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Clean Fuel and Lubricant Solutions DIESEL FUEL HANDBOOK

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Prelude to Fuel This booklet was written in order to share a fair part of the knowledge that Donaldson has gathered over the years both in the field as in the laboratories around the world. By spending between 2 and 3% of Donaldson’s annual turnover on Research & Development (R&D), our technology, whether it is new media development, filter package or solution positioning, stands where it is today. We strive to continue this process and to invest in knowledge about fuels & oils. Knowledge that will provide us the key to the solutions of the problems you face today and most likely tomorrow. A big impact in fuel and fuel cleanliness is not only the fuel itself, but also how it is applied in new engine platforms with advanced common rail injection systems. The better we understand this continuous change, the more reliable our solutions and your machines become. The fuel booklet is written to introduce you to the world of fuels, a world that like human society is in a continuous mode of change. A world that has a profound part of what can be described as mysterious, for those who are not breathing the science day in and day out. On the next 28 pages we will reveal part of the mystery and show you a glimpse of the near future. Niko Verhaegen Development Manager Clean Fuel & Lubricant Solutions

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Table of Contents Fuel Legislation

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PM&NOx

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CO2

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EN590

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ISO4406/99

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Worldwide Fuel Charter

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Types of Diesel Common Diesel Fuel

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Biodiesel

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Fuel Chain

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Fractional Distillation

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Biodiesel manufacturing process

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Contamination

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How Clean Fuel Should Be - “Clear and Bright”

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ISO4406/99 Cleanliness Level

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Multipass Filter Testing

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Single vs. Multipass

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Common Rail Diesel Injection CRDI

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Clean Solutions Offer

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Case Studies

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FAQ

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Fuel Legislation Engines have been driving our world, whether it is the engine in your car/ truck that takes you to your next adventure or the engine of a ship, plane or train that connects you with your friends, colleagues or family. Engines have made our big blue planet smaller at each leap of technology. This technology path is mostly challenged by legislation. The engine emissions regulations, whether it is on road (Euro) or offroad (Tier), are forcing Engine manufacturers to decrease the emissions and to make better & cleaner engines.

What is important to notice on above graph, is that although not properly specified, the fluid cleanliness has recently been the center of attention.

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The Worldwide fuel charter (undersigned by the biggest engine manufactures) was a start, however the ISO 4406/99 standard and the ISO 18/16/13 cleanliness level that features in the charter, is just a beginning. While on one hand the industry is righteously focused on a cleaner product (engine) by using cleaner products (liquid & air), the oil and gas companies developed at the beginning of the emissions norms a separate standard EN590. Unfortunately both worlds, although closely linked by “product� are today not speaking the same language. PM & NOx The emission standards both on and off road generally regulate the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur oxides, particulate matter (PM) or soot, carbon monoxide (CO), or volatile hydrocarbons (see carbon dioxide equivalent). CO2 The EU Directive 2009/30/EC adopted by the European Community amends sulphur content and introduces new requirements to reduce the greenhouse gas intensity of energy supplied for road transportation. As a result of this new regulation, gasoline has to be traded according to eco-friendly specifications with a reduction in aromatic hydrocarbons, oxygen and sulphur level. The reduction in the value of aromatic hydrocarbons and sulphur level is also applied to diesel traded into the market. Member countries of the European Union asked to fuel suppliers a reduction of 10 % of CO2 emissions for every unit of energy produced by fossil fuels before December 2020.

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EN590 Before this Directive the European fuel standard EN 590:2009 has incorporated the latest fuel quality requirements. Products coming from manufacturers of fuel injection equipment may not meet the expected lifetime performances and emissions targeted, if the fuel used doesn’t respect the parameters of EN590:2009. The most important features in terms of cleanliness of the EN590 standard are: • up to 24mg/kg of total contamination – findings 3<x<10 • below 200 ppm of water –finding 59<x<150 These general parameters will surely be more specified in the future, but for now are the only “cleanliness” norms that can be used.

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ISO 4406/99 The International Standard Organization (ISO) has also developed a cleanliness code that has become a standard, the ISO 4406/99. This code defines more in details the number of particles present per milliliter of fluid. For more info please read section on how clean should fuel be. Worldwide Fuel Charter On a more worldwide scale, in 1998 engine manufacturers created the “Worldwide Fuel Charter” to set international standards for fuels. In the preamble for the 2006 edition it stated that: “advanced ultra-clean engine and vehicle technologies have begun to be introduced in some markets and will continue to be used in increasing numbers. These new technologies require the best quality to achieve their emissions and performance potential.” The charter quotes a requirement for diesel fuel to meet an ISO 18/16/13 cleanliness requirement and on the other hand fuel manufacturers start working on a fuel that has to be much cleaner in order to respond to the needs of modern common rail injector needs.  

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Types of Diesel Common Diesel Fuel It is obtained through the fractional distillation of petroleum fuel oil and it is generally simpler to refine than gasoline. It contains hydrocarbons and has a boiling point in the range of 180-360째C (360-680째F). Diesel derived from petroleum has a composition of about 75% saturated hydrocarbons and 25% aromatic hydrocarbons. The chemical formula for this type of fuel is normally C12H23 and goes from C10H20 to C15H28. Because of recent changes in fuel quality regulations, additional refining is required to remove sulfur, this has led to the production of ULSD (Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel) fuel. If the level of sulfur is high this is harmful for the environment because sulfur prevents the control of particulate emissions through catalytic diesel particulate filters, but not only: also innovative technologies like nitrogen oxide (NOx) absorbers are unable to reduce emissions. Another effect of the lowering of sulfur in diesel is the reduction of fuel lubricity that provokes the increase in the usage of additives in the fuel to improve lubrication.

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Biodiesel

Biodiesel is the name of a cleanburning alternative fuel that does not contain petroleum. It is defined as mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal fats for use in diesel engines. Biodiesel refers to the pure fuel before blending with diesel fuel. The most present in the market is the Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME).

Biodiesel blends are denoted as, “BXX” with “XX” representing the percentage of biodiesel contained in the blend (ie: B20 is 20% biodiesel, 80% petroleum diesel). First generation of biodiesel fuels • Vegetable oil - diesel (Methyl ester PME) • Vegetable oil (f.i. Rapeseed, coconut, soybean, fried fat) • Animal fat (Oil of poultry or other)

Second and future generations • Algae and other organic raw materials Effects on filtration of Biodiesel • Cleaning effect - Increase wear • Water Dissolvence • Micro-organisms in water

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Fuel Chain Fractional Distillation

Biodiesel manufacturing process

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Source: BBC - Bitesize

Source: Understanding Biodiesel Fuel Quality and Performance By: J.M. Weiksner Sr. P.E., Stephen L. Crump Ph.D., and Thomas L. White Ph.D.

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Contamination Types of contaminants • • •

Particulate: silica, fibres, dust, rust, metal, drop outs, gel Water (Free or Dissolved) Air (Free or Dissolved)

Where contamination comes from • Added with New Fluid • Ingressed from outside the system during operation (breather, transportation, poor filling routines etc) • Induced by maintenance procedures • Built-in during manufacturing assembly processes • Breakdown of Rubber and Elastomers particles from hoses seals, etc, due to temperature, time, fluid stream • In-Operation main sources are pump, motors, precombustion, …. • High water Based fluids get biological growth and organic contamination • Replacement of Failed Components there could be big particles down stream Effects of particulate contamination: 0-5μm: System components failure over time (injector wear, over consumption, loss of power) >5μm: Immediate Catastrophic failure (fuel pomp failure, injector blockage) Typical particle size range in fuels is between 1-50μm

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Effects of water contamination: • Contributes to Fuel & Additive Drop Out Problems • Promotes Rust, Corrosion, Deposits, Acid Formation and Algae Growth • Reduces Fuel Lubricity (when emulsified) and Flow (when freezes) • Plugs Injector Nozzles and can reduce Injector Life by up to 10x Promotes microbial growth : • Most Bacteria Require Free Water • ULSD Made Worse • Sulfur slowed growth • Biodiesel = Food • Difficult to Remove Effects of air contamination: • Loss of transmitted power • Reduced pump output • Loss of lubrication • Increased of operating temperature • Reservoir fluid foaming • Chemical reactions

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How Clean Fuel Should Be “Clear and Bright” What is a micron? A Micron is a unit of measurement, it represents 1 Millionth of a Meter (micrometer) or 0.000039”, the international symbol is “µ” but also often referred to as µm (micrometer). The human eye can only see down to 40µm, so to conduct a

40 µm 80 µm 25 µm

100 µm

2 µm

10 µm

Grain of table salt

100 µm

Human hair

80 µm

Lower limit of visibility

40 µm

White blood cell

25 µm

Talcum powder

10 µm

Red blood cell

8 µm

Bacteria

2 µm

Silt

<5 µm

visual test of how “clear and bright” your fluid is, is not correct and therefore a so-called patch test is required. The patch test is a test where a sample of 25 ml of the fluid to be tested is poured through a membrane with porosities of up to 0.8µm, causing any particle greater than 0.8µ to be captured on the surface of the membrane. This membrane is than visually inspected under the microscope with a suitable magnification level.

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Looking at the picture below, this bottled sample looks spotlessly clean… however under a simple USB driven microscope you discover a parallel universe of contamination. Alternatively or in addition to the visual patch testing, which detects the contamination, automatic particle counting can give you a better understanding of the number of particles that are in a set of sample fluid. The combination of an automated light beam and laser particle counters quantify the contamination level of the sample fluid. The sample flows at reduced speed through a small tube while a beam of light is projected through. If a particle blocks the light, a voltage pulse proportional to the equivalent diameter of the particle is produced. There are various standards of measuring the result but the most common are ISO 4406, NAS 1638 and SAE AS 4059. The ISO 4406 code we discuss in next paragraph. Unfortunately, the sensors can be susceptible to producing “phantom” counts, so we always recommend taking patch membranes. Phantom counts are caused by counting of insoluble additives that are blocking the light beam. These insoluble particles can cause premature filter blockage, but can perfectly be harmless to the machine and its components. 13

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Further analysis will be necessary – for more information please contact Largo at info@largoplantservices.com  

ISO4406/99 Cleanliness Level The international rating system for fluid contamination levels is called the ISO contamination code and it is detailed in the ISO 4406 document. Most component manufacturers publish filtration level recommendations using the three scale ISO code, which permits the differentiation of the dimension and distribution of the particles in the fluid that are allowed. Manufacturer’s ISO contamination levels are based on controlling the particle counts of 4 μ, 6 μ and 14 μ particles in hydrocarbon fluids. This level is identified by measuring the number of particles 4μ and greater, 6 μ and greater, and 14 μ and greater in one milliliter of the system sample. The range between the upper and lower limits for each scale number is a factor of two. This also means that for each increase of one ISO code number, the number of particles can double.

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ISO 4406 Contamination Code Range of number of particles per milliliter: Code More Than Up to & Including 24 80,000 160,000 23 40,000 80,000 22 20,000 40,000 21 10,000 20,000 20 5,000 10,000 19 2,500 5,000 18 1,300 2,500 17 640 1,300 16 320 640 15 160 320 14 80 160 13 40 80 12 20 40 11 10 20 10 5 10 9 2.5 5 8 1.3 2.5 7 .64 1.3 6 .32 .64

How to Use the ISO Rating Example: The Worldwide fuel charter recommends an ISO cleanliness level of 18/16/13. 1. On the Application Guide for Donaldson Filter Media on the next page, place a dot on the vertical 4 μ line, horizontally even with the 18 box of the ISO code. 2. Place a dot on the vertical 6 μ line horizontally even with the 16 box of the ISO code. 3. Place a dot on the vertical 14 μ line horizontally even with the 13 box of the ISO code. 4. Connect the dots to get the ISO cleanliness level 18/16/13.

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As illustrated below, particle counts falling on and above the 18/16/13 line are damaging to the component and exceed the 18/16/13 specification set by the manufacturer. x x x x x 18 x x x 13 x x x x Âľm

ISO 18/16/13 PARTICLES HARMFUL TO THE COMPONENT

mmon Industry ISO eanliness Ratings PARTICLES TOLERABLE TO THE COMPONENT

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Donaldson recommends various fluids to have specific cleanliness level tolerable to the component.

21/18

ISO 18/16/13 ISO 18/16/13

cal ess of d fluids

Target Targetrating ratingforfor heavy gear/engine heavy gear/ oils oils engine

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ISO 16/14/11 ISO 16/14/11

ISO ISO 14/13/11 14/13/11

Target Targetrating rating for forhydraulic/ hydraulic/ transmission transmissionoils oils

Target rating Target ratingfor for diesel fuel diesel fuel

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Multipass Filter Testing The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) for multipass testing provides a common testing format for filter manufacturers to rate filter performance. This standardization gives you the ability to reliably compare published filter ratings among different brands of filters. ISO test standards were updated in 1999 to reflect the improved technology available in particle counters and other test equipment. The newer particle counters provide more precise counting and greater detail – reflecting a truer indication of filter performance. The National Fluid Power Association (NFPA), the National Institute of Standards & Technology (NIST), and industry volunteers, including several engineers from Donaldson, helped revise the ISO standards. ISO 16889 has been in force since late 1999 and ISO 4572 is officially discontinued. The ISO 16889 is typically used for hydraulic fluids as the official standard for diesel testing is the ISO 19438. The main difference between both liquid standards is the BUG (base upstream gravimetric) level which can be lower for the ISO 16889 test procedure vs. the ISO 19438 and allows the ISO 16889 test to be more repeatable in the same period of time. Also the ISO 16889 test reports back into ß-ratio’s whereas the ISO 19438 reports back in efficiency %. Donaldson opts to use the ISO 16889 test for fuel in order to be closer to the EN590 loading standards and field reality.

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Other Highlights of ISO 16889 • ISO 12103-1,A3 (ISO Medium, 5μm-80μm) • Particle counts, upstream and downstream, are taken every minute of the test. • Beta ratios are reported with (c) to designate NIST traceability. flow meter

Injection reservoir

Online APC*

Down Stream

Test reservoir

Test Filter

pump Up Stream

pump

Online APC*

*A  PC = Liquid Automatic Particle Counter

ISO 16889 • • •

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In-Line Liquid Automatic Particle Counters (APC) are now required for proper testing. APC calibration follows ISO 11171 procedures ISO 11171 uses NIST (National Instistute of Standards & Technology) certified calibration fluid

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Single vs. Multipass All the previous explanation about multipassing concerns the fluid over the filter. However if you are filtering fluids at the inlet of your storage/day tank, you will only get one chance/ one passage of the fluid over the filtration unit. Hence we talk about single pass filtration, meaning similar set up as for the multipass process but without recirculation. Donaldson Clean solutions elements are specifically designed for single pass high flow, high capacity filtration. Beta Ratios ISO 16889 recommends reporting beta ratings at a certain micron setting: Beta Ratio (ß)

Efficiency

at give particle size

at same particle size

1,01

0,99%

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1,1

9,09%

1,5

33,33%

2

50,00%

4

75,00%

5

80,00%

10

90,00%

20

95,00%

75

98,67%

100

99,00%

200

99,50%

1000

99,90%

2000

99,95%

10000

99,99%

Example: ß4(c) =200 signifies that there are 200 times as many particles that are 4 μm and larger upstream as downstream. This is 99.5% efficiency. Example: ß4(c) =2000 indicates that there are 2000 times as many particles that are 4 μm and larger upstream as downstream. This is 99.95% efficiency.

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What Is Beta Ratio? Beta ratio (symbolized by the Greek letter “ß”) is a formula used to calculate the filtration efficiency of a particular fluid filter using base data obtained from multi-pass testing. In a multi-pass test, fluid is continuously injected with a uniform amount of contaminant (i.e., ISO medium test dust) then pumped through the filter unit being tested. Filter efficiency is determined by monitoring fluid contamination levels upstream and downstream of the test filter at specific times. Automatic particle counters are used to determine the contamination level. Through this process an upstream to downstream particle count ratio is developed, known as the beta ratio.

Common Rail Diesel Injection CRDI Common rail direct fuel injection on diesel engines has changed dramatically lately. Third-generation common rail diesels now feature piezoelectric injectors for increased precision. This increased precision allows the diesel engine manufacturers to meet the tighter emissions norms. (see fuel legislation) Solenoid or piezoelectric valves make it possible to control injection time & fuel quantity. The higher pressure (up to 2500 bar today) allows a better fuel atomization.Meeting the emission expectations is a must, but it comes with severe consequences. The higher pressures are putting extra pressure on the cleanliness level that is allowed on board of these engines. Several injector manufacturers are targeting ISO4406/99 cleanliness level 12/9/7 after the on board filtration for the diesel in order to protect their high tech products. It is clear that the ISO target is a challenge in the field if no pre-filtration of the diesel is done on the storage tanks.  

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Clean Solutions Offer 2 3

Fuels/oils with contaminant and water

Clean, dry fuels/oils

1 Now what to do with the existing machines and tanks... which have been exposed for years to deliveries of dirty fuel, atmospheric dirt, water ingression and a lot of other contamination sources. The best you can do is to stir you reservoir and use a mobile filter cart to clean up the bottom of the tank. The CLEAN.PROTECT.POLISH™ concept consists of 3 steps of filtration. 1

Cleaning the fluids at the inlet of the storage tank, typically at high flow rates and with only one chance to capture the contamination (single pass filtration), which was built up during transport or overhaul of the fluid from one container to another.

2

Protect the reservoir or storage tank by adding an innovative Donaldson TRAP™ breather. The TRAP™ Thermally Reactive Advanced Protection product is a selfregenerating moisture removal system with integrated dust removal. Its dual function is to capture the moisture

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on the inhalation phase and release it with each exhalation so that water contamination is prevented continuously. 3

The polish part of the concept is a small version of the inlet filtration system and is put in place to guarantee the cleanliness levels which Donaldson recommends on the delivery side of the storage tank (according to ISO4406/99).

Following some extensive research we have discovered that most of the damage to engines is done by very small particles. Therefore our bulk filter range is designed to be ß(4) = 2000, which means it is 99.95% efficient in capturing 4µ size particles for fuels. Combined with our proven spin-on technology, we offer an easy-to-service, cost effective clean fuel filtration system that is proven to deliver outstanding results for whatever tank size or consumption range.

Donaldson Delivers

Clean. Protect. Polish.

TM

The Clean solution range: • Bulk filters for capacity & performance • Air breathers / dryer • Point of use filters for safety For more information please contact info@largoplantservices.com

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This range is not only for fuels, elements are predefined for various liquids: • 25µm Absolute Media element for bulk engine and gear oil applications. Target cleanliness ISO 18/16/13 • 7µm Absolute Media element for bulk hydraulic and transmission applications. Target cleanliness ISO 16/14/11 • 4µm Absolute Media element for bulk diesel fuel. Target cleanliness ISO 14/13/11 (Incorporates DERT “ Donaldson electrostatic reduction technology”)

Super Absorbent Polymer for water treatment

The Spark We all know what happens when you touch your car on a dry day after you’ve driven it … right, you get a spark. This is the result of the build-up of electric charge on your car’s surface caused by the friction with the air. This same effect occurs on filter media where a non-conductive fluid passes over a nonconductive media causing electric discharges on the media which can in turn damage your media. Holes of 200-300µ (micron) and bigger are created at the tips of the filter media, preventing only big debris and dead bugs to be captured. Evidently, your protection is gone at this point. Donaldson, through R&D, have invested a lot of time and resources to overcome this natural phenomenon and we are more than happy to state that our DERT (Donaldson electrostatic reduction technology) media is resistant to this effect. (Hole created by ESD over filter media)

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Case Studies Transportation - Clean fuel case study

Assuring on-time delivery

Challenge: Minimizing down-time in a fleet of 120 trucks Solution: Installation Clean.Protect.Polish concept. Construction - Clean fuel case study

Saving on operating costs with Donaldson fuel filtration technology

Challenge: Due to ineffective fuel filtration 50% of the total fleet was down. Solution: A 5-way manifold installation with Donaldson P568666 cans was installed on site.

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Liquid storage - Clean fuel case study

Eliminating air moisture in fuel tanks

Challenge: Air moisture in RME renewable fuel tank Solution: Donaldson Bulk T.R.A.P.â&#x201E;˘ breather Construction - Clean oil case study

Significant savings on equipment down-time and service intervals

Challenge: With between 9.000 and 14.000 operating hours on the machines, first oil tests showed that 63 samples were out of specification. Solution: The customer decided to purchase a Donaldson particle and water test kit (X009329) and started testing all fluids 25

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FAQ Can additive drop-outs be blocked by Donaldson Clean Solutions range of filters? Additive drop-outs, forming soft sticky stuff material, could be provoked by a set of various conditions. The typical components that lead to drop outs are: bio mix, additives; temperature fluctuations and the presence of water. Most seen in the field today are cases of cold flow improver, glycerin & corrosion inhibitors drop outs. Installation of inlet filtration guarantees consistent quality of product going into the tank and prevents drop outs to enter. What is the dirt holding capacity of filters? Donaldson always stresses the fact that the main aspect to consider in choosing a filtration unit is the balance of efficiency, capacity and pressure drop. There are many factors to consider when it comes to dirtholding capacity: flow, viscosity, system pressure drop, contaminant properties, etcâ&#x20AC;Ś All these factors have an impact on the dirt-holding capacity of a filter. Are particle counters always accurate? Normally, laser and automated white light particle counters are used to detect the contamination that is present in fluids. It may happen that these particle counters are not accurate and count phantom particles because of the difficulty in differentiating dirt, water or additives. Phantom particles count is more present in fluids blended with additives than in base fluids. â&#x20AC;&#x192;

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Is biodiesel really effective in reducing emissions? Any form of biodiesel whether it is B7 or B100 contains by default less emission regulated elements and can therefore be considered environmentally friendlier. On top of that biodiesel reduces levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and nitrated aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) compounds emissions that have been identified as potential cancer causing. How long can you store diesel fuel? The new types of diesel like ULSD and any form of bio mix are no longer made for storage for 6 up to 12 months without having serious quality degradation. You can store your fuels longer if adequate polishing (with filtration) and adding additives is properly done. What is inlet filtration? What do you mean by “clean” side? In the CLEAN.PROTECT.POLISH™ concept, the inlet side or clean side is the side of your tank (storage / day) where the fuel is being delivered. What is outlet filtration? What do you mean by “polish” side? The CLEAN.PROTECT.POLISH™ concept, the outlet side or polish side is where your fuel is being dispensed into your vehicles / applications. This is the last chance for prefiltration, but due to the start-stop effect of this side, not the best place to put filtration. Why would I not use an offline kidney loop system? If you get a bad batch of fuel, a kidney loop system will then have to recirculate the entire volume of what was in your tank + the new delivery. A kidney loop system cannot physically clean all fluid in the tank, there is always a point of zero gravity that a kidney loop system will not filter.

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Start – Stop principle that is frequent at a kidney loop releases small particles. The time to clean – before “safe” usage of liquid is longer. In what scenario should I used the Clean.Protect.Polish™ concept as kidney loop? Underground tanks - recirculation (no inlet filtration allowed) Above ground tank with extra dirty tank bottom (prevent polish filter to be undersized and block too often) Above ground tank exposed for number of years to atmosphere (remove buildup of dust cake - can take up to 9 months) Above ground tank in high dust environment (remove buildup of dust cake - can take up to 9 months) Why do modern injectors need clean fuel? Common rail injectors pressure can go up to 2700 BAR. This increase in pressure has a major impact on the cleanliness level of the fuel that is allowed to flow through the injector.

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Responible Editors - Donaldson: Davide Favero Business Coordinator Clean Fuel and Lubricant Solutions Niko Verhaegen Business Development Manager Clean Fuel and Lubricant Solutions 29

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Donaldson in partnership with Largo Largo Plant Services Limited Unit 1a Station Road Lenwade, Norwich Norfolk NR9 5LY United Kingdom T +44 (0)1603 870959 F +44 (0)1603 879803 E info@largoplantservices.com Š 2013 Donaldson Company, Inc. Donaldson Company, Inc. reserves the right to change or discontinue any model or specification at any time and without notice.

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Largo - Clean Fuel & Lubricant Solutions - DIESEL FUEL HANDBOOK