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Acknowledgements We would like to thank the Bartlett Prospective Urban Design program that gave us the chance to explore and research architecture in a new way. We also want to thank our tutors Daniel and Rasa who gave us inspiration and constant feedback with comments and guidance. Also Anqi and Christoph who provided us with technical support. Finally, we would like to thank those who were by our side and supported us these two terms.


CONTENTS Theoretical Background

Research on ground

Mereological Approach From whole to parts

ReAssembling The Parts

Aggregations based on different connections | Strategy A

Chain Systems

Connecting the Blockchain theory with property issues and design decisions

Chaining the Parts

Aggregations based on the concept of shareability | Strategy B

Chaining the Parts

Aggregations based on shifting and overlapping | Strategy C

Free Space

In search of voids | Strategy D

Evaluation

Based on the decentralization of the chain

Computational Evaluation

System costs and analysis

Centrality

Analysis of large arrangements

Visualization

Project in context

01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11


Theoretical Background

Research on Ground

The notion of the city’s expansion is set by the vertical extrusion of the ground , as the plot of each building. In this way, cities are strictly defined by their plans, which creates the foundation of the way of planning that the projects contradicts.

01


BLOCKERTIES

Research on Ground Rem Koolhaas Diagrams

Rem Koolhaas, Madelon Vriesendorp The City of the Captive Globe Project, New York, New York, Axonometric 1972

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The cities are defined by their plans, which create a strict and isolated compilation of buildings that have zero interaction with each other. They are stand-alone buildings strictly related to the ground from where their value is derived from. So, buildings end up being the ground’s vertical multiplication. This additive method used promotes limited space.


THEORETICAL BACKGROUND

From this kind of city, we want to research a more interactive city, where its components relate with each other, generating the city’s value. Stand-alone entities for us become the parts of polyphonic assemblies with high interaction with each other. Changeability interaction and dependences, are the parameters that we evaluate in the value generation.

6 7

Rem Koolhaas: Delirious New York: A Retrospective Manifesto for Manhattan (1978)


BLOCKERTIES

Polyphony The Polycentric City

Paul Klee, Polyphony, 1932, Tempera on Linen

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The first step to read the urban fabric, as suggested by Collin Rowe and Fred Kotter in their book ‘Collage City’, is to see the city as a fragmental whole, composed by the remnants of the past. By examining a city in this way, we understand that it is a composition of additive and interlinked information. The same principle but with a different manifestation is followed in the Archipelago City, proposed by O. M. Ungers and Rem Koolhaas. “[…] the city as a whole is formed by the federation of the all these urban entities with different structures, developed in


THEORETICAL BACKGROUND

a deliberately antithetic manner” (Ungers et al., 2013). According to this idea, the city needs to be re-edited to form a series of strategic islands –which are an independent whole with their own center and independent characteristics, and also part of the city. Finally, “a ‘loose fit’ is proposed between activity and enclosing envelope.” (Allen, 2009). Stan Allen regards the city as composed of many figures, comparable to the blocks of a chain, all of which are loose to each other. The traits of each part will appear in the whole city and interact with each other. In other words, we could discretize the city as a series of parts.

8 9

O. M. Ungers and Rem Koolhaas ,The Archiipelago City, 1977


Mereological Approach From Whole to Parts

Mereology (from the Greek μέρος, root: μερ-, “part” and the suffix -logy “study, discussion, science”) is the study of parts and the wholes they form. Anything can be described by its parts. This is the steadily down-shrink of a city as an object, as a fabric, as a project, as a composition of parts, to the organization of separated entities.

02


BLOCKERTIES

Narkomfin Building Moisei Ginzburg, Ignaty Milinis Moscow, 1928

From Whole to Part Parts Extraction

Social Housing that incorporates the concept of the social condenser bridging private apartments with collective space. The element describes the connection of one private unit with the space dedicated for shared use with the use of a bridge.

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MEREOLOGICAL APPROACH

Villa La Roche Le Corbusier Paris, 1923

Art collectors house with gallery. An encapsulated bridge connects the private parts of the apartments with the gallery and the shared spaces. The element describes the connection between the public gallery of the building with the private rooms.

12 13


BLOCKERTIES

Villa Safadasht Kamran Heirati Architects Iran, 2016

From Whole to Part Parts Extraction

Residency divided in two parts connected by a walkway above the pool. This project also intends to be both a passage and a frame, to emphasize the presence of the site not only as the exterior but also a stream which flows around and inside the building.

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MEREOLOGICAL APPROACH

Saltzman House

Richard Meier Architects East Hampton, 1969

Vacation house where a passage is en-framed by an elevated platform which connects the two bedrooms of the house. The element is the guest room unit with the connection to the main house.

14 15


BLOCKERTIES

The Interlace

OMA and Ole Scheeren Singapore, 2013

From Whole to Part Parts Extraction

This 1000-unit apartment building creates uplifted bridges of the same block-unit leaving free space on the ground. The element is the interlocking core of the settlements. It is the handle that lets the buildings rotate by its center.

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MEREOLOGICAL APPROACH

Parc de la Villette Bernard Tschumi Paris, 1982

Eisenman has a series a house design studying the configuration arrangement of the walls, columns and slabs. We extract the different levels of slab and columns attached.

16 17


BLOCKERTIES

House II

Peter Eisenman Vermont, USA 1969

From Whole to Part Parts Extraction

Eisenman has a series a house design studying the configuration arrangement of the walls, columns and slabs. I extract the different levels of slab and columns attached.

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MEREOLOGICAL APPROACH

Farnsworth House

Ludwig Mies van der Rohe Chicago, 1951

Vacation house where a passage is en-framed by an elevated platform which connects the two bedrooms of the house.

18 19


BLOCKERTIES

House Na

Fujimoto Tokyo, Japan 2011

From Whole to Part Parts Extraction

This project can be considered as a study of raumplan, slabs at different levels according to human dimension. Slab and column is a way to create and separate space.

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MEREOLOGICAL APPROACH

Kait Kanagawa Institute of Technology Junya Ishigami Kanagawa, Japan 2010

The arrangement of the columns is the only means to separate and define space in the project. Density is an important factor to consider.

20 21


BLOCKERTIES

Tokyo Apartment Fujimoto Janpan, 2016

From Whole to Part Parts Extraction

Each dwelling unit is made with two or three independent rooms of prototypical “house” shapes. And the two rooms exist, separated like combination of the room of the first floor, and the room of the third floor and they are connected by outside stairs. It can be said that each dwelling unit is realized by experience of two rooms and the city when passing along outside stairs.

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MEREOLOGICAL APPROACH

Rental Space Tower Fujiomto, Japan, 2016

Comprising twelve projects and some other few small interventions, the second edition of “House Vision� offered a domestic exploration for a near-future scenario. Creating a model that visualizes as a interconnected system of pathways, common areas and plant-filled terraces.

22 23


BLOCKERTIES

Montessori School, Delft Herman Hertzberger Rotterdam, 2009

From Whole to Part Parts Extraction

Montessori education requires as many places for individual activities as possible. It was high time a spatial solution was divised to this problem, in the form of a classroom with many corners and different zones- in other words, different from the traditional rectangle. The transtional space is one of the highlight in this project, it could be regard as a in-betwen space, neither belong to inside and outside. BPRO URBAN DESIGN RC17


MEREOLOGICAL APPROACH

Gap House

Archihood WXY Karea, 2015

The concept of the Gap house is to support new life style of the young, single demographic household by sharing common spaces such as the living room, kitchen, and dining area. The balance is coordinated by the outdoor space which is defined to ’The Gap’ – a design which helps bring in nature to the residents and encourage interaction and mingling amongst housemates. There is a small gap which arises between the house and the village. It fills ‘the gap’in between its people.

24 25


BLOCKERTIES

Vertical Village

Franรงois Chantier, Maria Fernandez Hongkong, 2016

From Whole to Part Parts Extraction

Using the vernacular gable, the scheme offers a varied sectional treatment to each module, providing a dynamic, rich spatial variety whilst helping to form an interconnected vertical village. A robust morphology, along with simplified post-and-beam construction results in a scheme which is both adaptable, economical, and flexible. The vertical navigation is one of the most important part.

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MEREOLOGICAL APPROACH

We examined architectural examples that in a small scale come close to the project’s approach of space, challenging the relations with the ground and the property that it creates. The first examples contributed to the research about connectivity of private and shared spaces through bridges, the second examples research the vertical relation of the slabs and the ground and the last ones articulate accessibility and possibilities between properties and in-between spaces.

26 27


ReAssembling the Parts

Aggregations based on different connections From dis-assembling the buildings to re-assembling them in search of the new possibilities arising.

03

Strategy

A


BLOCKERTIES

Enlarge

Level

Duplicate

Vertical

Linear

Lengthen

Lengthen

Detach

Duplicate

Densify

Extrude

Thicken

Walk through

Centralized

Level

Extrude

Lengthen

Standardization

Configurational Flexibility Slabs and columns

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REASSEMBLING THE PARTS

30 31


BLOCKERTIES

Configurational Flexibility Slabs and columns

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REASSEMBLING THE PARTS

32 33


BLOCKERTIES

Configurational Flexibility Slabs and columns

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REASSEMBLING THE PARTS

Concourse Building Singapore, 1981 Paul Rudolph

Assemble by different scale gives us a sense of large share space as a square and many fragmental space serving different functions.

34 35


BLOCKERTIES

Configurational Flexibility Slabs and columns

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REASSEMBLING THE PARTS

Concourse Building Singapore, 1981 Paul Rudolph

With arranging the spaces we can create some free spaces in the middle. The roof can be used for the upper floors.

36 37


BLOCKERTIES

Configurational Flexibility Slabs and columns

Ten Bungalows Hong Kong, 1981 Paul Rudolph

These are the small multiples arranged according to needs. The roofs can be used by the upper levels and some units can have larger thresholds.

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REASSEMBLING THE PARTS

Concourse Building Singapore, 1981 Paul Rudolph

According to the Raum Plan theory, different heights of the space depends on the requirement of different function.

38 39


BLOCKERTIES

Configurational Flexibility Slabs and columns

Concourse Building Singapore, 1981 Paul Rudolph

Some enframing space can be found in the section, they can be vertical courtyard providing opportunity to grow green facade.

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REASSEMBLING THE PARTS

Ten Bungalows Hong Kong, 1980 Paul Rudolph

In the urban planning scale the arrangement of clusters can based on the negotiation of residents. The urban pattern is designed in the process of negotiation.

40 41


BLOCKERTIES

Configurational Flexibility Slabs and columns

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REASSEMBLING THE PARTS

Density will change the spatial relations.

42 43


BLOCKERTIES

Configurational Flexibility Slabs and columns

Atrium space will be created by the vertical arrangement.

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REASSEMBLING THE PARTS

High density slabs potentially make private space shareable.

44 45


BLOCKERTIES

Configurational Flexibility Units Connectivity

Case Study A 6 Links [4 Shared 2 Private] Linear

Case Study B 4 Links [2 Shared 2 Private] Linear

Case Study D 2 Links [1 Shared 1 Private] Limited Results

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REASSEMBLING THE PARTS

46 47

Case Study C 4 Links [2 Shared 2 Private] Linear

Case Study E 2 Links [1 Shared 1 Private] Cubic


BLOCKERTIES

Configurational Flexibility Units Connectivity

Case Study A 6 Links [4 Shared 2 Private] Loop

Case Study B 4 Links [4 Shared] Cubic

Case Study D 2 Links [1 Shared 1 Private] Linear

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REASSEMBLING THE PARTS

48 49

Case Study E 2 Links [1 Shared 1 Private] Linear

Case Study C 2 Links [2 Private] Canonically


BLOCKERTIES

Configurational Flexibility Units Connectivity

Case Study A 8 Links [2 Shared 6 Private] Loop

Case Study C 2 Links [2 Shvared] Limited Results

Case Study D 4 Links [2 Shared 2 Private] Linear

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REASSEMBLING THE PARTS

50 51

Case Study B 4 Links [4 Private] Cubic

Case Study E 4 Links [4 Private] Linear


Chain Systems

Connecting the Blockchain theory with property issues and design decisions From the shareability of space to the ownership issues in a shared economy. Setting the question of who owns the shared space. While cities are presently based on a discrete central authority system, accompanied with a similar property ownership logic, it is time to rearrange or design the city’s composition anew, in order not only to gain sustainability and stability through the decentralization but also to embrace new forms and technologies. With no intent to focus on cryptography issues related to the blockchain, the project concentrates on the decentralized way of sharing information.

04


BLOCKERTIES

A

B

Blockchain Theory Decentralization C

D

E

Rapp Artists, Blockchain Illustration

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Today, in the realm of big data, the planning of a city follows logistic principles, and their abstract logic of arrangement, and organization. At the current stage, logistics simplifies architecture to a stack of entities (Marullo, 2015). This opens the opportunity to imagine architecture in an unprecedented manner, and break the already established chains to create new ones and alongside new forms on the scale of the room to even a territory. Seeing the city as such correlations and understandings of even what privacy, ownership, and shareability is, are entirely altered. The current stage, where every unit is considered as an independent block, parallels with considerations of the basic units in a blockchain-


CHAIN EVALUATION

concept. Moreover, what the blockchain introduces is the constant negotiation between parts. Every block extending a chain adds value to the whole aggregation. In addition, any unit altering the chain regarding shareability, or creating unprecedented connections and sequences, changes the value of the entire chain. One crucial aspect of the blockchain logic is the accessibility granted to every participant of the chain. At the scale of the city, the requirement of accessibility leads to new notions of shareability. Parallel to the courtyard of the 19th-century block and the void space between slabs, the new property relations of a blockchain will translate into new urban forms.

54 55

Centralized Decentralized Distributed A. Chain Model, B. Star Model, C. Star Model with central room, D. Circle Model, E. Grid Model


BLOCKERTIES

Blockchain Theory New Architectural Form

Ludwig Karl Hilberseimer, Highrise City

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Each economical system has created their own architectural forms. From the single house unit to the housing complexes and the residential buildings in forms of slabs and high-rises. In the realm of new economical evolution with the introduction of the blockchain, the question of how it is going to be represented is risen. As a purely decentralized economic system, where accessibility is granted in all of the system’s part, there is the need of a similar architectural representation.


CHAIN EVALUATION

Mereologies, as the architectural approach with the part to whole relation, answers best to the call for representation. With this notion, space detaches from the strains and the problems of the past, as it creates space relied on entities. In a mereological blockchain building forms, there is a tight connectivity between the parts and at the same time unprecedented sequencing of space, where uses mix together to synthesize the whole.

56 57

City of the Future (1913, Harvey Wiley Corbett)


BLOCKERTIES

Blockchain Theory Comparison to High-rise and Slab

Recreating the high-rise as an urban form.

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With the technology of the blockchain, a property does not follow the extrusion of a ground. Here, notions of property build and interpret other elements as ground. Such shared conditions are already part of our built environment; the simplest example is the compartment wall and ceiling between condominiums. One aspect of the research is, therefore, the documentation and extraction of existing property relations other than the plot and the ground. In a


CHAIN EVALUATION

Recreating the slab as an urban form further step, defined as states, these relations are tested for their scalability through an assembly model constructed by finite-statemachines. Here, the concept of the blockchain was translated into a reward-policy documented by a graph-data-structure. This allowed the classification of building assemblies and the comparison of blockchains and their value distribution.

58 59


Chaining the Parts

Aggregations based on the notion of shareability Recreating the settlements now is depended on the sequencing of space. Shared space and private units are changing and alternating to produce different qualities of assemblies.

05

Strategy

B


BLOCKERTIES

Assemblies Open Semi-open Closed

Assembly 1 Open - 3 Semi-open - 3 Closed Linear with Overlapping

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CHAINING THE PARTS

Assembly 2 Closed - Semi-open -Open Linear

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BLOCKERTIES

Assemblies Open Semi-open Closed

Assembly 3 2 Open - 3 Semi-open - 2 Closed Ring with Courtyard

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CHAINING THE PARTS

Assembly 4 Semi-open - Open - Closed Ring with Courtyard

64 65


BLOCKERTIES

Assemblies Open Semi-open Closed

Assembly 5 Semi-open - Open - Closed Overlapping

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CHAINING THE PARTS

Assembly 6 2 Closed - 2 Open - 3 Semi-open Overlapping

66 67


BLOCKERTIES

Assemblies Open Semi-open Closed

Assembly 7 3 Semi-open - 2 Open - 2 Closed Clustering

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CHAINING THE PARTS

Assembly 8 4 Semi-open - 2 Open - 4 Closed Clustering

68 69


BLOCKERTIES

Assemblies Private Shared Bridge

Assembly 9 Bridge - Private - Shared Ring with Courtyards

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CHAINING THE PARTS

Assembly 10 Shared - Private - Bridge Linear with Overlap

70 71


BLOCKERTIES

Assemblies Private Shared Bridge

Assembly 11 Private - Bridge - Shared Ring with Overlap and Courtyard

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CHAINING THE PARTS

Assembly 12 Shared - Private - Bridge Ball with Overlap

72 73


BLOCKERTIES

Assemblies Private Shared Bridge

Assembly 13 Private - Private - Shared (Bridge) Cluster

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CHAINING THE PARTS

Assembly 14 Private - Private - Shared (Bridge) Ring

74 75


BLOCKERTIES

Assemblies Private Shared Bridge

Assembly 15 Private - Shared - Bridge Linear with Courtyards

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CHAINING THE PARTS

Assembly 16 Private - Shared - Bridge Ball with Overlap

76 77


BLOCKERTIES

Assemblies Private Shared Bridge

Assembly 17 Private - Shared - Bridge Linear with Overlap

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CHAINING THE PARTS

Assembly 18 Private - Private - Shared (Bridge) Ring with Overlap

78 79


BLOCKERTIES

Assemblies Private Shared Bridge

Assembly 19 Private - Shared (Bridge) - Private Ring with Courtyards

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CHAINING THE PARTS

Assembly 20 Private - Shared (Bridge) -Private Curved Linear with Courtyard

80 81


BLOCKERTIES

Assemblies Private Shared Bridge

Assembly 21 Private - Shared - Private - Bridge Ring with Courtyard

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CHAINING THE PARTS

Assembly 22 Private - Shared (Bridge) - Private Cluster

82 83


BLOCKERTIES

Assemblies Roof Stair Entrance

To compare two extreme conditions when the completely enclosed space created. First, when the entrances are all outside, the vertical expansion with value increases is infinite, because of the complete accessibility of every new ground.

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CHAINING THE PARTS

Secondly, when the entrances are all facing inside, the value can not increase with vertical expansion, because the new ground is inaccessible with every two levels. So this situation is more difficult to increase value.

84 85


BLOCKERTIES

Assemblies Roof Stair Entrance

When it comes to horizontal expansion, the situation is reverse. When all entrances are facing outside the horizontal expansion is slower than all facing inside.

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CHAINING THE PARTS

The different ration of the flat roof to pitch roof creates different sequencing of roof landscaping.

86 87


BLOCKERTIES

Assemblies Roof Stair Entrance

Different geometrical forms lead to different assembling conditions, which in this case is translated to roofing landscaping / ground expansion.

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CHAINING THE PARTS

In this example it can be seen how the roof in most of the cases can be the front yard on the units and how for some of them this front yard can be the connection point.

88 89


BLOCKERTIES

Assemblies Roof Stair Entrance

The Linear All facing inside, connect the outside, ctreat the linear system. The longer the linear is, the higher value its middle is. The Central All facing inside, connect the outside, ctreat the central system. The value near the centre is even. BPRO URBAN DESIGN RC17


CHAINING THE PARTS

The Cluster All facing inside, connect the outside, ctreat the cluster system. The value is relatively independent.

90 91


BLOCKERTIES

Assemblies Roof Stair Entrance

The Axial All facing inside, connect the outside, ctreat the axial system. The part near the axis contian the higher value.

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CHAINING THE PARTS

The Grid All facing inside, connect the outside, ctreat the grid system. The marginalised problem can be seen.

92 93


Chaining the Parts

Aggregations based on shifting and overlapping From a grid city to the 3-dimentional city. Shifts are utilized to challenge the vertical extrusion of the ground. One aspect of the research is, therefore, the documentation and extraction of existing property relations other than the plot and the ground.

06

Strategy

C


BLOCKERTIES

Urban Patterns Escaping the Rule of the Grid

Urban Patterns

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Cities are defined by their patterns -some of them where formed, some of them where designed. Either way, cityscapes are the 2Dextrution of the urban fabric. Thus, designing it, or researching on the building form that with its repetition will be able to articulate a city begins with firstly the contrast with the old.


CHAINING THE PARTS

With computing interactive between parts the city can become linear or branch type which still remain the street characteristic.

96 97


BLOCKERTIES

Urban Patterns Loosening the Stiffness

Some interaction will make more separation between spaces, this might results in free space required by each block.

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CHAINING THE PARTS

The interaction on in this case instead of separating each part handles in as o connection, so the final result is linked linear systems.

98 99


BLOCKERTIES

stairs becomes private

private space becomes close

two private spaces merge

large new private space

a continuous stairs

new private space

bridge becomes private

bridge disapear

corridor becomes private

bridge with stairs going up

private space with stairs

private space with stairs and bridge

two private space with stairs and bridge

corridor with shared space

bridge with stairs going down

Research on Shift method Small Scale Shifting New Ground

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CHAINING THE PARTS

a large new balcony

new bridge serving the private space

stairs serving the private space

stairs merge with bridge

new private space at the unused ground

bridge has a dead end

two new balconies

private space with view to the bridge

private space with new shreshold

bridge becomes private

new private space

bridge at the end

private space with bridge

private space with stairs and bridge

bridge and stairs

two private spaces

two bridges

private space with windows

100 101


BLOCKERTIES

DesignationCOST LIST Shared Across Stairs Across Stairs Bridge Across Bridge Private Across Private

1 2

distance= 47.2

distance= 32.8

distance= 29.7

cost= 14

cost= 6

cost= 9

3 4

distance= 58.8 distance= 43.3

cost= 11

cost= 14

distance= 58.4

distance= 79.0

cost= 11

cost= 19 distance= 10.6 cost= 6

distance= 40.1

Research on Shift method

distance= 52.1

Middle Scale Circulation Distance and Cost

distance= 56.1

distance= 27.8

cost= 14

cost= 15

cost= 6

cost= 13

distance= 93.0 distance= 24.5

cost= 19 cost=4

distance=20.4

distance= 83.6

cost= 10

cost= 9

distance= 53.4 cost= 10

distance= 51.0 distance= 23.5

cost= 4

cost= 6 distance

cost

distance

distance= 87.5 cost

dead end

cost= 13

repeat

repeat

distance

private space

cost= 11

cost

element

cost= 9 dead end

distance= 56.8 repeat

private space

cost= 7 element

With shifting strategy, the study focus on middle scale elements on how the circulation and ratio between private and shared space will be changed.

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dead end

distance= 37.1

distance= 54.0

private space

element


CHAINING THE PARTS

102 103

Building scale Deconstruction and Reconstruction

In this study, only shared space is shifted. The simple change in results about the circulation can act as a basic guidance on the machine learning. How to generate rules of assemble space with requirements.


BLOCKERTIES

Research on Shift method Decontructing the Building

This study researh on the distance change with the elements shifting. How to generate loose space from a condense arrangement.

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CHAINING THE PARTS

Interactive facade provides more value exchange oppotunities for the city. The linkage between the buildings is no longer single bridge, it can be through a vertical garden with views.

104 105


BLOCKERTIES

Research on Shift method Deconstructing the Building

Residential building as a common building type is always a vertical extrusion with concentrated circulation. With the space shift the circulation space can be more personalized and the floor heights can be different. Vertical courtyard will appear too.

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CHAINING THE PARTS

Especially interactive the balcony which provides more communication between neighbours can be generated by shifting.

106 107


BLOCKERTIES

Research on Shift method Deconstructing the Building

Space pattern goes from linear to semi-enclosure, loop and condense center. The relationship between the spaces change. By this, new circulation routes are created.

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CHAINING THE PARTS

With shifting the high-rise can be deconstructed and reconstructed. The Change of the blokerty chain can provide rich spatial experience and urban landscape.

108 109


BLOCKERTIES

Research on Shift method Deconstructing the Urban

From linear system to a more random arrangement.

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CHAINING THE PARTS

Building with atrium can be deconstruction and reconstruction with shift of building elements. People inside the building will no longer feel the non-human scale atrium, instead, small free spaces are distributed inside the building.

110 111


BLOCKERTIES

Research on Shift method Deconstructing the Urban

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CHAINING THE PARTS

112 113


Free Space

In search of voids

The research focuses on the ratio between shared and private spaces. By changing it the aggregation can either become more dense and stif or more loose.

06

Strategy

D


BLOCKERTIES

Comparison Accessibility Points

The Comparison of Free Space All entrances face outside, each cluster with a small negative space inside, while the free space created by them is the postive space, the margin of the whole system is postive.

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FREE SPACE

The Comparison of Free Space All entrance face inside, each cluster with a small postive space inside, while the free space created by them is the negative space, the margin of the whole system is negative.

116 117


BLOCKERTIES

Comparison Different Ratio Between Shared and Private

The element consists of 3 private units with shared compartment walls and shared navigation system.

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FREE SPACE

When the ratio of shared and private space changes, with enlarging the shared platform and the bridge, the system becomes more loose and more voids are risen.

118 119


BLOCKERTIES

Comparison Different Ratio Between Shared and Private

The element consists of 2 private units with shared navigation system.

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FREE SPACE

When the ratio of shared and private space changes, with extending the shared navigation system, the private units become complimentary to the main navigation.

120 121


BLOCKERTIES

Comparison Different Ratio Between Shared and Private

The element consists of 2 private units with common shared spaces and navigation system.

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FREE SPACE

When the ratio of shared and private space changes, with extending the bridge and the distances of the walls, the system has more free space.

122 123


BLOCKERTIES

Comparison Different Ratio Between Shared and Private

The element consists of 2 private units with shared compartment walls and shared navigation system.

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FREE SPACE

When the ratio of shared and private space changes, in this case with enlarging the private units, the system becomes more stiff and dense.

124 125


BLOCKERTIES

Comparison Different Ratio Between Shared and Private

The element consists of 3 private units with shared navigation system.

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FREE SPACE

When the ratio of shared and private space changes, with enlarging the geometry of the private units, the system has some more regularity and stiffness.

126 127


BLOCKERTIES

Comparison Different Ratio Between Shared and Private

The element consists of 3 private units with shared common space and shared navigation system.

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FREE SPACE

When the ratio of shared and private space changes, with extending the walls of the private spaces, we see an overlap of privacy.

128 129


Evaluation

Based on the decentralization of a chain Defining value and connecting it with the property system it creates

08


BLOCKERTIES

Research on Ground Rem Koolhaas Diagrams

Giambattista Nolli, La Nuova Topografia di Roma, 1748

BPRO URBAN DESIGN RC17

The city as a spatial product is design by spatial software which calculate the transaction costs and profits. The evolution of urban spatial morphology is affected by multiple factors, and it lacks a complete analysis platform. can be defined as a set of spatial property relations. Its evolution is composed of a series of spatial trading behaviors, which are influenced by transaction costs and


EVALUATION

initial property rights allocation. From the capital perspective, the construction of the public space is an important node to enhance spatial association, for economic activities to reduce transaction costs and improve transaction efficiency is an important public space is an important factor in city built environment is unique, authenticity, promote the city attract mobile capital in the competition

132 133

MVRDV, (W)ego City, 2017


BLOCKERTIES

Designation Shared Stairs Bridge Private

distance= 32.8 cost= 6

distance= 58.8 cost= 11

distance= 58.4 cost= 11

distance= 52.1 cost= 15

Cost Efficiency Circulation and Distance

distance= 56.1 cost= 13

distance

cost

dead end

distance= 53.4 repeat

private space

cost= 10

element

distance

cost

dead end

distance= 54.0 repeat

private space

cost= 11 element

BPRO URBAN DESIGN RC17


EVALUATION

134 135

distance= 40.1 cost= 14

distance= 47.2

1 2

cost= 14

3 4

distance= 93.0 cost= 19

distance= 79.0

distance= 83.6 cost= 19

cost= 9

distance= 40.1 cost= 14

distance= 51.0 cost= 4

distance= 93.0

distance= 87.5 cost= 19

cost= 13 distance

distance= 83.6

cost

dead end

cost= 9

distance= 56.8 repeat

private space

cost= 7 element

distance= 51.0 cost= 4

distance= 87.5 cost= 13 distance

dead end

cost

distance= 56.8 repeat

private space

cost= 7 element


BLOCKERTIES

distance= 29.7 cost= 9

distance= 43.3 cost= 14

distance= 10.6 cost= 6

distance= 27.8 cost= 6

Cost Efficiency Circulation and Distance

distance= 24.5 cost=4 distance

cost

dead end

distance=20.4 cost= 10

repeat

private space

element

distance= 23.5 cost= 6 distance

cost

dead end

distance= 37.1 repeat

cost= 9

BPRO URBAN DESIGN RC17

private space

element


distance= 55.6

EVALUATION

136 137

cost= 18

distance= 55.9 distance= 40.1

cost= 10

cost= 23

distance= 55.6

distance= 52.1

cost= 12

cost= 18

distance= 40.1 cost= 10

distance= 53.1

distance= 52.1

cost= 13 cost= 12

distance= 53.1 cost= 13

distance

cost

dead end

distance= 62.2 repeat

cost= 17

private space

element

distance

cost

dead end

distance= 62.2 cost= 17

repeat

private space

element


BLOCKERTIES

separated two blocks

a linkage route in the middle of the courtyard

Cost Efficiency Circulation and Distance

a linkage route close one side of the building

both sides of the corridor and balcony is linked

BPRO URBAN DESIGN RC17


EVALUATION

the route requires going to the shared courtyard and pass through the corridor

even the building shifted, the route can be the same

different distance can change the form of the space

two building blocks connected

138 139


BLOCKERTIES

Cost Efficiency Elements Cost

FROM A TO B Cheapest Cost = 19 Shortest Cost = 21

FROM A TO C Cheapest Cost = 19 Shortest Cost = 21

COST LIST Corridor Stairs Bridge Roof Door Wall

BPRO URBAN DESIGN RC17

1 1 1 2 4 6 The cost system is calculated by the cost from one point to another target in a certain space. The cost is when you cross a certain area, is how much you should ‘pay’ for it. We sort 6 parts you can cross -corridor, stairs, bridge, roof, door, wall. Then, according to the different degree of the privacy we give the them different cost. The more private the part is, the higher cost you should pay. Generally, there are two paths we can choose from one point to another. One is the shortest path, which cross more the private parts and use the least steps from one point to another. Another is the cheapest path, which cross the more the shared parts and use more steps than the shortest path. According to this logic, we calculate the different costs of the elements. It is obvious that the cheapest path is almost at the outside of the shortest path.


EVALUATION

FROM A TO B Cheapest Cost = 14 Shortest Cost = 20

FROM A TO C Cheapest Cost = 5 Shortest Cost = 9

FROM A TO B Cheapest Cost = 13 Shortest Cost = 14

FROM A TO C Cheapest Cost = 6 Shortest Cost = 16

FROM A TO B Cheapest Cost = 6 Shortest Cost = 10

FROM A TO C Cheapest Cost = 7 Shortest Cost = 11

FROM A TO B Cheapest Cost = 14 Shortest Cost = 15

FROM A TO B Cheapest Cost = 7 Shortest Cost = 8

FROM A TO B Cheapest Cost = 6 Shortest Cost = 10

140 141


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Computational Evaluation

System Cost and Analysis

This part of the research explores the connectivity of the parts inside the whole. Each part creates a unique representation of inner and outer connections.

09


BLOCKERTIES

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BPRO URBAN DESIGN RC17


COMPUTATIONAL EVALUATION

144 145

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BLOCKERTIES

Chain Diagrams Outer and Inner Connectivity of the Parts <?xml version=”1.0”?> -<Graph> -<Edges> <Edge p2=”prof (3)” p1=”prof (11)” v2=”1” v1=”0”/> <Edge p2=”prof (1)” p1=”prof (4)” v2=”0” v1=”2”/> <Edge p2=”prof (7)” p1=”prof (15)” v2=”2” v1=”3”/> <Edge p2=”prof (4)” p1=”prof (1)” v2=”1” v1=”4”/> <Edge p2=”prof (15)” p1=”prof (11)” v2=”0” v1=”5”/> <Edge p2=”prof (13)” p1=”prof (3)” v2=”5” v1=”6”/> <Edge p2=”prof (11)” p1=”prof (3)” v2=”4” v1=”7”/> <Edge p2=”prof (2)” p1=”prof (2)” v2=”5” v1=”8”/> <Edge p2=”prof (2)” p1=”prof (2)” v2=”2” v1=”9”/> <Edge p2=”prof (1)” p1=”prof (2)” v2=”5” v1=”10”/> <Edge p2=”prof (11)” p1=”prof (15)” v2=”10” v1=”11”/> <Edge p2=”prof (12)” p1=”prof (13)” v2=”8” v1=”12”/> <Edge p2=”prof (2)” p1=”prof (13)” v2=”3” v1=”13”/> <Edge p2=”prof (16)” p1=”prof (9)” v2=”5” v1=”14”/> <Edge p2=”prof (4)” p1=”prof” v2=”5” v1=”15”/> <Edge p2=”prof (1)” p1=”prof (3)” v2=”11” v1=”16”/> <Edge p2=”prof (15)” p1=”prof (2)” v2=”8” v1=”17”/> <Edge p2=”prof (12)” p1=”prof (11)” v2=”12” v1=”18”/> <Edge p2=”prof (13)” p1=”prof (6)” v2=”4” v1=”19”/> <Edge p2=”prof (13)” p1=”prof (5)” v2=”10” v1=”20”/> <Edge p2=”prof (13)” p1=”prof (15)” v2=”7” v1=”21”/> <Edge p2=”prof (15)” p1=”prof (1)” v2=”19” v1=”22”/> <Edge p2=”prof (16)” p1=”prof (2)” v2=”12” v1=”23”/> <Edge p2=”prof (1)” p1=”prof (13)” v2=”8” v1=”24”/> <Edge p2=”prof (6)” p1=”prof (1)” v2=”7” v1=”25”/> <Edge p2=”prof (12)” p1=”prof (14)” v2=”4” v1=”26”/> <Edge p2=”prof (1)” p1=”prof (1)” v2=”2” v1=”27”/> <Edge p2=”prof (1)” p1=”prof (2)” v2=”21” v1=”28”/> <Edge p2=”prof (1)” p1=”prof (7)” v2=”18” v1=”29”/>

BPRO URBAN DESIGN RC17


COMPUTATIONAL EVALUATION

146 147

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BLOCKERTIES

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BPRO URBAN DESIGN RC17


COMPUTATIONAL EVALUATION

148 149

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BLOCKERTIES

FROM A TO B Cheapest Cost = 7 Shortest Cost = 8

Chain Diagrams Precise Cost of Small Arrangements

When the private parts be connected, the private spaces can not be merged, so form one step to another need to cross more walls. the new cost = the previous cost * 2 + wall cost When the private parts be connected, the shared spaces can be merged, so form one step to another need cross one step less. the new cost = the previous cost * 2 - corridor

BPRO URBAN DESIGN RC17


COMPUTATIONAL EVALUATION

Connect A - B - A - B

Connect B - A - A - B

According the previous setting, we try to assemble theses elements at a small scale. We connect the star point and the target point of each element. The ratio of private space to shared space will be changed after connecting the points. And the path cost of the new element will be changed as well. When the private space be connected, the ratio of the system goes up, the path cost goes up rapidly. When the shared space be connected, the ratio of the system goes down, and the path cost goes up slowly.

Connect A - B - B - A

150 151


BLOCKERTIES

Chain Diagrams Precise Cost of Small Arrangements

Longest Path =

Door

Shortest & Cheapest =

Door

Corridor

Stairs

Stairs

Roof

Corridor

When the shortest path is the cheapest path, the shared space more on the path, and the private space around it,

BPRO URBAN DESIGN RC17

Corridor

Corridor


COMPUTATIONAL EVALUATION

Assemble the elements

Shift a shared platform to connect with another shared part.

Extract the connected part as the new element.

How to get a system can have a path, which the shortest path is the cheapest path.

152 153


Centrality

Analysis of Large arrangements

Centrality indices are answers to the question “What characterizes an important -space-?”. The word “importance” has a wide number of meanings, leading to many different definitions of centrality.

10


BLOCKERTIES

Centrality Recognizing Low/ High Connectivity

In these assemblies, the evaluation according to value generation described previously, produces shared space which is disconnected with the surroundings, mostly because is it interrupted by private units.

BPRO URBAN DESIGN RC17


CENTRALITY

In these ring figures we can see some value generated in some shared spaces. This means that these spaces have a better connectivity with other shared spaces inside the assembly.

156 157


BLOCKERTIES

Centrality Recognizing Low/ High Connectivity in Part to Whole Relations

These assemblies depicted a more distributed system value. As we can see, the color becomes high in the whole system, which means a more connected shared space.

BPRO URBAN DESIGN RC17


CENTRALITY

Finally, in these assemblies we see that he system becomes a network as all the shared spaces become one and are not interrupted my the private units which become complimentary to the shared system.

158 159


BLOCKERTIES

Centrality Recognizing Low/ High Connectivity in Landscape Arrangements

In these cases, where roof is seen as a landscape condition, we recognize the potential of creating stronger connections and thus, new points of interest in a situation where there was no interest before.

BPRO URBAN DESIGN RC17


CENTRALITY

The same relation can be recognized also with seeing space under the condition of openness. Open space can be interlinked with not only other open spaces, overlapping, but also with the closed, more private space surrounding it.

160 161


BLOCKERTIES

Centrality Cost Path and Accessibility

BPRO URBAN DESIGN RC17


CENTRALITY

162 163


BLOCKERTIES

Centrality Cost Path and Accessibility

BPRO URBAN DESIGN RC17


CENTRALITY

164 165


BLOCKERTIES

Centrality Compound Center

BPRO URBAN DESIGN RC17


CENTRALITY

The importance of space in these cases is linked with the connectivity and thus the centrality of the space. The indication of the color in this assembly shows a compound centrality in the middle of the mass. On the contrary, the outer parts are not well linked with the inner core.

166 167


BLOCKERTIES

Centrality Compound Center

BPRO URBAN DESIGN RC17


CENTRALITY

In a similar way with the previous centrality, in this mass model, the center is concentrated in th middle, while it is also witnessed a high value in all the system.

168 169


BLOCKERTIES

Centrality Layered Center

BPRO URBAN DESIGN RC17


CENTRALITY

The center in this case in concentrated in three different layers inside the whole.

170 171


BLOCKERTIES

Centrality Clustered Center

BPRO URBAN DESIGN RC17


CENTRALITY

The division of centers is more obvious in this massing as it there are two clear centers. The whole, appears to be symmetrical and the centers follow a similar way.

172 173


BLOCKERTIES

Centrality Scattered Center

BPRO URBAN DESIGN RC17


CENTRALITY

From compound centrality to division of centers, we observe two cluster of spaces to be more prevailing. In this case there is a high contrast between the center and the surroundings, that seem to have lower connectivity value.

174 175


BLOCKERTIES

Centrality Dispersed Center

BPRO URBAN DESIGN RC17


CENTRALITY

In this case the centrality starts to detach from the center and divert from the classical meaning of the center.

176 177


BLOCKERTIES

Centrality Marginalized Center

BPRO URBAN DESIGN RC17


CENTRALITY

Finally, the last kind of centrality appears to be the most extreme situation, where is appears in the margins of the system. In these kind of cases a center with the notion of centrality, appers in unprecedented way in the limits.

178 179


Visualization

Project in Context This parts is a visual representation of the blockchain building in an urban form.

11


BLOCKERTIES

Small Aggregation Physical Model

Experimenting with physical models, where parts are connected one by one to create the aggregations.

BPRO URBAN DESIGN RC17


VISUALIZATION

Descrete parts are assemblied together by hand to create courtyards, overlapping space and enframing inside the whole.

182 183


BLOCKERTIES

Scale of a Harbor

BPRO URBAN DESIGN RC17


VISUALIZATION

184 185


BLOCKERTIES

Scale of a Harbor

BPRO URBAN DESIGN RC17


VISUALIZATION

186 187


BLOCKERTIES

Scale of a Building

BPRO URBAN DESIGN RC17


VISUALIZATION

188 189


BLOCKERTIES

Scale of a Building

BPRO URBAN DESIGN RC17


VISUALIZATION

190 191


JunyiBai|Bartlett|RC17 BLOCKETIES  
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