__MAIN_TEXT__

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OSLO/ GOTHENBURG

STOCKHOLM

00:14

HELSINGBORG

LANDSKRONA

COPENHAGEN

LUND MALMÖ

HAMBURG

REPORT

New rail connections in the Öresund region for international and regional development

2017

EUROPASPÅRET


EUROPASPÅRET – An Investigation of new core network connections in the Öresund region for international and regional development ISSUED BY THE CITY OF LANDSKRONA VERSION 2.0, FEBRUARY 2017 CITY OF LANDSKRONA Christian Alexandersson, Communications Director Mattias Schriever-Abeln, Project Management (on leave up to 31.12.2017 ) Lennart Serder, Project Management

CONSULTANT Kreera Samhällsbyggnad Serder & Serder DESIGN AND ILLUSTRATION Kreera Samhällsbyggnad if nothing else is specified

CONTACT INFORMATION ADDRESS City of Landskrona Stadshuset Drottninggatan 7 261 80 Landskrona TELEPHONE 0418-47 00 00 FACSIMILE 0418-47 48 33 EMAIL stadsbyggnadsforvaltningen@landskrona.se www.europasparet.se

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TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Foreword s.4 2. Summary s.4 3. Background s.6 4. Project description s.7 5. Geological and geotechnical conditions

s.14

6. Environmental description

s.16

7. Passengertransport s.19 8. Freight traffic s.20 9. Travel time and capacity

s.22

10. Travel time comparison s.23 11. Redundancy at the stop on the Öresund Bridge

s.24

12. Traffic development s.25 13. Socio-economic benefits s.27 14. Investment costs s.29 15. Financing s.30 16. Comparison between the existing proposals

s.32

EUROPASPÅRET A NEW ÖRESUND CONNECTION

3


Foreword As our region grows and develops, the connections across Öresund need to be strengthened. Öresund sound today is a bottle neck in the European “core network”, the EU-prioritised transport corridors through Europe which link transport to/from Oslo and Stockholm with transport via Hamburg to/ from France and Italy. This transport corridor is designated transporters of for both freight and passenger with modern high-speed trains. The fixed link across the Fehmarn Belt will be part of that network and when it opens the pressure will increase further on the current Öresund connection. Europaspåret is a new fixed rail link that connects Denmark and Sweden and can handle all types of rail transport; freight trains, high-speed trains and regional trains. This is unique. The previous options studied for the new Öresund connection failed to do this. Europaspåret creates major travel benefits and decongests the rail network in the Öresund region. The road traffic connection between Helsingborg and Helsingør described in this investigation can contribute to the financing of a new rail link. With Europaspåret the number of freight trains across the Öresund Bridge can be reduced. Thus, the heavily used rail lines at Malmö and CPH/Kastrup will be decongested, providing better accessibility to the airport for travellers from both southern Sweden and Denmark. Europaspåret does not exclude the Öresund Metro. The Metro is important for increasing cooperation between Copenhagen and Malmö, as it halves the travel time between the central parts of the cities and increases capacity. This connection is an important part of the region’s development, regardless of Europaspåret. Europaspåret creates a new effective link for long-distance trains, freight trains, regional trains, road traffic and future high-speed trains. It serves as a comprehensive solution for Europe, the Nordic region and the Öresund region.

2. Summary Rail traffic across Öresund has increased dramatically during the more than 15 years that the Öresund Bridge has existed. The opening of the fixed link across the Fehmarn Belt in 2028 will mean a dramatic increase in demand for freight capacity in Denmark, of which approximately 90% is transit traffic to Sweden. At the same time, a continued increase in regional passenger rail traffic and long-distance rail traffic across Öresund is expected due to the expansion of the Swedish West Coast Main Line and the planned step by step expansion of the new Stockholm-Malmö high speed railway. the increasing number of flights at CPH/Kastrup also contributes to augmented passenger traffic from both the Danish and Swedish sides on the Öresund Railway. Overall, the different types of transport put pressure on the Öresund Bridge and its land connections, that will make additional capacity necessary after 2030. Capacity problems at the Öresund Bridge, including its land connections, together with the vision of a closely linked Öresund region that continues to grow and develop creates the need for a new fixed link across the sound. This connection must contribute to both enlargement of the region, growth and decongestion of the existing Öresund connection. In order to be ready around 2030, a new fixed connection needs to be planned now. This study describes how Europaspåret, - a fixed rail link between Landskrona and Copenhagen, which can be combined with a road link between Helsingborg and Helsingør (HH) - can solve the capacity problems that will otherwise occur while simultaneously shorten travel times and increase accessibility in the Öresund region. Since the road link has been previously thoroughly investigated, this investigation focuses on rail links With Europaspåret travel time from Copenhagen will be 25 minutes to Helsingborg, 30 minutes to Lund and just under 15 minutes to Landskrona. Accessibility in the Öresund region is thus increasing, reaching as far as the Swedish west coast. Travel times to and from Copenhagen will be reduced by 40-45 minutes, and travel times to and from Kastrup will be around 15 minutes shorter. With the West Coast Main Line (Västkustbanan), it will be possible to reach Gothenburg in just over 1 hour and 45 minutes. With a connection to the future Lund-Hässleholm high speed railway, it will be possible to reach Hässleholm and

Torkild Strandberg Chairman of the City of Landskrona Municipal Authority

Kristianstad with respectively 40 and 60 minutes travel time from Copenhagen. With the planned high speed line it will be possible to reach Stockholm in 2 hours 30 minutes from Copenhagen. The capacity for freight rail traffic will increase, with shorter travel time and shorter routes using the new connection. The new fixed link contributes

4


OSLO/ GOTHENBURG to a more robust rail system. Road traffic will get in-

strengthens the TEN-T network in the so-called Scan-Med

creased capacity and shorter travel times on the Helsing-

corridor, by being the second full-fledged connection

borg-Helsingør stretch. The common labour force in the

over Öresund. As freight traffic will to a large extent be

common labour market region would grow by more than

routed through the Europaspåret, this will entail reduced

325,000 people of working age with the Europaspåret.

risks, emissions and disturbances in the central areas of

This would be due to the great improvements in accessi-

Lund, Lomma, Kävlinge, Eslöv, Tårnby and Ørestad. The

bility that tEuropaspåret enables, and the new route and

possibility for freight trains to travel between Sweden and

journey options that will be made possible.

Germany is increased without passenger traffic suffering

Freight trains, high-speed trains as well as region-

from capacity constraints. Among others Copenhagen,

al trains can take advantage of Europaspåret, thereby

Kastrup, Roskilde, Ringsted and Køge will get improved

decongesting the Öresund Bridge and the heavily utilized

accessibility to/from Sweden, while Helsingborg, Halm-

rail links in southwestern Skåne, across the Öresund

stad and Gothenburg all get attractive travel times from

sound and the Øresund Railway between Kastrup and

Copenhagen and several other towns on the Danish side.

00:14

Copenhagen. Europaspåret also significantly increases the

Europaspåret brings significantly more benefits than

capacity of the Central Station in Copenhagen and can re-

a rail link between Helsingborg and Helsingør, while the

lieve the Boulevard Railway if a new depot is established

Öresund Metro has other advantages for short-haul traffic

in Nordhavn.

and commuting between the central parts of Copenhagen

Europaspåret also means increased capacity for in-

and Malmö.

ternational rail freight traffic, as it becomes a part of and

HELSINGBORG

LANDSKRONA

COPENHAGEN

LUND MALMÖ

THE PARTS OF EUROPASPÅRET RAILROAD FIXED LINK FROM THE NORTH TO THE SOUTH: •

connecting tracks from the West Coast Main Line (Västkustbanan), both from the south and the north

a new double track from Billeberga to Landskrona for connection to other railways in Skåne, a triangle junctions at Billeberga, Teckomatorp and Eslöv as well as a passing loop on the Marieholm Railway

a new wing on the station in Landskrona

an immersion tunnel with double tracks under the Öresund sound from Landskrona to Nordhavn

a train depot with the possibility to turn trains around for Danish passenger trains that provides relief in the Boulevard tunnel

the possibility of building a station in Nordhavn connected to the metro

a bored tunnel between Nordhavn and the Central Station with a separate tunnel for freight traffic

a new station wing to Copenhagen Central Station placed in parallel with the metro tunnel under Tivoli.

grade separated crossing connections to the Øresund Railway and Ringsted Railway to the west of the Central Station and via Ny Ellebjerg to the West Railway. The freight trains connect with a grade separated crossing tothe Ringsted Raiway

HAMBURGto a new freight terminal, for example in Nordhavn or Køge a possibility to be connected

EUROPASPÅRET A NEW ÖRESUND CONNECTION

5


3. BACKGROUND Since the opening of the Öresund bridge between Malmö

Currently the trend is that mainly the number of journeys

and Copenhagen in 2000, traffic across Öresund has

starting or ending at CPH/Kastrup is increasing, while

increased considerably.

the layovers and flight changes remain comparably few.

Rail traffic, both regional passenger and freight, has

From the airports point of view there is also a need to

developed and increased over the bridge’s 15 years of

increase the catchment area in Sweden, which can be

existance. The reason for the increased traffic has been

achieved through an increased offering of long-distance

regional expansion and growth, driven by new travel

services that serves the airport. The airport’s long-term

opportunities, shorter travel times and labour commut-

goal is to increase the number of travellers from today’s

ing. The Öresund Bridge was not only the solution to a

approximately 29 million to 40 million annually.

capacity problem across the Öresund sound, with a fixed

In 1992, when Sweden and Denmark signed a gov-

link new opportunities for the region to develop and new

ernment agreement for the Öresund Bridge, Denmark

opportunities for international traffic were created. The

explained that it was ready to work for a permanent con-

bridge created something completely new.

nection across the Fehmarn Belt if there were economic

Traffic has steadily increased over the Öresund

and environmental conditions for it. In 2008, after 16

Bridge, except for a stagnation during the 2008 finan-

years of investigation, Denmark and Germany agreed to

cial crisis and the subsequent recession. Traffic is now

build the Fehmarn Belt connection. If it receives Ger-

increasing by 2-4% per year, despite the lack of reliability

man environmental approval in 2018, the connection is

it sometimes suffers. During 2016, Sweden introduced

expected to open in 2026. The construction period is 8

an internal border control and carrier responsibility that

years according to the contracts signed with the contrac-

resulted in ID control for travel between Denmark and

tor consortium.

Sweden. This has mainly affected train travel, which saw

The Fehmarn Belt agreement includes the dou-

a reduction in travellers while car travel increased over

ble-track extension and electrification of the entire

the Öresund Bridge. How long this will last is uncertain.

route from Copenhagen to Hamburg. Together with the

In order for the Öresund region to be able to continue

connection this will create a shortened journey time

to grow and develop together there is a need for increased

and route for the traffic, and a doubling from one to

capacity and robustness in the rail system so that reliable

two freight corridor between Denmark and Germany.

transport options can be offered.

The forecasts show that this will increase the number

The factors that will continue to increase the pressure on the Öresund Bridge include increasing travel to Copenhagen Airport CPH / Kastrup, the opening of the

of freight trains crossing the Öresund as a result of the shorter and faster route to and from Hamburg. With the expected traffic growth on the Öresund

Fehmarm Belt fixed link, which is expected to lead to

connection with both passenger and freight trains, it is

increased freight traffic, and a successful development of

therefore important to plan for increased capacity for both

high-speed railways in Sweden, which is expected to lead

freight and passenger traffic across Öresund. Europaspåret

to an increased number of long distance trains travelling

has been identified as an opportunity to create growth and

across the Öresund Bridge to Copenhagen.

improved regional links in the Öresund region, while show-

The development of air travel at CPH/Kastrup

ing that it is the only new Öresund connection th discussed

requires reliable connections for Swedish travellers,

which increases the capacity for freight traffic and provides

who make up more than 25% of the airport’s customers.

decongestion for the Öresund Bridge.

Passengers across the Sound, base forecast until 2030

Persons crossing on HH

6

Persons crossing on the bridge


Helsingør

tunnel drilled through rock

4. PROJECT DESCRIPTION Europaspåret is the new fixed link across the Öresund sound. It consists of a rail link between Copenhagen and Landskrona.

Billeberga Landskrona

The new fixed connection for rail traffic is proposed to

Teckomatorp

railway on ground

branch of from the West Coast Main Line at Landskrona. A new station wing with four platform tracks and two freight tracks will be located just south of the Landskrona station, so that the new station wing together with the existing station, will form an entity that travellers can easily move

Immersion tunnel

through when changeing trains. The six tracks merge to four which then continue through the industrial area south of the ship yard. They join together to a double track just before the shoreline from where they continue onto a low bridge before going down into the immersion tunnel under

Lund

bored tunnel through rock Copenhagen

railway on ground

the Öresund sound to Nordhavn on the Danish side. Here Malmö

the freight trains are separated into a different tunnel. Passenger trains and freight trains continue in bored tunnels (probably three single-track tunnels, one for freight and one in each direction for passenger traffic). The passenger train tunnels will be bored to a new station wing at Copenhagen Central Station, which will be located under Tivoli. Here too there are four platform tracks. The four tracks are connected to the Ringsted Railway and the Øresund Railway. The ramps leading the track to ground level are

Area of investigation for Europaspårets rail fixed link Background map from © OpenStreetMap

placed at the current general maintenance centre. The freight tunnel completely bypasses the underground station wing and comes up to ground level south of the passenger train tracks, crosses above the Metro tunnel and connects through grade separated crossings to the Ringsted Railway. The new station wing in Landskrona connects the West Coast Main Line in both northbound and southbound directions as well as to the Råå Railway with new tracks to and from Billeberga. The connections towards the new station wing are done grade separated to both the West Coast Main Line and each other for maximum capacity.

FIXED ROAD LINK Europaspåret can be combined with a fixed link for road traffic between Ramlösa in Helsingborg and Snekkersten in

Helsingborg Helsingborg

Helsingør Helsingør

Helsingør connecting the motorways (E4) on both sides of the sound. The road tunnel can relieve the Öresund Bridge

Ramlösa

fof some long-distance road traffic, which is largely transit traffic through the region. The road link is an opportunity to finance the Europaspårets rail road connections. This could be done if, as on the Öresund Bridge, road traffic crossing

Snekkersten l

HH – Road tunne

fees could help finance the entire new construction. The road link would be built as a bored tunnel or an immersion tunnel, and through this central parts of Helsingborg and Helsingør would be relieved from the traffic for the car ferries. It also means that valuable land would be

Road fixed link between Helsingborg and Helsingør

freed up in the central parts of both cities.

EUROPASPÅRET A NEW ÖRESUND CONNECTION

7


N BUR G T HE GO

W A R DS

TO

4. PROJECT DESCRIPTION

Ängelholm

V äst k u s tb anan

m ol l eh ss Hä

S k å n e b a n an

Åstorp possible measures to increase freight capacity

connection to the Freight Line through Skåne

connection to the Råå Line

n

t

na

ke

ba

trå

åb

am

G od

ss

Helsingborg C

an

Te c Bi lle

ON

LS

RA

a

NT

Eslöv

rg

TA TI

be

holding tracks freight

connection to Southern Main Line

N

CE

t ra s

ko

m

at

or

p

an

Landskrona C ca. 45-minute shorter journey times to Copenhagen

Söd

passing loop on the Marieholm Raliway

TOW AR D

Europaspårets connection to the Swedish rail network

SC OP

EN

HA

GE

Kävlinge

CONNECTIONS TO THE RAILWAY NETWORK IN SWEDEN In Landskrona, the connections are grade separated to the West Coast Main Line, for both southbound

Lund C Lomma

Ma

lm

TO

öC

W AR Öre D S KA su STR nd UP Bri dg e

and northbound traffic. The current station on the West Coast Main Line will continue to be serviced by the local system in Skåne and the Öresund train on the Helsing-

Y s tad b

an a n

Ys

borg-Lund / Malmö line like today.

d

g

or

be built to reach the new station wing. These tracks will

b lle Tre

from Eslöv-Teckomatorp-Billeberga to Landskrona, will

ta

A new double track, extending the Marieholm Railway

primarily lead freight traffic between the Råå Railway,

SINGLE TRACK

also known as the freight route through Skåne, the South MainLine (Södra stambanan) and the tunnel of Europaspåret. The double track can serve as an extended siding for freight traffic and provide buffer capacity towards the Europaspåret. The tracks also enable fast inter-regional connections between Kristianstad / Hässleholm and Copenhagen. In the future, it is also possible to use these tracks to connect the Europaspåret to the new high-speed railway. At Billeberga, a triangle junction is built on the Råå Railway, in Teckomatorp a triangle junction connects to the Söderås Railway and in Eslöv a triangle junction connects to the Southern Main Line with grade separated connections. Between Eslöv and Marieholm, a passing loop is built to increase the capacity of the track. Passing tracks for freight can be placed between Billeberga and Landskrona, if there is needs to handle

8

DOUBLE TRACK

increased freight traffic in the future. To achieve a good function for the system, the geometry of the connections towards the station need to have a good standard. The permitted maximum speed in the sound tunnel is estimated to be 200 km/h. For connections to the new station wing, the West Coast Main Line connections should be dimensioned for at least 130 km/h and the tracks from Billeberga for freight trains and eventually high-speed trains for at least 160 km/h through Landskrona. Out from the Råå Railway in Billeberga there is an 80 km/h curve for northbound travel and a 130 km/h curve for southbound travel. The southern curve could be corrected to 160 km/h if the Råå Railway is somewhat straightened. This is due to the choice of main direction and gear speed during remodelling.


The new station in Landskrona is digged into the ground

the station, the tracks go at ground level across the West

and located just south of the existing station. The two sta-

Coast Main Line, then split up and connect seperatly to

tions are directly adjacent to each other, and together they

the north and southbound directions as well as towards

create an entity where travellers can easily move between

Billeberga. On the stretch of tracks between the Råå Rail-

platforms to change between different rail lines.

way and the southern connection from/to the West Coast

The station will have four platform tracks around two

4. PROJECT DESCRIPTION

LOCATION AND DESIGN OF THE STATION IN LANDSKRONIA

Main Line, holding tracks for freight could be built. It is

central platforms and between those, two tracks for pass-

also possible for freight trains to queue on this part of the

ing freight trains well separated from the platforms and

track to wait their turn to use Europaspåret.

the platform tracks with partitions.

Good track geometries have been sought and the con-

South of the station four of the tracks continue down

nections have a speed standard of at least 130 km/h. All

to the shore line where they merge to two tracks for the

connections have grade separated crossings. This means

passage under the Öresund sound. Capacity is increased

that the connections to the existing railways, and in par-

by making double track stretch as short as possible.

ticular the connection to the West Coast Main Line going

Trough the industrial area the tracks lay in a relatively

south, encircles a large part of the surrounding landscape.

flat trough so that the sinking topography towards the

The stations vertical position must be studied in depth

sea allows the tracks to gradually return to ground level.

in the continued process, in combination with the various

The tracks returning to ground level is a condition for the

connecting tracks and the grounds natural slope towards

proposed solution, with a bridge leading out to an artifi-

the sea.

L ANDSKRONA cial island where the immersion tunnel begins. North of

connection to West Coast Main Line direction Helsingborg

Landskorna's new station extension proposal for function

partition

direction Copenhagen 15,4 m

tunnel entry

VKB

towards Billeberga

7m 4,5 m 7m 15,4 m

partition

plattform 320-400 m long 12 m wide

connection to the West Coast Main Line direction Lund

Rååbanan

Landskrona station

Västk

ustba

Eu

rop

asp

åre

t

nan

Placement of the Europaspåret in Landskrona

aproximate location of artificial island

EUROPASPÅRET A NEW ÖRESUND CONNECTION

9


possible land reclamation at Nordhavn

E m urop ain a op spå tio re n t

4. PROJECT DESCRIPTION

metro in tunnel metro overground track in tunnel track overground

possible extension of metro

Re fsh E

proposed Metro Nordhavn

ale øn

train depot

u alt rop er na asp te å ro ret ut e via

possible common station metro/ railway

Nørrebro

Nordhavn

Tracks change order to right/left goods in middle

Østerport

Europaspåret decongests the Boulevard tunnel

Vanløse

Nørreport Kongens Nytorv Vesterport Copenhagen C

Tivoli

Christianshavn

Valby Øresund Amager strand

Sydhavn Ny Ellebjerg

Europaspåret in Denmark’s and Copenhagen’s rail system. The orange boxes show zoomed in areas areas on the next page.

Sundby

Ørestad

CONNECTIONS TO THE RAIL NETWORK INVestamager DENMARK

Lufthavnen (Metro) København Lufthavnen

The railway tunnel of Europaspåret has for this study has

station wing, passenger trains connect to the Øresund Rail-

been assumed to reach the Danish coast at Nordhavn. An

way and the new Ringsted Railway, while the freight trains,

alternative to this, which had not yet been investigated, is

bypassing the central station, connects to the Ringsted Rail-

for the tunnel to go via Refshaleøn. This would give the new

way and via Ny Ellebjerg the West Railway (Vestbanen).

station wing at Copenhagen central station a different angle.

The part of the tunnel constructed closest under the

In Nordhavn the immersion tunnel reaches land and

ground surface is constructed as a cut and cover solution.

opens up. Here a transition zone is built in a trough before

To accommodate the passenger train tunnels ramps, it is

the track goes down into the bored tunnel. Here tracks

assumed that the general maintenance centre will be de-

branches off to connect to a depot where Danish trains

molished. The freight train tunnels ramp is located on the

can turn around to further relieve the capacity problems at

south border of the rail yard. All connections have grade

Copenhagen’s Central Station station. There is also an op-

separated crossings. At the Central Station and at Dybbøls-

portunity to build a station connected to the the Nordhavn

bro station that the existing metro tunnels determine the

Metro so passengers can switch trains. In the transition

new tracks’ vertical and horizontal positioning.

zone freight traffic is separated from passenger traffic

10

Tårnby

The railways in the Copenhagen area are close to their

again for increased capacity. Europaspåret continues from

capacity limit. The greatest problems are the Central Sta-

Nordhavn as a bored tunnel, probably in three single-track

tion, with only eight tracks, and on the stretches from the

tunnels, under central Copenhagen to the central station

Central Station to Østerport and CPH/Kastrup to Ørestad

where a new station wing is built. There are different place-

and Kalvebod. Even from an international perspective,

ment but a location below Tivoli has been investigated here.

the Central Stations capacity is highly utilised, and even

The station wing is built with four platform tracks and is

small delays propagate instantly through the system. Eu-

carved out of the rock from the two access points, similar to

ropaspåret decongests several of the most strained stretch-

how the Triangle station in Malmö was built. From the new

es in the Copenhagen area. The Central Station is decon-


new station wing

Copenhagen Central Station

Tivoli

me

ce

ate

pla

ion

tat

fs

o nt

ern

alt

tro

me

3. Possibilities in Nordhavn with a station and connection depot

1. Copenhagen Central station

Copenhagen Central Station

Vestbanen

S-tåg tracks 09-12 Metro

08 07 06

Valby-Roskilde

05 Depå 26

o metr

04 03

01 24

nen tedba Rings

Øresu

ndsba

nen

02

Mot Ny Ellebjerg-Køge

2. Connections to the Ringsted Railway and the Öresund Railway.

23 22 21 new station wing

CPH Kastrup-Malmö

Preferred track layout at Copenhagen C

gested by the new station wing which will increase capacity

Öresund region has only eight tracks. These are connected

by 50-100% compared to today. The Central Station and

on the north side to two tracks continuing in the Boulevard

Østerport are decongested by the new tunnel from Nord-

tunnel. The commuter train system (S-Train) has separate

havn and the CPH/Kastrup - Kalvebod route is decongested

tracks and platforms that cannot be used by other trains.

by the fact that a number of mainly freight trains will go via

The Danish Transport Agency has developed a number

the Europaspår, as the freight train crossing of the sound

of proposals for the expansion of the Central Station. These

will be 30 km shorter than via the Öresund Bridge.

are either physically difficult to place, have limited benefits

The Danish Transport Agency has studied possibilities for improving capacity at the Central Station and on the stretch from the Öresund Bridge to Ny Ellebjerg west of Copenhagen (South Ring). The expansion of Ny Ellebjerg has begun, and it will be one of Denmark’s largest stations with two S-train lines, a metro line to the Central Station as well as passing regional, long-distance and freight trains. The expansion does not solve the capacity problems of Copenhagen C.

COPENHAGEN’S CENTRAL STATION The Central Station is over 100 years old and since its establishment the number of trains has increased without its platform capacity following suit. The Copenhagen Central Station’s dedicated to the connected rail network in the

or are very expensive. The solutions presented in connection to the Central Station are: • A new terminal at the Postal centre in Copenhagen (four-track terminus station) (SEK 3.4 billion) • A new terminal under Bernstorffsgade (terminus station with four tracks)( SEK 6 billion) • A new terminal at DGI-city and a new city tunnel at the Lersøen depot (a through station four tracks) (SEK 16.4 billion) A cohesive solution with the tunnel between Landskrona and Nordhavn and one of the options mentioned above is possible. However, neither the Postal centre nor the Bernstorff street alternatives are prepared to be connected to a tunnel. These alternatives thereby have limited capacity

EUROPASPÅRET A NEW ÖRESUND CONNECTION

11


4. PROJECT DESCRIPTION

rådhusplatsen

Vesterbrogade Central Station

e

gad

rffs

to rns

Be

ers

en

sb

lvd .

rådhuset

Sketch of the new station at Copenhagen Central Station

nd

Tietgen

H.C .A

freight tunnel

sgade

Kongens Nytorv Strøget Rådhuspladsen

KØBENHAVNS HOVEDBANEGÅRD

Tivoli

Copenhagen C

Suggested access and location in Copenhagen city centre

towards CPH/Kastrup-Malmö towards Køge

15,4 m

from Malmö-CPH/Kastrup

15,4 m

4,5 m

direction Landskrona

from Køge plattform 320 - 400 m long, 12 m wide

Copenhagen C's new station extension – suggestions for the station layout as they become terminus stations where the trains turn

traffic is built. From the tunnel under Öresund, where

around at the platform. Europaspåret will create a new

all the traffic runs on two common tracks, the division of

station wing at Copenhagen Central Station and increase

freight and passenger traffic in Nordhavn takes place before

capacity in parity with the “DGI City” alternative.

the passenger train tracks to the train depot. This means

The solution given by Europaspåret for the Central

that trains using the depot to turn around and freight trains

Station will provide for an expansion of the capacity

never use the same part of the track and thus cannot inter-

corresponding to about 15 trains per hour and direction

fere with each other. The freight tunnel has been proposed

with the possibility of routing a number of trains through

to be a single-track with an opportunity for a passing loop

the tunnel to the clearing centre/depot in Nordhavn

at the transition zone at Nordhavn. South of the Central

where the trains can also be turned around. In contrast

Station area it connects to the double track in the direction

to a terminus station, a very robust and capacity-efficient

of Ny Ellebjerg through a grade separated crossing. With

solution is achieved.

the chosen design of Ny Ellebjerg, where intersecting rail

One suggestion would be that the new station part is

paths are required for changing over between the Öresund

primarily used for the Öresund trains that also operate

Railway and the new Ringsted Railway, Europaspåret will

over the Öresund Bridge. In addition with Danish region-

reduce the future capacity problems at this critical railroad

al trains with Copenhagen as final station, along with

junction.

some international long-distance trains and the future can use the station. National Danish rail traffic can use

PLACEMENT AND DESIGN OF THE STATION IN COPENHAGEN

the Europaspåret for increased capacity but has not been

The main station on Europaspåret in Copenhagen is built

investigated in depth.

as a new station wing to the Central Station. The station

Parallel to the tunnels for passenger traffic between Nor-

wing is placed diagonally under Tivoli with entries from

dhavn and the Central Station, a third tunnel for freight

Rådhusplatsen and in the corner between Tietgensgade and

Danish high-speed between Jutland and Copenhagen

12


Integrated Europaspåret – Metro station

4. PROJECT DESCRIPTION

proposed extention of the Nordhavn metro

ro

et

g metro

City rin

t

os

op

Eu r

op a

sp å

ret

pr

m ed

vn

ha

rd

o oN

Proposed link between the station and the metro in Nordhavn

metro

depot boared tunnel

immersion tunnel freight track

Landskrona

Copenhagen Central Station depot

Sketch of the station layout in the common train and metro station in Nordhavn

Berntorffsgade at the southern part of the existing station

wing is placed diagonally under Tivoli with entries from

building. The station’s location ensures easy train connec-

Rådhusplatsen and in the corner between Tietgensgade and

tions at Central Station and to the Metro while providing

Berntorffsgade at the southern part of the existing station

easy access to the city’s central areas. If Europaspåret is

building. The station’s location ensures easy train connec-

connected via Refshaleøn instead of Nordhavn, the station

tions at Central Station and to the Metro while providing

wing would be parallel to Tietgensgade.

easy access to the city’s central areas. If Europaspåret is

The station is built with two central platforms and four platform tracks. North of the station, the four tracks merge together to two, which each go into one of the single-track

connected via Refshaleøn instead of Nordhavn, the station wing would be parallel to Tietgensgade. The station is built with two central platforms and four

tunnels to Nordhavn. South of the station 2-4 tracks, de-

platform tracks. North of the station, the four tracks merge

pending on the amount of available space, would continue

together to two, which each go into one of the single-track

on. The tracks go up and out of the tunnel reaching ground

tunnels to Nordhavn. South of the station 2-4 tracks, de-

level by the general maintenance centre.

pending on the amount of available space, would continue

The area around Copenhagen Central Station is being redefined with new local plans that have either gone through are being processed. However, the plans closest to

on. The tracks go up and out of the tunnel reaching ground level by the general maintenance centre. The area around Copenhagen Central Station is being

the railway will keep the border that can be guessed today

redefined with new local plans that have either gone

along Carsten Niebhurs Street so that the railway retains its

through are being processed. However, the plans closest to

space with some possibilities for expansion. This means that

the railway will keep the border that can be guessed today

the plans in Copenhagen today do not affect the possibility

along Carsten Niebhurs Street so that the railway retains its

of building Europaspåret.

space with some possibilities for expansion. This means that the plans in Copenhagen today do not affect the possibility

TRAIN DEPOT AND THE COMMUTER STATION IN NORDHAVN

of building Europaspåret.

The main station on Europaspåret in Copenhagen is built as a new station wing to the Central Station. The station * See also the PM "UnderlagsPM - København H", Landskrona municipality, 18.11.2016.

EUROPASPÅRET A NEW ÖRESUND CONNECTION

13


5. GEOLOGICAL AND GEOTECHNICAL CONDITIONS TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURES IN EUROPASPÅRET To the south of the station in Landskrona, the Eur-

existing station anneeds to be built as a cut and cover tunnel. The geotechnical conditions in Landskrona are judged

poaspåret merges to four tracks, which lie lower than

to be good, there is good bearing capacity and good shaft

ground level rising slowly towards it. On this stretch the

bearing in the soil. Problems can come from ground­

tracks are placed either in a trough oras a “cut and cover”

water lowering in deep shafts that may affect a larger area

tunnel (a shaft which are then covered). In the main pro-

because the soil layers are predominantly sand. However,

posal merge into two just before the shoreline where they

the soil layers are considered to be firm enough for sag

continue on a low bridge toto a new artificial island south

damage not to occur.

of the island Gråen, built with the surplus masses. On the island the tunnel under the Öresund sound begins.

ÖRESUND

In the sound, the connection is built as an immersion

The soil conditions in the sound as well as the depth to the

tunnel with two tunnel pipes for the tracks anda smaller

bedrock mean that an immersion tunnel is the only possible

tunnel pipe between them for evacuation and mainte-

solution for the connection on the Swedish side. Where the

nance services.

Alnarp stream passes outside of Landskrona, the upper

In Nordhavn, the immersion tunnel will rise to a cut and cover tunnel or up to ground level and then down

limestone bedrock layer is 60 meters below sea level. An immersion tunnel is comprised of prefabricated

again in a bored tunnel under Copenhagen. The sin-

tunnel sections which are lowered into an excavated cut in

gle-track tunnels are drilled in the bedrock under Copen-

the seabed. when the tunnel is positioned the cut is refilled

hagen as the metro is. Transverse tunnels will be required

and the tunnel is covered with a sufficiently thick soil layer

for evacuation and maintenance.

so that there is no risk of movement. The tunnel should not

The station section under Tivoli next to the Central Station will be milled out of the rock from under ground,

be rise above the surrounding seabed. The soil in Öresund consists predominantly of sand

like the Triangle station in Malmö was constructed.

on fine-grained moraine down to the limestone bedrock

This requires at least one shaft to take down the milling

surface at 20 to 30m d below sea level. The topmost seabed

equipment and excavate the masses. The shaft can later

consist of layers of loose earth with an average thickness of

be used as an entry to the station.

1m. In the Alnarp trench the depth of loose soil is estimated to be significantly larger.

LANDSKRONA A large part of the area in question consists of land fill

capacity and to be suitable for the foundation of an im-

soil, which poses a risk of contamination in the excavat-

mersion tunnel similar to the construction of the Öresund

ed masses and of looser organic layers, i.e. old seabed

Bridge tunnel. Looser sediment occurs locally in the seabed,

sediment under the filling material. The distance down

but have limited thickness. These will need to be removed/

to the limestone bedrock surface is approximately 30m,

replaced if they are below the foundation level.

meaning it is not realistic to choose an alternative with

In the Lundåkra Bay, which lies south of Landskrona,

drilled tunnels, both because it would mean an unreason-

tests have shown that, mainly around Saxån’s earlier outlet,

able depth for the station and because it is not possible

there are layers of loose mud and clay and that the layering

to combine with the immersion tunnel in the Öresund

can be extremely varied in this area. Due to this, an immer-

sound. The options available instead are an open shaft,

sion tunnel should not be placed inside Lundåkra Bay.

trough or cut and cover tunnel. The choice of layout for

Both outside of Landskrona and Nordhavn manthere

the installation in Landskrona with the station depends

is a lot of filling masses found in the sound, the firmness

on which of the opposite interests is most valued, but also

of these needs to be determined and there is also a risk of

the height of surrounding land and the vertical position

contaminated masses. Generally, this is considered a minor

of the track. The open shaft with earth embankments is

issue for such a large project.

the proposed option in open terrain , similar to Hyllie

14

The soil layers are considered to have good bearing

The shorter you can make the tunnel under Öresund,

Station. However, less space/intrusion is required if the

the cheaper the infrastructure will be. An artificial island

trough or cut and cover is selected, and the cut and cover

is proposed in the shallow water south of the island Gråen

as it is covered can have a different function at ground

where it is not expected to adversely affect the water flow in

level after its completion. The track that turns west

Öresund. With an island solution, the tunnel could start on

towards the West Coast Main Line tracks in front of the

the island and the last stretch towards Landskrona would


5. GEOLOGICAL AND GEOTECHNICAL CONDITIONS

be on a low bridge. This would make the tunnel shorter while sailboats or small boats can still go between the new island and the harbour. The soil masses from the tunnel can be used for the island.

pro file

COPENHAGEN For the transition between the immersion tunnel and the

gic al

bored tunnel in Nordhavn, it is necessary to clarify the com-

ge

olo

position and firmness of the existing fill, including excavation of organic layers. The risk of contamination needs to be considered. In Nordhavn there is a 2m thick moraine layer on top of limestone bedrock, which decreases in thickness

Norra hamnen

to the east. Over this there is normally a 3-4 m thick layer of sand and silt. There are also layers of mud with high levels of organic materials and peat in the eastern part of the area. The limestone’s upper surface is at a depth of -10 to - 20 m

Copenhagen Bedrock surface Aproximate site for samples B7539-B7542

and consists of Copenhagen limestone. In the centre of Copenhagen, the soil layers consist of 2-5 m fill masses under which there is primarily sand and gravel mixed with clay moraines. The soil is evaluated to be

The plan shows the bedrock surface in Öresund with the Alnarp deposit and the location of the profile below

solid. The surface the limestone bedrock varies normally between -8 and -10 metres and consists of the Copenhagen limestone. The limestone’s surface is often partly fractured rock. The depth for good tunnel rock can be set to -10 to -12 m. Drilling for the metro and the city ring, however, has shown that there are local depressions where the limestone bedrock is below -20 m. The conditions for tunnel drilling are good in Copenhagen and there is extensive experience of such work in the area. When the location of the tunnel is determined, the

Sea Soil layers. Moraine clay och clay morain with gravel, sand and clay layers. to ca -20 - - 30m. Under -20 - -30 m mainly and loam and fine sand. Sandstone bedrock with variations in hardness, some flint banks also present

geotechnical details should be studied in detail. There are ongoing studies for the areas of the tunnels resurfacing on both sides of the sound, but a potential change of location is not expected to change the geotechnical conditions in any decisive way.

The profile shows the bedrock surface in the Öresund sound including the Alnarp trench

RISK ASSESSMENT FOR BUILDING •

of excavated soil, and that the instability of excavated

Risk assessments for the tunnels of Europaspårets

soil.

will be made in relation to the construction phase and the operating phase.During the construction

excavations and filling.

phase, the following risks can be identified at the current stage: • •

Environmental impact in the Öresund, applies to

The saltwater problem/the flow in Öresund should

Variations in depth of solid limestone as well as the

be properly investigated so that the new structure

rocks nature / firmness / fragility.

does not affect the Baltic Sea in a negative way.

The soil layer’s properties, mainly at the Alnarps dtrench.

Composition and firmness of the existing filled out soil.

Risk of saging during earth works and lowering

* See also the PM "UnderlagsPM - Geological and geotechnical conditions", Municipality of Landskrona, 30.09.2016.

groundwater in built-up areas. •

Presence of contaminated soil.

Vibrations and structure borne sound.

Handling of the masses, transportation and disposal

EUROPASPÅRET A NEW ÖRESUND CONNECTION

15


6. ENVIRONMENTAL DESCRIPTION The conditions for the project differ on the Swedish and

NATURAL AND CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT

Danish sides. In Sweden, the track will connect to the Råå

There are no registered protected natural areas such as na-

Railway in Billeberga, crossing through the agricultural

tional interests (riksintresse), Natura 2000 sites and nature

countryside north of Asmundtorp to reach Landskrona

reserves in the corridor of the proposed line. Adjacent to

and from there on to Nordhavn in Copenhagen where it

the line, however, there are a number of registered areas.

is connected to the Ringsted and the Öresund Railway at

These are described below to show the complexity and

Copenhagen Central Station.

value of the landscape.

Both coasts of Öresund sound are densely/highly

Ven, as well as the water and coastal area around Ven,

developed. On the Danish side, the development largely

are subject to the public interest for outdoor life in accord-

consists of Copenhagen and the towns between Copenha-

ance to the Environmental Code (Miljöbalken) chapter 3 §

gen and Helsingør. These are located as a string of pearls

6. The areas southern limit is by the citadel which lies west

along the coast, connected by route 152 and the coastal

of Landskrona’s centre. The coastline from Häljarp to Lom-

railway (Kystbanen) and, further inland, by road E47. On

ma (including the land inside the beaches) also constitutes

the Swedish side, the towns along the coast are somewhat

a national interest in the natural environment in accord-

fewer. The E6 highway, further inland from the coast,

ance to the Environmental Code chapter 3 § 6.

is the main road from which smaller roads service the

Gråen island in Landskrona’s harbor environment is a

coastal towns. South of Landskrona towards Barsebäcks

designated Natura 2000 area. as is Lundåkra Bay from the

harbour and the Barsebäck plant there is a major unex-

mouth of the Saxån and south to Järavallen for both habitat

ploited area with high natural values.

and the bird directive. Saltholm island in Öresund is also a designated Natura 2000 area. Saltholm lies more than

COUNTRYSIDE On the Swedish side, the landscape can be divided into four different characters: • The agricultural landscape between Billeberga and E6 is open farmland with a number of small towns

eight kilometres south of the immersion tunnel. The beach meadows at the mouth of the Saxån is a nature reserve. This area, as already mentioned, is outside the corridor of the line. During the autumn of 2016, the County Administrative

like Örja, Asmundtorp and Råga Hörstad. The river

Board submitted a proposal for a decision on the establish-

Saxån flows from Billeberga, south of Asmundtorp

ment of a new nature reserve for Lundåkra Bay, in the Käv-

to Munkebäck and further towards Häljarp and then

linge and Landskrona municipalities. The reserve includes

flows out into Öresund. There is a fair bit of existing

both land and sea environment and the boundary of the

infrastructure in the landscape, road 17 in the western

reserve lies near the corridor. In the marine environment, it

direction, road 110 in the north-south direction and

is mainly eelgrass beds and fish spawning areas that are the

several smaller roads.

object of protection.

• The infrastructural landscape around the E6 at the junction of Landskrona South intensified by commercial/industrial areas on both sides of the highway. • Landskrona’s centre and historic city centre, with the citadel, are located in the north-western part of the city adjacent to Öresund. Most of the business/industrial areas, including the shipyard and harbour, are located in the southern part of the city. The city is located next to Öresund. On the Danish side, the landscape consists of Copenhagen’s northern parts, which can be divided into two characters: • The port and business/industrial areas closest to the Öresund sound (Nordhavn). • The city with its urban development of residential, commercial and park areas and the Copenhagen city centre.

Waterside/shore protection in accordance to the Environmental Code chapter 7 § 13 applies generally to the seas, lakes and watercourses including their beaches. The purpose of the waterside/shoreprotection is to ensure the possibility for public outdoor life and to preserve good habitats on land and in water for plant and animal life. The valley of the Råå river, which connects to Asmundtorp from the north, has a designated national interest for its cultural environment (M: K10), the Europaspåret is in the southernmost part of this area, along road 17. Registered ancient remains are found in the area along the railway corridor. There are many settlements from the stone age/bronze age/iron age in a stretch east of the junction Landskrona South and in the landscape to the east along the railway. The entire Øresund coastline is mentioned in the Regional Administrative Board of Skåne’s cultural environment program as the Per-Albin line. The municipality of Landskrona is also included.

16


There will be more tracks in the rail yard, but these are

areas, there are few registered natural and cultural area of

located within or directly adjacent to the rail yard.

value. The tracks will be placed in a tunnel below Copenhagen, so potential values will not be affected. However,

NATURAL AND CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT

further investigation requires in depth studies.

On the Swedish side, there is the new nature reserve for Lundåkra Bay in the immediate vicinity of the corridor,

RESIDENTIAL ENVIRONMENT

otherwise the registered natural values are well outside

The corridor for the line is largely lies in agricultural

the vicinity of the corridor. Impact on the natural environ-

landscape between the towns. The railway connects to

ment needs further investigation as the planning pro-

Landskrona north east from the Råå Railway to the exist-

ceeds. The possibility of impact on the eelgrass beds need

ing railway station in a largely unexploited area southwest

further investigation, during the refinement of the lines

of the DSV’s facility. In an area, southwest of the line is

position and thetechnical solutions. Special measures may

DSV’s facility. In Landskrona, the line lies in the southern

be required to protect the eelgrass when constructing the

part of the city, which mainly consists of industrial/busi-

tunnel.

ness and port areas. In Copenhagen the railway goes through the northern

There are many ancient remains in the area of the line that are of national interest for the cultural environment:

part of the city, which consists of the port, industrial and

The impact on the cultural environment in the Råå river

business areas. From here the line heads towards Central

valley needs to be investigated for planning purposes.

Station in a tunnel.

6. ENVIRONMENTAL DESCRIPTION

As the corridor lands in Copenhagen’s port and business

An immersion tunnel in Öresund can cause major consequences for the aquatic environment during the

NATURAL RESOURCES

construction period. In the region, there is knowledge and

Agricultural land in Sweden is classified on a 10-degree

experience about these problems and this type of solution

scale, where a grade of 10 is the highest, with respect to

from the construction of the Öresund Bridge, the Great Belt

how fertile and productive the fields are. Farmland in

connection and the planned Fehmarn Belt connection.

the area of the line is classified as class 10, it is highly

An artificial island in Öresund is a liability both re-

productive.

garding its impact during the construction period and its

The waterways in Öresund are of national interest

impact on the environment in the long run. In the region

for shipping, in accordance with to the Environmental

there is knowledge and experience from the construction

Code chapter 3 § 8. The West Coast Main Railway and

of Pepparholm, which can be used in the implementation

Råå Railway are of national interest for rail. E6 with a

of this project.

southern junction and approach to Landskrona and the

On the Danish side, the line runs through the urban

harbour, is a road of national interest. Danish railways,

environment. It is located in a tunnel through the lime-

roads, harbours and waterways are covered by the Land

stone under the city, which is not expected to cause major

Planning Directive under the Planning Act (Planloven)

conflicts with natural and cultural environmental values.

and constitute national interests.

RESIDENTIAL ENVIRONMENT AFFECTS – CHALLENGES LANDSCAPE

The line is located in open farmland between towns. The

The landscape between Billeberga and Landskrona is

the infrastructure will need to be adapted. The line runs

open and large-scale. A new railway in the landscape will

through Landskrona, in an existing industrial/business

constitute a new barrier, but conditions are judged to

and port area with a very small number of residents. The

make landscape adaptations possible.

railway may mean that a new neighbourhood is built

In Landskrona, the railway will be located within the

railway will constitute a new barrier in landscape, and

adjacent to the it, creating new housing. These homes will

industrial/business and port area of the southern part

need to be adapted and dimensioned according to current

of the city. The construction of the railway and the new

noise guidelines to create a good living environment.

station will create conditions for urban development

A railway produces noise and noise protection may be

and boost the city’s attractiveness. In order to cross the

required, this must be considered and investaigated with

existing infrastructure such as the E6 and roads inside

further planning.

Landskrona, grade separated crossings will be built. In Copenhagen, the railway will go in a tunnel so the

On the Danish side, the line is in a tunnel, which does not affect the housing environment. Activity during the

landscape/cityscape will not be affected here. The station

construction period is expected to cause the greatest im-

entries however might change the city image locally.

pact. Checking the sag of problems can become relevant.

EUROPASPÅRET A NEW ÖRESUND CONNECTION

17


6. ENVIRONMENTAL DESCRIPTION

on the West Coast Main Railway. Exploring the environ-

NATURAL RESOURCES

mental impact will be an important part of the ongoing

On the Swedish side, there is highly productive agricul-

work.

tural land which will become further fragmented.

At the places in Landskrona where the tracks are

Cut and cover, immersion tunnels and bored tunnels

placed underground, these are done as “cut and cover”

under Copenhagen will create a substantial surplus of

tunnels, that is, a through dug out and then covered. Build-

masses from the project. How these masses will be han-

ing the immersion tunnel means digging a trench into

dled needs to be investigated.

the seabed where the tunnel elements are lowered. Then

Excess masses can hopefully be used for the construc-

they are covered with gravel and stone to the same level

tion of the artificial island.

as the existing seabed. There are good experiences of how

The climate issue, including the rising sea level, may

environmental issues in the marine environment can be

be one condition for the dimensioning of the project.

managed from the construction of the Öresund bridge, the

The railway runs through port and industrial areas on

Great Belt connection and the planned Fehmarn Belt con-

both the Danish and Swedish sides and there is likely to be

nection. At the Danish coast and under Copenhagen, the

contaminated soil. This is important to consider for future

tunnel is bored in the limestone in the same way as metro.

planning and continued work.

The environmental impact will need to be further

Europaspåret is a large project with very different

investigated.

parts, all of which give complexity to the project. The

How should the excavation masses be handled, trans-

station under Tivoli in Copenhagen can be compared to

ported and possibly cleaned?

the triangle station in Malmö, with four tracks instead of

In Copenhagen many different tunnel projects are

two. The tunnel under Copenhagen can be compared to the

being planned and built. Environmental impacts are

city tunnel, the immersion tunnel under Öresund with the

investigated for each of these. Is there a greater impact?

Öresund Bridge tunnel part. The station in Landskrona,

Cumulative effects of the overall impact of the projects?

with the double track to Billeberga, a stretch of more than

This is a question to address in further work.

10 kilometres, is comparable to the Kävlinge-Lund stretch

Rååbanan

National interest for recration

Landskrona station

national interest for nature

Västk

ustba

Eu rop

asp

åre t

nan

approximate location for the artificial island

national interest for nature

Natura 2000 och Naturreservat

Landskrona station and Europaspåret through Landskrona with protected areas

18


7. PASSENGERTRANSPORT

LANDSKRONA

CONNECTIONS WITH REGIONAL TRAFFIC COPENHAGEN C

Europaspåret creates completely new opportunities for

LUND

regional traffic in the Öresund region. One possibility created is for trains to travel around Öresund in a ring

MALMÖ TRIANGELN

CPH/KASTRUP

serving Copenhagen C - CPH/Kastrup - Malmö – Lund – Landskrona - Copenhagen C, with travel time between stops just over or just under 15 minutes.

15 minutes between important stops on the ring

The basic idea is to connect the surrounding railways and cities in the region to a new traffic system that simultaneously uses the opportunities of the ring creates. The

Halmstad/Göteborg

larger towns on the Danish and Swedish sides are connected to the ring with systems that go most of the ring,

Växjö/Kalmar

Helsingborg

Helsingør

making it possible both to be connected to both directions of the ring, and to so travel within the ring with the

Landskrona

n ge C

lines start and end in the same town outside the ring (see,

Nordhavn Malmö C

Ny Ellebjerg

for example, Ystad (light pink line) and Helsingborg (dark pink line) or start in atown and after one turn around go

Lund

ha

An example of the line arrangement is to let multiple

n pe Co

Holbæk

Roskilde

through traffic. The ring creates redundancy in the system and gives all the towns two routes to cross Öresund.

CPH/Kastrup Ringsted

to another (see for example Næstved -Ringsted (blue line),

Ystad

Example of possible regional train traffic routes

Køge

Holbæk-Ringsted (yellow line) or (Gothenburg) Helsingborg-Hässleholm (dark green line).

Kristianstad/ Karlskrona eh olm

ssl

Næstved

Trelleborg

Similar line arrangements can be found in, for example, Oslo’s subway and also the proposed Malmö ring has simi-

rg bo ng lsi He ro n

a

C

Hässleholm

nd

sk

La sk a

n ro

CONNECTIONS WITH LONG DISTANCE TRAFFIC

Example of possible long distance traffic routes

nd

the ring due to the capacity shortage in the City Tunnel.

Jönköping

La

larities as the trains will end at Malmö C after a turn around

Stockholm

Göteborg

S

nh

pe

Co

Amongst the intercity long distance trains on existing

Lund

en

ag

main lines, it is probably only trains to and from the

H

Swedish west coast that will use Europaspåret. The oppor-

Ny Ellebjerg

tunity to drive trains faster from Göteborg to Copenhagen

Malmö C CPH/Kastrup

Køge

shortening travel time with about 45 minutes will create growth and improved labour market integration between Sweden and Denmark. It also helps to achieve effective

Hamburg

travel times between Copenhagen and Oslo via the Swedish west coast.

Stockholm

Göteborg

lsi ng bo r

g

Jönköping

He

CONNECTIONS WITH NEW HIGH SPEED LINES

ro na a

n ro S

possible connection to high speed rail Lund

en

holm and Copenhagen. This would be done by building a

H

railway to Billeberga or along the Marieholm Railway.

La

sk nd

ag nh

pe

Co

it to Europaspåret to reduce travel time between Stock-

Eslöv, which would take the long distance train on a new

nd sk

La

tween Hässleholm and Lund, it will be possible to connect

junction on the new high speed railway between Höör and

Hässleholm

C

If the new high speed line Stockholm - Malmö is built be-

Ny Ellebjerg Køge

Malmö C CPH/Kastrup

At Billeberga they would connect to Europaspaåret via Landskrona to Copenhagen.

Hamburg

The rail network including a new high speed railway in Sweden with the possibility of a shortcut connection to Copenhagen via Europaspåret EUROPASPÅRET A NEW ÖRESUND CONNECTION

19


8. FREIGHT TRAFFIC The route over Öresund today is a bottle neck in Europe’s

Line north of Landskrona has always been prohibited for

designated TEN-T core network, the important trans-Eu-

freight traffic, which makes it irrelevant as an entry to

ropean freight rail corridors. On the Swedish side there

Europaspåret for freight.

are two freight routes for trains, one via the South Main Line (Södra stambanan) and since the Hallansås Tunnel opened one via the West Coast Railway and the Freight

FREIGHT TRAFFIC IN DENMARK Europaspåret opens the possibility of two separate routes for freight from Germany, through Denmark all the way

Route through Skåne. On the Danish side and towards

to Sweden connecting to Sweden’s two freight routes, the

the rest European continent there is a freight route via

Southern Main Line and the West Coast Main Line. The

Stora Bæltbron and Jutland. A second freight route is

two routes can also cross the sound in two different places.

now being built via the Ringsted Railway and the Fehmarn connection. The Danish routes for freight separate at Ny Ellebjerg. East of Ny Ellebjerg all the way to Arlöv on the Swedish side there is only one route.

The freight trains on the Öresund Bridge come to Ny Ellebjerg via the Öresund Railway (from CPH / Kastrup). At Ny Ellebjerg, they can only go on towards Germany on the West Railway (Vestbanen) via Roskilde and the Great

When the Fehmarn connection opens, the Danish and German forecasts indicate that freight rail traffic will increase by up to + 80% compared with today’s situation, most of this is transit goods to Sweden. Europaspåret is the new fixed link solution across the Öresund sound that

Belt bridge, unless they reduce capacity through crossing train paths which is required if the train is to continue via the new Ringsted Railway. The freight trains on Europaspåret from Sweden will exit the freight tunnel at

contributes to increased freight capacity over Öresund.

the traffic tower, south of the Central Station, and merge

FREIGHT TRAFFIC IN SKÅNE

direction the freight train connects directly to the Ring-

Freight trains from the Freight Route through Skåne can

sted Railway, Lille South and Fehmarn without crossing

be routed to and from Europaspåret via the Råå Railway

railway paths, while crossing railway paths is instead

from Teckomatorp to Billeberga and from Billeberga via

required to travel towards the West Railway. The two

the new connection to Europaspåret. Freight trains from

freight routes across the Öresund sound will fit well with

the Southern Main Line can take the same route from

the Danish infrastructure and provide two independent

Teckomatorp to where they can come via the Marieholm

routes for freight traffic.

on to the track towards Ny Ellebjerg. Coming from this

Railway from Eslöv. This relieves the heavily congested

towards Örebro

towards Oslo

There are several possibilities for a new freight

tracks between Eslöv – Lund – Malmö - Kastrup - Kalve-

terminal in the Copenhagen area that is compatible with

bod. To have enough capacity, a passing loop needs to be

Europaspåret, two of which are described below. Göteborg

built on the Marieholm Railway. The West Coast Main

Åstorp

Helsingborg

Hässleholm

Landskrona S

Te ck om

at or p

– marshalling yard

towards Göteborg/ Oslo

Eslöv

towards Örebro/ Stockholm/Helsinki

en

ag nh pe

Co Høje Taastrup

Landskrona

Copenhagen

C

Jylland

Malmö

Ny Ellebjerg

Køge

Malmö C Ørestad

CPH/Kastrup

Trelleborg

– marshalling yard

Køge

Femern Bælt

Traffic by freight, the gray continous lines show freight canals per hour. Two are expected to use Europaspåret and one to go over the Öresund bridge. The freight route from Teckomatorp to Ny Ellebjerg is 48 km and takes about 60 min via Europspåret (pink) and 75 km and takes about 105 min across the Öresund Bridge (orange).

20

Hamburg

The rail part of the Europaspåret (in pink) and how it connects to the infrastructure in Denmark and Skåne


Copenhagen C 8. FREIGHT TRAFFIC

Europaspåret freight Sweden

Ny Ellebjerg station Vestbanen Öresund Bridge Ringstedbanen Køge

New Ellebergs new station and the links between the main railway line - the Ringsted Railway and the Öresund Bridge West Railway

FREIGHT TERMINAL AT NORDHAVN The location of the freight terminal in Nordhavn is an option currently discussed. In Nordhavn, a connection to a freight terminal could easily be combined with a connection to the train depot. The connection to the train depot branches off in the transition zone where Europaspåret rises to a through or to ground level between the two types of tunnels. The continued completion/filling out of Nordhavn, with masses from the metro construction and possibly in the future from Europspåret and what form it takes, is currently an open question. Preliminarily, Copenhagen Malmö Port has decided to locate its container terminal here. The municipal plan and the architectural competition for the area’s function and form, on the other hand, have pointed to other possibilities.

Earlier illustration with an example of a location of a freight terminal and depot in Nordhavn. Image was created by Martin Grane for Copenhagen Malmö Port.

FREIGHT TERMINAL AT KØGE Køge North is another alternative. This location for a freight terminal would also fit well with Europaspåret, since a location in Køge North along the Ringsted Railway

Holbæk

is a natural stopping point passed on the Fehmarn Belt

Copenhagen H Roskilde

to Copenhagen route. A freight terminal in this location also gives access to both Køge harbour and the “Lille Syd” railroad which runs between Køge and Næstved. When the ongoing electrification is completed, “Lille Syd” will be usable to the freight trains to and from Fehmarn, as it would mean decongesting the Ringsted Railway, and give

Køge N Køge harbour lway ted Rai

a 10-minute reduction in travel time between Fehmarn and Copenhagen.

Rings

Køge st

Ringsted

The freight terminal is primarily for managing the supply of different goods to the Capital Region. Goods coming to the port can be transferred to road or rail

lle

”Li

transport while goods arriving by rail can be reloaded for

syd

Haslev

distribution within Greater Copenhagen. With Europaspåret, a terminal in Køge will have an increased possibility for freight flow, while Køge gets significantly better connections with Sweden.

Næstved

Køge North's location at the Ringsted line and "Lille syd"

EUROPASPÅRET A NEW ÖRESUND CONNECTION

21


9. TRAVEL TIME & CAPACITY

60 HALMSTAD

The railway between Landskrona and Copenhagen shortens travel times significantly in many relations. Especially

55

from north-western Skåne and Halland travel times will

LAHOLM

improve dramatically so that e.g. Laholm and Halmstad

50

are within 60 minutes travel time from Copenhagen by

BÅSTAD

regional and and long-distance train. The whole stretch along the west coast gets improved travel times with Europaspåret. Even northeast Skåne with Hässleholm/

40

ÄNGELHOLM

60 HÄSSLEHOLM

Kristianstad get improved travel times to Copenhagen. In the future if there is a connection between the new high speed railway and Europaspåret, it will be possible to

40

25

travel between Kristianstad and Copenhagen in about 60

HELSINGBORG

HELSINGØR

minutes.

15 60

The illustration shows which towns can be reached

LANDSKRONA

et

in one hour’s travel time from Copenhagen C with the

sp

år

Öresund Bridge and Europaspåret. What is also evident

Eu

ro

pa

from the combination of the Europaspåret-Öresund

30 48

NORDHAVN

LUND

COPENHAGEN CENTRAL STATION CPH/KASTRUP

Öre

20

sun

ROSKILDE

20 KØGE

dB

e

other and work together.

40 35 MALMÖ CENTRAL

ridg

Bridge is how the two fixed connections complement each

55 30 TRIANGELN

60 25 HYLLIE

CAPACITY UTILIZATION Capacity in the Öresund region depends on the assumptions made about future traffic. A new connection will change the traffic patterns, so it’s hard to describe exactly what impact it will have on the system. However, some likely changes are described below:

The map shows how far you can travel from Copenhagen with the two Öresund connections

Europaspåret would relieve the Southern Main Line and the Freight Route through Skåne on the Swedish side through traffic moving over to Europaspåret. At the same time, the Marieholm Railway’s capacity usage would increase. The West Coast Main Railway from Helsingborg to Landskrona would get an increased utilization of the added regional trains, but as these only use a relatively short part of the Helsingborg-Lund route, these trains could use the gaps occuring between the faster Öresund trains and slow trains on that stretch. On the Danish side, it is clear that Europaspåret provides a positive effect on capacity. The Central Station will receive four new platforms and new continuous double tracks, which will increase the total capacity by 50-100% compared to today’s situation. With the turning tracks for Danish trains at Nordhavn and the ability to drive more trains to Sweden, Europaspåret gives a significant increase of capacity, exceeding the gains of options that Danish Traffic Authority issued in the report “Station capacity at Copenhagen” (December 2013). Europaspåret solves the capacity problems at the Central Station and in the Boulevard tunnel. The traffic design at Ny Ellebjerg also means that the European track reduces the number of crossing trains paths.

22


10. TRAVEL TIME COMPARISONS

Nivå

Eslöv

Eslöv

Eslöv

Lund

Eslöv

Lund

Copenhagen

Lund

Copenhagen

Ka st ru p

Ka st ru p

Ka st ru p

Copenhagen

Malmö

Køge

Nivå

Ka st ru p

Lund

Copenhagen

Helsingborg

Helsingør

La nd sk ro na

Nivå

Helsingborg

Helsingør

La nd sk ro na

La nd sk ro na

Nivå

Helsingborg

Helsingør

Åstorp

La nd sk ro na

Helsingborg

Helsingør

Åstorp

Åstorp

Åstorp

Malmö

Malmö

Malmö

30 minutes travel time from Copenhagen, Lund, Landskrona and Helsingborg with the various Öresund connections, the Öresund bridge in dark purple, the Europaspåret in orange and the HH connection in pink Køge

Køge

Køge

This chapter compares how the travel time in the Öresund

could be reduced with 30 minutes. A journey of 2 hours

region would be improved with the Europaspåret, both

30 minutes is possible for nonstop high-speed trains if a

compared to today’s travel times and with a fixed HH

new high-speed railway is built in Sweden and connected

connection for rail.

to the Europaspåret.

The maps above show which parts of the Öresund region can be reached within 30 minutes travel time from different starting points either by the Öresund Bridge, or by one of the options for a new fixed the HH train connection or Europaspåret. The selected starting points are Copenhagen, Lund, Landskrona and Helsingborg. For

Table 1 Travel time to and from Copenhagen

Malmö, Europaspåret does not lead to a direct travel time improvement. However, travel times across the Öresund Bridge can decrease as a result of fewer freight trains using the bridge, thus reducing the need for added time for the Öresund trains. Europaspåret also frees up more capacity for long distance traffic over the bridge and provides a real redundancy for commuters between Copenhagen and Malmö in the event of a stoppage on the bridge.

Lund Landskrona Helsingborg Ängelholm Halmstad Göteborg Hässleholm

Table 1 on the right shows travel times for Eu-

Öresund bridge 45 60

Europaspåret 30 15

HH-fixed link 75 60

70 90

25 40

45 60

120 160*

70/60* 105*

90/80* 130*

70

60

100

* high speed train

ropaspåret compared to the Öresund Bridge which it complements and a connection between Helsingborg and

Table 2 Travel times to Lund from:

Helsingør. Table 2 on the right shows a comparison of the travel times today from different locations in Denmark to Lund and the travel time in these relations with Europaspåret. Table 3 on the right shows a comparison of the travel times today from different locations in Denmark to Hels-

Copenhagen Roskilde Ringsted Køge

With Europaspåret 30 50 60 50

ingborg and the travel time possible with Europaspåret.

Table 3 Travel times to Helsingborg from:

ACCESS FROM GÖTEBORG

Copenhagen Roskilde Ringsted Køge

A long distance train via Europaspåret can do Göteborg-Copenhagen in 1 hour and 45 minutes along the completed West Coast Main Railway. The West Coast Main Railway is expected to be completed by 2030.

With Europaspåret 25 45 55 45

Todays travel times 45 65 75 65

Todays travel times 70 90(75*) 100(85*) 100(85*)

* travel times can become 15 minutes faster if the trains go Ny Ellebjerg - CPH/Kastrup without passing Copenhage Central Station

ACCESS FROM STOCKHOLM If the new high speed railway is connected to Europa­ spåret, travel times between Stockholm and Copenhagen

EUROPASPÅRET A NEW ÖRESUND CONNECTION

23


11. REDUNDANCY IN CASE OF STOPPAGE ON THE ÖRESUND BRIDGE The Öresund Bridge is the only fixed link across Öresund.

even during an occasional disruption on the Öresund

One of the consequences of the construction of the bridge

Bridge. Travel time between Malmö and Copenhagen via

is that all boat traffic between Malmö and Copenhagen

Europaspåret will only be about an additional 15 minutes

has ceased in favour of cars and trains using the bridge.

compared to via the Öresund Bridge, it therefore becomes

Also as a result of the bridge the ferries between Helsing-

a real alternative for commuters if the shortest route is

borg and Helsingør can no longer ship trains

closed.

This makes the Öresund Bridge very important for the

For Lund, the journey time is about 15 minutes

Öresund region, but it also makes it a sensitive point. An

shorter via Europaspåret, so in that case the Öresund

investigation by the Øresund bridge Consortium (Contin-

bridge becomes the alternative route and redundace for

gency for traffic with a long-term shutdown of Öresund

commuters.

Bridge) shows that the likelihood of the bridge needing to close for a long period of time is low, but that the consequences of such an event would be very extensive. So far the Öresund bridge has only been closed for

LANDSKRONA

shorter periods due to extreme weather and/or heavy

’15

winds. If the bridge was subjected to e.g. a boat collision or other damaging event that forced the bridge to be closed for a longer period, like weeks or months, a very

COPENHAGEN C

LUND

’60 min

large and acute commuter problem would occur in the region. Passenger traffic would have to be redirected via the

’15

’15

ferry between Helsingborg and Helsingør, which would significantly lengthen travel times, making commuting

CPH/KASTRUP

unrealistic. It would also cause a capacity shortage in

’15

MALMÖ TRIANGELN

public transport connections. For freight rail, the problem would be even greater as the possibility of crossing the Helsingborg-Helsingør channel is only available for road traffic. Railway options are the Trelleborg-Rostock and Ystad-Swinoujcie ferry

’15

routes, but ferry connections have very limited capaci-

LANDSKRONA ’15

ty compared to what would be needed to maintain the traffic. The shipping companies operating in the Baltic Sea will in the next few years purchase new vessels with

COPENHAGEN C

no or a limited number of tracks on deck. In addition, the opening of the Fehmarn Belt tunnel is expected to reduce demand for ferry rail freight transportation. Together, these factors may lead to the end of rail traffic on ferry.

’15 CPH/KASTRUP

’60 min

LUND ’15 MALMÖ TRIANGELN

This would leave the railroad traffic completely without possibilities of crossing the Öresund sound if the Öresund Bridge for any reason wasn’t passable. Europaspåret creates an insurance for the possibility of crossing Öresund for both commuting to/from southwestern Skåne and for freight traffic. Both fixed links could replace the other if long-term problems arose

The illustrations show how the two fixed links across the Öresund sound; Öresund bridge and Europaspåret if one of them has major traffic disruptions. Would still be possible to daily commute in the region. Freight train services do not need to be closed.

without radically extending travel times. The double fixed links would make the traffic system across the Öresund more resistant to disruption and thus create redundancy. The possibility of travelling from Malmö/Lund to Copenhagen on two different routes would provide redundancy that is not available today. Because Europaspåret is a tunnel, wind would not be a disturbance and it would therefore be an option

24

*See also the Öresunds bridge consortium report "Contingency for traffic on a long term disruption on the Öresund Bridge" from 2016


12. TRAFFIC DEVELOPMENT From 1990 to 2008, traffic across Öresund via the

Swedish long-distance and the increasing freight traffic

Öresund bridge and the HH Transit increased from

from the Fehmarn Belt will affect the Öresund connection

50,000 to 100,000 trips per day. The Öresund Bridge

and the possibilities of traffic development.

was a catalyst for all the growth and showed its potential with a strong increase in travel. During the financial crisis

Travellers per day

and the following years, traffic growth declined, and then began to rise again. For a few years, the Öresund bridge’s total traffic increased by 3-4% per year. The Helsingborg-Helsingør ferries experienced a slight decline, which changed to a slight growth in business in 2015. Today, more than 95,000 people travel across the sound every day, where traffic is now concentrated on the southern connection between Copenhagen and Malmö, as opposed to 15 years ago. The development of traffic across Öresund is expected to continue. The overall picture of the situation in 2030

persons over HH

persons over the bridge

Öresund total

Daily personal Travellers across Öresund

has been calculated using the SkåneTass model, a development of the Sampers model adapted for the Öresund

Travellers per day

region. Between Helsingborg- Helsingør the ferries are expected to sail approximately to the same number of travellers and with the same numbers as today. On the Öresund Bridge, on the other hand, cars and the Öresund trains are expected to give a great deal of growth - according to the traffic model. By 2030, the activity across the sound is estimated to increase to almost 150,000 passenger journeys per day. On the Öresund Bridge, train traffic is expected to grow and trains are to maintain their high market share relative to the car by approximately 40% of the travel across the Öresund Bridge, provided that the barrier

persons over HH

persons over the bridge

Travel across Öresund base forecast until 2030

effects created by the current ID control can be eliminated. At the same time, it will be necessary to provide space

train journeys, milions per day

for improved range in the form of more and faster trains on the Öresund Bridge, which is necessary if the trains are to be able to meet the estimated future demand, also a consequence of the Fehmarn Belt connection. The Öresund Bridge consortium has prepared a current forecast for passenger and freight traffic. The consortiums’ forecasts are based on a projection of demand in individual segments. According to these, rail traffic increases to 47,000 passengers per day to 2030 and car traffic by 27,000 vehicles per day. In these calculations,

Germany

Traffic development on the Great Belt, Öresund bridge and at the Denmark-Germany border (Fehmarn)

the effect of the Fehmarn Belt link is not included. In its forecast to 2027, the Danish Transport Authority

The rail traffic over the Great Belt bridge has doubled

has, to some extent, incorporated the effect of the Feh-

since its opening in 1997 and the increase on the Öresund

marn Belt connection in its assessment of the rail traffic

Bridge has been significant. Consequently, the traffic on

on the Öresund Bridge. There is an uncertainty in train

the Fehmarn belt can be expected to increase significantly

traffic to and from CPH / Kastrup on the Danish side as it

with the new connection, and for freight traffic a particu-

is planned to increase on the stretch between Ny Ellebjerg

lar growth is expected. The Swedish Transport Admin-

and the airport. This is among other things to decongest

istration and the Ministry of Transport are preparing a

the Central Station. There is also an uncertainty as to how

comprehensive analysis of the future of Öresund traffic.

EUROPASPÅRET A NEW ÖRESUND CONNECTION

25


12. TRAFFIC DEVELOPMENT

However, no new forecasts have been made for the Feh-

plane journeys per year, CPH Kastrup, billions

marn Belt connection traffic and its impact on Öresund. The airport CPH/Kastrup is of great importance to both the retail and business community in southern Sweden. Every fourth traveller to CPH/Kastrup comes from or goes to Sweden. The current trend at Kastrup is that the growth in the number of travellers is coming mostly from passengers starting or ending their journey while

prognosis

actual

The development of the number of travellers at Copenhagen airport

layovers or flight changes do not increase to the same extent. CPH/Kastrup is currently expanding to a capacity of 40 million flight passengers. Freight transport by rail across Öresund increases.

freight trains per year

The projected increase in freight transport means that the number of freight trains will more than double within 10 years. It is assumed that the amount of goods sent by train will also increase as trains becomes longer. It has been decided that there will be three freight trains per hour and direction across the Öresund Bridge. This means an increase of 50% from the current two freight trains per hour and direction. The number of possible trains travelling across the actual

prognosis

Forecast for the development of volumes of goods across Öresund

Öresund Bridge will therefore be in direct competition for the available capacity with the Danish trains going to CPH/Kastrup. Consequently, there will be real restrictions on the development of freight transport across the

freight on rail, million tons

bridge as traffic through Malmö, through CPH/Kastrup and on the Öresund railway in Denmark will reach their limit of capacity. This is, as previously reported, also an effect of the public transport around Malmö and around Copenhagen increasing significantly in the coming years.

ASSUMPTIONS FOR CALCULATIONS In connection with investigations on the Öresund metro

Lorem ipsum

and HH connections, an adjusted traffic model “Skånetass” actual

Lorem ipsum

prognosis

Forecast for the development of the number of freight trains across Öresund Public transport including land connections

2014

Öresund bridge

34.200 pass

54.200 pass

45.300 pass

9.100 pass

6.700 pass

4.100 pass

0 pass

0 pass

20.100 pass

HH Europaspåret

Referens 2030

Prognosis 2030

has been developed describing a basic situation in 2030 without new connections but assuming conditions for population growth, labour market, economic factors, energy prices, motor efficiency, public transport charges etc. This model has been used in the this study, as we tried to estimate the number of travellers. We start with a scenario with a car tunnel between Helsingborg and Helsingør and a train tunnel between Landskrona and Copenhagen. It is expected that public transport will grow if a connection is established between Landskrona and

Forecast for the number of public transport trips over Öresund

Copenhagen. We expect to that a Helsingborg-Helsingør boat connection for passenger transport (Sundbussarna, smaller ferries) is maintained, with half-hour frequency at certain times of the day. This connection can be replaced or supplemented by direct bus connection via the tunnel. Between Landskrona and Copenhagen we have assumed the frequency and service mentioned above. With 4-5 trains per hour and direction, this range will work for a traffic volume of 20,000 passengers per day.

26


13. SOCIO-ECONOMIC BENEFITS Europaspåret brings great socio-economic benefits. The

An analysis of the wider economic benefits of productiv-

benefits consist of several components, partly estimat-

ity profits (according to the South Swedish Chamber of

ed using a forecast based on previous investigations of

Commerce model, 2015) shows that the socio-economic

Öresund’s connections and an analysis of “wider eco-

benefits are significantly greater than the travel time gains

nomic effects”. These benefits include placement, urban

of SEK +36 billion. The project entails improved accessi-

development, housing, environmental and social benefits.

bility and lower travel costs that are expected to contrib-

The accessibility effects of Europaspåret are quite

ute to agglomeration effects, time gains, a larger labour

substantial. Large parts of Western Skåne, including

market and competitive advantages. In total, the socioec-

Helsingborg and Lund, will have accessibility to Copenha-

onomic profits are estimated at +81 billion SEK, including

gen comparable to what Malmö has today. Danish towns

the stated travel time gains of +36 billion SEK.

such as Roskilde and Køge get the possibility of commuting access to/from the Swedish labour market, and the Öresund region’s combined labour market region grows. With Europaspåret it is possible to commutefrom large parts of Skåne and southern Halland to Copenhagen. The

The colours show the travel time in minutes to the municipality's main city

illustrations to the right show accessibility to Copenhagen based on the current situation, with Europaspåret and a comparison with the HH project. The changes in availability brought on by Europaspåret are shown with travel time. The colours show how the different fixed links affect accessibility in the region with Copenhagen as a starting point. They also show

Accessibility from Copenhagen in the region today

what areas can be integrated into the common labour market region (<60 min travel time/yellow). In this investigation, the calculation of travel time gains are made for passenger and freight traffic by road and rail. The total travel time savings realised for Europaspåret, will reach just over 9.4 million hours by 2030. The calculation does not include all the decongestion effects in/on the rail network on both the Swedish and Danish sides, or the savings made through Copenhagen Central Stations’ capacity problems being solved within the project.

Accessibility from Copenhagen with Europaspåret

The socioeconomic travel time gains of Eurpåspåret amount to +36.4 billion SEK over a 40-year period calculated with the interest rate 3.5%. Ticket and fee revenues from rail and road fixed links amount to +60 billion SEK for the same period and the environmental benefits amount to +3 billion SEK. Discounted costs of construction and operating ecosts amount to SEK -83 billion. Thus the socio-economic surplus is SEK +16 billion, a clearly profitable result. The socio-economic calculation does not include a possible EU subsidy. If the perspective is expanded, the long-term regional economic benefit becomes significantly more extensive.

Accessibility from Copenhagen with the HH fixed link.

Europaspåret can be considered a mega infrastructure project, like the Fehmarn Belt, the Öresund Bridge and the Great Belt bridge, which all give so-called “wider economic effects”. For example, the Great Belt Bridge has a total benefit of SEK 450 billion over 50 years, according to a calculation made by the Danish Ministry of Transport.

* The calculation of travel times focuses on the central parts of the region's municipalities. Furthermore, it is assumed that travel times by train are not faster than travelling by car via a fixed HH connection because the speed increase for the regional trains operating the Danish coast will be of marginal importance.

EUROPASPÅRET A NEW ÖRESUND CONNECTION

27


13. SOCIAL BENEFITS

Improved accessability

Agglomeration

Transport economy

Investments in infrastructure

45

mrd SEK

15

mrd SEK

Higher productivity

Lower cost Larger market

21

mrd SEK

The illustration shows the “wider economic benefits” of the Europaspåret. The functional labour market region with a possibility for

Öresund, thereby expanding the integrated labour market

commuting under one hour is estimated to increase by

region with another 105,000 people of working age. The

110,000 people in the HH project. With Europaspåret,

joint labour market region with Europaspåret would

another 110,000 people of working age on the Swedish

increase by 325,000 people, which would boost growth in

side would be included in the labour market region,

the region. This growth increases the region from about

including Hässleholm and Laholm, i.e. a total of 220,000

1.3 million to 1.6 million people in working age, which is

people. With fast regional trains, Halmstad could become

equivalent to + 25%.

part of the labour market region, and with a future

Helsingborg’s labour market is expected to have

link from Europaspåret to a new high speed railway

an increased availability of + 50% and Landskrona’s

Lund-Hässleholm, Kristianstad would also be integrated.

labour market of + 80%. Even Lund’s labour market is

On the Danish side, municipalities west of Copenhagen

expected to have a large increase in accessibility with

would get commuting distance to the Swedish side of

Europaspåret.

Extended joint workforce in the DanishSwedish functional labour market

* See also WSP's report "EUROPASPÅRET - Complete assessment of the benefits from the perspective of the Swedish conditions for freight traffic" and the PMet "UnderlagsPM - Nyttor", Landskrona municipality, 2016-11-02

28

Work market region for Copenhagen today Expansion with HH Further expansion with Europaspåret in Denmark Further expansion with Europaspåret in Sweden Available workforce


14. INVESTMENT COSTS The entire railway structure between Landskrona and

connecting to the Freight Route through Skåne, a passing

Copenhagen is estimated to cost just over SEK 48 billion.

loop on the Marieholm Railway and triangular junction to

The length of the tunnel under Öresund is about 19 km,

the South Main Line.

win addition there is approximately 8 km of tunnel for

The calculations for financing also include the road

freight trains and 7 km of for passenger trains under

tunnel between Helsingborg and Helsingør. This cost is

Copenhagen, including the new station and connection

taken from the IBU update report and is estimated at al-

to the existing railway network. On the Swedish side

most 25 billion SEK. The length of the road tunnel is 15 km.

there are land connections, station and triangle junctions

Neither a calculation according to the uncertainty factors nor budgeting has been done for the project at this time. Instead the starting point has been from the

Investments (prices from 2014) MRD SEK

Fixed link:

relatively high investment costs for the current Fehmarn Belt project and based on the lengths assessed for the

23,8

structure .

Structure in Landskrona including station

3,7

indicate that prices are rising. Unit costs per kilometre

Råå Railway - E6 connection + freight tracks to Billeberga

1,0

similar to these are currently available for the Fehmarn

Triangel junction Teckomatorp to Råå Railway

0,1

Belt and are used as the basis for the calculation.

Triangel junction Eslöv to Marieholm Railway + passing loop

0,6

coast to coast (immersion tunnel)

The price proposals given by the building consortia

Swedish connection:

Danish connection: Nordhavn - København H boared passanger tunnel

8,8

KGC depot - turn around tracks

0,4

Cut and cover connection + branching off to freight tunnel

0,5

New wing to Copenhagen Central Station excluding connection east

4,6

Freight tunnel Nordhavn, single boar

4,7

Total:

48,3

The concrete construction conditions under Öresund may differ from the tunnel under the Fehmarn Belt, but it is estimated that the geological conditions are not more difficult in Öresund. There has been no separate cost assessment for the proposed solution with a low bridge and artificial island south of the island Gråen.

*apreciacions in current Fehmarn-Bält prices with 50% correction of base budget.

Billeberga Landskrona

Railway on ground

Teckomatorp

Immersion tunnel

Boared tunnel

Railway above ground

from © OpenStreetMap Corridor for the Europaspåret railroad stretch between Copenhagen and Landskrona Support mapMalmö

EUROPASPÅRET A NEW ÖRESUND CONNECTION

29


15. FINANCING ASSUMED SOURCES OF FUNDING

The whole project has been calculated with the assump-

For Europaspåret there are several options for financing.

tion that we are able to open - both the road tunnel and

The revenues from the fees that the trains pay do not fully

the Europaspåret- in 2030, the calculation has been made

finance the project, but there are other options for financ-

for 40 years.

ing. This is the same situation as previous fixed links such as the Great Belt, Öresund bridge and now with the

It should be mentioned that in their calculations, the

Fehmarn Belt, have faced. In these projects, road fees

bridge company in Denmark never uses a real interest

contribute to the financing of the railway part. The same

rate of more than 3%. At present, real interest rates are

principle have been used for calculations on the other

close to 1.5%. Normally, the Ministry of Finance in Den-

new Öresund connections (HH and metro).

mark claims high profitability through a higher interest

The additional funding sources available are public grants from Sweden and Denmark, sales of land creat-

possible to get a 30-year bank loan at a significantly lower

ed with surplus masses, EU subsidy, surplus from the

interest rate, and this in a situation where inflation is very

Øresund Bridge consortium or a new fixed road link. The

low. Economic trends show that it is a particularly fa-

fixed road link proposed to complete Europaspåret as a

vourable moment torealize long-term investments. Since

source of funding is a road tunnel between Helsingborg

the object can be financed with loans and the instalments

and Helsingør. In the financial calculations, we have assumed that,

Mrd. SEK

HH väg + Europaspår

EU stöd 23% 16,7 payed using income, it is more 77% relevant to use calculation Lån 56,0 Totalt 100%government loan72,7 interest rates based on the actual rate

within the framework of the funds available for the

rather than the 3.5% value normally used for Swedish

development of the TEN network the EU can contribute

socioeconomic calculations.

to financing in the same way as for the Fehmarn connection. Since the railroad part in Europasåret is almost 50% more expensive than on the Fehmarn Belt link including land connections, the relative share of the railway component is increased. This means that the subsidy will also be slightly larger as the EU subsidises rail more than roads. The EU provides up to 40% for rail investments and 10% for road investments. In the calculation, a EU subsidy of 30% of the railway component and 10% of the road part has been assumed. The project is funded by user fees from the motorists in the car tunnel between Helsingborg and Helsingør and revenues from the operation of passenger and freight trains. The project is being built by a joint consortium between Sweden and Denmark, or as a separate part of the Øresund Bridge consortium. Europaspåret with public subsidy improves the project’s economy, but does not appear to be necessary to fund the project together with the road tunnel. Both the Swedish and Danish side receive huge social benefits and capacity gains from the project.

GENERAL CONDITIONS FOR THE CALCULATIONS The standard for fixed link calculations is that the investment can be repaid in about 40 years and can bear a real interest rate of 3.0%, which is also the value that the Fehmarn project use in their main calculation. Previously a real interest rate of 3.5% had been used. A 3.5% interest rate is also the value that the Swedish Transport Administration uses for socioeconomic calculations.

30

rate calculation of 3.0 or 3.5%. Today, however, it is

Mrd SEK

Nordhavn - Landskrona järnvägstunnel 23,8 24,5 Helsingør - Helsingborg vägtunnel 5,4 Anslutningar i Sverige 13,8 Anslutningar i Danmark + Hovedbanegården Financing 5,3 Godstunnel under København H Billion HH road connection + Europaspåret 72,7 Totalt SEK EU subsidy 16,7 Billion SEK HH road23% connection + Europaspåret Loan 77% 56,0 EU subsidy 23% 16,7 Mrd. SEK HH väg + Europaspår Total 100% 72,7 Loan 77% 56,0 EU stöd 23% 16,7 Total 100% 72,7 Lån 77% 56,0 Real interest rate Sweden-Denmark average Totalt 100% 72,7 3,0% Billion Yearly inflation Sweden-Denmark average 0,9%SEK

Estimation for Total Investments

Pay back time Nordhavn – Landskrona railway tunnel Helsingør –phase Helsingborg road tunnel Construction Nordhavn – Landskrona railway tunnel Connections in Swedenroad tunnel Start up phase Helsingør – Helsingborg Nordhavn - in Landskrona järnvägstunnel Connections in Denmark + Centralpercent Stationof structure Yearly operation and maintenance, Connections Sweden Helsingør Helsingborg vägtunnel Freight tunnel under Copenhagen Traffic development per year after Station start up Connections in Denmark + Central Anslutningar i Sverige Total Car passage DKK Freight tunnelfees, under Copenhagen Anslutningar Danmark Truck passageifees, DKK + Hovedbanegården Total Godstunnel under København Ticket price per person, DKK H Totalt trains per passage, DKK Freight Assumptions for calculation

Billion SEK 40 år 23,8 524,5 år 23,8 Mrd SEK 5,4 4 år 24,5 23,8 13,8 1,1% 5,4 24,5 5,3 1,5% 13,8 5,4 72,7 195,00 5,3 13,8 550,00 72,7 5,3 65,00 72,7 3.500,00

Netrate present value Internal intrest rate Investment Real interest Sweden-Denmark average 3,5% Result +22,5 billion SEK 3,5% 72,7 billion SEK Yearly inflation average 0,9% Real interest rate Sweden-Denmark Sweden-Denmark average 3,5% Pay back time 40 Yearly inflation Sweden-Denmark average 0,9% år Real interest rate Sweden-Denmark average 3,0% Construction phase år Pay back time 405år Yearly inflation Sweden-Denmark average 0,9% Start up phase 4 år Construction phase 5 år Pay back time and maintenance, percent of structure 40 år yearly operation 1,1% Start up phase 4 år Construction phase per year after start up 51,5% år Traffic development yearly operation and maintenance, percent of structure 1,1% Start up phasefees, DKK 4195,00 år Car passage Traffic development per year after start up 1,5% Yearly operation and maintenance, percent of structure 1,1% Truck passage fees, DKK 550,00 Car passage fees, DKK 195,00 Traffic development per year 1,5% Ticket price per person, DKK after start up 65,00 Truck passage fees, DKK 550,00 Car passage fees, 195,00 Freight trains per DKK passage, 3.500,00 Ticket price per person, DKK DKK 65,00 Truck passage fees, DKK 550,00 Freight trains per passage, DKK 3.500,00 Ticket price per person, DKK 65,00 Net present value Internal intrest rate Investment Freight trains per passage, DKK 3.500,00 Result Net present +5,6 billion 3,7% intrest rate 72,7 billion SEK value SEK Internal Investment Result +5,6 billion SEK 3,7% 72,7 billion SEK Net present value Internal intrest rate Investment Result +22,5 billion SEK 3,5% 72,7 billion SEK


15. FINANCING

THE FINANCIAL RESULT As shown, the project is highly dependent on the interest rates assumed and of the chosen financing option. As the main option gives +22.5 billion SEK in net present value

NPV, Billions SEK

(NPV) calculated at 3.0% interest, there is no need for additional public subsidies (exploitation subsidies) from Sweden/Denmark to fund the project. In the calculations, the return on Europaspåret and the road tunnel reaches 3.5% (IRR).

THE RESULT Both tunnels, for road and train traffic, are expected to be completed at the same time in 2030. From before the year 2030 until 2034, the prognosis will be phased in, i.e. the calculations have counted on a start up phase when the actual growth happens. After 2034 the annual traffic growth

Normal financing

Including explotation subsidies

Net present value for the project with different interest rates

is assumed to be 1.5%. We have not made a model for freight. The new Fehmarn Belt forecasts, do not contain any synergistic effect of adding extra capacity across Öresund. There will be greater advantages in using both the road and rail links via the road tunnel and via Europaspåret than assumed in current forecasts. Calculations for this have not been made. Therefore,

NPV, billion SEK

freight revenues may be underestimated. The long-term traffic trend towards the year 2070 is difficult to forecast. The main option, as shown, will be less profitable if traffic development is slower. The project is still estimated to be profitable with growth of 1.5% per year. Traffic development may fall to 1.1% but with lower percentage, the project would have profitability problems . If the real interest rate is set at 3% instead of 3.5%, as it is on Fehmarn, the surplus will be more than 20 billion, thus financing other measures or contributing to the

Real interest rate 3,0%

Real interest rate 3,5%

Net present value as a function of traffic development

treasuries. With a 3% interest rate, the project can manage more than 15% increased costs and it still works financially

NPV, billion SEK

over a period of 40 years. With the interest rate of 3.5%, the project’s profitability is more sensitive to increased costs. If calculations are made for the more probable real interest rate that the states can lend money at, which at present is <2%, the project becomes very profitable.

Real interest rate 3,0%

Real interest rate 3,5%

The project's profitability with increased or decreased facility costs

EUROPASPÅRET A NEW ÖRESUND CONNECTION

31


16. COMPARISON BETWEEN THE EXISTING PROPOSALS HELSINGBORG-HELSINGØR (HH)

to the already high capacity usage on the Coastal Railway

The HH fixed link consists of a railway tunnel for passen-

(Kystbanen). Even to reach the 45-50 min, an upgrade of

ger traffic and the same road tunnel that can be combined

the speed of the Coastal Railway is required.

with the Europaspåret. The sound between Helsingborg and Helsingør is deep, which means that a tunnel cannot

THE ÖRESUND METRO

take the shortest route due to the slope requirements for

The Öresund Metro is a local connection between the

a railroad. Instead, you must go in a wide arc to Ramlösa

central parts of Copenhagen and Malmö (Copenhagen

to reach the same level as Helsingborg’s central station

Central Station and Malmö C). It can be connected to

(Knutpunkten). Helsingborg’s central station must also

the Copenhagen Metro system and can also be extended

be expanded with more tracks and in addition, a new

within Malmö. It halfs the travel time between Copen-

double track between it and Maria station is required in

hagen Central Station and Malmö C compared with the

order for a connection to the West Coast Main Railway to

Öresund trains and will account for a significant propor-

be possible. In Helsingør, a new station wing would need

tion of local travel. It relieves the Öresund trains that will

to be built deeper than the existing station. However, the

thereby have a better capacity for the through travellers

Ministry of Transport has presented a plan to rebuild the

and for travellers to and from the airport. As the rest

Coastal Railway to an S-Train service.

of Skåne and the airport still have a high demand for

The HH fixed link cannot be used for freight traffic,

frequent train traffic, the Öresund Metro does not directly

as this would require a separate longer tunnel under the

reduce the number of trains on the Öresund Bridge, but

sound with smaller grades suitable for freight rail. Sec-

it greatly relieves the number of travellers on the trains

ondly Ring 5 would have to be built on the Danish side.

and improves accessibility in the labour market region of

Ring 5, however, has been rejected by the municipalities

Malmö-Copenhagen.

concerned and is no longer considered to be an option. The journey between Helsingborg and Helsingør

The Öresund Metro is a local connection and cannot be part of the overall international rail network (TEN-T)

would take less than 10 minutes. Travel time to Copenha-

planned for high-speed trains and freight traffic through

gen from Helsingborg is thus shortened to 45-50 minutes.

the Öresund region.

A greater reduction in travel time here is not possible due

Europaspåret resolves:

The Öresund Metro resolves:

The HH connection (rail) resolves:

An extension of the labour market region to Copenhagen from: Ängelholm, Lund, Helsingborg, Halmstad, Hässleholm, Køge, Roskilde, Hillerød etc.

• • •

Capacity relief in southern Skåne and

ingborg, Ängelholm, Åstorp

Relief of the number of passengers on trains crossing the

Öresund bridge •

Shortened travel time between Göteborg and Copenhagen (2:20 incl. a train change in Helsingborg)

Redundancy passenger traffic •

Limited redundancy due to long travel

Shorter travel time between Gothen-

Enables metro lines in Malmö

HH connection’s development potential:

burg and Copenhagen (1:50)

Linking to a new metro line in

Relief for Copenhagen Central Station

Redundancy, for both freight and passenger traffic

Europaspårets development potential: Shorter travel time between Stockholm and Copenhagen Daily commuter traffic between Kristianstad and Copenhagen

32

the region to Copenhagen from: Hels-

Kastrup

Freight

An extension of the labour market in

The Öresund Metro’s development potential:

ket in Copenhagen-Malmö

Increased capacity across Öresund for both passenger and freight traffic

Integration of the labour mar-

time. And only to passenger traffic Rebuilding the Danish Coastal Railway to the new generation S-trains as an

Copenhagen

isolated traffic system and potentially with a self-driving train •

The possibility to extend the S-trains to Helsingborg (no time gain but greater punctuality). The S-trains cannot be connected to the Swedish rail system, so the station in Helsingborg can be built below the meeting point in this scenario, and the tunnel goes under the sound.


Europaspåret, a rail link from Copenhagen to Landskrona in combination with a road link between Helsingborg and Helsingør, is a profitable business and socio-economical project. It creates increased integration between and better growth in Sweden and Denmark. Of the three proposals discussed, Europaspåret is the project that increases the overall labour market region, while at the same time creating a real redundancy for work commuters and decongesting the Öresund Bridge. Just the relief on the Öresund Bridge enables more freight traffic with a direct link to the Fehmarn Belt tunnel, which has as one of its main purposes to increasing the amount of freight by rail and where 80% of the freight traffic is transit traffic to Sweden. Copenhagen’s Central Station has only eight tracks for conventional rail traffic, these are merged on the north side to two through tracks in the Boulevard tunnel. The central railway station is therefore one of the largest bottlenecks in the rail system in the Öresund region. With Europaspåret, four additional platforms and two additional through tracks are created, which can be used both for the new traffic to Sweden and for Danish traffic to turn around. The turning around will take place at a new general maintenance centre built as a new project in Nordhavn. This means that the very high cost of building more capacity in Copenhagen is avoided.

and in Landskrona there is opportunity to build a new neighbourhood in the old industrial area with very good connections to Copenhagen. The travel time between the ESS data centre in Copenhagen and ESS in Lund is greatly reduced. Road traffic will have increased capacity and a shorter travel time in Helsingborg-Helsingør, which allows for an improved labour market region between northern Sjælland and north-western Skåne. Copenhagen is 25 minutes away by train from Helsingborg, 30 min from Lund and 15 min from Landskrona. Via the West Coast Main Line, it is possible to reach Gothenburg in 1 hour 45 minutes. With a connection to the new high speed railway via Hässleholm, travel time to Kristianstad would be 60 minutes and there would be a possibility to reach Stockholm in 2 hours 30 minutes from Copenhagen. The freight traffic across Öresund will have increased capacity, shorter transit time and routes with the new connection. Kävlinge, Eslöv, Lomma, Lund and Malmö will have significantly fewer freight trains through their town centres. The new connection contributes to a more robust rail system. Europaspåret Landskrona to Copenhagen along with a road tunnel between Helsingborg and Helsingør can be financed with fees and government loans repayable over 40 years. The project means that the common labour market in the Öresund region will increase by 325,000 people of

For Helsingborg, Lund, North-West Skåne, Halland and Gothenburg new opportunities will be created for work commuters and with exchange with the labour market in

loading area to the ferries can be developed into cityscape,

16. COMPARISON BETWEEN THE OPTIONS OFFERED

Copenhagen and in Sjælland. In Helsingborg, the waiting/

EUROPASPÅRET

working age, and the project is economically profitable to implement.

Gothenburg – Copenhagen 45 min shorter travel time

Environmental gain without car ferries

improved travel times and residential development

considerably

Ring 5 will be unnecessary for rail traffic

Faster routes to Copenhagen and CPH/Kastrup from many

places in Sweden improved travel times and residential development

considerably

Extension of Copenhagen Central Station

new station

Possible new freight terminal in Nordhavn

Goods traffic conflict in Ny Ellebjerg resolved

new services from existing station ESS

improved situation for goods traffic improved situation for motorists new jobs

More capacity for commuter trains

residential development Relief from turning trains for the Boulevard Tunnel And Copenhagen Central Station Possible new freight terminal in Køge

i mportant university link Freight from goods traffic

Large benefit of CPH/Kastrup as international node

The illustration shows some of the benefits that the Europaspåret would give to the Öresund region EUROPASPÅRET A NEW ÖRESUND CONNECTION

33


34


EUROPASPÅRET A NEW ÖRESUND CONNECTION

35


www.europasparet.se

CONTACT ADDRESS TELEPHONE The Municipality of Landskrona 0418-47 00 00 Stadshuset Drottninggatan 7 FAX 261 80 Landskrona 0418-47 48 33

Profile for Landskrona stad

Europaspåret – report 2017  

New rail connections in the Öresund region for international and regional development. Report 2017.

Europaspåret – report 2017  

New rail connections in the Öresund region for international and regional development. Report 2017.