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Christopher Long

The Perch Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Subphylum: Vertebrata Class: Osteichthyes Genus: Perca Species: Flavescens

I. Purpose: The purpose is to examine the Perch internally and externally by dissection. II. Materials: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Dissection tray Perch Scalpel Scissors Forceps Dissecting Probe Dissecting Needle

III. Methods: A. External: The dissector began his analysis by measuring the length of the perch from anterior to posterior, and upon finding it to be 17 cm long, began a general examination of the perch's exterior. The dissector first noted that although the body of the perch subsisted of three subsections, including a pointy, short, head region, a long, thick trunk region, and a tubular tail section which branched into the caudal fin, certain characteristics were present throughout its exterior anatomy, including a surface composed of scales who's feel varied between scratchy and smooth depending on direction he approached them, a coloration that varied, at times ambiguously, between lightest pink and dark black, and a barely perceptible layer of slime, which coated the exterior. The dissector flipped his perch, so that the ventral side shew, and observed that the coloration on the underside of the perch to be white, tinted with orange, before he briefly probed the small anus with his dissection probe. The dissector then flipped the perch, so that it rested on its ventral surface, and began a detailed examination of the head section. The dissector noted that paired eyes of a dull blue color lay on either side of the perch's hard, tough skull, and that immediately between them, on the ventral–most surface of the perch lay two small, white openings known as sinouses, located inside of small pits. The dissector probed them with his dissecting probe, and deduced that they did not extend into the brain, as his probe reached the opening's end, before he found another set of sinus openings, created by a genetic irregularity, which astonished him. Next, the dissector located the anterior most point of his perch, the jaw, and identified it's two constituant parts; the black, hard maxilla, or upper jaw, and orange colored lower jaw, or mandible, that jointed to it from beneath. The dissector used his dissecting probe to pry apart the jaws, and then examined their interior. Extending upward from the lower jaw of the perch, the dissector found prickly, transparent teeth which curved slightly inward, and after examining the seemingly-toothless upper jaw, he located the smooth, pink tongue, slightly posterior to both structures, which filled most of the mouth cavity. The dissector then closed the jaws, and then examined a fleshy protrusion on the ventral side of the head, the white, smooth Isthmus, that divided the paired, hard, black gill coverings known as operculum, which extended downwards from the sides of the perch, and ran from the area behind the jaw, to the small, diamond–shaped pre operculum, that shared it's features. The dissector noted that the operculum extended over sections of both the head, and the trunk, before he lifted it, and saw a section of the soft, white, pink-tinted gill located underneath. Next, the dissector began a general analysis of the perch's trunk, beginning with the thin, black, lateral line, which extended from the head of the organism, and traveled through both the perch's trunk, and tail, extending dorsal to the gills along the side of the perch. The dissector then examined the non-paire dorsal fins of the animal, starting with the anterior dorsal fin, which he observed to be black in color, and composed of spines, and moving on to the posterior dorsal fin, which he observed to be of similar color, but smaller, and composed of soft rays. Posterior to these, at the end of the fishes tail, the dissector observed the singular black caudal fin, composed of soft rays, and underneath, a little to the anterior, he saw the lone anal fin, composed of rays and spines, while dorsal to this, on either side, he observed the paired, golden orange, pectoral fins, composed of two spines, and many soft rays. Lastly, the dissector observed the soft, clear, paired pectoral fins, located dorsal to the pelvic fins, just behind the operculum, and noted that between the rays or spines of each gill, there was a thin membrane of similar color, that held the fin together. The dissector the concluded his external observations, as there was nothing left to examine.

B. Internal: The dissector began his examination of the perch's exterior by locating the operculum, located toward the anterior of the perch, and by use of his scissors, making an incision from 1cm behind the fish's eye, and moving upward until the operculum's connection to the exterior was totally severed, revealing in its wake four pairs of soft, light-orange semicircular gills, attached to the perch's interior. Using his forceps, the dissector tugged out a single pair pair of gills, and carefully examined them, noting the thick, white cartilaginous gill arch that composed the core, the white, triangular, soft, tooth shaped gill rakers which projected from the gill arch toward the interior, and the soft, pinkish white gill filaments, which extended outward from the the gill arches in small folds. The dissector could not locate the capillaries, or observe any other feature of the gills, so he ceased examining them and placed the remaining gills in a pile on his dissecting tray. The dissector then inserted his scissors under the ventral integument through the perch's anus, and despite heavy resistance, cut along the length of the perch, halting about 1 cm from the eye, before cutting perpendicular to his previous cut, the dissector made an incision from the ventral side of the perch to immediately above the lateral line, and repeated the process, cutting through the integument which lay above the anus with his scissors. Using his scalpel, the dissector then made a horizontal cut through the tough muscle along the fish's side, and thus formed a window into the fish's body, which he carefully removed in order to see the fish's internal anatomy. The dissector began at the dorsal most point in his window, by examining the small, flexible, whitishclear ribs extending from the hard, segmented backbone, before he noted that layers of thick, tough orange muscle still covered half of the visible interior, and set out to remove the unwanted tissue with his scalpel, carefully peeling it from the fish's organs. Next, the dissector examined the elongated, soft black kidney, which ran along the dorsal most part of his window cut, slightly under the rib cage, and eventually tapered into the gray, slightly bulbous Bladder, which after a short run, dropped into the urogenital opening. The dissector then examined the area ventral to these, and observed the elongated, black membranes of the deflated swim bladder, before noting that the thin, tubular white esophagus ran ventral to it from the anterior of the perch, and into the stomach. The dissector ignored the stomach, but noted that the esophagus passed immediately over the fish's dark gray heart, located slightly beneath the space left by the gills, on its way to the fish's mouth, before he examined the heart in depth, noting that it was composed of both a large chamber known as the atrium, and a smaller, but more muscular chamber known as the ventricle, and was connected to the circular system by a large vein leading into the heart, and a large artery leading out. He could barely discern the sinus venosus, and conus arteriosus, located the anterior and posterior sections of the heart respectively, but could observe very little of either due the heart's small size, and could examine neither in depth. Following this, the dissector examined the area anterior to the stomach and ventral to the swim bladder, finding the bulbous, squishy, white stomach, which was largely overlapped by pairs of thin, white, tubular pyloric saecae held together by a central disk of tissue, and whose vental anterior side attached to both the small white gallbladder, and the larger, softer, white liver, both coattached to each other. The dissector than analyzed the long, tubular, double folded white intestine, which protruded from the posterior of the stomach, and eventually tapered off into the anus. From the exterior of one fold of the intestine, the dissector could partially discern the pancreas, however it was to indistinct for him to fully examine, and so he concluded analyzing the organs made visible through his window cut by noting the two pairs of gray, long, white tipped gonads, which extended behind the stomach, and marked his perch as a male. The dissector than moved to the perch's cerebrum, and using his scalpel, he made an incision into the fiercely resistant bone, traveling from 1 mm behind the middle of the eye, to a point approximately 1-cm away, and repeating this process on the other side, before he connected the two cuts, and removed the block of bone with little interference, revealing the perch's brain. At the brain's anterior most point, behind the sinuses, the dissector observed two pairs of small olfactory bulbs, connected by nerves to—

the thick cerebrum, which was anterior to the slightly smaller optic tectum, whose dorsal surface was attached to the equally sized cerebellum, and whose ventral surface attached to the long, large, medulla oblongata. Next, the dissector observed the thin, long, white spinal chord, which extended from the base of the medulla oblongata toward the posterior of the perch, and turned his attention back to the body. Using his forceps, the dissector removed a single scale from the perch's side, and carefully placed it on a slide, for examination under a dissecting microscope. The dissector found that under a microscope, the smooth scale appeared rough, extremely chunky, and thick, before he ended his dissection, as he could locate nothing else to examine

IV. Observations: A. External Anatomy of a Perch

IV. Observations: B. Internal Anatomy of a Perch

V. Conclusions: 1. Describe the teeth of fish and explain how their structure is adaptive to their diet. The translucent teeth of a perch lie on its jaw, and their primary use consists of capturing small organisms such as plankton. As an adaptation to their diet, the perch's teeth are small, and, and posses extremely extremely sharp points, as well as a closely knit distribution across the jaw, which aid in the ingestion of small organisms 2. Describe the location of the nostrils and explain where they lead The pitted nostrils of a Perch are used to locate prey via scent, and are located immediately anterior to the eyes, on the dorsal part of the perch's head. They lead a short way into the perch's cranium and halt, whereupon nerve chords transfer sensory information to the olfactory bulbs for processing. 3. Into what structure does the esophagus lead? The short tube known as the esophagus transports food from the mouth, behind which it begins, and the stomach, which it lead into. 4. Suggest a function of the spiny anterior dorsal fin. The Anterior dorsal fin of a perch is composed of many sharp spines, connected by a thin membrane, and aids the perch in remaining upright, and moving through the water in a straight line. 5. List all the fins and describe their location on the fish. Which are paired? Which fins contain spines? (answers in bold below) The non-paired anterior dorsal fin, composed of spines, and the non-paired posterior dorsal fin, composed of rays, lie on the dorsal surface of a perch. Behind both, at the total posterior of the fish rests the non-paired, ray-composed caudal fin, and anterior to it on the posterior ventral surface rests the non-paired anal fin, composed of both rays, and spines. Anterior to the anal fin, lie the paired pelvic fins, composed of rays, and a few spines, while finally, the paired pectoral fins project from either side of the fish, and are composed of soft rays. 6. Describe the scales on your fish. The scales on my fish had the appearance of small, smooth shiny shingles, all of which pointed away from the anterior of the fish, in order to facilitate swimming. Under a microscope, they were bumpy, and rough, and underneath them on the perch were located small glands to excrete slime. 7. What takes place in the gills? The gills are composed of four sets of gill arches with gill rakers branching to the interior. To the exterior, many smaller gill filaments connect, to form that body of the gill, which in turn contain small capillaries, through which blood travels during the process of gas exchange, that takes place in the gills. The gills also aid in ion transfer, ammonia filtration, and excretion. 8. What is the function of the gill filaments? The gill filaments are a double row of thin projections that extend from the gill arches, and serve to hold the capillaries. Inside them, most of the gill's primary functions occur. 9. Describe how circulation takes place in a fish.. Veins lead deoxygenated blood into a collecting chamber know as the sinus venosus, which in turn deposits the blood into a large chamber of the heart known as the atrium. Contractions of the atrium speeds up the blood, and drive it into the muscular ventricle, the heart's main pumping chamber. Here, contractions of the ventricle provide most of the force which drives blood throughout the entire circulatory system, and force blood into the elastic, valved, conus arteriosus, from which it travels along arteries into the gills, and undergoes—

gas exchange in small vessels called capillaries, before transporting oxygen and nutrients to other parts of the body, and traveling back to the heart. 10. Summarize your dissection experience. When I discovered that the class would carry out the dissection on separate days I became a bit worried, because we hadn't been issued dissection guides, however my doubts were soon assuaged, and I did fairly well, on the whole. At first I had a few problems identifying the heart, however after that, everything fell into place. I even discovered some structures (pyloric caeca), which were unlabeled in our book's original illustration, and found the experience interesting (my perch only had three). Another large surprise came when I noted that that that aside from the orange muscle, I could classify everything in almost “black and white� terms, regarding coloration. Unlike the previous dissection, I made my slide correctly, and I had no trouble locating my perch's brain in perfect condition. However the most enjoyable part came just as I thought it completed, and walked through the door. After being (voluntarily) press ganged by one of my instructor's delightful assosiates, I felt like something of a scientific missionary to the lower grades, displaying a fish heart for all to see. And though I still don't find dissection lovable in and of itself, I do know that I find many of the connected accidentals extremely enjoyable.

Christopher Long

The Frog Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Subphylum: Vertebrata Class: Amphibia Order: Anura Genus: Rana Species: pipiens

I. Purpose: The purpose is to examine the Frog internally and externally by dissection. II. Materials: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Dissection tray Frog Scalpel Scissors Forceps Dissecting Needle Dissecting Probe

III. Methods: A. External: The dissector began his dissection of the frog by observing the smooth, slimy skin, which hung loosely from the body, colored yellow on the ventral surface, and splotchy green on the dorsal surface, where the integument clung slightly tighter. He noted that the body of the frog consisted of a small head section connected to a larger trunk section by a short neck, and that from the trunk extended four pairs of legs, each of which held four fingers. The dissector then observed the two small, brown modified lateral lines, that protruded lateral to the frog's depressed backbone, and halted shortly beneath the frog's moderately sized black eyes, which were covered by three eyelids; the soft skinfold know as the upper eyelid, the flexible lower eyelid, and the hardy, transparent, nictitating membrane, which he probed using his dissection probe, and could not easily move. Lateral, and slightly ventral to the eyes, the dissector observed the flat, indented tympanums, while medial to the tympanums, and cranial to the eyes, he could see the small, white, pitted external nares, which he probed using his dissection probe, discovering that they ran a short while into the head, but did not reach the brain. The dissector next observed the frog's short, clawless forelimbs, located ventral and distal to the eyes, on the trunk of the frog, before he examined the dorsally located, muscular hind legs, which were slightly longer than the frogs body, and three times as long as the frogs forelimbs, possessing webbed feet, and unclawed toes, one extremely large in relation to the others. The dissector then flipped the frog to it's ventral side, and observed that he could see a portion of the large intestine through the skin, running medially from the limbs to the black opening known as the vent, which he then lightly probed using his dissection needle, and found to extend a moderate way into the frog. Next, the dissector then flipped his frog to the dorsal side, and probe the tight, closed jaws with his dissection probe, which could not go very far because of the jaws. Then the dissector held the frog, and using his gloved hand, broke the resistant jaws in half, and split portions of the frogs neck located proximal to it. Lining the dorsal interior of the frog's creamy mouth, the dissector saw many small, sharp, clear maxillary teeth, which were not present on the lower jaw. Proximal, and ventral these, on either side of the mouth's ventral portion, the dissector saw the small, impressed openings know as internal nares, which his probe could not go far into, while medial to the internal nares, the dissector saw grey, flat, twin vomerine teeth. Ventral to the vomerine teeth, between either side of the jaw, the dissector observed the shadowy esophagus, which he probed a brief way into using his dissection needle, finding it to be short and leading to the stomach, located medial to the larger openings of the Eustachian tubes, located on the dorsal surface of the jaw, which he did not prob into. Medial and ventral to the Esophagus, on the jaw's ventral surface, dissector observed a rounded structure he knew to be the glottis, which his dissection probe revealed to be the opening of the larynx, but lateral to it, could not observe any vocal sac openings, proving conclusively his frog was female. The dissector then observed that cranial to the glottis lay the frog's dark gray, bulbous, flat, cranially attached tongue, which at the uttermost caudal point, split into two small protrusions, and ended his external analysis. B. Internal: The dissector began his internal observations by flipping the frog to it's ventral side, removing most of the skin from the frogs body with his scalpel, incising first down the middle, and then making two lateral incisions proximal the legs on either side, to sever connection points, before pulling the rest of the skin of the frog's body with moderate ease, and observed the smooth, flexible, yellowish orange muscle beneath, which proved particularly numerous around the hind limbs. Next, the dissector—

—made an incision with his scalpel down the center of the stomach, and four smaller incisions lateral to this along the interior side of each limb. The dissector then tugged the two flaps created open, and observed the internal organs of the frog. Many tubular, rubbery, orange fat bodies obscured the dissectors view, so he removed them, and then proceeded. Toward the cranial end, the dissector observed a large, forest green, moderately soft, three lobed liver, which partially obscured and connected to the J-shaped, soft stomach, which was dirty orange in coloration, and ran laterally to it along the frog's left side. Tucked underneath the middle lobe of the liver, the dissector observed the green, soft gallbladder, which connected the middle lobe of the liver to caudal end of the stomach via a thin bile duct. The dissector removed the liver, and observed the gray, muscular, bulbous heart which rested cranial to it, consisting of the valentine-shaped ventricle, and the spherical left and right atriums, located cranial and lateral to it. Distal and lateral to these, tucked along either side of the frog's body cavity, the dissector observed two pairs of deflated, membraneous, purplish lungs, connected to the lobes of the heart via a network of veins and arteries, while cranial to them, he observed the small Esophagus, which connected to the stomach. The dissector removed both the lungs, and the heart, revealing the white backbone of the frog, and more of the orange internal muscle he had observed earlier. He followed the backbone caudally until he reach the thin, whitish yellow, dual-portioned, coiled small intestine; which he observed to consist of a cranial end know as the duodenum, which connected to the stomach, and a lower end known as the ileum, which ran caudally toward the small intestine; and was covered by a small the thin, clear membrane of mesentery. Located on the right side of the frog, and lateral to the lower portion of the small intestine; the dissector observed a small, yellow-white, slightly bulbous, tightly coiled tube, which he recognized as the frog's oviduct; and connected caudally to it, he saw the thick, straight, soft, white colored large intestine, that piped off into the short, thin tube of the cloaca, and eventually ran into the vent, located at the caudal end of the frog. Ventral to this, he saw the thin, deflated white membrane of the urinary bladder, which piped into the cloaca, and running laterally and proximal from the large intestine along the left side of the frog, the dissector saw the red, spherical, bulbous spleen; while located cranially, and slightly to the frog's right, the dissector observed the two reddish kidneys, ventral to the frog's small intestine; and dorsally cranial to this, the dissector saw small, white, brain-like pancreas, dorsal to the inestine. The dissector then flipped his flog to it's dorsal side, and searched for the brain. Using his scalpel, the dissector made an incision about 1 mm caudal from the right eye, and followed it over to the left, before he cut caudally about 5 mm, and then over again, creating a disk in the skull of the frog, which he then removed, revealing the brain. At the cranial end of the white, coiled brain, the dissector saw a pair of olfactory bulbs, which led caudally into the larger cerebrum, located cranial to the optic tectum. Caudal, and dorsal to the optic tectum, the dissector could observe the cerebellum, while caudal and ventral to it, the dissector saw the elongated medulla oblongata, which tapered into the spinal chord. The dissector noted a number of tiny nerves running out from the brain, and then ended his dissection, as there was nothing else to examine.

IV. Observations: A. External Anatomy of a Frog:

IV. Observations: B. Internal Anatomy of a Frog:

V. Conclusions: 1. Name two different functions of the skin The loose, thin skin of a Frog contains many capillaries, and serves a vital aid in gas exchange through the process of cutaneous respiration, due the small surface area of the lungs. Because of its permeability, the skin of a frog also allows for the absorption of water. 2. Name a function of the mucus glands. The mucus glands of a Frog excrete a lubricant that keeps the skin moist in air, and aids in gas exchange. In some species, they also excrete foul tasting, or poisonous substances 3. How many arteries does a frog have? The frog has three primary arteries, as well as many smaller arteries. The Carotid arches transport blood to the brain, the Aortic Arches transport blood the the body, and the Pulmocutaneous artery transports blood to the lungs. Other arteries include the renal artery, the gastric artery, the hepatic artery, the subclavian artery, and the iliac artery. 4. What is an adaptive value of the nictitating membrane? The transparent, movable nictitating membrane protects the eyes of a frog from chemical, bacteriological, and biological agents, without impeding vision. 5. Name four structures that empty their discharge into the cloaca. (answers in bold below) The large intestine, the gonads (ovaries and testes), the urinary bladder, and the kidneys all discharge into the frog's cloaca. 6. Name two ways that a frog's forelimbs differ from it's hind legs. The longer back legs of a frog posses a skeleton with several specializations for absorbing the forces created by jumping and landing, and webbed hind feet. 7. How is the tongue of a frog attached to its mouth? The muscular tongue of a frog is attached to the cranial end of the mouth so that the tongue can be flipped out and used to snare prey. 8. Where does the opening of the Glotis lead? The glotis is a small, rounded structure with a vertical slit, found just caudal to the tongue, which serves as the opening to the larynx and the lungs 9. How many chambers are there in a frogs heart. The tri-chambered heart of a frog consists of the left atrium, which contains only oxygenated blood, the right atrium, which contains only deoxygenated blood, and the muscular ventricle, which contains both oxygenated and deoxygenated blood, pumping them throughout the circulatory system. 10. Name the three arteries that branch from the Truncus Arteriosus The Carotid arches transport blood to the brain, the Aortic Arches transport blood the the body, and the Pulmocutaneous artery transports blood to the lungs. 11. How many lobes make up the liver of a frog? The large liver of a frog creates bile, and consists of three separate lobes; the right lobe, the left anterior lobe, and the left posterior lobe. 12. Why is the Gallbladder Green? The gallbladder serves as a storage area for bile, which tints it green. 13. What is the main function of mesentery? The mesentery is a small, thin membrane resembling a pastic wrap, which holds the small intestine in place. 14. What system does the kidney belong to? What is its main function? The kidneys of a frog serve as it's primary excretory organs, filtering the blood of harmful chemicals, and converting toxic ammonia into urea.

15. Summarize your dissection experience in two paragraphs: When I first walked into the dissection room, after three days of sickness with a virus, I didn't expect that my instructor would have me participate in the dissection, despite the rigorous study I'd been stocking up on. Needless to say, I was worried at first. Although I knew that my lab report would be graded fairly, I didn't want to seem like the proverbial dunce in the corner (though once the dissection began, this fear dissipated). With exception of a few structures inside the mouth I needed no help whatsoever for my external observations, and completed them with little hassle. Cracking open the frog's jaw was a little difficult— at first—however the jovial laughter of a female classmate, in equally difficult straights, deprived me of any shame. For some reason, even the preservatives smelt less cloyingly (though a little got on my face), and I went on to my internal observations with confidence and zing. The internal observations of my dissection were considerably more eventful, as I realized when I looked carefully at my tools. When the last class came through, someone dropped two forceps into my tray, rather than any scissors. To me, this came as a healthy surprise; from previous dissections, I'd come to prefer a scalpel. In any event, my dissection moved along at a rapid pace (to rapid I realized, when a frog leg flew into my lap). Most of the internal organs I found resembled those of a perch, and this familiarity, combined with a more familiar tool, allowed me to go ahead of the current instructions. The only organs I couldn't name at first sight were the kidneys and the pancreas, which my instructor determined for me, before I found my frog's (intact) brain. By this point, the stench had broken through my nostrils, so with some happiness, I cleaned out my tray, and found that missing pair of scissors, before tottering out of the classroom. Despite the pride of having completed a difficult dissection, my stomach rumbled. Sometimes, food is the last thing anyone has in mind‌

Christopher Long Science Mr. Snyder A.D. 2009

Heart Rate Lab: Purpose: In this lab I examine the affect of various actions on my heart rate: Heart Rate:




Beats per Fifteen Seconds




Beat per Minute




Beats per Fifteen Seconds After One Minute




Christopher Long Science Mr. Snyder A.D. 2009

Blood Type Lab: Background: Around 1900, Karl Landsteiner discovered that there are at least four different kinds of human blood, determined by the presence or absence of specific agglutinogens (antigens) on the surface of red blood cells (erythrocytes). these antigens have been designated as A and B. Antibodies against antigens A or B begin to build up in the blood plasma shortly after birth, the levels peak at about eight to ten years of age, and the antibodies remain, in declining amounts, throughout the rest of a person's life. The stimulus for antibody production is not clear; however, it has been proposed that antibody production is initiated by minute amounts of A and B antigens that may enter the body through food, bacteria, or other means. Humans normally produce antibodies against those antigens that are not on their erythrocytes: A person with A antigens has anti-B antibodies; a person with B antigens has anti-A antibodies; a person with neither A nor B antigens has both anti-A and anti-B antibodies; and a person with both A and B antigens has neither anti-A nor anti-B antibodies (Figure 1). Blood type is based on the antigens, not the antibodies, a person possesses. The four blood groups are types A, B, AB, and O. Blood type O, characterized by the absence of A and B agglutinogens, is the most common in the United States and is found in 45% of the population. Type A is next in frequency, and is found in 39% of the population. The frequencies at which types B and AB occur are 12% and 4% respectively.

Blood Type:


Figure I: Antibodies in plasma





O, A





O, B


A and B



O, A, B, AB


Neither A nor B


O, A, B, AB


Can Give Blood To:

Can Receive Blood From:

The ABO System and Process of Agglutination: There is a simple test performed with antisera containing high levels of anti-A and anti-B agglutinins to determine blood type. Several drops of each kind of antiserum are added to separate samples of blood. If agglutination (clumping) occurs only in the suspension to which the anti-A serum was added, the blood type is A. If agglutination occurs only in the anti-B mixture, the blood type is B. Agglutination in both samples indicates that the blood type is AB. The absence of agglutination in any sample indicates that the blood type is O (Figure 2)

Figure II: Reaction: Blood Type:

Anti-A Serum:

Anti-B Serum:


No Agglutination


No Agglutination






No Agglutination

No Agglutination


The Importance of Blood Typing: As noted in the table above, people can receive transfusions of only certain blood types, depending on the type of blood they have. If incompatible blood types are mixed, erythrocyte destruction, agglutination and other problems can occur. For instance, if a person with type B blood is transfused with blood type A, the recipient’s anti-A antibodies will attack the incoming type A erythrocytes. The type A erythrocytes will be agglutinated, and hemoglobin will be released into the plasma. In addition, incoming anti-B antibodies of the type A blood may also attack the type B erythrocytes of the recipient, with similar results. This problem may not be serious, unless a large amount of blood is transfused. The ABO blood groups and other inherited antigen characteristics of red blood cells are often used in medico-legal situations involving identification of disputed paternity. A comparison of the blood groups of mother, child, and alleged father may exclude the man as a possible parent. Blood typing cannot prove that an individual is the father of a child; it merely indicates whether or not he possibly could be. For example, a child with a blood type of AB, whose mother is type A, could not have a man whose blood type is O as a father. The Genetics of Blood Types: The human blood types (A, B, AB, and O) are inherited by multiple alleles, which occurs when three or more genes occupy a single locus on a chromosome. Gene IA codes for the synthesis of antigen (agglutinogen) A, gene IB codes for the production of antigen B on the red blood cells, and gene i does not produce any antigens. The phenotypes listed in the table below are produced by the combinations of the three different alleles: IA, IB, and i. When genes IB and IA are present in an individual, both are fully expressed. Both IA and IB are dominant over i so the genotype of an individual with blood type O must be ii (Figure 3).

Figure III: Phenotype

Possible Genotypes




IB I B , I B i





Use IA for antigen A, IB for antigen B, and i for no antigens present. Genes I A and IA are dominant over i. AB blood type results when both genes IA and IB are present.

The RH System: In the period between 1900 and 1940, a great deal of research was done to discover the presence of other antigens in human red blood cells. In 1940, Landsteiner and Wiener reported that rabbit sera containing antibodies for the red blood cells of the Rhesus monkey would agglutinate the red blood cells of 5% of Caucasians. These antigens, six in all, were designated as the Rh (Rhesus) factor, and they were given the letters C, c, D, d, E, and e by Fischer and Race. Of these six antigens, the D factor is found in 85% of Caucasians, 94% of African Americans, and 99% of Asians. An individual who possesses these antigens is designated Rh+; an individual who lacks them is designated Rh-. The genetics of the Rh blood group system is complicated by the fact that more than one antigen can be identified by the presence of a given Rh gene. Initially, the Rh phenotype was thought to be determined by a single pair of alleles. However, there are at least eight alleles for the Rh factor. To simplify matters, consider one allele: Rh+ is dominant over Rh-; therefore, a person with an Rh+/Rh- or Rh+/Rh+ genotype has Rh+ blood. The anti-Rh antibodies of the system are not normally present in the plasma, but anti-Rh antibodies can be produced upon exposure and sensitization to Rh antigens. Sensitization can occur when Rh+ blood is transfused into an Rh- recipient, or when an Rh- mother carries a fetus who is Rh+. In the latter case, some of the fetal Rh antigens may enter the mother’s circulation and sensitize her so that she begins to produce anti-Rh antibodies against the fetal antigens. In most cases, sensitization to the Rh antigens takes place toward the end of pregnancy, but because it takes some time to build up the anti-Rh antibodies, the first Rh+ child carried by a previously unsensitized mother is usually unaffected. However, if an Rh- mother, or a mother previously sensitized by a blood transfusion or a previous Rh+ pregnancy, carries an Rh+ fetus, maternal anti-Rh antibodies may enter the fetus’ circulation, causing the agglutination and hemolysis of fetal erythrocytes and resulting in a condition known as erythroblastosis fetalis (hemolytic disease of the newborn). To treat an infant in a severe case, the infant’s Rh+ blood is removed and replaced with Rh- blood from an unsensitized donor to reduce the level of anti-Rh antibodies.

Objectives: ! ! ! ! !

Define Agglutination and agglutinin Perform an actual blood typing procedure Observe the antigen/antibody reaction in blood Determine the ABO and Rh blood type of your own blood analyze class data to determine if it is representative of the human population

Materials: Material Needed per Group: ! ! ! ! ! ! !

Two sterile alcohol pads One sterile lancet One Blood typing tray Three toothpicks Gloves Goggles Apron

Shared Materials: ! ! ! !

Anti-A typing serum Anti-B typing serum Anti-Rh typing serum Biohazard bag

Procedure: Safety: ! !

Protective gloves, goggles, and face shield should be worn when handling blood samples or when in contact wit contaminated materials. Dispose of all contaminated items in the included biohazard bag and placed in a properly labeled biomedical waste container.

ABO and Rh Blood Typing: 1. Thoroughly clean the tip of one finger on your non-writing hand with a sterile alcohol pad. 2. Carefully open a sterile lancet package from the end that is closest to the blunt end of the lancet and remove it. 3. Prick the sterile area on your finger with the lancet. 4. Carefully place the lancet back in its package and dispose of it in the biohazard bag. !

If you cannot perform this step, as your teacher for assistance

5. Add one drop of blood to each well of the blood typing tray

6. Clean the tip of your finger with another sterile alcohol pad and dispose of it in the biohazard bag. 7. Add one drop of anti-A serum to the A well of your blood typing tray, one drop of anti-B serum to the B well, and one drop of anti-Rh serum to the Rh well. 8. Using a clean toothpick, stir the A well thoroughly. Dispose of the toothpick in the biohazard bag. 9. Repeat the above step for each of the B and Rh wells. Be sure to use a new toothpick for each well to avoid cross-contamination. Dispose of each toothpick in the biohazard bag when you are done stirring each well. 10. Examine each well for agglutination. Agglutination indicates a positive text result. !

Clumping in a tray may indicate agglutination

11. Record your results in Table One in the Analysis section and determine your blood type. 12. Pool the class data and calculate the percentage of students with each blood type using the following formula: !

(Total number of students with type X blood/Total number of students in the class)*100

13. Record your results in Table Two


Blood Sample

Blood Type

Anti-A Serum

Table I: Anti-B Serum

Anti-Rh Serum

Blood Type




O, A

Table II: # of Students With Total # of Students in Blood Type Class









% of Students with Blood Type 30%


0% 10% 60%

Assessment: 1. Answer the following questions based on your ABO blood type. Ignore the Rh factor for this question. a) What agglutinins are found in your plasma? !

Anti-A and Anti-B antibodies

b) What agglutinins are found in your plasma? !

None whatsoever

c) If you needed a blood transfusion, what blood types could you safely receive? !


d) If you donated blood, what blood type(s) could safely be transfused with your blood? !

AB, B, A, O

2. Below is a description representing the blood type analysis of a new patient (Patient X). From the information obtained from the “slide�, fill out the medical technologist's report. a) Blood Typing Tray !

A Well: Agglutination


B Well: No Agglutination


RH Well: Agglutination

b) Medical Technologist's Report !

Patient Name: Christoph Lang


ABO Type: A


Rh type: +


Med Tech Name: Herr Snyder's Klasse

Christopher Long Science Mr. Snyder A.D. 2009

Nutrients Lab: Purpose: This lab depicts a diet containing all essential nutrients for human life: Meal:

Contents of Meal:



Peaches soaked in Cream

Carbohydrates, Water


Potato Soup and Red Wine

Proteins, Lipids, Water


Shrimp, Scallop, Lobster, Crab, Clam, Caesar Salad, and German Beer

Minerals, Vitamins, Water


Scones with Tea

Vitamins, Water

Christopher Long Biology I Mr. Snyder A.D. 2009

Fir! Year Biology: Many different approaches cover the difficult subject of first year biology, and none perhaps grants the student a complete understanding of either biology, or the scientific methods employed in this field. Yet despite the disparity of methods, and necessary lack of complete understanding, any genuine course of biology must confront several of the notions most fundamental to the human understanding of life. Firstly, the aspiring biologist must confront the building blocks of life, and understand them to a degree sufficient for an understanding of more complex organisms. Second, he must develop an understanding of life's immense range, and diversity. Finally, he must examine the pinnacle of life, and explore the human body, created in millennia of evolution's blast furnace. In this essay, I will explore how the development of my first first year biology course traced these steps.

Nothing holds a more perennial glee for young children then asking “Why ?”, and a whole field of biology serves to answer the age old question of both why, and how, life functions. Because at it's most fundamental level, life is composed of cells, my class gained a good initial understanding of concepts relating to cellular biology. We learnt the the mechanics which underly life's transmission, — The genetic code— and also explored the various chemical processes which allow cells to function, and the organelles behind them; we learned of transcription and translation, ribosomes and nuclei. It was this analysis of life's most basic structure and function which permitted the class to flourish later in the course. When we learnt of cellular components such as DNA, it provided us a vital insight into concepts we had not yet learned, such as the evolutionary diversity of life. Similarly, experiments

performed to increase our knowledge of biology's most basic elements proved useful in the future, providing us with firm examples of the scientific method. Thus, the work we did relating to cellular biology and genetics put us in an excellent position to deal with more complex organisms, and natural processes. It formed a sturdy backbone for the course.

When most people imagine life , they imagine the mammals— and entirely dismiss almost every organism on the planet. In reality, the diversity of life on earth is so great that one critical element of biology is simply to recognize it's depth. The processes which enable this vast diversity of life; the methods of cellular formation, reproduction, organ growth to name a few, comprise the functional core of biological understanding. For our class, confronting this broad concept engendered the most intensive part of the year. We learnt the basic system of biological nomenclature, from kingdom to species, studied the way in which individual animals adapt to their environment , and examined the mammals, earth's most complex organism's. Moreover, we learned what had created the diversity we saw, becoming familiar with the concept of Darwinian Evolution and many of it's corollaries, such as natural selection. Nor did study alone did not constitute our duty: the class completed myriad dissections, upon animals of ever increasing complexity, noting the simple intricacy of nature, and the many intriguing similarities every specimen held in common. The more we studied, the more complete our picture of the natural world became, and the closer we came to the level of excellence where we could examine man, as the culmination of our biological studies. Understanding the vastness of life enabled us to better understand our own uniqueness both as organism's formed through years of development, and as human beings.

On earth, a single predator stands at the pinnacle; Man. No other organism has the capacity not only to hunt any species at will, but also to surpass the very principles of nature herself, and moreover, the human body provides biologists with the most extraordinary example of complexity in their grasp.

With this spirit, my class dove into our exploration of the human person. We examined the basic composition of the human body, and carefully studied each system. We learnt about the tissues which composed the systems. We learnt about the nutrients which sustained the tissues: we used all the knowledge we gained from previous exercises, and at last, we saw how everything we'd learned up till now worked in concert, and marveled at the symphony. Concepts before purely hypothetical, such as genetics, and lab experiments of only technical note began to actually influence our lives, just as modern biology has influenced life behind the scenes. Once, we first discovered the genes which affected human blood type, and then married genes with practical science in an experiment which let us find our blood type; information essential for transfusions. In the unlikely case that a friend is seriously injured, knowing the primary veins and arteries could help save a life. Because the class learnt how bones grow, we have a better idea of how to let them heal. And on a human level, knowing more about ourselves, and our place in a hierarchy much wider than even our entire species led to a greater understanding of the individual's place in human society. Studying Man was a perfect end for the course, and it allowed for both an overview, and a learning experience.

In my first year Biology course, I learnt many things. I learnt about the human body, about tissues and ligaments; about the immensity of life, how evolution helped create it; and about life's basic unit of structure and function, the cell. Along the way, sometimes the class laughed, and other times we suffered, (The blood type lab was painful) however the course fully met our expectations. Not only did it give us a firm biological foundation; it also helped us to understand our place in the cosmos.

Fourth Quarter Biology Portfoliio  

My Fourth Quarter Biology Portfoliio.

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