: BG 14 RE
reshape rebirth retake recompose rejuvinate reacclimatize reintegration reboot redefine reclaim reabsorb revive reincarnate reintegrate reearnregainrelocatereadressreinforcerebalance reinterpret reforge refurnish rediscover reenergize rename readapt recharge reawaken restartrepairreinspirerelaunchreinvigorateredeem realign reinvent rediscover restart reanalyzereformatreemphasizerecyclereflectreset reimplant reappear reembody reexplore rearrange regrow rehabitate rearticulate reinstall rebalance refocus redesign rekindle reattach rerecuperate refuel reedit restore reaccelerate react refine reidentify rejoice reanimate rethink reassemble rechannel reasure redraw redevelop reload reestablish reaccept recollect reactivate reinterpret reaquire reunite
overall concept “Like
a huge block of clear ice it floats
solemnly in the bright summer sky, sparkling every now and then as it catches the rising sun.
As my perspective changes, the surface
suddenly reflects the surroundings and the blue sky instead making it almost disappear from sight.
stop to watch the
shimmering mass adapt to the low sun, dimming down to a pale and cloudy white with streaks of icy blue...
truly amazing sight
rivalled only by the reversed gesture later
– it’s very core exposed to the surroundings, flooding it with a bright and warm glow to light up the starry night.” that night
BLOCK OF ICE CATCHING THE SUN
overall concept green voids
In its current state BG14 is divided into separate volumes trying to appear smaller, but instead becomes undefined and inconsistent. This concept wraps the building in a special designed building envelope to join together these fragments into a single solid volume. By expanding the mass of the building towards north and west and letting the envelope extend over the lift structure in the east and on the roof, the building is turned into an elegant floating mass. Instead of hiding, this concept turns the vast size into simple elegance, strength and grandeur.
Two public-feature voids are cut into the mass. Roof floors house a high profile bar and restaurant using the green void as a parklike Sky Garden for outdoor serving with a great view. To the west the existing dull passage from the Terminal is transformed into a 5-story tall green recreational flow space with slender columns carrying the expansion above. Through this passage commuters get a brief respite from daily stress and are invited into the lower levels of BG14 through a completely open west faĂ§ade, blurring the border between indoors and outdoors.
Whether arriving from train or metro from the Terminal, leaving Byporten Shopping or using the footbridges to cross Biskop Gunnerusâ€™ Gate all soft traffic is at +6 meters and currently floats right past the BG14 entrance. Thus a Floating Plaza is introduced welcoming the flow into the very core of the public parts of the building. This floating city square creates a place of refuge from the intense traffic below and seamlessly ties together the disjointed flows. This gesture balances that even when the expansion takes from the city - it gives more back in return.
The three lower floors of the building are turned into a Food Court - an open, welcoming and dynamic space housing exquisite food specialties from all over the world. A central atrium in the hearth of these floors connects them both visually and physically. This also makes the Food Court a natural part of the flow between the ground floor traffic, the Floating Plaza, the Terminal and the entire Oslo City. These public floors are completely transparent, exposing the features inside, while making the massive volume above seems to hover weightlessly.
On the ground floor the Food Court expands under the Floating Plaza as an indoor specialties food market with foreign cuisines and fresh ecological products. Through circular holes cut into the plaza above, structural columns, stairwells, trees and sculptures pierce through to the open air above connecting the two levels. A large double-spiral bicycle ramp connects both of these levels with the bicycle parking area in the basement, creating a direct and intuitive connection between city and parking, while turning the basement level into a part of the public squares above.
OVERALL CONCEPT SKETCH STEP-BY-STEP
+107 M SKY GARDEN +95,7 M
FOOD COURT +0 M BICYCLE PARKING
r e l g n a m
+107 M SKY GARDEN +95,7 M
+14,1 M FOOD COURT +5,8 M BICYCLE RAMP
view - floating plaza
VEIW FROM THE FLOATING PLAZA IN FRONT OF THE BUILDING
view - central atrium
VEIW FROM LEVEL P2 - THE HEART OF THE FOOD COURT
area concept expansion
A refurbishment and renovation of BG14 should include actions to make the lower floors more open to the public, especially to the constant flow of people to and from the Terminal. In this project the main public functions include 3 floors of indoor Food Court - of which one acts as a canteen area for the office workers – as well as expanded ground floor food market (and an outdoor plaza, not counted in the following). Also, the roof of the building houses 2 stories of publicly accessible restaurant and bar, that can be reached through special guest access cards outside office hours. Also, below terrain, there are 2 levels of basement and open bicycle parking.
Even after adding so many public, recreational and commercial functions the rentable office areas are greatly expanded – even without adding floors. By expanding each office floor in two directions and improving floor plan efficiency, the office areas improve in flexibility, quality and size in a series of simple steps, shown on the following page. The layouts of the most significant floors are shown on the following pages including the public levels of P-1, P1, P2 and P3, with accompanying explanations about the flow and activities of these floors – as well as 3 sample office layouts designed for clients with different workspace requirements.
2 21 3 2
Sky Garden of Office of Food Court Below Terrain
floors in total
floors of floors
40 40 53070 6600 6290
m2 m2 m2
SIMPLIFIED SKETCH OF THE PROPOSED AREA ALLOCATION
area concept office floor expansion
The new floor plan layout utilizes and enhances the qualities of the existing load-bearing structure enabling a free façade, which makes the expansion become a natural extension of the existing floor area. As shown on the illustrations to the right, the floor area for a given office level is increased from roughly 1735 m2 to 2525 m2. This increases the floor size for each of the 20 office floors by 800 m2 – an impressive +45% rentable floor area.
plans are removed simplifying both the building expression and the overall plan shape, as well as drastically increasing the floor area and the lay-out flexibility.
By dedicating the first three floors of the building to other commercial activities, the office plans need a rather drastic expansion in order to substantially increase the total rentable office area. This provides a challenge though, since building up is not an option, and adding too much depth to the building might give daylight condition issues. Instead of just focusing on a single direction to expand, a holistic approach is required: The building is expanded over the passageway to the west, adding 8,8 meters of length, as well as 4 meters over the plaza to the north. Furthermore, a number of cuts, voids and odd corners of the existing
BRUTTO AREA OF CURRENT VS. FUTURE BG14
effective work space As mentioned in the above, this concept breaks with the numerous obstacles that are part of the existing plan. At the moment, the entire central part of each floor is rendered useless through unnecessary limits set by cut-outs in the plan. The central glass furrows do not provide the level below with daylight as intended, as they are manually shaded to avoid glare and overheating. The cut-outs in the floors are wasted space on the level of the cut-out and impossible to use for workspaces on the area below. Combined with the small entrance-area in front of the lifts the current plan solution is split into 4 short sections for work spaces along the northern and southern facades, and two small disconnected central spaces – often used for meeting facili-
netto area existing:
ties – a total of approximately 1150 m2 workspace area. The new expansion works around the western core to create great workspaces facing west connecting to the south and north-section that continue down the entire length of the building. A large square area in the centre of each floor gives unmatched opportunities to create exactly the work-environment required, including: connecting visually and physically to areas below or above, housing meeting facilities of any size, places for temporary workstations, creating areas of informal meetings and recreation etc. Increased floor area, combined with facades attached on the outside of the decks and much less space wasted brings the total effective workspace area per level up to 2130 m2 – 85% more than the existing.
NETTO WORK SPACE AREA OF CURRENT VS. FUTURE BG14
plans - office 20
All office floors of the new BG14 are identical, making it easier for the owners to furnish, renovate and rent out. It also makes the floors easier to adapt to the needs of individual clients that can adapt the spaces to fit their specific needs. The large connected floors areas with central cores for vertical flow and technical installation frees up floor space. Structural cores and columns create a free façade and make partition walls movable on a day-to-day basis. Finally the floor to ceiling glass with an integrated shading solution makes altering the workspace layout overnight an actual possibility – something that is essential in the rapidly changing office-environment and work-flow of today. In order to show the flexibility of this new floor plan, a sample office floor has been refurbished for 3 very different fictional clients.
office layout a A large-sized architectural office needs a top-profile lease for 100 employees with a possibility to fit in an extra 25 people over a short period. Full flexibility is a high priority, so a modern example of the open-plan office with unobstructed workflow and visual connections between the different departments and workgroups are essential. Workspaces are arranged along the facades into five larger sections, which are again divided into workgroups of 4-6 people. The large green zones spanning across the centre of the floor are vital to the office as project areas of high creativity and teamwork. Smaller green zones are areas of social interaction, including recreational areas for breaks, coffee areas and lounges – as well as spaces for informal meetings and knowledge sharing. These more open and freely accessible meeting spaces are important supplements to the traditional transparent, but closed, meeting facilities. The flexibility of the large central space is in this layout shown through a miniauditorium for department meetings, internal lectures, debates etc.
sketch showing how clients can create connections between floors
architects social/recreational zones
100 OPEN-OFFICE WORKSPACES 10 SMALL MEETING ROOMS 10 LARGE MEETING ROOMS 1 AUDITORIUM SMALL-SCALE POSTER/ MODEL EXHIBITION AREAS LARGE-SIZED OPEN PROJECT AREAS
A - 1:500
plans - office office layout b A local newspaper wants a central location from where they can get anywhere in no time, and a highly flexible workspace with a dynamic atmosphere. In addition to 90 desks for full-time journalists and administrative staff, this floor holds 55 centrally placed temporary workspaces for projectbased contracts, free-lancers etc. These reflect a workflow that is becoming increasingly common as workstations are now mobile and everything is accessible from anywhere. The plan also has 9 executive offices, for a total of over 150 employees. In addition to a dozen small meeting rooms for contemplation or telephone/Skype calls, there are 3 larger meeting rooms as well as a project room, for more private or intensive meetings. Also small pockets of recreational spaces are scattered throughout the floor edge, while a large coffee and newspaper lounge is integrated into the eastern structural core becoming the natural heart of the company.
90 OPEN-OFFICE WORKSPACES 55 TEMPORARY/ TEAM-BASED WORKSPACES 9 EXECUTIVE OFFICES 12 SMALL MEETING ROOMS 3 LARGE MEETING ROOMS 1 PROJECT ROOM + SMALL-SCALE CASUAL MEETING ZONES + LARGE-SIZED OPEN TEAMWORK AREAS
office layout c A high-end law firm wishes an address in the developing part of Oslo with an ocean view to impress their clients and strengthen their reputation. Most employees have their own closed-off office for reasons of archiving, discretion and client privacy. These offices are completely transparent though, closable with discrete curtains, taking light through to the centre of the building and allowing views through. The interiors are kept spacious and extravagant with an open central area with unobstructed views to both south and north facades. In addition to 32 private offices, of which most have their own client meeting facilities, the floor holds 2 team-based offices with a total of 12 desks. Adding 26 open workspaces, making good use of the many small meeting rooms for phone calls or meetings, this amounts to 60 employees. The floor has a large lobby near the lifts, a library/ lounge at the eastern structural core as well as a large social space facing the waterfront. Smaller green areas are semi-enclosed zones, casual meeting spaces and areas for briefing colleagues.
B - 1:500
32 PRIVATE OFFICES 2(x6) TEAM-BASED OFFICES 27 OPEN WORKSPACES 17 SMALL MEETING ROOMS 1 LARGE MEETING ROOMS + NUMEROUS SMALL WORK AREAS + LARGE RECREATIONAL AREAS
C - 1:500
plans - food court public
The basement area previously located in P-1 is moved to P-2 instead, in order to move the bicycle parking closer to the surface. A double-spiral bicycle ramp connects this floor with the floating plaza above. Through these ramps, cyclists can move unhindered straight from the Terminal level to the parking area, from where they access the western central core to move up into the building. The actual parking layout is an untraditional circular parking concept allowing for a more comfortable parking experience. The circular shapes mimic the holes cut in the deck above, becoming part of their sculptural nature and helps makes this level an extension of the ones above. In all aspects this level aspires to be more than a traditional basement parking area and instead being part of the urban floors above.
P-1 1:500 te usâ€™ ga
bicycle spiral connection to floating plaza
reception area info desk
The entire floors of P1 and P2 are transformed into a publicly accessible Food Court with small stalls of food vendors unique to the BG14 with seating areas of varying sizes and styles spread over both floors. P1 is also expanded onto the current open plaza, which is turned into an area for temporary food stalls, like a, enclosed town square. The roof of this expansion is turned into a floating town square with trees and staircases coming through from the ground floor below acting as sculptural elements on both levels. The expansion towards north funnels people flow into the building through two central entrances on the ground floor, and also connects straight up onto the plaza above. A hanging walkway acts as a shortcut from the terminal entrance above straight to the reception area in the northeastern corner of the building, right in front of the lifts to the office levels.
With its now central position in the public flow, this level connects all of the horizontal and vertical flows as a dynamic and lively control room. The plaza in the north connects to the walkways from the other side of the street, and through the spiral ramps all the way to the basement. The central void connects the vertical flow with the level below, as well as making a visual connection the level P3 above it. Towards east the faĂ§ade is opened completely allowing the flow to enter through a 5-story park-like experience, acting as the joint between Byporten Mall, Oslo terminal, the city flow and the Terminal. The flow enters unhindered into the building around the western core covered in green wall elements, like an overgrown box, marking the entrance to the food court.
bicycle spiral connection to floating plaza
business arival void
Just above the Food Court level P3 is turned into a dining area shared by all office floors. The central void visually connects this level with the two lower floors tapping on the synergy of people flow in peak hours. This helps give guests a feeling of the office floors stacked above, and invites the workers to enjoy the dynamic life below and even to join them for an exotic specialty should they be thus inclined. In addition to catering to the standards needs for meals at breakfast and lunch, the kitchen also accommodates evening meals for overtime workers, as well as dinner-to-go ready to take home to the family. Furthermore, this floor also holds facilities for catered meetings of all types and sizes during office hours and can even make food deliveries to the individual floors above. Larger rooms are reserved for small conferences â€“ even open for external bookings.
view down to floating plaza
view down to passage
tbr to foo ection
connection to terminal
plans - food court
environmental strategy In line with the overall theme the environmental concept is based on simplicity, efficiency and elegance in order to achieve BREEAM excellent/outstanding. Through integration of environmental strategies the concept introduces a series of actions ensuring an impressive performance. These normally separated initiatives are seamlessly joined together creating a small environmental ecosystem. This energy cycle is divided into 7 separate headlines to ease understanding, but actually affect each other in various ways, creating powerful green synergies.
The building is stripped down to its loadbearing structures: central cores, columns and floor slabs. All the structural elements remain intact to carry the new, site-specific and sustainable facade. The waste materials from the old facades are used in the creation of the new elements of the building. The old parapet is crushed and used in the lightweight concrete of the floor slab expansions, while the old glass panes are flipped, stacked and used as semi-transparent glass floors in the floating plaza, merging the old with the new in practical and creative ways.
The new facade elements reduce heat loss through building envelope by using a 3-layer energy window, with an integrated double-facade that serves as an extra thermal buffer. This airtight space also holds a series of unique lamellas that act as integrated solar shading devices. As deep horizontal lamellas these reflect the high summer sun to avoid overheating, while still allowing the low winter sun to heat the offices in the heating season. This solution also ensures unobstructed views from the offices and allows daylight to enter the building.
Employing the newest in solar energy production, each facade element has an integrated super-efficient photovoltaic panel, that produces onsite electricity. Using a unique variant of concentrated PV sunlight is focused on a small area through water filled spheres of glass. A small multijunction CPV cell on the back of the sphere exploits the intensified sunlight with a concentration of 10.000 suns to reach an efficiency of 41%. Indirect light can also be converted into energy this way on cloudy days, elements facing north or even with moonlight.
[ 1 ] lowering energy consumption  employing passive strategies  producing onsite resources  reusing materials and waste
ENVIRONMENTAL PRINCIPLES DIAGRAM 1-3
environmental strategy VENT
The building is ventilated through hybrid ventilation. Short pipe lengths combined with an effective heat recovery unit ensures 85%+ efficiency in heating season. In addition to this preheating, fresh air is channelled through a biological air cleaning system, based on a running water filter solution. This reduces the dust contained in the air by 90%, removes pollution and negates bad smells. Furthermore, this helps to increase air humidity preventing dry-air issues and cooling the air through evaporation, greatly improving indoor climate.
In order to avoid the risk of overheating in summer periods - for a highly insulated office building with large areas off glass - this concept has an integrated passive nightcooling strategy. In order to avoid highly energy-consuming cooling solutions, the building facade has builtin air vents for natural ventilation that can be controlled centrally. In summer nights these vents are opened to allow the chill night air to cool down the surfaces of the building, in particular the heavy central cores with a high thermal mass that helps stabilize the temperature levels.
Water is collected on the roof of the building and transported to the basement where it serves as a thermal stabilizer. On its way through the building the water is used in the water-filtering process to clean the intake air. From the basement, the water can be used for different purposes in the building including grey water for toilet flushing on office and food court levels. Alternately the water can be used for roof sprinkling to lower cooling demands in summer months, and for watering green elements on the lower levels, as well as the Sky Garden.
Green areas in the both the food court levels and the Sky Garden help clean the air of pollution and CO2 - in addition to improving biodiversity. These green elements are watered by collected rainwater and fednitrates and nitrites - waste products from the water based air cleansing process - creating a small ecosystem. Biological waste products from the many kitchens in the food court areas are grinded into a bio-paste. This gas containing paste is then exported to local biogas plants where it can be degassed to create bio-fuel, turning waste into energy.
ENVIRONMENTAL PRINCIPLES DIAGRAM 4-7
facade - element complexity made simple The entire existing facade is removed and replaced by a new, more energy efficient facade solution. For the office areas this takes shape as an innovative special-designed facade module that integrates natural ventilation, solar shading, energy production, lowered heat loss and high intake of daylight into a single prefabricated element. The elements are prepared for attachment straight onto the floors slabs, and can be attached one by one, story by story. In addition to drastically decreasing errors and construction time, this element type ensures that BG14 can continue to operate during the renovation process.
long-term investment By introducing an element with a greatly improved thermal resistance, a large amount of CO2 is saved every year. The table to the right shows the total CO2 savings solely from the improved U-value, compared to efficiency the existing elements, over the new facades expected lifetime. In addition to the heat loss reduction through the improved U-value, a series of other factors contribute to furthering the CO2 reduction greatly 1) The integrated double facade acts as a thermal buffer lowering the heat loss further 2) A high efficiency built-in photovoltaic element ensures a constant production of green electricity 3) An integrated passive shading element, makes motorized internal shading systems obsolete and saves on maintenance.
Existing facade calculation base: 50% glass + 50% parapet
Proposed facade calculation base: 80% glass + 20% frame
CO2 COST PARAPET 2x 120 mm concrete 1 kgCO2/kg 95 mm insulation 1 kgCO2/kg U-value 0,34
CO2 COST FRAME PUR-foam, hard 1,7 kgCO2/kg PUR-foam insulation 1,7 kgCO2/kg U-value 0,34
GLASS 2 layers:
GLASS 1 layer:
CO2 COST 54 kgCO2/kg U-value 1,7
Total use of CO2 over 50 years: 870 kg
CO2 COST 23 kgCO2/kg U-value 1,0 54 kgCO2/kg U-value 0.8
Total use of CO2 during 50 years 363 kg
element lifetime savings:
saved through integrated passive shading
saved through integrated cpv-production
[no maintenance][no cleaning][no motorized control system]
[production of onsite green electricity throughout the year]
prefab facade The unique facade element solves a series of complex tasks, but itâ€™s true strength is in the stunning simplicity. It consists of 5 different elements - as shown in the exploded sketch on the following page - but should be viewed as a single innovative all-purpose element.
facade - element cast frame
The warm side of the prefabricated facadeelement has two layers of energy glass, ensuring a good indoor climate and a high thermal resistance. The entire element is sealed tight from the factory saving on maintenance and limiting operational costs/malfunctions.
A cast frame of PUR (polyurethane foam) makes op the framework of the element, holding all the other parts in place and is the part that attaches to the deck slabs. This uniform cast structure ensures high stability of the element, as well as eliminates thermal bridges.
Built-in horizontal lamellas of hard plastic with a silicone core makes other shading solutions redundant. Intelligent adoption to the climate combined with its semi-transparent nature balances protecting versus glare and overheating, without affecting daylight and views.
Each element has an integrated panel of concentrated photovoltaic, generating energy from sunlight with an impressive efficiency and even from indirect light. As the sunlight passes through miniature glass spheres, it is modulated to beautiful effect.
A large glass pane makes up the envelope of the element, creating a buffer-space inside the element, similar to that of a doublefacade. This outer glass covers the edges of the PUR frame, creating the impression that the element is in fact frameless.
FACADE ELEMENT EXPLODED VIEW SKETCH
facade - functionality horizontal In their horizontal position the lamellas provide effective shading against the high summer sun, without hindering views - and allowing the low winter sun warm the office spaces. As the high sun hits the lamellas some of the light is reflected back, while some is reflected to the light ceiling of the offices allowing diffuse light deep into the floors. By attaching the elements to the very front of the floor slabs, floor-to-ceiling glass is possible drastically increasing the amount of daylight in the building, and making the floors appear much more open and spacious.
tilted As the air temperature around the lamellas increase they tilt to an angled position to protect against glare and overheating. When hitting the angled lamellas most of the sunâ€™s spectres are reflected away, but some of the sunlight passes through the semitransparent material enabling a modulated light flow through to the workspaces. In addition to shading the element has an integrated passive natural ventilation system that helps reduce energy consumption in the cooling season. All air vents go through the upper part of the element, hidden in the suspended ceiling.
FACADE PERFORMANCE SKETCH - HORIZONTAL LAMELLA
FACADE PERFORMANCE SKETCH - TILTED LAMELLA
facade - functionality passive shading The semi-transparent lamellas are filled with a core of silicone that expands when heated. This patent panding solution shifts the balance enough to make the lamellas tilt gradually as the temperature in the double-facade increases. Through this the intelligent passive shading system innately ensures that lamellas are closed when the building is in risk of overheating, while open to warmth in the heating season. Some of the silicone cores are tinted vaguely blue giving the facade a play of ever-changing bluish hues that add to the expression of the building.
CONCENTRATED PHOTOVOLTAIC - PRINCIPLE SKETCH
concentrated pv The PV cells of today are hopelessly inefficient, very vulnerable to shading and only deliver during periods of sunlight and clear skies. Concentrated PV cells break with this through concentrating the intensity of the sun on small but very powerful PV cells, with efficiencies of 41% and undergoing constant improvement. By using a brand new reinvention of the lens-effect, glass spheres multiply the power of the sun up to 10.000 times, while being able to capture light under practically all circumstances - as it works even with indirect light. More than just aesthetically pleasing, these are the PV cells of tomorrow.
SELF-ADJUSTING LAMELLA PASSIVE PRINCIPLE
Next Generation CSP Modules - MORE INFORMATION: RAWLEMON.COM
The ambitious goals of the competition are meet through a holistic approach to environmental issues on all levels of the design. By creating synergy between known and existing strategies combined with state of the art technology and materials as well as original designs within the field of passive solutions the proposal is both realistic and innovative.
Leaving the existing structure intact and reusing elements of the original facade in the new proposal ensures that as little material as possible is wasted in the process. The materials of the new elements are chosen and developed with Cradle-to-Cradle in mind in terms of maintenance, production processes, transportation and more.
In addition to shading from the sun and producing electricity, the building enjoys several indirect contributions to a low environmental impact. From effective use of daylight - lowering both consumptions for artificial lighting and reducing internal heat loss to avoid overheating - to using rain water collection for both cooling, air conditioning and watering.
The new highly efficient windows and a double facade-like thermal buffer reduce the heat loss of BG14 dramatically. The elimination of the original parapet coupled with the introduction of a single uniform frame material with both thermal and structural qualities, helps lower the amount of thermal bridges to an absolute minimum.
Replacing a facade is naturally an investment that has a cost both economically and environmentally. This cost is paid back several times during the facades lifespan though as it both reduces heat loss and saves on cooling by preventing overheating. In addition the integrated PV cells and shading systems help improve the investment even further.
VIEW FROM ØSTRE TANGENT FOOTBRIDGE AS THE SUN SETS
reshape rebirth retake recompose rejuvinate reacclimatize reintegrate reboot refine reclaim reabsorb revive reincarnate reintegrate reearn regain relocate readress reinforce rebalance reinterpret reforge refurnish rediscover reenergize rename readapt recharge reawaken restart reinspire relaunch reinvigorate redeem realign reinvent rediscover restart reanalyze reformat reemphasize recycle reflect reset reimplant reappear reembody reexplore rearrange regrow rehabitate rearticulate reinstall rebalance refocus redesign rekindle reattach recuperate refuel reedit redefine reaccelerate react refine reidentify rejoice reanimate rethink reassemble rechannel reasure redraw redevelop reload reestablish reaccept recollect reactivate reinterpret reaquire reunite