Page 1

OSLO/ GOTHENBURG

STOCKHOLM

Solves the bottleneck issue across Öresund, increases freight capacity, and reduces travel times

HELSINGBORG LANDSKRONA

COPENHAGEN LUND

MALMÖ

HAMBURG

REPORT

Connecting Sweden and Denmark

2019

EUROPASPÅRET


SUMMARY Europaspåret (the European track) is a new fixed link

strain on the railway capacity. When the Fehmarn Belt

between Sweden and Denmark, proposed by the municipa-

fixed link opens in 2028 the rail freight traffic is esti-

lity of Landskrona. In this report you can read about Europ-

mated to double. If more freight is to be transported

spåret and the effects that a railway tunnel between Lands-

by train in the future, there is a need for more railway

krona and Copenhagen would have on the railway traffic in

capacity across Öresund.

the Öresund region, Sweden, Denmark, and Europe.

Europaspåret contributes to develop the regional

A new fixed link across Öresund is necessary. It is

rail traffic while solving the lack of capacity for the rail

needed for the development and improvement of the

freight traffic and the longer train journeys in Europe.

rail traffic, both passenger and freight, and because the

Europaspåret decongests the heavily congested tracks

Öresund bridge doesn’t have enough capacity to meet the

through Lund and CPH/Copenhagen Airport while

demands of the future. The Öresund bridge is already a

creating substantially increased capacity at Copenhagen

bottleneck in the European transportation system.

Central Station (Hovedbanegården).

Commuting is increasing in the Öresund region which

Europaspåret is the only existing proposal for a new

creates demands for shorter travel times and a punctual

fixed link across Öresund that grants a complete solution

railway system. The interest for long distance train jour-

for the railway traffic.

neys in Europe is also increasing which will put further

00:14

OSLO/ GOTHENBURG

HELSINGBORG LANDSKRONA

COPENHAGEN KØBENHAVN LUND

MALMÖ

HAMBURG

2

STOCKHOLM


EUROPASPÅRET

A 19 kilometers long tunnel between Copenhagen and Landskrona for long distance, regional and freight trains.

Reduces the travel time from Stockholm to Copenhagen, Hamburg, and Berlin by 30 minutes.

Increases the railway capacity across Öresund by 100 % and decongests the railways through Lund, Malmö and Copenhagen Airport.

Reduces the travel time from Gothenburg to Copenhagen, Hamburg, and Berlin by 55 minutes. A green infrastructure project that encourage the transfer of freight transport from road to railway.

Can manage the 90 % increase in freight trains between Denmark and Sweden that is expected after the opening of the Fehmarn Belt fixed link in 2028.

Creates a connected, robust, and dependable railway system with redundancy across Öresund together with the Öresund bridge.

Increases the integrated labour market region by 325,000 people in the working age.

Decreases travel times within the Öresund region significantly and improves commuting opportunities.

An investment of 48 billion Swedish kronor that can receive up to 40 % EU subsidy.

EUROPASPÅRET – CONNECTING SWEDEN AND DENMARK

3


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COPENHAGEN

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BACKGROUND OSLO

STOCKHOLM

GOTHENBURG

MALMÖ

BERLIN

New high speed railways


INCREASING RAILWAY TRAFFIC Rail traffic across Öresund has increased dramatically

Öresund. They are planning for 1 trip/h Gothen-

during the almost 20 years that the Öresund bridge has

burg-Copenhagen and 1 trip/h Stockholm-Copen­

existed. The opening of the fixed link across the Fehmarn

hagen. To manage this, they are renovating 36

Belt in 2028 will mean a considerable increase in demand for rail freight capacity, out of which approximately 90 %

X2000 trains and buying 30 new trains (source: SJ). •

System 3 is a new system for regional trains between

is and will continue to be transit traffic to Sweden. At the

Scania and Denmark that will complement the Öre-

same time, a continued increase in regional passenger

sund train system and increase departures.

rail traffic and long distance rail traffic across Öresund is

Increased freight train traffic across Öresund due to

expected due to the expansion of the Swedish West Coast

new logistic systems and improved competitiveness

Main Line and the planned step by step construction of

for railway freight transportation as a result of the

the new Stockholm-Malmö high speed railway.

Fehmarn Belt fixed link.

The increasing number of flights at CPH/Copenhagen

Increased regional traffic towards Copenhagen when

Airport also contributes to augmented passenger traffic

the new Ringsted track opens (the capacity towards

from both the Danish and Swedish side on the Öresund

Copenhagen Central Station will be doubled as far as

railway. Altogether, the needs of the different types of

Ny Ellebjerg).

transportation increase the pressure on the Öresund bridge

Increased regional traffic from Næstved and Lolland

and its land connections, making additional capacity

towards Copenhagen.

necessary after 2030.

Increased regional traffic from Jylland and Fyn

Capacity problems on the Öresund bridge, including

towards Copenhagen.

its land connections, together with the vision of a closely

Direct connections from Roskilde to Copenhagen

linked Öresund region that continues to grow and deve-

Airport.

lop create the need for a new fixed link across Öresund.

High-speed long distance trains from Hamburg

This connection must contribute to the enlargement of

and Berlin via the Fehmarn Belt fixed link towards

the integrated labour region, regional growth and decong-

Copenhagen and onwards to Sweden.

est the existing Öresund fixed link. This increased demand is occurring even though the

Europaspåret is the only proposed solution for a new

congestion of the City-tunnel in Malmö, the Danish land

fixed link that addresses all these issues. Many railway operators are planning to increase their

connections to the Öresund bridge and Copenhagen Cen-

traffic at the same time as new connections, among others

tral Station already limit the capacity of the system. The

the Fehmarn Belt fixed link expected to open in 2028, are

capacity is expected to reach its limit at the latest in 2030. The passage of the Öresund will become even more of

being created. Railway operators and new railway services

a bottleneck in the European railway system.

making claims on the capacity over Öresund are: •

SJ, the Swedish national train company, wants to increase their number of long distance trains across

Increased number of travellers across Öresund per year – historical data and prognosis

Increased number of freight trains across Öresund – historical data and prognosis 90

140 000

80

120 000

70

100 000

60

80 000

50

60 000

40 30

40 000

20

20 000

10

40 20

35 20

30 20

25 20

20 20

15 20

10 20

05

00

20

Prognosis HH-ferry HH-ferry, historical data Prognosis the Öresund bridge* The Öresund bridge, historical data *Low, middel and high prognosis for increased travelling Low: Trafikverket travelling prognosis Middel: Danish "landevejsmodellen" High: The Öresund Bridge Consortium

0

20

40 20

35 20

30 20

25 20

20 20

15 20

10 20

05 20

20

00

0

Historical data Prognosis Fehmarn Belt interpreted for the Öresund bridge (Ramböll 2018) Trafikverkets basprognos (2018-04-01)

EUROPASPÅRET – CONNECTING SWEDEN AND DENMARK

5


EFFECTS FOR LONG DISTANCE RAIL TRAFFIC OSLO

Today 5:00 2035 4:10 Europaspåret 3:40 STOCKHOLM

ay

lw

h hig

ai dr

n

ke

än

tl Os

ee

sp

GOTHENBURG

LA

ND

SK

RO

NA

Today 3:00 2030 2:40 Europaspåret 1:45

COPENHAGEN

high speed railway Hässleholm-Lund

MALMÖ

LÜBECK HAMBURG

2030 2:30

BERLIN

20303:50 3:50 2030

6

times calculated to and * Travel from Copenhagen. The travel time improvement on the West Coast Main Line (Västkustbanan) in 2030 includes upgrade to 250 km/h.


IMPROVED TRAVEL TIMES WITH EUROPASPÅRET The map (page 6) shows rail routes where travel times

The travel times between Sweden and Copenhagen and

will improve in the coming years through several diffe-

onward to the rest of Europe can be further improved by

rent projects:

Europaspåret:

The first and largest improvement will happen

The travel time Stockholm-Copenhagen will decrease

around 2030 when the Fehmarn Belt fixed link has

with 30 minutes through the connection to the new

opened combined with the upgrade of, amongst

high-speed railway. •

others, the Ringsted railway. The travel time Copen-

The travel time Gothenburg-Copenhagen will decrease with 55 minutes.

hagen-Hamburg will decrease with 2.5 hours. •

The first phases of the Swedish highspeed railway are planned to be completed in 2035. The travel

If Sweden were to complete the entire high-speed railway

time Stockholm-Copenhagen will decrease with 50

project by connecting the first phases Ostlänken (Jär-

minutes.

na-Linköping) and Lund-Hässleholm, the travel time Stockholm-Copenhagen would decrease by another 60 minutes.

Today

2030

2035

Europaspåret

Stockholm-Hamburg

10:00

7:30

6:40

6:10

Stockholm-Berlin

12:00

8:50

8:00

7:30

8:00

5:10

5:10

4:15

10:00

6:30

6:30

5:35

Gothenburg-Hamburg Gothenburg-Berlin

Travel time in hours

EUROPASPÅRET AND THE SWEDISH HIGH-SPEED RAILWAY From the high-speed railway Lund-Hässleholm, a connection to Europaspåret could be built. This could be done through building a railway connection from the Stockholm

Gothenburg

new high-speed railway between Eslöv and Höör to

Jönköping

He lsi

ng

bo

rg

the Marieholm railway.

La

n ro sk

nd

nd

sk

La

ro n

a

C

Hässleholm

a S

nh

pe

Co

Possible connection to the high speed railway

n

e ag

Lund

C Ny Ellebjerg Køge

Malmö C CPH/Kastrup

Hamburg

EUROPASPÅRET – CONNECTING SWEDEN AND DENMARK

7


MARKET SHARES TRAIN/FLIGHT TRAFFIC 100% Gothenburg-Copenhagen Europaspåret 90%

The greatest gain in market shares happens between Gothenburg and Copenhagen. The increase will be approximately 30 percentage points and the total market share will be close to 95 %. This will probably eliminate flight traffic on this route. Between Stockholm and Copenhagen, the gain in market shares is approximately 20 percentage points.

Market shares train, percent

80%

70%

Gothenburg-Copenhagen 2030 Gothenburg-Copenhagen today

60%

Stockholm-Copenhagen Europaspåret

50%

Stockholm-Copenhagen 2035

40%

Stockholm-Copenhagen today

30%

20%

10%

0% 0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Travel time in hours

*

Source: Lundberg & Nelldal, 2011

The transfer of market share from flight traffic to train

holm-Copenhagen and Gothenburg-Copenhagen respec-

depends on the travel time. If the travel time is shorter

tively. Shown to the right is how the travel time improve-

than five hours the number of passengers choosing to

ments affect travelling Stockholm-Hamburg/Berlin and

travel by train increases significantly.

Gothenburg-Hamburg/Berlin. The biggest improvement

The graphs above and to the right show how the mar-

in market shares for the train is between Gothenburg and

ket shares for train travel between different destinations

Hamburg.

increase as the travel time improves around year 2030,

If the travel time by train and flight is the same, 75 %

year 2035, and with Europaspåret. Shown above is how

of the travellers will choose to travel by train (source: SJ).

the travel times affects the market shares for Stock100%

90%

Market shares train, percent

80%

Comparison with travel times of today. With Europaspåret it will be faster to travel between Stockholm and Hamburg than between Stockholm and Umeå. The market share for train travel will be larger between Gothenburg and Hamburg than between Stockholm and Malmö today.

70% Gothenburg-Copenhagen today Stockholm-Gothenburg today

60%

50%

40%

Stockholm-Malmö today Stockholm-Copenhagen today

30%

Stockholm-Umeå today

20%

10%

0% 0

1

2

3

4

5

Travel time in hours *The graphs are made according to Lundberg & Nelldal’s formula for market shares compared to journey time from 2011. Todays market share is not statistically varified.

8

6

7

8 Source: Lundberg & Nelldal, 2011

*


100%

90%

Market shares train, percent

80%

70%

60%

50%

Gothenburg-Hamburg Europaspåret

40%

Gothenburg-Hamburg 2030 Gothenburg-Berlin Europaspåret Stockholm-Hamburg Europaspåret Gothenburg-Berlin 2030 Stockholm-Hamburg 2035 Stockholm-Berlin Europaspåret Stockholm-Berlin 2035

30%

20%

10%

0% 0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Travel time in hours

Source: Lundberg & Nelldal, 2011

*

Between Gothenburg and Hamburg the market shares for train travel will increase by approximately 10 percentage points.

OSLO

STOCKHOLM

LONG DISTANCE TRAIN ROUTES Europaspåret creates completely new possibilities

GOTHENBURG

for long distance trains on the route Oslo-Gothenburg-Copenhagen. Through Europaspåret there would be greater gains in travel times than what recent past and coming improvements give collectively. Europaspåret

NA

opens the possibility to create faster connections to Europe LA

ND SK

RO

with direct trains or with changes in Copenhagen. The illustration to the right shows possible routes for

COPENHAGEN

international long distance trains. The orange lines are

MALMÖ

the routes from Gothenburg and Stockholm that gives the fastest journey to the rest of Europe. With Europaspåret the possibilities for European night trains departing from Stockholm/Gothenburg via Copenhagen and southward in Europe improves significantly.

LÜBECK HAMBURG

BERLIN

EUROPASPÅRET – CONNECTING SWEDEN AND DENMARK

9


REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT 60 HALMSTAD

55 LAHOLM

50 BÅSTAD

40 ÄNGELHOLM

50 HÄSSLEHOLM

40

25

HELSINGBORG

HESINGØR

70 KRISTIANSTAD

15 60

Eu

ro

pa

sp

år

et

LANDSKRONA

30 48

NORDHAVN

LUND

COPENHAGEN C CPH/KASTRUP

Öre

20

sun

ROSKILDE

40 35 MALMÖ CENTRAL

db

ridg

e

20 KØGE

55 30 TRIANGELN

60 25 HYLLIE

Travel time in minutes from Copenhagen. The lines become more pale at 30-, 40- and 50-minutes travel time.

TRAVEL TIME IMPROVEMENTS The fixed railway link between Landskrona and Copenha-

Especially Halland and the north-western part of Scania

gen shortens the travel time between many destinations.

with Helsingborg, Ängelholm, Båstad, Laholm, and Halm-

The illustration shows which cities that can be reached in

stad are winners. North-eastern Scania with Hässleholm

less than one hour from Copenhagen Central Station by

and Kristianstad are also potential winners, especially

either Europaspåret or the Öresund bridge. The illustration

if Europaspåret is connected to the high-speed railway

shows how the two fixed links would complement each

Lund-Hässleholm. With that scenario the travel time from

other.

Hässleholm to Copenhagen will be 50 minutes and 70

As travel times get shorter the distances people are willing

minutes from Kristianstad.

to commute becomes longer and through this the Greater Copenhagen region grows.

10


+220,000

975,000

320,000

+105,000

Copenhagen labour market Labour market expansion with Europaspåret

An increased number of people of working age within the possibility to commute for one hour or less.

EXPANDED LABOUR MARKET REGION With Europaspåret the labour market region, an area

approximately 1.3 million to 1.6 million people of working

with less than one hour commuting travel time, is cal-

age, which corresponds to an increase of 25 %.

culated to grow by 220,000 people on the Swedish side.

Kristianstad is situated right outside the limit for day

On the Danish side municipalities west of Copenhagen

commuting (60 minutes) with 40,000 people of working

would get within commuting distance to the Swedish side

age and a travel time of 70 minutes to Copenhagen with

of Öresund which increases the labour region by another

the high-speed railway and Europaspåret.

105,000 people. The joint labour market region around Öresund

The labour region growth given by Europaspåret (325,000 people) can be compared to the calculated total

would grow with 325,000 people of working age with

growth of 110,000 people if the new fixed link was to be

Europaspåret. This would contribute to increased growth

built between Helsingborg and Helsingør instead.

in the region. With Europaspåret the region grows from

EUROPASPÅRET – CONNECTING SWEDEN AND DENMARK

11


Connections today

Connections after year 2023

HELSINGBORG

HELSINGBORG

HELSINGØR

HELSINGØR

LANDSKRONA

LANDSKRONA

ØSTERPORT

LUND

COPNEHAGEN C

ØSTERPORT

LUND

COPENHAGEN C

CPH/KASTRUP

CPH/KASTRUP MALMÖ

MALMÖ

TWO SEPARATE SYSTEMS Today the Öresund train traffic (Öresundstågen) reaches all the way from Sweden/Malmö to Helsingør. However,

around within this already congested stretch. Europaspåret creates a new route for rail traffic through

a decision has been made in Denmark that Kystbanen,

Copenhagen enabling two separate regional train systems

the railway from Copenhagen to Helsingør, will be used

that never need to use the same railway lines.

only by Danish regional trains after year 2023. Both today and after 2023 the Öresund trains and the

Two separate systems mean that the rail traffic will get two separate tunnels under Copenhagen, the Boulevard

Danish regional trains use the same railway line between

tunnel and Europaspåret, which would increase the capa-

Copenhagen Central Station and Østerport Station. Both

city in the entire Danish railway system and increase the

today and after 2023 one of the two systems must turn

reliability for the train traffic on both sides of Öresund.

LANDSKRONA

A RING FOR COMMUTING AND REDUNDANCY Europaspåret creates new possibilities for regional traffic in the Öresund region. One possibility is that trains can drive around Öresund in a ring servicing Copenha-

COPENHAGEN C

LUND

gen Central Station-CPH/Copenhagen Airport-Malmö C-Lund-Landskrona-Copenhagen Central Station. The time distance between the stops would be about 15 minutes. This means that if either the Öresund bridge or

CPH/KASTRUP

MALMÖ TRIANGELN

Europaspåret have to close for whatever reason the two fixed links can replace each other with travel times that do not exceed one hour.

12


Connections with Europaspåret HELSINGBORG HELSINGØR

LANDSKRONA

LUND

ØSTERPORT

COPENHAGEN C

CPH/KASTRUP MALMÖ

This gives redundancy in the system around Öresund. Europaspåret creates an insurance in crossing Öresund ’15

LANDSKRONA

with reasonable travel times even if the closest way might

LANDSKRONA

’15

’15

be closed, for example due to strong winds. The redundancy is important for people to be able to trust the system and dare to commute in the entire region. It is also important for freight.

COPENHAGEN C

’60 min

LUND ’15

’15 CPH/ Copenhagen Airport ’15

MALMÖ TRIANGELN

COPENHAGEN C

’15 CPH/ Copenhagen Airport

’60 min

LUND ’15 MALMÖ TRIANGELN

EUROPASPÅRET – CONNECTING SWEDEN AND DENMARK

13


OSLO

EFFECTS FOR THE FREIGHT TRAFFIC

STOCKHOLM

GOTHENBURG

COPENHAGEN

SK ND LA

Europaspåret solution and decongestion

Freight: 90 % transit

RO

NA

TEN-T Core Network Network (90 %TEN-Core transit Denmark/Scania)

Freight: 90 % transit MALMÖ

Freight: 90% transit

New corridor in the TEN-T Core Network + 100 % freight (out of which 90 % is transit through Denmark and Scania, which means the increase is in the entire system Denmark/Scania)

LÜBECK HAMBURG

THE TEN-T CORE NETWORK AND TRANSIT FREIGHT When the Fehmarn Belt fixed link opens the Danish, German, and Swedish prognoses all indicate that the freight rail traffic will increase and may double compared

TEN-T Core Network 90 % transit Denmark/Scania

BERLIN to the volumes of today. The largest part of the freight rail

traffic will, as today, be transit goods to/from Sweden. Europaspåret is the only proposed solution for a fixed link across Öresund that contributes to increased freight rail capacity.

14


Copenhagen C Europaspåret freight Sweden

Ny Ellebjerg Station Vestbanen railway Öresund bridge Ringsted railway

FREIGHT ROUTES WITH EUROPASPÅRET Öresund is a bottleneck in the European designated

Europaspåret solves the bottleneck situation across Öre-

TEN-T Core Network, the important trans-European

sund by creating a second fixed link that can be used by

railway freight corridors. On the Swedish side of Öresund

freight rail traffic.

there are two routes for rail freight, one on the Southern

Europaspåret also creates the possibility of two

Main Line (Södra stambanan) and one through the

connected and separated routs for freight rail traffic all

Hallands tunnel on the West Coast Main Line (Västkust-

the way from Hamburg to Sweden. The layout of Ny

banan/Godsstråket genom Skåne). On the Danish side

Ellebjerg station makes it suitable for freight from the

southwards in Europe there is one corridor through the

Ringsted railway to go on primarily to Europaspåret

Great Belt bridge and Jylland. Another freight rail route

while freight from Jylland would primarily go via the

is being built through the Fehmarn Belt fixed link and the

Öresund bridge.

Ringsted railway.

Europaspåret will be able to transport two freight tra-

Between Ny Ellebjerg in Denmark and Arlöv in

ins per hour and direction and the Öresund bridge takes

Sweden there is only one route.

Landskrona

three separate tunnel tubes, of which one is dedicated to freight traffic. This stretch together with

Lin ain M rn he ut So

or p

Eslöv

mixed traffic freight/passenger

the passing loop for freight next to the tunnels south entrance increases the capacity for rail

Te c

ko

Under Copenhagen Europaspåret is divided into

m at

INCREASED CAPACITY ACROSS ÖRESUND AND THROUGH COPENHAGEN

Godsstr åket ge n Skåne railway om

Råå ra

e

ilway

one freight train per hour and direction.

Nordhavn branching off freight passing loop freight

freight across Öresund by more than 100 %. The route for freight is shortened by approximately 30 kilometers compared to the Öresund bridge and the travel time decre-

separate freight tunnel

ases by about 1-2 hours. The reduction in Köpenhamn H

travel time comes from both the shorter route and being able to avoid the long wait that freight trains have today before passing the Öresund bridge.

passing loop freight

Malmö

mixed traffic freight/passenger

Ny Ellebjerg ay

ste dr

ailw

ay

ilw

ra

Rin g

an

stb

Ve

en

EUROPASPÅRET – CONNECTING SWEDEN AND DENMARK

15


INVESTMENT COST HELSINGØR

HELSINGBORG

3 LANDSKRONA

2

BILLEBERGA

8 TECKOMATORP

railway on ground level

9 ESLÖV

1 immeresed tunnel

10 4

LUND

bored tunnel in bedrock COPENHAGEN

5&6

7

railway on ground level

MALMÖ

Investment (price level 2014) Billion SEK

1

Fixed link Coast to coast (immersed tunnel)

The cost calculations are based on similar projects and 23.8

Connections Swedish side

2 3

Connection to the West Coast railway including station in Landskrona

3.7

Råå railway – Landskrona

1.0

Connections Danish side

4 5 6 7

the cost estimates are from the relatively high investment costs for the ongoing Fehmarn Belt fixed link project (price level from 2014). The prices shown by the building consortiums at the time for this calculation (2017) indicated that the prices

Cut and cover tunnel branching Nordhavn

0.5

Passenger train tunnels Nordhavn - Copenhagen C

8.8

were raising. For this calculation the unit costs per

Freight tunnel Nordhavn - Ringsted railway, single bore

4.7

kilometer from the Fehmarn Belt fixed link calculations

New station Copenhagen C "lower" including connections

4.6

were used as the basis but adapted to Europaspåret’s

47.1

Surrounding investments

8 9 10

PRESUMPTIONS FOR CALCULATIONS

conditions. In the calculations the prices for the different parts of

Triangle track Teckomatorp – Råå railway

0.1

Triangle track Eslöv – Marieholms railway + passing loop

0.6

Train depot and turn around tracks Nordhavn

0.4

Europaspåret have been divided according to the table to the left. This way the cost of the different parts of the project can be compared.

1.1

Total *estimated in current Fehmarn Belt prices with 50 % correction of base budget.

16

48.2

*The calculations for Europaspåret will be updated during 2019.


FINANCING EXAMPLES OF SOURCES OF FUNDING • Public grants from Sweden/Denmark • Sale of soil from the excavations • EU-subsidies

• Sur-plus from the Öresund bridge consortium • Revenue from a new fixed link for road traffic, e.g. the Helsingborg-Helsingør fixed link

EXAMPLE OF FINANCING

Funding example for Europaspåret

For Europaspåret there are several alternatives for

Europaspåret Billion SEK Europaspåret SEK EU subsidy fixed link (40 %) 18.8 39.0 % Billion EU subsidy subsidy fixed surrounding (6.4 %) 0.1 0.2 % EU link (40 investments %) 18.8 39.0 60.8 % Loan 29.3 EU subsidy surrounding investments (6.4 %) 0.1 0.2 % Europaspåret Billion SEK Total 48.2 100 % 60.8 Loan 29.3 EU subsidy fixed link (40 %) 18.8 39.0 % Total 48.2 100 % EU subsidy surrounding investments (6.4 %) 0.1 0.2 % Europaspåret Billion SEK Funding below* % Loan example, assumptions for calculations60.8 29.3 EU subsidy fixed link (40 %) 18.8 39.0 % Total 48.2 100 % Billion Europaspåret + HH road connection SEK EU subsidy surrounding investments (6.4 %) 0.1 0.2 % Europaspåret + HH road connection EU subsidy for Europaspåret fixed link + Billion SEK 60.8 % Loan 29.3 road connection Helsingborg-Helsingør 23 % 16.7 EU subsidy for Europaspåret fixed link +(23 %) Total 48.2 100 % Loanconnection Helsingborg-Helsingør (23 %) 77 % 56.0 road 23 % 16.7 Europaspåret + HH road connection Billion SEK 100 % 72.7 Total Loan 77 % 56.0 EU subsidy for Europaspåret fixed link + 100 % 72.7 Total SEK road connection Helsingborg-Helsingør (23 %) 23 % Billion16.7 Europaspåret + HH road connection Billion SEK Loan 77 % Billion 56.0 SEK Nordhavn – Landskrona railway tunnel 23.8 Estimation investments example EU subsidyfor forincollected Europaspåret fixed link +on funding100 % 72.7 Total 4.7 Connections Sweden railway Nordhavn – Landskrona tunnel 23.8 road connection Helsingborg-Helsingør Europaspåret + Denmark HH road connection (23 %) 23 % 16.7 18.6 Connections in 4.7 Connections in Sweden Billion SEK Loan 56.0 1.1 Other investments needed in Sweden and Denmark77 % 18.6 Connections in Denmark 100 % 72.7 Total Nordhavn – Landskrona railway tunnel 23.8 24.5 Helsingborg Helsingør raod tunnel 1.1 Other investments needed in Sweden and Denmark 4.7 Connections Swedenraod tunnel 72.7 Total 24.5 Helsingborg - in Helsingør Billion SEK 18.6 Connections in Denmark 72.7 Total Nordhavn – Landskrona railway tunnel 23.8 1.1 Other investments in Sweden andinterest Denmark Investment 72.7 Internal Net presentneeded value +22.5 4.7 Connections Sweden raod tunnel Result Helsingborg -inHelsingør billion SEK 24.5 rate 3.5 % billion SEK Investment 72.7 Net present value +22.5 Internal interest 18.6 Connections Denmark Result Total billioninSEK billion SEK 72.7 rate and 3.5 % Other investments needed in Sweden Denmark Real interest rate Sweden-Denmark average 3.01.1 % 24.5 Helsingborg - Helsingør raod tunnel Yearly inflation Sweden-Denmark average 0.9 % Investment 72.7 Internal interest Net present value +22.5 Real interest rate Sweden-Denmark average 3.0 % Result 72.7 Total billion SEK rate 3.5 % billion SEKcalculation average Pay back time for 40 years *Assumptions Yearly inflation Sweden-Denmark 0.9 % Construction 5 years years Pay back timephase 40 Investment 72.7 Real interest rate Sweden-Denmark average 3.0 % interest Net present value +22.5 Internal Growth phase 4 years Construction 5 years Result billionphase billion SEK0.9 rate 3.5 % SEK Yearly inflation Sweden-Denmark average % Inducedphase traffic per year after the growth phase 1.1 % Growth 4 years Pay backtraffic time per year after the growth phase 40 years Induced 1.5 % Induced trafficrate perSweden-Denmark year after the growth phase 1.1 Real interest average 3.0 % % Construction phaseDKK 5 years Car passage 195.00 Induced trafficfees, per year after the growth phase 1.5 Yearly inflation Sweden-Denmark average 0.9 % Growth phase fees, DKK 4 years Truck passage 550.00 Car 195.00 Pay passage back timefees, DKK 40 years Induced traffic per year after the growth phase 1.1 % Ticket price per person, DKK 65.00 Truck passagephase fees, DKK 550.00 Construction 5 years Induced traffic after the growth phase 1.5 % Freightprice train feeper peryear passage, DKK 3,500.00 Ticket per person, DKK 65.00 Growth phase 4 years Car passage fees, DKK 195.00 Freight train feeper peryear passage, DKK 3,500.00 Induced traffic after the growth phase 1.1 % Truck passage fees, DKK 550.00 Induced traffic year after 1.5 % Ticket price perper person, DKKthe growth phase 65.00 Car passage fees, DKK 195.00 Freight train fee per passage, DKK 3,500.00 Truck passage fees, DKK 550.00 Ticket price per person, DKK 65.00 Freight train fee per passage, DKK 3,500.00

funding. This is crucial since the revenue from the trains using the fixed link cannot fully fund the project. The EU have approved 40 % subsidy for the railway part of the Fehmarn Belt fixed link, but no financing was given to the road part of the project. The upper right funding example shows Europaspåret without a fixed link for road traffic but with 40 % EU subsidy. The project can be built by a co-owned consortium between Sweden and Denmark or as a separate part of the Öresund bridge consortium. The lower right funding example includes a fixed link for road traffic between Helsingborg and Helsingør. The cost for this comes from IBU-update and is calculated to almost 25 billion Swedish kronor. The example is calculated with 35 % subsidy from the EU for the fixed coast to coast link, 10 % for the connecting railway infrastructure (excluding depot and turn around tracks) and 0 % for the road traffic fixed link. This results in a total of 23 % EU subsidy for the entire project. The project is also funded by user fees from the vehicles in the road traffic tunnel, ticket revenues from the passenger train traffic and passage fees from freight trains.

EUROPASPÅRET – CONNECTING SWEDEN AND DENMARK

17


Möjliga åtgärder för ökad godskapacitet

EUROPASPÅRET IN DETAIL Helsingborg C

ra

ilw

thr o ugh Scania

Possibility for holding tracks for freight trains Connection to the Råå railway

New station wing on Landskrona station

Connection to the new high speed railway

ko

Billeberga

or p

Connections to the West Coast Main Line

at

ay

m

å

Fre igh t ro ute

Te c

Landskrona C

Marieholm

lm

ed r spe

W

st oa tC es

M

single track

Eu r

High

Kävlinge

ai

ailw

t åre p as op

Eslöv

e

in e

Passing loop on the Marieholm railway

Lin

in L

n

New artificial island where the tunnel starts

Ma

leho

st

äss

oa

t

C

Connection to the Southern Main Line

ay L und -H

es

approx. 55 minutes shorter travel time to Copenhagen

ght route through Scania Frei

W

Connection to the Godsstråket genom Skåne Railway

double track

Lund C

The Europaspåret tunnel entrance is placed on a new

Lomma

artificial island just south of the island Gråen. •

connects Landskrona with the Råå railway.

Europaspåret is connected to Landskrona from the

The doubletrack connects to the Råå railway through

artificial island on a low bridge to the industrial area M

alm

in the southern part of the city. KA •

a triangle junction.

M

OT

ö

ST RU P

C

West of Teckomatorp a triangle junction is built to connect the freight route through Scania railway

tracks wide running in a flat, descending trough. The

(Godsstråket genom Skåne) with the Råå railway in

trough is at ground level by the bridge abutment and

eastbound direction. •

Between Eslöv and Marieholm on the Marieholm

Directly southwest of Landskrona station a new station wing is built in a dug-out trough.

Through the industrial area Europaspåret is four

sunken by the station. •

East of the West Coast Main Line a new double track

railway a new passing loop is built for freight trains. •

West of Eslöv a connection to the Southern Main Line

Europaspåret connects to the West Coast Main Line (Västkustbanan) in both southbound and northbound

(Södra stambanan) for traffic from/to the north is built. •

West of Eslöv a connection to the new high-speed

LANDSKRONA direction through grade separated connections.

railway can be built.

connection to the West Coast Main Line direction Helsingborg

Station layout of the new station wing at Landskrona station.

g

or

eb

ell Tr

partition wall

direction Copenhagen 15.4 m

VKB

direction Billeberga

7m 4.5 m 7m 15.4 m

bridge abutment

partition wall

18

platform 320-400 m long 12 m wide

connection to the West Coast Main Line direction Lund


Rååbanan

National interest area for recreation

Landskrona station new station wing

National interest area for nature

Line

National interest area for nature

Eu

rop

as

ret

West Coas t Main

Natura 2000 and Nature reserve

approximate location for the artificial island

LANDSKRONA STATION •

The new station wing of Landskrona station is built

ARTIFICIAL ISLAND AND NATURE PROTECTIONS

in a cut, similarly to how Hyllie station was built in

Malmö. •

The station wing is placed directly southwest of the existing station with simple connections between the

shorter. •

Two freight tracks are located in the middle of the station so that the freight trains can pass without

sund to be unaffected by the new island. •

The partition walls between the freight tracks and the passenger train tracks secures that passengers

The island also contributes to the immersed tunnel starting a little further from the Natura 2000-area and

disturbing or having to wait for the passenger trains. •

The placement of the island just south of the existing island Gråen allows for the water flow through Öre-

two to simplify train changes for the passengers. •

The artificial island makes the tunnel under Öresund

the Nature reserve around the mouth of the Saxå river. •

The Natura 2000-area and nature reserve protect both bird habitats and the eelgrass beds that grows

waiting on the platforms are not disturbed by noise.

on the shallow and fine-grained seabed in the Lundåkra bay outside the mouth of the Saxå river. •

To protect the sensitive values under the sea surface both the island and the immersed tunnel need to be built with great care to prevent the water from roiling.

EUROPASPÅRET – CONNECTING SWEDEN AND DENMARK

19


ÖRESUND Copenhagen, Nordhavn

Landskrona

0m -20 -40

0 m (sea level) -20

-60 -80 -100

-60 -80 -100

-40

Sea Soil layers. Morain clay and clay morain with gravel, sand and clay layers to approx. -20 to -30 m. Under -20 - -30 m maily loam and fine sand

0

5 km

Sandstone bedrock with variations in hardness, some flint banks also present

Generalized geological profile between Copenhagen and Landskrona.

GEOLOGY IN THE STRETCH OF EUROPASPÅRET ACROSS ÖRESUND The bedrock under Öresund consists of sandstone of

capacity and are suitable for the foundation of an im-

varying hardness. On top of the bedrock there are soil

mersed tunnel similarly to how the tunnel part of the

layers consisting predominantly of moraine clay and clay

Öresund bridge was built.

moraine with gravel, sand and clay layers. The seabed

The seabed is shallow between Landskrona and

consists mostly of looser soil layers on average about one

Copenhagen. Close to the coasts it is generally between

meter thick but probably thicker in the Alnarp trench.

0 to -5 meters deep. At its deepest the seabed is slightly

The dept till bedrock, especially in the Alnarp trench

below -30 under sea level. The sound between Lands-

where it is about -60 meters under sea level, makes it

krona and Copenhagen is relatively shallow, and the gra-

easiest to place the tunnel in the soil layers.

dient is even which makes it suitable for construction.

The soil layers are estimated to have good bearing

Landskrona

N 5 km

Barsebäck

Ge o

log

ica

lp

ro

file

0

Nordhavn Copenhagen Bedrock surface 0 to -30 m -30 to -60 m -60 m or deeper

20

approximate site for sampels B7539-B7542


sea surface seabed soil layers

sandstone bedrock

Sänktunnel - tunnelprofil Sänktunnel - tunnelprofil Tunnel profile principle illustration

IMMERSED TUNNEL ventilation

An immersed tunnel is built with pre-fabricated tunnel ventilation segments that are lowered into an excavated trench in the seabed. When the tunnel is positioned the trench is trainwith a sufficient train service/ amount of refilled and the tunnel covered evacuation soil to weigh it down and keep it in place.

train

service/ evacuation

train

The tunnel with its covering soil layer should be at level with the surrounding seabed.

Sänktunnel - tunnelsektion

Immersed tunnel – tunnel section

Sänktunnel - tunnelsektion

TUNNEL SEGMENTS The tunnel segments are built in cast concrete and contains the tunnels different tubes according to the tunnel section. Each segment is approximately 200 meters long. The tunnel section of Europaspåret contains of two separate tunnels for railway traffic, one for each direction. Between these tunnels there is one tunnel for service and evacuation and above that is a tunnel for ventilation.

GAINS IN CO-ORGANIZING WITH THE FEHMARN BELT FIXED LINK When immersed tunnels are being built a concrete factory for the cast concrete tunnel segments is established. For the Fehmarn Belt fixed link, the factory will be built in Rødby. When the Fehmarn Belt fixed link is completed this factory could be used to build Europaspåret. To reuse the concrete factory would mean substantial cost savings even though the segments differ between the projects. Another aspect of cost savings is the concrete factory’s position in Rødby, which is very close to Landskrona and Copenhagen so that the towing of segments would be short.

EUROPASPÅRET – CONNECTING SWEDEN AND DENMARK

21


COPENHAGEN •

Europaspåret connects to Copenhagen on reclaimed land in Nordhavn,

In the transition zone between

E

possible land reclamation at Nordhavn

station with passenger connection ho lm te et Ly n

E alt uro er pa na s te på ro re ut t v e ia

proposed metro Nordhavn

tracks change order to right/ left, freight in the middle

In Nordhavn (or Lynetteholmen) turn around at Copenhagen Central Station could be built.

possible land reclamation • Lynetteholmen

Under Copenhagen Europaspåret is divided into three separate single-track drilled tunnels, two for

Østerport

passenger trains and one for freight trains.

Nørreport

Vesterport

Tivoli

Under Tivoli a new station wing, Copenhagen Central “lower”, is built.

Kongens Nytorv

Copenhagen Central Station

to the metro could be created. a depot for trains that terminate/

Nordhavn

Europaspåret decongests the Boulevard tunnel

Vanløse

in Nordhavn (or Lynetteholmen) a

turn around tracks

possible common station metro/ railway

Nørrebro

immersed tunnel and drilled tunnel

possible train depot

possible extension of the metro

Ri n

alternatively at Lynetteholmen.

m urop ai n a ro sp ut å r e et

metro in tunnel metro overground tracks in tunnel tracks overground

Christianshavn

The passenger train tracks reach the ground surface in the railway yard of Copenhagen Central Station where the general maintenance

Valby Vestbanen railway

ted railway gs

Øresund

freight tunnel, many possible routes

centre is today. The tracks are connected to the Ringsted railway and

Amager strand

Sydhavn Ny Ellebjerg

the Öresund railway. •

The freight tunnel reaches the ground surface somewhere before

Sundby

the Ringsted railway crosses the road Enghavevej. The freight tracks Ör

connect to the Ringsted railway.

es

un

d

ra

il w

ay

Ørestad

Tårnby

CPH/Copenhagen Airport (metro) CPH/Copenhagen Airport

Before the tunnel entrance of the freight tunnel there is a passing loop for freight.

KØBENHAVNS HOVEDBANEGÅRD Vestamager Station layout at the new station wing of Copenhagen Central Station, Copenhagen Central “lower”. toward CPH/Copenhagen Airport-Malmö toward the Ringsted railway

15.4 m

from CPH/Copenhagen Airport-Malmö

15.4 m

4.5 m

direction Landskrona

from the Ringsted railway platform 320-400 m long, 12 m wide

Station layout at Nordhavn/Lynetteholmen

metro partition wall

depot

bored tunnel

immersed tunnel freight track Copenhagen Central Station

22

Landskrona

partition wall

depot


City Hall Square

Vesterbrogade

Copenhagen Central Station

r

Be

e

ad

ffsg

or nst

C.

Tietge

nsgade

H.

freight tunnel

An de rse

ns blv d.

City Hall

COPENHAGEN CENTRAL “LOWER”, DECONGESTION OF COPENHAGEN CENTRAL STATION

DECONGESTION OF THE RAILWAYS IN COPENHAGEN

The capacity at Copenhagen Central Station is close to its

railway system:

breaking point as all tracks, except track 26, go through

Europaspåret also decongests other parts of the Danish The stretch between Copenhagen Central Station

to the Boulevard tunnels two tracks. Most of the traffic is

– Østerport is decongested as trains that termina-

south of the station which means that the majority of the

te at Copenhagen Central Station can go through

trains have to turn around at Copenhagen Central Station.

Europaspåret and either terminate at Nordhavn (or

This aggravates the congestion.

Lynetteholm) or simply use the depot to turn around.

• •

Copenhagen Central “lower” becomes a new part of

The stretch between CPH/Copenhagen Airport –

Copenhagen Central Station.

Kalvebod is decongested primarily from a number of

Copenhagen Central “lower” is carved out of the bed­­rock

freight trains that are headed north in Sweden and

from two sides just like the Triangeln station was built in Malmö. •

choose to go by Europaspåret as it offers a shorter route.

Copenhagen Central “lower” is built with four platform tracks. The four tracks continue from the station to the ground surface in the railway yard of Copenhagen Central Station and connect to the Ringsted railway and the Öresund railway.

Copenhagen Central “lower” increases the capacity of Copenhagen Central Station with between 50 and 100 %.

EUROPASPÅRET CONNECTS TO THE RAILWAY YARD AT COPENHAGEN CENTRAL STATION Four passenger train tracks from Copenhagen Central “lower” reach the surface in the railway yard of Copenhagen Central

Copenhagen C S-train tracks metro

09-12 08 07

Vestbanen railway direction Valby-Roskilde

06 05 depot

Station where they connect to/from the Ringsted railway/the

26

tracks to Ny Ellebjerg and to/from the Öresund railway.

04 03

The freight tunnel goes underground for a longer distance

02

which makes its exact location under the city or the harbour more flexible. The freight tracks will come up to the surface at the latest before the passage of the road

01 24

Ringsted railway direction Ny Ellebjerg-Køge

23 22

Eng­havevej and will connect to the tracks towards Ny Ellebjerg/the Ringsted railway in both directions.

21 new station wing

Öresund railway direction CPH/Copenhagen Airport-Malmö

freight tunnel

EUROPASPÅRET – CONNECTING SWEDEN AND DENMARK

23


www.europasparet.se

PUBLISHED BY LANDSKONA MUNICIPALITY, JUNE 2019

CONTACT

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