PREVENTS THE DEVELOPER INITIATING DEVELOPMENT ON THE SITE DUE TO A FEAR OF RIOTS. AS A RESULT, THE SITE HAS BECOME UNUSABLE TO BOTH THE PUBLIC AND DEVELOPER. THE STUDY THEREFORE SOUGHT TO ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS TO GAIN CLARIFICATION ON THE TOPIC OF TEMPORARY USES ON VACANT SITES:

• WHAT CAN TEMPORARY USES OFFER TO VACANT SITES? • HOW CAN DEVELOPERS EXPLOIT THE POTENTIAL OF TEMPORARY USES WHILST RESPECTING THE CONTEXT? • CAN THE TOP-DOWN AND BOTTOM-UP APPROACH TO TEMPORARY USES MEET IN SYMBIOSES AND CREATE A NEW TEMPORARY TYPOLOGY? THE THEORETICAL RESEARCH DEMONSTRATES THERE IS A WIDE RANGE OF APPROACHES TO INITIATE TEMPORARY USES ON VACANT SITES AND CAN ACHIEVE VARIED OUTCOMES. RESEARCH INDICATES THAT WE ARE LIVING IN A MODERN SOCIETY ACCUSTOMED TO INSTANT EXPERIENCES AND ARE INCREASINGLY USING THE CITY AND ITS PUBLIC SPACES TO DO SO. TEMPORARY USES HAVE THE ABILITY TO PROVIDE INSTANT AND DYNAMIC RESPONSE AND CAN THEREFORE BECOME AN EFFICIENT AND EFFECTIVE WAY OF ACTIVATING SPACES. THE APPROACHES PRESENTED BY OSWALT (2012) AND BISHOP (2012) FAVOUR THE BOTTOM-UP APPROACH OVER THE TOP-DOWN. SUCH APPROACHES SEEM TO BE SUCCESSFUL IN GATHERING LOCAL PEOPLE AND CREATING STRONG COMMUNITIES, HOWEVER THEY OFTEN LACK THE INVOLVEMENT OF THE GREATER PUBLIC. LONDON BASED CASE STUDIES ILLUSTRATING SUCCESSFUL TEMPORARY PROJECTS ON VACANT SITES PROVIDE CONTEMPORARY KNOWLEDGE ON THE SUBJECT. THE PROJECTS DEMONSTRATE HOW DEVELOPERS HAVE USED THE POTENTIAL OF TEMPORARY USES TO ACTIVATE THEIR SITES, WHILST A MORE PERMANENT PROPOSAL IS IN EARLY DEVELOPMENT OR ON HOLD. UTILISING A RANGE OF DIFFERENT STRATEGIES, USES HAVE BEEN APPLIED TO THE SITES WHICH ATTRACT USERS AND ACTIVATING THE VACANT SITES. FOOD MARKETS, INDEPENDENT RETAIL AND EVENT SPACES ARE EXAMPLES OF HOW THE DEVELOPERS HAVE ADDED VALUE TO THE SITE AND CONTEXT, GENERALLY IMPROVING URBAN LIFE IN THE LOCALITY. THE SITES ARE THUS TRANSFORMED FROM GREY SPACES IN THE CITY TO URBAN HUBS OF ACTIVITY AND STREET LIFE. THE LONDON CASE STUDIES ARE NOT ALL SUCCESSFUL IN CREATING A SENSE OF COMMUNITY HOWEVER, AS THEY TEND TO BE MORE CONSUMER ORIENTED. BY MERGING THE TWO APPROACHES OF TOP-DOWN AND BOTTOM-UP A NEW FORM OF TEMPORARY USE CAN BE CREATED. SUCH SPACES CAN OFFER CITIZENS A MEETING SPACE, CREATE COMMUNITIES AND ACCOMMODATE THE DEVELOPER WITH OPPORTUNITIES TO BE PROFITABLE. THIS APPROACH CAN BE PARTICULARITY BENEFICIAL WHERE PERMANENT DEVELOPMENT IS NOT CURRENTLY SUITABLE DUE TO OBSTACLES SUCH AS FINANCIAL ISSUES OR ACTIVIST OCCUPATION. THIS NEW FORM OF TEMPORARY TYPOLOGY IS PROPOSED ON THE CHOSEN SITE OF JAGTVEJ 69. THE APPROACH TO INITIATE COMMUNITY-BASED ACTIVITY IN CONJUNCTION WITH A PROFITABLE DEVELOPMENT IS AN ALTERED VERSION OF THE EXPLOITING PROCESS, INSPIRED BY OSWALT (2012) PAGE 229. THROUGH A 4 STEPPED PROCESS, THE LANDOWNER AND DEVELOPER OF JAGTVEJ 69 PROCASA, CAN PURSUE INTERESTS OF THEIR OWN WHILST ACCOMMODATING THE CURRENT ACTIVIST CITY GARDEN 69 GROUP’S AGENDA OF BEING A PUBLIC COMMUNITY SPACE. BY COMBINING THE TWO INTERESTS A MUTUALLY BENEFICIAL PROJECT CAN BE GENERATED. DRAWING ON


LONDON BASED PRECEDENTS, A SHIPPING CONTAINER PROJECT ACTS AS A FRAMEWORK FOR ACTIVITIES CONTROLLED BY PROCASA AND THE CITY GARDEN 69 GROUP. THIS RESULTS IN AN INCREASED AWARENESS OF THE SITE AND OFFERS AN ATTRACTIVE MILIEU THAT FURTHER DEVELOPMENT WILL BENEFIT FROM. THE TYPES OF USES AND USERS SHOULD BE CAREFULLY CONSIDERED AND SELECTED TO HELP PROMOTE THE SITE, BUT ALSO TO ENHANCE THE CONTEXT JAGTVEJ 69 SITS WITHIN. BY ALIGNING THE PROFILE OF THE USE WITH THE AGENDA OF PERMANENT DEVELOPMENT, EXTERNAL ACTORS HAVE INDIRECTLY BEEN EXPLOITED TO CREATE THE DESIRED MILIEU. DESPITE THE EXPLOITATION AS SUCH, THE USERS HAVE GAINED FROM THE PROCESS AS WELL. PUBLIC EVENTS SUCH AS ART, CULTURE, ENTERTAINMENT, RETAIL AND RECREATION ON THE SITE HAVE GENERATED ATTENTION ON THE SITE RESULTING IN A CULTURAL MILIEU OF WHICH RESEARCH HAS SHOWN IS IMPORTANT IN TODAY’S SOCIETY. THROUGH THE DEFINED FRAMEWORK, PROCASA IS ABLE TO INFLUENCE THE PROFILE OF THE SITE IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE FUTURE DEVELOPMENT PLANS, GUIDED BY THE PUBLIC INTEREST GENERATED THROUGH THE CITY GARDEN 69 GROUP’S INVOLVEMENT. THE PROCESS WILL PROMOTE A VITAL MIXTURE OF USES AND URBAN DIVERSITY IN THE AREA, DESIRABLE FOR THE AUTHORITIES AS WELL. APPLYING KNOWLEDGE ACQUIRED THROUGH PRIOR RESEARCH UNDERTAKEN, THE SITE WILL BE ACTIVATED THROUGH A PROGRAMME OF TEMPORARY USES; TESTING THE SITE FOR SUITABLE ACTIVITIES. THE AUTHORS OF “URBAN CATALYST” REFER TO THE PROCESS AS BEING AN IMPULSE TO THE SITE WHERE AN; ‘IN-BETWEEN USE CAN GENERATE DECISIVE IMPULSES FOR THE PROGRAMMATIC PROFILING OF ITS LOCATION: IT ESTABLISHES A NEW ACTIVITY PROFILE THAT IS CARRIED ON IN A NEW FORM EVEN AFTER IT ENDS.’1 ON AN URBAN SCALE, THE SITE WOULD BE ACTING AS A SOURCE FOR URBAN LIFE INVITING THE ECCENTRIC AND SECRET THROUGH TEMPORARY ACTIVITIES, MEETING THE GOAL OF COPENHAGEN MUNICIPALITY. FURTHERMORE, THE SITE COULD BECOME APART OF A GREATER URBAN SYSTEM WHERE VACANT SITES ARE ACTIVATED THROUGH TRAVELING TEMPORARY USES. THIS HAS BEEN DESCRIBED AS A FREE FLOW SYSTEM; ‘THE USE CONTINUES INDEFINITELY BY MOVING TO NEW LOCATIONS AS THE OPPORTUNITY ARISES. THIS APPROACH SKILFULLY COMBINES THE PRAGMATISM OF THE STAND-IN WITH LONG-TERM DEVELOPMENT, AS IT ALSO USES THE CHANGE OF LOCATION TO UPDATE ITS OWN ACTIVITY’.2 BY COMBINING THE TWO CONCEPTS THIS SYSTEM WILL NOT ONLY ACTIVATE THE VACANT SITE ITSELF, BUT WILL GENERATE AN ENTIRE NEW LOGIC ON HOW TO DEAL WITH AND CREATE NEW TRAVELING TYPOLOGIES ON VACANT SITES AND THE URBAN CONTEXT. FOR THIS REASON IT IS IMPERATIVE THAT THE FRAMEWORK OF THE TEMPORARY INTERVENTION IS EASILY TRANSPORTABLE AND ADAPTABLE TO NEW UNKNOWN SITES. FROM THE ABOVE STUDY IT IS EVIDENT THAT THE CITY OF COPENHAGEN COULD PROFIT FROM A DEVELOPER MINDED APPROACH TO REACH THEIR GOAL OF GENERATING MORE URBAN LIFE IN VACANT SPACES. IT APPEARS THAT COPENHAGEN HAS YET TO EXPLORE THIS PROCESS, AS IT IS PREDOMINANTLY THE BOTTOM-UP APPROACH THAT CURRENTLY CAN BE FOUND THROUGH OUT THE CITY. FURTHER EXPLORATION ON HOW POLICIES (I.E. PLANNING REGULATIONS, HEALTH AND SAFETY REGULATIONS, AND BUILDING REGULATIONS) COULD BE MORE ACCOMMODATING TOWARDS SUCH TEMPORARY USES WOULD NEED TO BE UNDERTAKEN. THIS COULD POTENTIALLY CHANGE THE PERSPECTIVE ON HOW DEVELOPERS PERCEIVE VACANT SPACES AND ATTRACT DEVELOPERS TO SUCH SITES.

1 OSWALT ET AL., (2012) page 39 2 OSWALT ET AL., (2012) page 37


BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS

P. OSWALT ET AL., (2012 ) URBAN CATALYST – THE POWER OF TEMPORARY USE, DOM PUBLISHERS, PETER BISHOP AT EL. (2012): THE TEMPORARY CITY, ROUTLEDGE S. ANDERSON & M. TOFT-JENSEN, (2012) BYEN BLIVER TIL – EN URBAN HÅNDBOG, FORLAGET PB4,

ONLINE

AOK (10.05.13), ACCSEED 05.12.2015, ‘HULLET VED GRIFFENFELDSGADE CA. NR. 2’, HTTP://WWW.AOK.DK/BYLIV/HULLET-VED-GRIFFENFELDSGADE-CA.-NR.-2 ARCHDAILY, (11.08.03), ACCESSED 10.01.16, ‘AD CLASSICS: VILLE RADIEUSE / LE CORBUSIER’, HTTP://WWW.ARCHDAILY.COM/411878/AD-CLASSICS-VILLE-RADIEUSE-LE-CORBUSIER ARCHITECTS JOURNAL (01.08.13), ACCESSED 24.11.15, ‘ELLISMILLER BAGS PLANNING FOR £75M SHOREDITCH VILLAGE’, HTTP://WWW.ARCHITECTSJOURNAL.CO.UK/NEWS/DAILY-NEWS/ELLISMILLER-BAGSPLANNING-FOR-75M-SHOREDITCH-VILLAGE/8651593.ARTICLE# BERLINLISTS, ACCESSED 10.12.15, ‘TOP FIVE QUOTES FROM BERLIN’S GOVERNING MAYOR KLAUS WOWEREIT’, HTTP://WWW.BERLINLISTS.COM/CHAPTER7.HTM BERLINGSKE, (06.08.13), ACCESSED 12.01.15, ‘CYKLISTER: GID HELE LANDET VAR SOM DRONNING LOUISES BRO’, WWW.B.DK/NATIONALT/CYKLISTER-GID-HELE-LANDET-VAR-SOM-DRONNING-LOUISES-BRO BT (21.10.12), ACCESSED 27.11.15, ‘CHOK-TAL: NØRREBRO VILLE VÆRE DANMARKS FATTIGSTE KOMMUNE’, HTTP://WWW.BT.DK/DANMARK/CHOK-TAL-NOERREBRO-VILLE-VAERE-DANMARKS-FATTIGSTEKOMMUNE BYG DET OP(17.04.13), ACCESSED 12.01.16, ‘BETTINA LAMM FORTÆLLER OM MIDLERTIDIG ARKITEKTUR’, HTTPS://WWW.YOUTUBE.COM/WATCH?V=HD-G0DLVXJ0 CONTAINERCITY, ACCESSED 24.11.15, ‘CONTAINER CITY’, HTTP://WWW.CONTAINERCITY.COM/ CHRISTIANIA, ACCESSED 05.12.2015, ‘CHRISTIANIAS HISTORY’, WWW.CHRISTIANIA.ORG/INFO/CHRISTIANIAS-HISTORIE/ DALSTONIST (26.02.14), ACCESSED 27.11.15, ‘WE WENT TO HEAR MORE ABOUT PLANS TO DEMOLISH AND REBUILD DALSTON’, HTTP://DALSTONIST.CO.UK/WE-WENT-TO-HEAR-MORE-ABOUT-PLANS-TODEMOLISH-AND-REBUILD-DALSTON/ DALSTONEASTERN CURVEGARDEN (27.10.13), ACCESSED 26.11.15, ‘HISTORY OF THE EASTERN CURVE GARDEN’, HTTP://DALSTONEASTERNCURVEGARDEN.MYBLOG.ARTS.AC.UK/2013/10/27/HISTORY-OFTHE-EASTERN-CURVE-GARDEN/ DICTIONARY (BRICOLAGE), ACCESSED 11.01.2016, ‘BRICOLAGE’, HTTP://DICTIONARY.REFERENCE.COM/BROWSE/BRICOLAGE DR (11.03.15), ACCESSED 27.11.15, ‘CYKLEN ER PENDLERNES FAVORIT - I STORBYEN‘ HTTP://WWW.DR.DK/NYHEDER/REGIONALE/HOVEDSTADSOMRAADET/CYKLEN-ER-PENDLERNESFAVORIT-I-STORBYEN ELLIS-MILLER, ACCESSED 24.11.15, ‘SHOREDITCH VILLAGE, LONDON’. HTTP://WWW.ELLIS-MILLER.COM/WORK/SHOREDITCH_VILLAGE EVENING STANDARD (24.12.13), ACCESSED 24.11.15, ‘POP-UP SHOPPING MALL TO MAKE ELEPHANT AND CASTLE ‘THE NEW SHOREDITCH’, HTTP://WWW.STANDARD.CO.UK/NEWS/LONDON/POPUP-SHOPPINGMALL-TO-MAKE-ELEPHANT-AND-CASTLE-THE-NEW-SHOREDITCH-9022978.HTML ESTATEOFFICE, ACCESSED 24.11.15, ‘CONTAINERVILLE’, HTTP://ESTATEOFFICE.COM/CONTAINERVILLE/ FACEBOOK (CITY GARDEN 69 GROUP), ACCESSED 27.11.15, ‘BYHAVE69’, HTTPS://WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/BYHAVE69-262127127305599/INFO/?TAB=PAGE_INFO HACKNEYGAZETTE (26.02.14), ACCESSED 27.11.15, ‘PATH THROUGH DALSTON EASTERN CURVE GARDEN IS NOT NEGOTIABLE SAY DEVELOPERS’, HTTP://WWW.HACKNEYGAZETTE.CO.UK/NEWS/ ENVIRONMENT/PATH_THROUGH_DALSTON_EASTERN_CURVE_GARDEN_IS_NOT_NEGOTIABLE_SAY_ DEVELOPERS_1_3367539


ONLINE

JYLLANDS-POSTEN (04.04.03) , ACCESSED 05.12.2015, ‘DET BLÅ HUS RYDDET AF POLITIET’, HTTP://JYLLANDS-POSTEN.DK/INDLAND/KBH/ECE3436330/DET-BLÅ-HUS-RYDDET-AF-POLITIET LONDON ARCHITECTURE BLOG (19.08.13), ACCESSED 26.11.15, ‘WEEK 33 13 FEATURE #26 BOXPARK ‘, HTTP://WWW.LONDONARCHITECTUREBLOG.COM/2013/08/WEEK-33-13-FEATURE-26-BOXPARK.HTML LONDONIST (15.07.09), ACCESSED 26.11.15, ‘ PREVIEW: THE DALSTON MILL’, HTTP://LONDONIST.COM/2009/07/ART_PREVIEW_THE_DALSTON_MILL#GALLERY=637958,637964 MODKRAFT (28.11.14), ACCESSED 06.12.2015, ‘JAGTVEJ 69: UNGE AFVISER BRUGSAFTALE’, HTTP://MODKRAFT.DK/ARTIKEL/JAGTVEJ-69-UNGE-AFVISER-BRUGSAFTALE NV AUTO PARK FACEBOOK, ACCESSED 11.01.2015, ‘NV AUTO PARK’, HTTPS://WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/PAGES/NV-AUTO-PARK/91472229562 PARKINGDAY, ACCESSED 12.01.15, ‘ABOUT´, HTTP://PARKINGDAY.ORG/ABOUT-PARKING-DAY/ POLITIKEN (03.08.13), ACCESSED, 27.11.15, ‘NØRREBROGADE FORFALDER I STILHED’, HTTP://POLITIKEN.DK/DEBAT/PROFILER/LARSHEDEBO/ECE2037255/NOERREBROGADE-FORFALDER-ISTILHED/ POLITIKEN, (11.01.07) ACCESSED 05.12.2015, ‘FONDEN: VI KAN LEJE ‘BRANDSTATIONEN’’, HTTP://POLITIKEN.DK/INDLAND/ECE224577/FONDEN-VI-KAN-LEJE-BRANDSTATIONEN/ POLITIKEN (13.09.08), ACCESSED 11.01.2016, ‘INDVIELSE FOLKETS PARK ER GENOPSTÅET AF ASKEN’, HTTP://POLITIKEN.DK/KULTUR/ECE566986/FOLKETS-PARK-ER-GENOPSTAAET-AF-ASKEN/ POLITIKEN (20.07.14), ACCESSED 11.01.2016, ‘MIT NORDVEST: KØBENHAVNS RÆVERØDE MASKINRUM HEDDER 2400 NV’, HTTP://POLITIKEN.DK/INDLAND/ECE2347121/MITNORDVEST-KOEBENHAVNSRAEVEROEDEMASKINRUMHEDDER-2400-NV/ PROCASA, ACCESSED 21.12.2015, ‘OPGAVER’, HTTP://WWW.PROCASA.DK/INDEX.PHP/OPGAVER REDPARKEN, ACCESSED 11.01.2015, ‘PARKENS FALD’ WWW.REDPARKEN.DK SEEDS PROJECT, ACCESSED 16.01.16, ‘PROJECT’ HTTP://WWW.SEEDS-PROJECT.COM/#PROJECT TRENDWATCHING (NOWSIM), ACCESSED 08.03.15, ‘NOWSIM’, HTTP://TRENDWATCHING.COM/TRENDS/NOWISM/ TRENDWATCHING (TRANSUMERS), ACCESSED 08.03.2015, ‘TRANSUMERS’, HTTP://TRENDWATCHING.COM/TRENDS/TRANSUMERS.HTM URBANFOODFEST, ACCESSED 24.11.15, ‘ABOUT US’, HTTP://WWW.URBANFOODFEST.COM/CART/ABOUT-US/ VIMEO (09.03.15), ACCESSED 24.11.15, ‘BOXPARK CROYDON’ HTTPS://VIMEO.COM/12167237 WIKIPEDIA (CREATIVE CLASS), ACCESSED 11.01.2016, ‘CREATIVE CLASS’, HTTP://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/CREATIVE_CLASS WIKIPEDIA (FORDSIM), ACCESSED 11.01.2016, ‘FORDISM’, HTTP://HTTPS://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/FORDISM WIKIPIDIA (NØRREBRO) , ACCESSED 27.11.15, ‘NØRREBRO’, HTTPS://DA.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/N%C3%B8RREBRO#ALDER.2C_UDDANNELSESNIVEAU_OG_ INDKOMST WIKIPEDIA (TACTICAL URBANISM), ACCESSED 11.01.16, ‘TACTICAL URBANISM’, HTTP://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/TACTICAL_URBANISM WIKIPEDIA (TERTIARY SECTOR), ACCESSED 05.12.2015, ‘TERTIARY SECTOR’, HTTPS://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/TERTIARY_SECTOR_OF_THE_ECONOMY WIKIPEDIA (UNGDOMSHUSET), ACCESSED 10.12.15, ‘UNGDOMSHUSET’, HTTPS://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/UNGDOMSHUSET COPENHAGEN COUNCIL, 2009, ‘A METROPOLIS FOR PEOPLE’, SOURCE HTTP://WWW.KK.DK/METROPOLFORMENNESKER COPENHAGEN COUNCIL, UNKNOWN YEAR, ‘MULIGHED FOR MIDERTIDIG ANVENDELSER”,


OTHER

SOURCE HTTPS://WWW.KK.DK/FILE/6906/DOWNLOAD?TOKEN=2TWGHBAO. FREDERIKSBERG MUNICIPALICY, (2001), ‘ LOKALPLAN NR. 116 FOR ET OMRÅDE VED NORDRE FASANVEJ OG ÅGADE, SOURCE::WWW.FREDERIKSBERG.DK/~/MEDIA/FORSIDE/ POLITIK-OG-DEMOKRATI/POLITIKKER-OG-PLANER/BYUDVIKLING/LOKALPLANER/LOKALPLAN_116. ASHX%3FLA%3DDA+&CD=1&HL=EN&CT=CLNK&GL=UK FREDERIKSBERG MUNICIPALICY, (2013) ‘PROGRAM FOR OMRÅDEFORNYELSEI NORDRE FASANVEJ KVARTERET’ SOURCE; HTTP://NORDREFASANVEJ.FREDERIKSBERG.DK/SITES/NORDREFASANVEJ/FILES/ ATTACHED/131456_LOW_PROGRAM.PDF

IMAGES

FIGURE 2.1 - IMAGE BY AUTHOR FIGURE 2.2 - INFORMAL UNDERGROUND PARTY IN BERLN, IMAGE SOURCE HTTP://VK.COM/CLTRSHCK FIGURE 2.3 - BZ OCCUPATION, IMAGE SOURCE HTTP://WWW.B.DK/NATIONALT/SAADAN-SAA-NOERREBRO-UD-IGAMLE-DAGE#SLIDE-12 FIGURE 2.4 - CHRISTIANIA, IMAGE SOURCE HTTP://WWW.BT.DK/SITES/DEFAULT/FILES-DK/NODEIMAGES/176/10/10176006-HISTSCAN-JKG-20061009.JPG FIGURE 2.5 - ISLANDSBRYGGE PARK, IMAGE SOURCE HTTPS://UPLOAD.WIKIMEDIA.ORG/WIKIPEDIA/ COMMONS/B/BD/ISLANDSBRYGGE_WATER FIGURE 2.6 - FOLKETS PARK, IMAGE SOURCE HTTPS://CDN.SHOPIFY.COM/S/FILES/1/0049/5462/PRODUCTS/ FOLKETSPARK_MODKRAFTSALG_1024X1024.JPG?V=1381504113 FIGURE 2.7 - BYGGEREN, IMAGE SOURCE HTTP://WWW.DIGITALPRESSEN.DK/1980/BYGGEREN%201980.HTM FIGURE 2.8 - YOUTH HOUSE 69, HTTP://A.BIMG.DK/NODE-IMAGES/15/620X411-C/15383-BESLUTNING-OMNEDRIVNING-AF-UNGDOMSHUSET-UDSAT--.JPG FIGURE 2.9 - HALVANDET, IMAGE SOURCE HTTP://WWW.OPLEVBYEN.DK/WP-CONTENT/UPLOADS/2015/05/1544IMAGE_JPG-E1433959698793.JPG FIGURE 2.10 - MAP OF COPENHAGEN - IMAGE BY AUTHOR FIGURE 2.11 - MAP OF VACANT SITES IN COPENHAGEN, IMAGE BY AUTHOR FIGURE 2.12 - PHOTOGRAPH OF ÅBOULEVARDEN 37, PHOTOGRAPH BY AUTHOR FIGURE 2.13 - THE BLUE GARDEN ON ÅBOULEVARDEN 37, IMAGE SOURCE HTTP://POLITIKEN.DK/KULTUR/ ECE525355/MINI-CHRISTIANIA-AABNET-PAA-AABOULEVARDEN/ FIGURE 2.14 - MAP OF SITE ÅBOULEVARDEN, IMAGE BY AUTHOR FIGURE 2.15 - FORMER STATE OF GRIFFENFELDSGADE, IMAGE FROM GOOGLE STREET VIEW FIGURE 2.16 -CURRENT STATE OF GRIFFENFELDSGADE, IMAGE BY AUTHOR FIGURE 2.17 - MAP OF SITE GRIFFENFELDSGADE, IMAGE BY AUTHOR FIGURE 2.18 - MAP OF SITE JAGTVEJ 155, IMAGE BY AUTHOR FIGURE 2.19 - FORMER BUILDING OCCUPIED, IMAGE SOURCE HTTP://MULTIMEDIA.POL.DK/ARCHIVE/00749/ DET_BESATTE_HUS_P___749393A.JPG FIGURE 2.20 - MAP OF SITE NORDRE FASANVEJ 176, IMAGE BY AUTHOR FIGURE 2.21 - VIEW OF SITE NORDRE FASANVEJ 176, IMAGE BY GOOGLE STREET VIEW FIGURE 2.22 - MAP OF PROVSTEVEJ 5, IMAGE BY AUTHOR FIGURE 2.23 - VIEW OF SITE WITH PARK IMPLEMENTED, IMAGE SOURCE HTTP://MEREIMELLEM.DK/ORDET-ERDIT/UTOPIA2014E-NV-AUTO-PARK/ FIGURE 2.24 - MAP OF SITE JAGTVEJ 69, IMAGE BY AUTHOR FIGURE 2.25 - PHOTOGRAPH OF JAGTVEJ 69, PHOTOGRAPH BY AUTHOR FIGURE 2.26 - PHOTOGRAPH OF JAGTVEJ 69, PHOTOGRAPH BY AUTHOR FIGURE 3.1 - IMAGE OF THE WM-BUILDING. IMAGE SOURCE HTTP://A.BIMG.DK/NODEIMAGES/471/5/620X/5471776-BM200810705240016ARJPG.JPG FIGURE 3.2 - IMAGE OF DRONNING LOUISES BRIDGE. IMAGE SOURCE: HTTP://WWW.INSTRAGRAM.COM FIGURE 3.3 - IMAGE OF DRONNING LOUISES BRIDGE. IMAGE SOURCE: HTTP://WWW.INSTRAGRAM.COM FIGURE 3.4 - IMAGE OF PARK(ING) DAY EVENT. IMAGE SOURCE: HTTPS://THREEGREENDOTS.FILES. WORDPRESS.COM/2011/08/IMG_7377.JPG FIGURE 3.5 - IMAGE OF ADIDAS POP UP EVENT. SOURCE: HTTPS://UNAMARCAENUNPAJAR.FILES.WORDPRESS. COM/2014/10/2631_ADIDAS.JPG


IMAGES

FIGURE 3.6 - MAP OF LONDON: IMAGE BY AUTHOR FIGURE 3.7 - MAP OF URBAN FOOD FEST. IMAGE BY AUTHOR FIGURE 3.8 - IMAGE OF URBAN FOOD FEST. SOURCE: HTTP://WWW.TIMEOUT.COM/LONDON/THINGS-TO-DO/ URBAN-FOOD-FEST FIGURE 3.9 - IMAGE OF PUMPSTATION FOOD MARKET. SOURCE: HTTP://WWW.JUSTOPENEDLONDON.COM/WPCONTENT/UPLOADS/2015/05/PUMP-SHOREDITCH-1.JPG FIGURE 3.10 - MAP OF SHOREDTICH BOX PARK, IMAGE BY AUTHOR FIGURE 3.11 - IMAGE OF SHOREDTICH BOX PARK STORE FRONTAGE, IMAGE SOURCE HTTPS://WWW. APPEARHERE.CO.UK/DESTINATIONS/LONDON/SHOREDITCH/BOXPARK FIGURE 3.12 - IMAGE OF SHOREDTICH BOX ‘THE SQUARE’, IMAGE SOURCE HTTP://WWW.WEEKENDNOTES. CO.UK/IM/006/03/BUSK-THE-BOX-BOXPARK1.JPG FIGURE 3.13 - IMAGE OF SHOREDTICH BOX PARK TIMBERDECK, IMAGE SOURCE HTTPS://WWW.APPEARHERE. CO.UK/DESTINATIONS/LONDON/SHOREDITCH/BOXPARK FIGURE 3.14 - IMAGE OF INSIDE A CONTAINER IN CONTAINERVILLE, IMAGE SOURCE HTTPS://WWW.INSTAGRAM. COM/P/8LWLMTQTGK/?TAGGED=CONTAINERVILLE FIGURE 3.15 - IMAGE OF CONTAINERVILLE, IMAGE SOURCE HTTPS://WWW.INSTAGRAM.COM/P/8KTMP_ DOOF/?TAGGED=CONTAINERVILLE FIGURE 3.16 - MAP OF CONTAINERVILLE, IMAGE BY AUTHOR FIGURE 3.17 - VIEW OF CONTAINERVILLE FROM CANAL SIDE, IMAGE SOURCE HTTP://WWW.ARCHILOVERS.COM/ PROJECTS/136322/GALLERY?1088832 FIGURE 3.18 - MAP OF SHOREDITCH FOOD VILLAGE, IMAGE BY AUTHOR FIGURE 3.19 - VIEW OF SHOREDITCH FOOD VILLAGE FROM INSIDE, IMAGE SOURCE HTTPS://WWW.INSTAGRAM. COM/P/LX6RM7GFL-/?TAGGED=SHOREDITCHFOODVILLAGE FIGURE 3.20 - VIEW OF SHOREDTICH FOOD VILLAGE FROM STREET, IMAGE BY AUTHOR FIGURE 3.21 - MAP OF EASTERN CURVE GARDEN, IMAGE BY AUTHOR FIGURE 3.22 - VIEW OF EASTERN CURVE GARDEN FROM STREET, IMAGE SOURCE HTTP:// WANDERLUSTANDBAKE.CO.UK/WP-CONTENT/UPLOADS/2013/07/IMG_2691.JPG FIGURE 3.23 - VIEW OF EASTERN CURVE GARDEN, IMAGE SOURCE HTTP://MYREALLONDON.EXPEDIA.CO.UK/ ASSETS/EXPERIENCES/176/FILE_157182_1435321625170.JPG FIGURE 3.24 - VIEW OF EASTERN CURVE GARDEN STRUCTURE, IMAGE SOURCE HTTPS://LUCYALICEHOLMES. FILES.WORDPRESS.COM/2013/09/PAVILION.JPG FIGURE 4.1 - PLAN PHOTO OF COPENHAGEN HIGHLIGHTING NØRREBRO, IMAGE SOURCE HTTPS://WWW. GOOGLE.CO.UK/MAPS FIGURE 4.2 - GIRLS CYCLING IN NØRREBRO, IMAGE SOURCE HTTPS://LAURAMAKI.FILES.WORDPRESS. COM/2009/03/2554545732_BA4BF26E15.JPG FIGURE 4.3 - NØRREBROGADE CROSSING, IMAGE SOURCE HTTP://MULTIMEDIA.POL.DK/ARCHIVE/00724/ FLERTAL_FOR_BILFRI__724800A.JPG FIGURE 4.4 - EVENT ON NØRREBROGADE, IMAGE SOURCE HTTP://MULTIMEDIA.POL.DK/ARCHIVE/00960/_ FFF9614_JPG_960119N.JPG FIGURE 4.5 - NØRREBRO PARK COMMUNITY AREA, IMAGE SOURCE HTTP://KBH.GENERATIONGROEN.ORG/WPCONTENT/UPLOADS/2012/09/URTESPIRAL2.PNG FIGURE 4.6 - PLAN PHOTO OF COPENHAGEN HIGHLIGHTING SITE AND CONTEXT, IMAGE SOURCE HTTPS://WWW. GOOGLE.CO.UK/MAPS FIGURE 4.7 - VIEW OF STEFANSGADE, IMAGE SOURCE HTTP://HOERSHOLMSGADE28.DK/WP-CONTENT/ UPLOADS/2011/05/IMG_3949.JPG FIGURE 4.8 - CHILDREN PLAYING ON JÆRGERSBORGGADE, IMAGE SOURCE HTTP://TOURSINCOPENHAGEN. COM/WP-CONTENT/UPLOADS/PHOTO-GALLERY/THE%20OTHER%20COPENHAGEN/ J%C3%A6GERSBORGGADE-N%C3%B8RREBRO-COPENHAGEN.JPG FIGURE 4.9 - PEOPLE IN NØRREBRO PARK, IMAGE SOURCE HTTP://HOERSHOLMSGADE28.DK/WP-CONTENT/ UPLOADS/2011/05/IMG_3943.JPG FIGURE 4.10 - ASSISTENS CEMETERY, IMAGE SOURCE HTTPS://LOVECOPENHAGEN.FILES.WORDPRESS. COM/2010/11/DSC_2221.JPG


IMAGES

FIGURE 4.11 - FLEAMARKET IN NØRREBRO PARK, IMAGE SOURCE HTTP://1.BP.BLOGSPOT.COM/-HTHHN9J4Q9S/ UC_3_U2A40I/AAAAAAAAKGY/TAOF1WRSIGU/S1600/IMG_1706.JPG FIGURE 4.12 - CAFE ON STEFANSGADE, IMAGE SOURCE HTTP://MULTIMEDIA.POL.DK/ARCHIVE/00646/IBY_CAFE_ TAXA_01-06_646598A.JPG FIGURE 4.13 - PLAN PHOTO OF COPENHAGEN HIGHLIGHTING NØRREBRO, IMAGE SOURCE HTTPS://WWW. GOOGLE.CO.UK/MAPS FIGURE 4.14 - NØRREBROGADE CAR-FREE PROPOSAL, IMAGE SOURCE HTTP://MULTIMEDIA.POL.DK/ ARCHIVE/00368/BILFRI_N_RREBROGADE_368436A.JPG FIGURE 4.15 - NØRREBROGADEN BUS, IMAGE SOURCE HTTP://A.BIMG.DK/NODE-IMAGES/475/620X/475489NRREBROGADE-PERMANENT-BILLS--.JPG FIGURE 4.16 - NØRREBROGADE CYCLIST, IMAGE SOURCE HTTP://WWW.BIKETHECITY.DK/WP-CONTENT/ UPLOADS/2012/07/STRIBECYKLIST.JPG FIGURE 4.17 - NØRREBROGADE EXTENDED PEDESTRIAN WIDTH, PHOTOGRAPH BY AUTHOR FIGURE 4.18 - PLAN PHOTO OF COPENHAGEN HIGHLIGHTING NØRREBRO, IMAGE SOURCE HTTPS://WWW. GOOGLE.CO.UK/MAPS FIGURE 4.19 - SUN STUDY OF SITE, IMAGES BY AUTHOR FIGURE 4.20 - PLAN OF SITE, IMAGE BY AUTHOR FIGURE 4.21 - SECTION OF SITE, IMAGE BY AUTHOR FIGURE 4.22 - CITY GARDEN 69 GROUP INTERVENTIONS, PHOTOGRAPH BY AUTHOR FIGURE 4.23 - CITY GARDEN 69 GROUP AGENDA, PHOTOGRAPH BY AUTHOR FIGURE 4.24 - POOR STATE OF SITE FURNITURE, PHOTOGRAPH BY AUTHOR FIGURE 4.25 - VIEW OF JAGTVEJ 69, PHOTOGRAPH BY AUTHOR FIGURE 4.26 - CITY GARDEN 69 PAVILION, PHOTOGRAPH BY AUTHOR FIGURE - 5.1 DIAGRAM SHOWING 4 STEPPED PATH, IMAGE BY AUTHOR FIGURE - 5.2 DIAGRAM BENEFITS FOR INTERESTS, IMAGE BY AUTHOR FIGURE - 5.3 PAPER SHOWING POSSIBLE CONTRACT, IMAGE BY AUTHOR FIGURE - 5.4 DIAGRAM SHOWING EXPLORATION OF USER GROUPS AND USES FOR THE FRAMEWORK FIGURE - 5.5 TIMBER SLATS, IMAGE SOURCE HTTP://WWW.E-ARCHITECT.CO.UK/COPENHAGEN/URBANSPACES-CARLSBERG FIGURE - 5.6 ATMOSPHERIC LIGHTS, IMAGE BY AUTHOR FIGURE - 5.7 VERTICAL PLANTING, IMAGE SOURCE HTTP://GBSSMAG.COM/2012/08/LIVEWALL-NEW-PLANTEDWALL-SYSTEM-ACHIEVES-SIMPLICITY-AND-SUSTAINABILITY/ FIGURE - 5.8 PLANTER, IMAGE BY AUTHOR FIGURE - 6.9 SMALL CONTAINER RETAIL, IMAGE BY AUTHOR FIGURE - 5.10 SECOND HAND STORE IN CONTAINER, IMAGE BY AUTHOR FIGURE - 5.11 SHOREDITCH BOX PARK SHOP, IMAGE BY AUTHOR FIGURE - 5.12 PAVILION INSPIRATION, IMAGE SOURCE HTTP://DALSTONGARDEN.ORG/FESTIVE-GREETINGSFROM-DALSTON-EASTERN-CURVE-GARDEN/ FIGURE - 5.13 CURRENT THOROUGHFARE ROUTE AND ENTRANCE, IMAGE BY AUTHOR FIGURE - 5.14 PROPOSED THOROUGHFARE ROUTE AND ENTRANCE, IMAGE BY AUTHOR FIGURE - 5.15 CURRENT DENSITY SECTION, IMAGE BY AUTHOR FIGURE - 5.16 PROPOSED BUILDING DENSITY AND HEIGHT SECTON, IMAGE BY AUTHOR FIGURE - 5.17 CURRENT DENSITY LAYOUT, IMAGE BY AUTHOR FIGURE - 5.18 PROPOSED BUILDING DENSITY AND HEIGHT, IMAGE BY AUTHOR FIGURE - 5.19 CURRENT SUN AREAS AND CITY GARDEN 69 INTERVENTION AREA, IMAGE BY AUTHOR FIGURE - 5.20 PROPOSED MINI PLAZAS ARE AND THE CITY GARDEN SPACE, IMAGE BY AUTHOR FIGURE - 5.21 PLAN AND SECTION OF EXISTING CONDITION, IMAGE BY AUTHOR FIGURE - 5.22 PLAN AND SECTION OF PROPOSED ARRANGEMENT, IMAGE BY AUTHOR FIGURE - 5.23 AXONOMETRIC ILLUSTRATING THE PROPOSED GENERAL ARRANGEMENT, IMAGE BY AUTHOR FIGURE - 5.24 PROPOSED INTERVENTION SHOWING THE GATEWAY FROM JAGTVEJ, IMAGE BY AUTHOR FIGURE - 5.25 ATMOSPHERIC ILLUSTRATION OF PROPOSED INTERVENTION, IMAGE BY AUTHOR FIGURE - 5.26 SKETCH OF POSSIBLE CONFIGURATION OF PERMANENT DEVELOPMENT, IMAGE BY AUTHOR


APPENDICES SEEDS charter page 1/2

SEEDS Charter

supporting temporary use of vacant land and buildings We believe that temporary use and re-use of abandoned land and buildings can help create dynamic and resilient places in and around our towns and cities. Through this Charter we will promote such uses as an integrated part of both short and long term planning to help bring landscapes and urban areas back to life.

1. Reactivate: Stalled spaces increase decline, so vacant land and buildings should not lie passive, but be reactivated by temporary uses wherever possible. 2. Enhance: Buildings are best maintained through use. Temporary use can bring places that have lost their former purpose back to life, protecting, rejuvenating and enhancing valuable social and cultural heritage. 3. Experiment: Temporary intervention is an effective and engaging way to improve a place instantly responding to immediate needs, foster design experiments and explore new creative public experiences. 4. Create: Temporary projects can act as transformative agents of stalled areas and create local ownership through involving people, institutions and businesses in common acts of place making. 5. Learn: Temporary activities can harness local resources and foster new skills and capabilities.

6. Ripen: Reconciling interim approaches with formal planning procedures, allowing a slow ripening of places through site specific initiatives should be an integral part of developing resilient environments. 7. Value: Value should be defined not only in terms of finance, but also include cultural, aesthetic, entrepreneurial, environmental and social activities that can act as a significant catalyst for community development. 8. Support: Decision makers must be encouraged to adopt a mindset that actively supports temporary use and bottom-up initiatives that can create better and more interesting urban and rural environments. 9. Enable: Policies and procedures should be streamlined, accessible and responsive, enabling temporary use, discouraging vacancy, and minimising bureaucracy and cost. 10. Recognise: Short term use should be recognised as a valuable and inherent part of long term planning. It should not be excluded or dismissed; it is an enhancement, not a threat.


SEEDS charter page 2/2

SEEDS European Strategic Planning Forum and Charter Signatories Jesper Pagh

Karin Schmalriede

Arkitekt Forening

Lawaetz Foundation DE

Frank Aikema

Hero Havenga de Poel

Assen Municipality NL

Regio Groningen Assen NL

Samuel Newman

Sylvia Smyth

Bad Apple Aus

Renew Brighton UK

Steve Rimmer

Marcus Westbury

CADS UK

Renew Newcastle Aus

Denise Bijoux

Simon Ogden

Catalyse

Sheffield City Council UK

An채s Lora

Tom Wild

Creative Roots DK

SYFP UK

Anne Loes Nillsen

Maarten van Tuijl

De.fact.o NL

Temp Architecture NL

Hans Vissiers

Bettina Lamm

Deltares NL

University of Copenhagen DK

Helena Holmberg

Prof Vanessa Toulmin

Fastighetsagare i Gamlestaden SE

University of Sheffield UK

Ryan Reynolds

Keith Burnett

Gap Filler NZ

University of Sheffield UK

Jesper Koefoed-Melson

Julian Dobson

Givrum.nu DK

Urban Pollinators UK

Jan Martijn Eekhof

Frank Stubbe

Groningen Municipality NL

VLM BE

Richard Motley

Tom Lecke-Lopatta

Integreat UK

ZwischenZetZentrale DE

Euan Hall Land Trust UK


Deliberately temporary  

An exploration of activating vacant sites in Copenhagen. Study site: Jagtvej 69

Deliberately temporary  

An exploration of activating vacant sites in Copenhagen. Study site: Jagtvej 69

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