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Title:

Species #: 1

Common Name: Blue Gill Scientific Name: Lepomis macrochirus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: cordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Centrarchidae

Geography / Habitat: The bluegill occurs naturally in the United States east of the Rocky Mountains from coastal Virginia to Florida, west to Texas and northern Mexico, and north from western Minnesota to western New York. Today they have been transported most everywhere else in North America, and have also been introduced into Europe, South Africa, Asia, South America, and Oceania. Bluegill live in the shallow waters of many lakes and ponds, along with slow-moving areas of streams and small rivers. They prefer water with many aquatic plants, and hide within fallen logs or water weeds. They can often be found around weed beds, where they search for food or spawn. Life Strategy:Spawning season for bluegills starts late in May and extends into August. The peak of the spawning season usually occurs in June in waters of 67 to 80째F. The male bluegills arrive first at the mating site. They will make a spawning bed of six to 12 inches in diameter in shallow water, clustering as many as 50 beds together. The males scoop out these beds in gravel or sand. Males tend to be very protective and chase everything away from their nests, especially other male bluegills. Food / Feed Strategy:Young bluegills' diet consists of rotifers and water fleas. The adult diet consists of aquatic insect larvae (mayflies, caddisflies, dragonflies), but can also include crayfish, leeches, snails, and other small fish. Their diet can also include the waxworm and nightcrawler that can be provided for them by anglers. If food is scarce, bluegill will also feed on aquatic vegetation, and if scarce enough, will even feed on their own eggs or offspring. As bluegill spend a great deal of time near the surface of water, they can also feed on popping bugs and dry flies.

Body form or style: compressiform Swim Locomotion style: carangiform Mouth position: terminal

www.tpwd.state.tx.us/huntwild/wild/species/bgl/


Title:

Species #: 2

Common Name: Long-nose gar Scientific Name: Lepisosteus osseus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: cordata

Class: Lepisosteiformes

Order: Lepisosteiformes

Family: Actinopterygii

Geography / Habitat: The longnose gar is found in rivers and lakes throughout the eastern half of the United States, as far north as southern Quebec and extreme southern Ontario in the Great Lakes and as far south as northern Mexico. The most concentrated numbers of longnose gars are found throughout the American Deep South, Texas, Alabama (Cahaba River system) and anywhere along the Mississippi River. Longnose Gar are found in warm, shallow water with abundant vegetation. Life Strategy: Spawning activity occurs as early as April, in shallow riffle areas. Females, typically the larger sex, may be accompanied by one or many males. Although nests are not prepared, gravel is swept somewhat by the spawning action itself. Each female may deposit a portion of her eggs at several different locations. The adhesive eggs are mixed in the gravel, hatching in six to eight days. Yolk-sac fry have an adhesive disc on their snouts by which they attach themselves to submerged objects until the yolk sac is absorbed. Fry feed primarily on insect larvae and small crustaceans such as water fleas. Fish appear in the diet very early. Food / Feed Strategy: Fry feed primarily on insect larvae and small crustaceans such as water fleas. Fish appear in the diet very early.

Body form: Sagittiform Swim Locomotion Style: carangiform Mouth Type:Terminal www.dnr.state.oh.us/LinkClick.aspx?link=6677&tabid=6518


Title:

Species #: 3

Common Name: Largemouth Bass Scientific Name: Micropterus salmoides Kingdom: animalia

Phylum: cordata

Class: actinopterygii

Order: perciformes

Family: Centrarchidae

Geography / Habitat: Found in most any freshwater habitat throught the southeastern united states. Life Strategy:In larger lakes and reservoirs, adult bass occupy deeper water than younger fish, and shift to a diet consisting almost entirely of smaller fish like shad, yellow perch, ciscoes, shiners, and sunfish. It also consumes younger members of larger fish species, such as pike, catfish, trout, walleye, white bass, striped bass, and even smaller black bass. Prey items can be as large as 25 to 50% of the bass's body length. Food / Feed Strategy: The juvenile largemouth bass consumes mostly small bait fish, scuds, small shrimp, and insects. Adults consume smaller fish (bluegill), snails, crawfish (crayfish), frogs, snakes, salamanders, bats and even small water birds, mammals, and baby alligators.

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Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style:carangiform Mouth Position:terminal

Citation: www.fcps.edu/islandcreekes/ecology/largemouth_bass.htm


Title:

Species #: 4

Common Name: Crappie Scientific Name: Pomoxis nigromaculatus Kingdom: animalia

Phylum: cordata

Class: actinopterygii

Order: perciformes

Family: Centrarchidae

Geography / Habitat: The native range of the species was very similar to that of the white crappie, except that it extended slightly further north into Canada and east to the coastal plain south of Virginia. Currently, populations of black crappie can be found in each of the 48 contiguous United States. In Texas, black crappie are native to the central portions of the state exclusive of the Edwards Plateau, and have been widely introduced. However, black crappie are abundant primarily in clear, acidic waters of east Texas. Life Strategy:: Like other members of the sunfish family, black crappie are nest builders. They nest in the spring, generally when water temperatures reach 60°F. The biology of black crappie is very similar to that of white crappie. Growth in terms of weight is very similar between the two species. White crappie tend to have higher growth rates in terms of length, but black crappie are more robust in body construction. Black crappie adults feed on fewer fish, and more insects and crustaceans, than do white crappie.

Food / Feed Strategies: adult crappie feed on small fish, insects and crustaceans. They prefer to feed at night, early in the morning, or late afternoon. night, but they feed most

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Body Form or Style: compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: carangiform Mouth Position:terminal

Citation:http://www.fcps.edu/islandcreekes/ecology/black_crappie.htm


Title:

Species #: 5

Common Name: Blue Catfish Scientific Name: Ictalurus furcatus Kingdom: animlia

Phylum: cordata

Class: actinopterygii

Order: Siluriformes

Family: Ictaluridae

Geography / Habitat: Blue catfish are primarily large-river fish, occurring in main channels, tributaries, and impoundments of major river systems. They tend to move upstream in the summer in search of cooler temperatures, and downstream in the winter in order to find warmer water. Life Strategy: The spawning behavior of blue catfish appears to be similar to that of channel catfish. However, most blue catfish are not sexually mature until they reach about 24 inches in length. Like channel catfish, the blue catfish pursues a varied diet, but it tends to eat fish earlier in life. Although invertebrates still comprise the major portion of the diet, blue catfish as small as four inches in length have been known to consume fish. Individuals larger than eight inches eat fish and large invertebrates. Blue catfish commonly attain weights of 20 to 40 pounds, and may reach weights well in excess of 100 pounds. Food / Feed Strategy: Blue catfish are opportunistic predators and will eat any species of fish they can catch, along with crayfish, freshwater mussels, frogs, and other readily available aquatic food source.

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Body Form or Style: bottom Fish Swim / Locomotion Style: sudcarangiform Mouth Position: subterinal

Citation: www.tpwd.state.tx.us/huntwild/wild/species/blc/


Title:

Species #: 6

Common Name: Rainbow Trout Scientific Name: Oncorhynchus mykiss Kingdom: animalia

Phylum: cordata

Class: actinopterygii

Order: salomoniformes

Family: salminodia

Geography / Habitat: Rainbow trout are coldwater fish that have longbeen symbolic of clear, healthy mountainstreams and lakes in North America. Because oftheir ability to thrive in hatcheries, rainbow trouthave been introduced into much of the UnitedStates and now inhabit many streams and lakesthroughout the country. Life Strategy: The life history requirements of the species vary tremendously depending on where the trout lives andwhether it spends its life entirely in freshwater, or migrates to the sea for several years of growth be-fore returning to its freshwater birthplace to spawn. Food / Feed Strategy: Rainbow trout are opportunistic feeders that rely on a wide va-riety of food items ranging from small insects to crayfish

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Body Form or Style: compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: sub carangform Mouth Position: terminal

1. Citation:www.fws.gov/northeast/wssnfh/pdfs/RAINBOW1.pdf


Title: Common Name: Bowfin Scientific Name: Amia calva

Kingdom: Animalia Class: ACtinopterygii Family: Amedaii

Species #:8

Phylum: Cordata Order: amiiformes

Geography/ Habitat: Bowfins seem to prefer slow, sluggish backwaters Life-Strategy: In the spring, they breed in weed beds. Males build circular nests from 15 in to about 3 ft in diameter. Unlike nests of sunfish or bass where the male clears a circular depression in the sand, Amia males often build nests in fibrous root mats, clearing away stems and leaves. One male may breed with two or three females. Food/ Feed Strategy: they feed on other fishes and invertebrates  Body Form or Style: compressiform  Swim/ Locomotion Style: subcarangiform  Mouth Position:terminal Citation: http://www.bio.umass.edu/biology/conn.river/bowfin.html


Title: Common Name: Common Carp Scientific Name: Cyprinus carpio Kingdom: animalia Class: actonopterygii Family:cyprinia

Species #: 9

Phylum:cordata Order:cypriniformes

Geography/ Habitat: Common carp are native to temperate portions of Europe and Asia. They were first introduced into North America in 1877. At that time they were considered so valuable that the precious brood stock was fenced and guarded. Since that time countless introductions both intentional and unintentional have allowed Cyprinus carpio to become one of the most widely distributed fish species in North America, ranging from central Canada to central Mexico, and from coast to coast. In Texas, common carp are ubiquitous. Life-Strategy: Common carp may live in excess of 47 years and weigh over 75 pounds Food/ Feed Strategy: Common carp are omnivorous. They can eat a vegetarian diet of water plants, but prefer to scavenge the bottom for insects, crustaceans (including zooplankton),crawfish, and benthic worms.   

Body Form or Style: compressiform Swim/ Locomotion Style: subcarangiform Mouth Position:subterminal

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Common_carp


Title: Common Name: Grass Carp Scientific Name: Ctenopharyngodon idella Kingdom:animalia Class:actinopterygii Family: cyprinia

Species #:10

Phylum:cordata Order: cypriniformes

Geography/ Habitat: This species occurs in lakes, ponds, pools and backwaters of large rivers, preferring large, slow-flowing or standing water bodies with vegetation.[ Life-Strategy: In the wild, grass carp spawn in fast-moving rivers, and their eggs, which are slightly heavier than water, develop while drifting downstream, kept in suspension by turbulence. The eggs are thought to die if they sink to the bottom Food/ Feed Strategy: Adults of the species feed primarily on aquatic plants. They feed on higher aquatic plants and submerged terrestrial vegetation, but may also take detritus, insects, and other invertebrates  Body Form or Style: compressiform  Swim/ Locomotion Style: subcarangiform  Mouth Position:subterminal Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grass_Carp


Title: Common Name:brooktrout Scientific Name: Salvelinus fontinalis Kingdom:animalia Class:arconpterygii Family:salmonidia

Species #:11

Phylum: cordata Order:salmoniformes

Geography/ Habitat: The brook trout is native to small streams, creeks, lakes, and spring ponds. Some brook trout, referred to as sea-run brook trout, are anadromous. It is native to a wide area of eastern North America Life-Strategy: Spawning generally occurs in the months of October and November. Mature brook trout seek riffle areas with gravel in spring-fed streams, spring seepage areas of ponds, lake shores with swift currents, or lake bottoms where groundwater seepage occurs for spawning Food/ Feed Strategy: Brook trout have been described as voracious feeders with the potential to consume large numbers of zooplankton, crustaceans, worms, fish, terrestrial insects, and aquatic insects. Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, and Diptera often make up a large component of their diet. However, they will often feed on whatever is most readily available.   

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim/ Locomotion Style:subcarangiform Mouth Position: terminal

Citation: http://www.michigan.gov/dnr/0,4570,7-153-10364_18958-96400--,00.html


Title: Common Name: Cut Throat Trout Scientific Name: Oncorhynchus clarkii Kingdom:animalia Class: arcinopterygii Family:salmonidia

Species #:12

Phylum: cordata Order: salmoniformes

Geography/ Habitat: Cutthroat trout are native to western North America. The cutthroat species has evolved through geographic isolation into many subspecies, each native to a different major drainage basin. Native cutthroat species are found along the Pacific Northwest coast, in the Cascade Range, the Great Basin, and throughout the Rocky Mountains. Life-Strategy: Spawning fish tend to be from 200 to over 600 mm long and weigh from 0.1 to 5 kg (Thurow et al. 1988). Fish may live as long as 11 years (Gresswell 1995).

Food/ Feed Strategy: cutthroat trout have been known to consume large numbers of zooplankton, crustaceans, worms, fish, terrestrial insects, and aquatic insects.  Body Form or Style: compressiform  Swim/ Locomotion Style: subcarangiform  Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://www.fisheriessociety.org/AFSmontana/SSCpages/yellowstone_cutthroat_trout.htm


Title: Common Name: sockeye salmon Scientific Name: Oncorhynchus nerka Kingdom:animalia Class:arconopterygii Family:salmoidea

Species #: 13

Phylum:cordata Order:salmoniformes

Geography/ Habitat: Sockeye salmon ranges as far south as the Columbia River in the eastern Pacific (though individuals have been spotted as far south as the 10 Mile River on the Mendocino Coast of California) and northern Hokkaidō Island in Japan in the western Pacific, and as far north as Bathurst Inlet in the Canadian Arctic in the east and the Anadyr River in Siberia in the west Life-Strategy: Sockeye spawn mostly in streams having lakes in their watershed. The young fish, known as fry, spend up to three years in the freshwater lake before migrating to the ocean. Some stay in the lake and do not migrate. Migratory fish spend from one to four years in salt water, and thus are four to six years old when they return to spawn one summer (July–August). Navigation to the home river is thought to be done using the characteristic smell of the stream, and possibly the sun.

Food/ Feed Strategy: Sockeye salmon, unlike other species of Pacific Salmon, feed extensively on zooplankton during both freshwater and saltwater life stages.[9] Their many gill rakers strain the plankton from the water.  Body Form or Style: compressiform  Swim/ Locomotion Style: subcarangiform  Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sockeye_salmon


Title: Common Name: King Salmon Scientific Name: Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Kingdom:animalia Class:arcinopterygii Family: salmonidea

Species #: 14

Phylum:cordata Order:salmoniformes

Geography/ Habitat: Historically, the native distribution of Chinook salmon ranged from as far south as the Ventura River in California and north to Alaska, as far as Kotzebue Sound. In Asia and the western Pacific, they are consistently present only in Kamchatka Life-Strategy: Chinook salmon may spend 1 to 8 years in the ocean (averaging from 3 to 4 years)[2] before returning to their home rivers to spawn. Chinook spawn in larger and deeper waters than other salmon species and can be found on the spawning redds (nests) from September through to December. After laying eggs, females guard the redd from 4 to 25 days before dying, while males seek additional mates. Food/ Feed Strategy: planktonic diatoms, copepods, kelps, seaweeds, jellyfish, and starfish. As with all salmonid species, chinook feed on insects, amphipods, and other crustaceans while young, and primarily on other fish when older.  Body Form or Style:compressiform  Swim/ Locomotion Style: subcarangiform  Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinook_salmon


Title: Common Name: Pink salmon Scientific Name: Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Kingdom:animalia Class:actinopterygii Family: salmonidea

Species #: 15

Phylum:cordata Order:salomoniformes

Geography/ Habitat: Pink salmon are coldwater fish with a preferred temperature range of 5.6 to 14.6°C, an optimal temperature of 10.1°C, and an upper incipient lethal temperature of 25.8°C. The species is native to Pacific and Arctic coastal waters from the Sacramento River in northern California to the Mackenzie River in Canada; and in the west from the Lena River in Siberia to Korea. Populations in Asia occur as far south as Hondo Island in Japan. Pink salmon were introduced into the Great Lakes; also in Iran Life-Strategy: Pink salmon in their native range have a strict two year life cycle, thus odd and evenyear populations do not interbreed. Adult pink salmon enter spawning streams from the ocean, usually returning to the water course, or race, where they originated. Spawning occurs between late June and mid-October. Pink salmon spawn in coastal streams and some longer rivers, and may spawn in the intertidal zone or at the mouth of streams if hyporheic freshwater is available Food/ Feed Strategy: They feed on larval insects, copepods, crustacean larvae, and other invertebrates  Body Form or Style: compressiform  Swim/ Locomotion Style: subcarangiform  Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://www.psmfc.org/habitat/edu_pink_facts.html


Title: Common Name: smallmouth bass Scientific Name: Micropterus dolomieu Kingdom:animalia Class: actinopterygii Family: Centrarchidae

Species #:16

Phylum:cordata Order:perciformes

Geography/ Habitat: M. dolomieu is found in clearer water than the largemouth, especially streams, rivers, and the rocky areas and stumps and also sandy bottoms of lakes and reservoirs. The smallmouth prefers cooler water temperatures than its cousin the largemouth bass, and may be found in both still and moving water. Life-Strategy: Spawning occurs in the spring. When water temperatures approach 60°F males move into spawning areas. Nests are usually located near shore in lakes; downstream from boulders or some other obstruction that offers protection against strong current in streams. Food/ Feed Strategy: Smallmouth feed primarily on small fishes, crayfishes, and insects  Body Form or Style: compressiform  Swim/ Locomotion Style: carangiform  Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://www.dcnr.state.al.us/fishing/freshwater/fish/bassblack/smallmouth/


Title: Common Name: flathead catfish Scientific Name: Pylodictis olivaris Kingdom:animalia Class:actinopterygii Family: Ictaluridae

Species #:17

Phylum: cordata Order: Siluriformes

Geography/ Habitat: Their native range includes a broad area west of the Appalachian Mountains encompassing large rivers of the Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio basins. The range extends as far north as North Dakota, as far west as Arizona, and south to the Gulf of Mexico including northeastern Mexico. Life-Strategy: Spawning occurs in late June and early July, the nests made in areas with submerged logs and other debris. The males, who also build the nests, fiercely and tirelessly defend and fan the clutch. The size of the clutch varies proportionately to the size of the female; an average of 2,640 eggs per kilogram of fish are laid. Food/ Feed Strategy: The fry frequent shallow areas with rocky and sandy substrates where they feed on insects and worms such as annelids and polychaetes. Young flatheads are also cannibalistic, a fact which has largely precluded their presence in aquaculture.   

Body Form or Style:compressiform Swim/ Locomotion Style:subcarangiform Mouth Position:terminal

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flathead_catfish


Title: Common Name: Walleye Scientific Name: Sander vitreus Kingdom:animalia Class:actinopterygii Family:percidea

Species #:18

Phylum: cordata Order: perciformes

Geography/ Habitat: native to most of Canada and to the northern United States Life-Strategy: In most of the species' range, the majority of male walleyes mature at age three or four. Females normally mature about a year later. Adults migrate to tributary streams in late winter or early spring to lay eggs over gravel and rock, although there are open water reef or shoal spawning strains as well. Some populations are known to spawn on sand or on vegetation. Food/ Feed Strategy: They eat small bass, trout, pike, perch and sunfishes. Prime feeding times are early morning and evening. Although in turbid waters walleyes are active throughout the day  Body Form or Style: compressiform  Swim/ Locomotion Style: carangiform  Mouth Position:terminal Citation: http://www.michigan.gov/dnr/0,4570,7-153-10364_18958-45694--,00.html


Title: Common Name: Texas Shiner Scientific Name: Notropis amabilis Kingdom: animalia Class: cyprinoformes Family: cyprinidea

Species #: 19

Phylum:cordata Order:actinopterygii

Geography/ Habitat: Life-Strategy: Food/ Feed Strategy: Texas shiners are predaceous and their large eyes are believed to be an adaptation for sight feeding in swift water.

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Body Form or Style: compressiform Swim/ Locomotion Style: subcarrangiform Mouth Position: subterminal

Citation:http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/huntwild/wild/species/texasshiner/


Title:

Species #: 20

Common Name: Gizzard Shad Scientific Name: Dorosoma cepedianum Kingdom: Animalia Class: actinopterygii Family: cyprinidea

Phylum:cordata Order: cypriniformes

Geography/ Habitat: Native range extends from the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River area west to eastern South Dakota and central New Mexico, as well as to the Gulf of Mexico, where it has been found as far south as Rio Panuco in Mexico Life-Strategy: Spawning generally takes place in late spring, usually in shallow protected water. Eggs and milt are released in the school, seemingly without regard for individual mates. Adhesive eggs attach to submerged objects and hatch in about 4 days. Food/ Feed Strategy: American gizzard shad begin life feeding on zooplankton, using their teeth to catch them. At about 1 inch in length, they lose the teeth, become deeper-bodied, develop the muscular gizzard, and become filter feeders, consuming both small invertebrates and phytoplankton, as well as some sand for the gizzard.   

Body Form or Style: compressiform Swim/ Locomotion Style: Subcarrangiform Mouth Position: subterminal

Citation: http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/huntwild/wild/species/gsh/


Marine Fishes


Title:

Species #: 1

Common Name: Yellowfin Tuna Scientific Name: Thunnus albacares Kingdom: animalia Class: actinopterygii Family: Scombridae

Phylum: Cordata Order: Perciformes

Geography/ Habitat: Yellowfin tuna are epipelagic fish that inhabit the mixed surface layer of the ocean above the thermocline Life-Strategy: Reproduction occurs year-round, but is most frequent during the summer months in each hemisphere. It is believed that 79°F (26°C) is the lower temperature limit for spawning Food/ Feed Strategy: Yellowfin tuna prey include other fish, pelagic crustaceans, and squid. Like all tunas their body shape is evolved for speed, enabling them to pursue and capture fast-moving baitfish such as flying fish, saury and mackerel.  Body Form or Style: Fusiform  Swim/ Locomotion Style: Thuniform  Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/gallery/descript/yellowfintuna/yellowfintuna.html


Title:

Species #:2

Common Name: Spanish mackerel Scientific Name: Scomberomorus maculatus Kingdom: animalia Class: perciformes Family: Scombridae

Phylum: cordata Order:actinopterygii

Geography/ Habitat: Spanish mackerel occur seasonally from the Yucatán peninsula, Mexico, as far north as Cape Cod, Massachusetts. They are a shallow water species, preferring sand bottom in 10 to 40 foot (6 to 12 m) depths, occasionally found as deep as 80 feet (24 m). Life-Strategy: It appears that one Atlantic and one or more Gulf groups of Spanish mackerel occur in Florida waters. With rising water temperatures, the Atlantic group migrates along the Atlantic coast of the United States from Miami Florida, beginning in late February through July reaching as far as southern Cape Cod, Massachusetts, then returning in fall. An Eastern Gulf group moves northward from the Florida Keys during late winter and spring, appearing off the central West Coast of Florida about April 1. Movement continues westward and terminates along the northern Texas coast. During fall, this group migrates back to its wintering grounds in the Keys.

Food/ Feed Strategy: Spanish mackerel are voracious, opportunistic, carnivores. As with other members of the genus, food consists mainly of small fishes with lesser quantities of shrimp and squid. Striped anchovies (Engraulidae) and clupeoids such as menhaden, alewives and thread herring (Opisthonema), are particularly important forage in North Carolina, Florida, Texas, and Veracruz. The percentage of anchovies consumed is higher for juveniles than for adults.  Body Form or Style: Fusiform  Swim/ Locomotion Style:Thunniform  Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atlantic_Spanish_mackerel


Title:

Species #: 3

Common Name: King Mackerel Scientific Name: Scomberomorus cavalla Kingdom: Animalia Class: actinopterygii Family:Scombridae

Phylum: cordata Order: perciformes

Geography/ Habitat: The king mackerel is a subtropical species of the Atlantic Coast of the Americas. Common in the coastal zone from North Carolina to Brazil, it occurs as far south as Rio de Janeiro, and occasionally as far north as the Gulf of Maine. Nonetheless, a preference for water temperatures in the range of 68 to 85 °F (20 to 29 °C). may limit distribution.King mackerel commonly occur in depths of 40 to 150 feet (12–45 m), where the principal fisheries occur. Larger kings (heavier than 20 lb or 9 kg) often occur inshore, in the mouths of inlets and harbors, and occasionally even at the 600 foot (180 m) depths at the edge of the Gulf Stream. Life-Strategy: Eggs and sperm are shed into the sea and their union is by chance. Depending on size, a female may shed from 50,000 to several million eggs over the spawning season. Fertilized eggs hatch in about 24 hours. Food/ Feed Strategy: King mackerel are constantly feeding carnivores that can attack with high speed, powerful jaws and razor-like teeth. They feed on all and any available food but favor jacks, sea trout, sardine like fishes, ribbonfish, herring, shrimp and squid.   

Body Form or Style: fusiform Swim/ Locomotion Style: thunniform Mouth Position: terminal

Citation: http://www.fish4fun.com/kingfish1.htm


Title:

Species #: 4

Common Name: Mangrove snapper Scientific Name: Lutjanus griseus Kingdom:animalia Class: actinopterygii Family: Lutjanidae

Phylum: cordata Order: perciformes

Geography/ Habitat: It can be found in many areas from canals to grass flats as well as in open water. Most mangrove snapper in the open water are generally found near bottom structure or reefs Life-Strategy: When they begin reaching adulthood, the snappers move offshore and take up residence near areas of hard, rocky outcroppings and bottom structure. Food/ Feed Strategy: Mangrove snapper feed on small fish and crustaceans  Body Form or Style: compressiform  Swim/ Locomotion Style: carangiform  Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://www.fishing-boating.com/articles/gamefish/mngsnap.htm


Title:

Species #: 5

Common Name: Red Snapper Scientific Name: Lutjanus campechanus Kingdom: animalia Class:actinopterygii Family:Lutjanidae

Phylum: cordata Order: Percififormes

Geography/ Habitat: The red snapper, Lutjanus campechanus, is a fish found in the Gulf of Mexico and the southeastern Atlantic coast of the United States and much less commonly northward as far as Massachusetts. In Latin American Spanish it is known as huachinango or pargo.The red snapper commonly inhabits waters from 30–200 feet (9.1–61 m), but can be caught as deep as 300 ft (91 m) on occasion. They stay relatively close to the bottom, and inhabit rocky bottom, ledges, ridges, and artificial reefs, including offshore oil rigs and shipwrecks. Like most other snappers, red snappers are gregarious and will form large schools around wrecks and reefs. These schools are usually made up of fish of very similar size. Life-Strategy: A red snapper attains sexual maturity at 2–5 years old and an adult snapper can live for more than 50 years. Research from 1999-2001 suggested that populations of red snapper off the coast of Texas reach maturity faster and at a smaller size than populations off of the Louisiana and Alabama coasts. Food/ Feed Strategy: red snapper feed on small fish and crustaceans   

Body Form or Style: compressiform Swim/ Locomotion Style: carangiform Mouth Position: terminal

Citation: http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/fishwatch/species/red_snapper.htm


Title:

Species #:6

Common Name: Goliath Grouper Scientific Name: Epinephelus itajara Kingdom:animalia Class: actinopterygii Family: Serranidae

Phylum:cordata Order: perciformes

Geography/ Habitat: found primarily in shallow tropical waters among coral and artificial reefs at depths anywhere from 15 (5 m) to 165 feet (50 m). Its range includes the Florida Keys, the Bahamas, most of the Caribbean, and practically all of the Brazilian coast Life-Strategy: Goliath grouper are believed to be protogynous hermaphrodites, with individuals first maturing as females and only some large adults becoming males. Most grouper follow this pattern, but it has not yet been verified for the goliath. In fact, Bullock et al. found males could be sexually mature at smaller sizes (~1150 mm) and younger ages (4–6 years) than females (~1225 mm and ~6–8 years Food/ Feed Strategy: Goliath grouper eat crustaceans, other fish, octopuses and young sea turtles. Grouper are preyed upon by large fish such as barracudas, moray eels and large sharks.   

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim/ Locomotion Style: carangiform Mouth Position: terminal

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atlantic_goliath_grouper


Title:

Species #: 7

Common Name: red grouper Scientific Name: Epinephelus morio Kingdom: animalia Class: actinopterygii Family:Serranidae

Phylum: cordata Order: perciformes

Geography/ Habitat: Its natural habitats are open seas, shallow seas, subtidal aquatic beds, coral reefs, rocky shores, sandy shores, estuarine waters, intertidal flats, intertidal marshes, coastal saline lagoons, coastal freshwater lagoons, and karsts Life-Strategy: Red grouper are unique in the fact that they are protogynous hermaphrodites, beginning life as females, with some later transforming into males. Females transform into males between the ages of 7 and 14.Spawning occurs between January and June, peaking in May. Red Grouper are mostly batch spawners. Larval red grouper leave the plankton after approximately 1 month. Food/ Feed Strategy: The Red Grouper is an opportunistic feeder and a top predator in the reef community. The diet is varied but commonly includes lutjanid and sparid fishes, xanthid and portunid crabs, spiny lobster, and snapping shrimp.   

Body Form or Style: compressiform Swim/ Locomotion Style: carangiform Mouth Position: terminal

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_grouper


Title:

Species #:8

Common Name: Black Grouper Scientific Name: Mycteroperca bonaci Kingdom:animalia Class:actinopterygii Family:Serranidae

Phylum:cordata Order: perciformes

Geography/ Habitat: The black grouper is found throughout the western Atlantic Ocean. The northern boundary of its range is off Massachusetts and extends east to Bermuda. The range extends south to southern Brazil. It is also present in Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea, including the Florida Keys and Cuba. Life-Strategy: Black grouper are protogynous hermaphrodites. This means that all of the fish are born as females. Later in life, some of the fish will change from male to female so the population can reproduce. Those black groupers that go through this process, do so when they reach about 39 - 47.8 inches (99.0 - 121.5 cm). They are reproductively active from November through May. Food/ Feed Strategy: Adult black grouper feed primarily on other smaller reef fishes, including grunts, snapper, and herrings. They also feed on crustaceans. Juvenile black groupers feed solely on crustaceans.   

Body Form or Style: compressiform Swim/ Locomotion Style: carrangiform Mouth Position: terminal

Citation: http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/gallery/descript/blackgrouper/blackgrouper.html


Title:

Species #: 9

Common Name: Speckled trout Scientific Name: Cynoscion nebulosus Kingdom:animalia Class:actinopterygii Family: Sciaenidae

Phylum:cordata Order: perciformes

Geography/ Habitat: Spotted seatrout prefer shallower bays and estuaries with oyster beds and seagrass beds that attract prey species. They are most common in the shallow bays during spring and summer. As water temperatures decline during fall, fish move into deeper bay waters and the Gulf of Mexico. Life-Strategy: Spotted seatrout reaches sexual maturity at one to two years Food/ Feed Strategy: Small trout feed primarily on small crustaceans. Medium-size trout feed on shrimp and small fish. Large fish feed almost exclusively on other fish.  Body Form or Style: compressiform  Swim/ Locomotion Style: subcarangiform  Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cynoscion_nebulosus


Title:

Species #:10

Common Name: sheepshead Scientific Name: Archosargus probatocephalus Kingdom:animalia Class:actinopterygii Family: Sparidae

Phylum:cordata Order:perciformes

Geography/ Habitat: INSHORE species around oyster bars, seawalls and in tidal creeks Life-Strategy: moves NEARSHORE in late winter and early spring for spawning, gathering over debris, artificial reefs and around navigation markers.

Food/ Feed Strategy: Its diet consists of oysters, clams, and other bivalves, and barnacles, fiddler crabs, and other crustaceans.  Body Form or Style: compressiform  Swim/ Locomotion Style: carangiform  Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://indian-river.fl.us/fishing/fish/porgshee.html


Title:

Species #:11

Common Name: Mullet Scientific Name: Mugil cephalus Kingdom:animalia Class:actinopterygii Family: Mugilidae

Phylum:cordata Order: Mugiliformes

Geography/ Habitat:; juveniles migrate INSHORE at about 1 inch in size, moving far up tidal creeks; frequent leapers; feeds on algae, detritus and other tiny marine forms. Life-Strategy: adults migrate OFFSHORE in large schools to spawn:; juveniles migrate INSHORE at about 1 inch in size Food/ Feed Strategy: moving far up tidal creeks; frequent leapers; feeds on algae, detritus and other tiny marine forms.

  

Body Form or Style: fusiform Swim/ Locomotion Style:carangiform Mouth Position: terminal

Citation: http://indian-river.fl.us/fishing/fish/mullstri.html


Title:

Species #: 12

Common Name: Clown Fish Scientific Name: Amphiprion ocellaris Kingdom:animalia Class:actinopterygii Family: Pomacentridae

Phylum:cordata Order: perciformes

Geography/ Habitat: Clownfish are native to warmer waters of the Indian and Pacific oceans, including the Great Barrier Reef and the Red Sea. While most species have restricted distributions, others are widespread. Clownfish live at the bottom of the sea in sheltered reefs or in shallow lagoons. There are no clownfish in the Atlantic. Life-Strategy: Clownfish lay eggs on any flat surface close to their host anemones. In the wild, clownfish spawn around the time of the full moon. Depending on the species, clownfish can lay hundreds or thousands of eggs. The male parent guards the eggs until they hatch about 6 to 10 days later, typically 2 hours after dusk. Food/ Feed Strategy: Clownfish are omnivorous: in the wild they eat live food such as algae, plankton, mollusks, and crustacea; in captivity they can survive on live food, fish flakes, and fish pellets   

Body Form or Style: Globiform Swim/ Locomotion Style: ostraciiform Mouth Position:terminal

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amphiprioninae


Title:

Species #:13

Common Name: Bullshark Scientific Name: Carcharhinus leucas Kingdom:animalia Class: Chondrichthyes Family: Carcharhinidae

Phylum:cordate Order: Carcharhiniformes

Geography/ Habitat: The bull shark lives all over the world in many different areas and travels long distances. It is common in coastal areas of warm oceans, in rivers and lakes, and occasionally salt and freshwater streams if they are deep enough Life-Strategy: Bull sharks mate during late summer and early autumn, often in the brackish water of river mouths. After gestating for 12 months, a bull shark may give birth to four to ten live young. They are viviparous; they are born live and free-swimming. The young are about 70 cm (27.6 in) at birth and take 10 years to reach maturity. Coastal lagoons, river mouths, and other low-salinity estuaries are common nursery habitats.

Food/ Feed Strategy: A bull shark's diet consists mainly of bony fish and sharks, including other bull sharks,[20] but can also include turtles, birds, dolphins, terrestrial mammals, crustaceans and echinoderms. Bull sharks have been known to use the bump-and-bite technique to attack their prey  Body Form or Style: sagittiform  Swim/ Locomotion Style: Thunniform  Mouth Position: subterminal Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bull_shark


Title:

Species #:14

Common Name: Great White Shark Scientific Name: Carcharodon carcharias Kingdom:animalia Class: Chondrichthyes Family: Lamnidae

Phylum:cordata Order: Lamniformes

Geography/ Habitat: Great white sharks live in almost all coastal and offshore waters which have water temperature between 12 and 24 °C (54 and 75 °F), with greater concentrations in the United States (Atlantic Northeast and California), South Africa, Japan, Australia (especially New South Wales and South Australia), New Zealand, Chile, and the Mediterranean

Life-Strategy: Little is known about great white shark behavior in the way of mating habits. Birth has never been observed, but pregnant females have been examined. Great white sharks are ovoviviparous (eggs develop and hatch in the uterus and continue to develop until birth).[40] The great white has an 11-month gestation period. The shark pup's powerful jaws begin to develop in the first month. The unborn sharks participate in intrauterine cannibalism; stronger pups consume their weaker wombmates. Delivery is in spring and summer.

Food/ Feed Strategy: Great white sharks are carnivorous and prey upon fish (e.g. tuna, rays,[29] other sharks[29]), cetaceans (i.e., dolphins, porpoises, whales), pinnipeds (e.g. seals, fur seals,[29] and sea lions), sea turtles,[29] sea otters, and seabirds.[30] Great whites have also been known to eat objects that they are unable to digest.  Body Form or Style:sagittiform  Swim/ Locomotion Style: thunniform  Mouth Position: subterminal Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_white_shark


Title:

Species #:15

Common Name: nurse shark Scientific Name: Ginglymostoma cirratum Kingdom:animalia Class: Chondrichthyes Family: Ginglymostomatidae

Phylum:cordata Order: Orectolobiformes

Geography/ Habitat: The nurse shark is a common inshore bottom-dwelling shark, found in tropical and subtropical waters on the continental and insular shelves. It is frequently found at depths of one meter or less but may occur down to 75 m. Its common habitats are reefs, channels between mangrove islands and sand flats. Life-Strategy: The mating season runs from late June to the end of July. Nurse sharks are ovoviviparous, meaning the eggs develop and hatch within the body of the female where the hatchlings develop further until live birth occurs. The gestation period is six months, with a typical litter of 21 - 29 pups

Food/ Feed Strategy: Their diet consists primarily of crustaceans, molluscs, tunicates, sea snakes, and other fish, particularly stingrays  Body Form or Style: sagittiform  Swim/ Locomotion Style: thunniform  Mouth Position: subterminal Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nurse_shark


Title:

Species #:16

Common Name: hammerhead shark Scientific Name: Sphyrna lewini Kingdom: animalia Class: Chondrichthyes Family: Sphyrnidae

Phylum: cordata Order: Carcharhiniformes

Geography/ Habitat: Hammerheads are found worldwide in warmer waters along coastlines and continental shelves. Unlike most sharks, hammerheads usually swim in schools. Some of these schools can be found near Malpelo Island in Colombia, Cocos Island by Costa Rica and near Molokai Island in Hawaii.

Life-Strategy: Reproduction only occurs once a year for hammerhead sharks and usually occurs with the male shark biting the female shark violently until she agrees to mate with him. The hammerhead sharks exhibit a viviparous mode of reproduction with females giving birth to live young. Food/ Feed Strategy: Hammerhead sharks are known to eat a large range of items including fish, squid, octopus, crustaceans, and other hammerhead sharks. Stingrays are a particular favorite  Body Form or Style:sagitiiform  Swim/ Locomotion Style: Thunniform  Mouth Position: subterminal Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hammerhead_shark


Title:

Species #:17

Common Name: amberjack Scientific Name: Seriola dumerili Kingdom:animalia Class: actinopterygii Family: Carangidae

Phylum:cordata Order: perciformes

Geography/ Habitat: It is found in the Mediterranean Sea, the Atlantic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean and the Indian coasts, living usually between 20 and 70 m of depth (with a maximum of 360 m). It is the largest genus in the Carangidae family, with a maximum length of 200 cm Life-Strategy: Although there is little known about the reproductive habits of the greater amberjack, it is believed that migrations are related to reproduction. In the western Atlantic Ocean, this species spawns offshore from March through June. Spawning locations include reefs and shipwrecks as evidenced by the numbers of young individuals in these locations during the summer months. Food/ Feed Strategy: The Greater amberjack is a powerful hunter which feeds on other fish and invertebrates  Body Form or Style: Fusiform  Swim/ Locomotion Style: thunniform  Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/gallery/Descript/GreateramberJack/greateramberJack.html


Title:

Species #:18

Common Name: Hogfish Scientific Name: Lachnolaimus maximus Kingdom:animalia Class: actinopterygii Family: Labridae

Phylum:cordata Order: perciformes

Geography/ Habitat: is found in the western Atlantic Ocean with a range from Bermuda, south through the Caribbean Sea and northern Gulf of Mexico, continuing to the north coast of South America. Hogfish are very abundant in the Florida Keys and are a valuable economical important species among fisherman. Life-Strategy: The hogfish, like many wrasses, is a sequential hermaphrodite. Which means it changes sex during different life stages. The hogfish is a protogynous, “first female” hermaphrodite. This means that the juvenile hogfish start out as female and then after a certain age mature to become male. Food/ Feed Strategy: The larger species can be feed worms, snails, small fish, mussels, shrimp, and squid.  Body Form or Style: compressiform  Swim/ Locomotion Style: carangiform  Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://www.aquaticcommunity.com/sw/hogfish.php


Title:

Species #:19

Common Name: moray eel Scientific Name: Gymnothorax javanicus Kingdom:animalia Class: actinopterygii Family: Muraenidae

Phylum: cordata Order:anguilliformes

Geography/ Habitat: Moray eels are cosmopolitan, found in both tropical and temperate seas, although the largest species richness is at reefs in warm oceans. Very few species occur outside the tropics or subtropics, and the ones that do only extend marginally beyond these regions. They live at depths of up to several hundred metres, where they spend most of their time concealed inside crevices and alcoves. Life-Strategy: They typically achieve this by intertwining their bodies. Once the egg has been fertilized by the sperm, it is released into the open water. Shortly after the fertilized egg makes contact with water, it begins to develop into a larvae. Food/ Feed Strategy: Primarily crustaceans  Body Form or Style:Anguilliform  Swim/ Locomotion Style: Anguilliform  Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://www.morayeel.info/moray-eel-reproduction.php


Title:

Species #: 20

Common Name: whale shark Scientific Name: Rhincodon typus Kingdom:animalia Class: Chondrichthyes Family: Rhincodontidae

Phylum:cordata Order: Orectolobiformes

Geography/ Habitat: The whale shark inhabits all tropical and warm-temperate seas. They are known to migrate every spring to the continental shelf of the central west coast of Australia. Life-Strategy: The capture of a female in July 1996 which was pregnant with 300 pups indicates that whale sharks are ovoviviparous.[3][18][19] The eggs remain in the body and the females give birth to live young which are 40 to 60 centimetres (16 to 24 in) long. It is believed that they reach sexual maturity at around 30 years and the life span is an estimated 70[3] to 100 years.[20]

Food/ Feed Strategy: As a filter feeder it has a capacious mouth which can be up to 1.5 metres (4.9 ft) wide and can contain between 300 and 350 rows of tiny teeth  Body Form or Style:sagittiform  Swim/ Locomotion Style: carrangiform  Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whale_shark


Salt Water Invertebrates


Title:

Species #:1

Common Name: common octupus Scientific Name: Octopus vulgaris Kingdom: animalia Class:cephlapoda Family: Octopodidae

Phylum:molusca Order: Octopoda

Geography/ Habitat: Its natural range extends from the Mediterranean Sea and the southern coast of England to at least Senegal in Africa. It also occurs off the Azores, Canary Islands, and Cape Verde Islands. Life-Strategy: the common octopus lays eggs that are protected by the female until they are hatched. Food/ Feed Strategy: The Common Octopus hunts at dusk. Crabs, crayfish, and bivalve mollusks (two-shelled molluscs such as cockles) are preferred, although the octopus will eat almost anything it can catch  Body Form or Style: na  Swim/ Locomotion Style: na  Mouth Position: beak Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Common_Octopus


Title:

Species #:2

Common Name: blue crab Scientific Name: Portunus pelagicus Kingdom:animalia Class:malacostraca Family: Portunidae

Phylum:arthrapoda Order:decapoda

Geography/ Habitat: found in the intertidal estuaries of the Indian and Pacific Oceans (Asian coasts) and the Middle-Eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea. Life-Strategy: Courtship and mating of the blue crabs generally occurs in February and March. The male will court the female crab for four to ten days before mating. Courtship involves the male crab carrying the female crab beneath him during this period. While courting, the male is extremely aggressive threatening or striking with its claws at anything that moves. Copulation takes place when the female is in the soft-shell condition. The female retains viable sperm within an internal structure called a spermatheca until the following summer. Food/ Feed Strategy: They come out to feed during high tide on various organisms such as bivalves, fish and, to a lesser extent, macroalgae  Body Form or Style  Swim/ Locomotion Style  Mouth Position Citation: http://www.pir.sa.gov.au/fisheries/recreational_fishing/target_species/crabs/blue_crabs


Title:

Species #:3

Common Name: Horseshoe Crab Scientific Name: Limulus polyphemus Kingdom:animalia Class: Merostomata Family: Limulidae

Phylum:arthrapoda Order: Xiphosurida

Geography/ Habitat: live primarily in shallow ocean waters on soft sandy or muddy bottoms. They will occasionally come on shore for mating. Life-Strategy: During the breeding season, horseshoe crabs migrate to shallow coastal waters. Males select a female and cling onto her back. The female digs a hole in the sand and lays her eggs while the male fertilizes them. The female can lay between 60,000–120,000 eggs in batches of a few thousand at a time. Many shore birds eat the eggs before they hatch. The eggs take about 2 weeks to hatch. The larvae molt six times during the first year. Food/ Feed Strategy: they feed on clams; they also include worms and other invertebrates in their diet. The horseshoe crab places a clam near its mouth in the center of its underside where its legs are attached and grinds and crushes with the burr-like sections of the legs.  Body Form or Style: na  Swim/ Locomotion Style:na  Mouth Position:na Citation: http://www.assateague.com/horsesho.html


Title:

Species #:4

Common Name: nautilus Scientific Name: Nautilus belauensis Kingdom: animalia Class:cephlapoda Family: Nautilidae

Phylum:mollusca Order: Nautilida

Geography/ Habitat: Nautiluses are only found in the Indo-Pacific, from 30° N to 30° S latitude and 90° to 185° W longitude. They inhabit the deep slopes of coral reefs. Life-Strategy: Nautiluses reproduce by laying eggs. Gravid females attach the fertilized eggs to rocks in shallow waters, whereupon the eggs take eight to twelve months to develop until the 30 millimetres (1.2 in) juveniles hatch. Females spawn once per year and regenerate their gonads, making nautiluses the only cephalopods to present iteroparity or polycyclic spawning.

Food/ Feed Strategy: Nautiluses are predators that feed mainly on small fish, shrimp, and other crustaceans, which are captured by the tentacles. Due to the limited energy they expend in swimming, nautiloids only need to eat once a month.   

Body Form or Style: na Swim/ Locomotion Style:na Mouth Position:na

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nautilus


Title:

Species #: 5

Common Name: Humbolt Squid Scientific Name: Dosidicus gigas Kingdom:animalia Class: Cephlapoda Family: Ommastrephidae

Phylum: mollusca Order: Teuthida

Geography/ Habitat: The Humboldt squid lives at depths of 200 to 700 m (660 to 2,300 ft) in the eastern Pacific (Chile, Peru), ranging from Tierra del Fuego north to California. It gets its name from the Humboldt Current in which it lives off the coast of South America. Recently, the squid have been appearing farther north, as far as Alaska Life-Strategy: Experts know little about how jumbo squid spawn, in large part because the squid spend most of their lives at depths unsafe for diving. Their eggs have never been observed in nature. Like most cephalopods, Humboldt squid reproduce only once in their lifetime.

Food/ Feed Strategy: Their tentacles bear suckers lined with sharp teeth with which they grasp prey and drag it towards a large, sharp beak. Their diet likely consists of fish, shrimp, and other squid,   

Body Form or Style: na Swim/ Locomotion Style:na Mouth Position:na

Citation: http://nationalzoo.si.edu/Animals/Invertebrates/Facts/cephalopods/FactSheets/Humboldtsquid.cfm


Title:

Species #: 6

Common Name: Fiddler Crab Scientific Name: Uca pugnax Kingdom:animalia Class: Malacostraca Family: Ocypodidae

Phylum:arthrapoda Order: Decapoda

Geography/ Habitat: Found in mangroves, in salt marshes, and on sandy or muddy beaches of West Africa, the Western Atlantic, the Eastern Pacific and the Indo-Pacific Life-Strategy: The female fiddler carries her eggs in a mass on the underside of her body. She remains in her burrow during a two week gestation period, after which she ventures out to release her eggs into the receding tide. The larvae remain planktonic for a further two weeks Food/ Feed Strategy:  Body Form or Style: na  Swim/ Locomotion Style:na  Mouth Position:na Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fiddler_crab


Title:

Species #:7

Common Name:Scallop Scientific Name: Kingdom:animalia Class: bivalva Family: Pectinidae

Phylum:mollusca Order: Ostreoida

Geography/ Habitat: Scallops are found worldwide, and they may live from the intertidal zone to the deep sea.

Life-Strategy: Many scallops are hermaphrodites - they have both male and female sex organs. Others are only male or female. Scallops reproduce by spawning - releasing eggs and sperm into the water. Once an egg is fertilized, the young scallop is planktonic, and then settles to the sea floor, attaching to an object with byssal threads. Most scallop species lose this byssus and become free-swimming as they grow.

Food/ Feed Strategy: Scallops eat by filtering small organisms out of the water. As water enters the scallop, mucus traps plankton in the water, and then cilia moves the food into the scallop's mouth.

  

Body Form or Style: na Swim/ Locomotion Style:na Mouth Position:na

Citation: http://marinelife.about.com/od/invertebrates/tp/10-Facts-About-Scallops.htm


Title:

Species #:8

Common Name: Sand Flea Scientific Name: Emerita analoga Kingdom: animalia Class: malacostraca Family: Hippidae

Phylum: arthrapoda Order:decapoda

Geography/ Habitat: The genus as a whole has a broad distribution in tropical and subtropical regions. Most individual species, however, are restricted to smaller areas, and their ranges rarely overlap. The genus is common on both coasts of the United States and along the Atlantic coast of Africa; the related genus Hippa is found in Australia.

Life-Strategy: Males are typically smaller than females, and in some species, such as Emerita rathbunae, the minute males live attached to the legs of the female.[4] Females are around 8–37 millimetres (0.31–1.5 in) in carapace length, depending on the species, while males vary from a similar size to females Food/ Feed Strategy: Organic and decaying plant material (such as seaweeds on the beach). Sand fleas will appear in large numbers after seaweed washes to shore  Body Form or Style: na  Swim/ Locomotion Style:na  Mouth Position: na Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emerita_(genus)


Title:

Species #:9

Common Name: Spiney lobster Scientific Name:Panulirus interruptus Kingdom:Animalia Class:malacostraca Family:Palinuridae

Phylum:arthrapoda Order: decapoda

Geography/ Habitat:Spiny lobsters are found in almost all warm seas, including the Caribbean and the Mediterranean Sea, but are particularly common in Australasia Life-Strategy: A male deposits a spermatophore or packet of sperm onto the female‟s chest area where all the legs attach. This is often called the „tar spot‟ because the spermatophore is a dark black color. After the female produces her eggs, she will break open the spermatophore to release the sperm, which fertilizes her eggs. Food/ Feed Strategy: Feeding only at night, spiny lobsters will pick worms, clams, oysters, and other slow moving invertebrates or animals without backbones out of the sand. They can also be considered scavengers or animals that eat whatever is available to them because they will pick up dead fish they are laying around the reef.   

Body Form or Style: na Swim/ Locomotion Style:na Mouth Position:na

Citation: http://sea.sheddaquarium.org/sea/fact_sheets.asp?id=97


Title:

Species #: 10

Common Name: Pistol Shrimp Scientific Name: Alpheus digitalis Kingdom:animalia Class:malacostraca Family: Alpheidae

Phylum: arthrapoda Order: decapoda

Geography/ Habitat: native to the western Atlantic Ocean, occurring from North Carolina and Bermuda to Brazil and the West Indies Life-Strategy: most often encountered as mated pairs and social monogamy appears to be a widespread phenomenon. Food/ Feed Strategy: will eat snails, crabs, hermits, other shrimp and even fish using their enlarged claw to fire a sonic blast that stuns and injures prey.

  

Body Form or Style: na Swim/ Locomotion Style:na Mouth Position:na

Citation: http://www.sms.si.edu/IRLSpec/Alpheus_heterochaelis.htm


Fresh Water Invertebrates


Title:

Species #: 1

Common Name: Apple Snail Scientific Name: Pomacea insularum Kingdom:animalia Class:gastrapoda Family: Ampullariidae

Phylum: mollusca Order:

Geography/ Habitat: (native to South America, Central America, the West Indies and the Southern U.S.A. Apple snails are exceptionally well adapted to tropical regions characterized by periods of drought alternating with periods of high rainfall. This adaptation is reflected in their life style; they are moderately amphibious. They have an operculum which enables the snail to seal the shell entrance to prevent drying out while they are buried in the mud during dry periods Life-Strategy: Several apple snail genera (Pomacea, Pila and Asolene/Pomella) deposit eggs above the waterline in calcareous clutches. This remarkable strategy of aquatic snails protects the eggs against predation by fish and other aquatic inhabitants. Food/ Feed Strategy: A typical adaptation of apple snails is the combination of a branchial respiration system comparable with the gills of a fish (at the right side of the snail body) and a lung (at the left side of the body). This lung/gill combination expands the action radius of the snail in search for food

  

Body Form or Style: na Swim/ Locomotion Style: na Mouth Position:na

Citation: http://www.applesnail.net/content/main.htm


Title:

Species #:2

Common Name: Crayfish Scientific Name: Paranephrops planifrons Kingdom: animalia Class:malacostraca Family: Parastacoidea

Phylum: artrapoda Order:decapoda

Geography/ Habitat: The Northern koura, Paranephrops planifrons, is found mainly in the North Island, but also in Marlborough, Nelson and the West Coast of the South Island. They reach lengths of about 70 millimetres (2.8 in).

Life-Strategy: The female carries between 20–200 eggs under the side flaps of her abdomen whereby they take 3–4 months to hatch. Over this time male sperm production corresponds with females' reproductivity. Once hatched juvenile koura cling to their mother‟s abdomen using their pincers to attach until they have reached a length of 4–10 millimetres (0.16–0.39 in). Food/ Feed Strategy: Koura in natural populations consume a variety of foods with animal protein contributing the most to growth. Invertebrates including aquatic snails, chironomids, and mayflies are the predominant food sources in the koura diet  Body Form or Style: na  Swim/ Locomotion Style: na  Mouth Position:na Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paranephrops


Title:

Species #:3

Common Name: Zebra Mussel Scientific Name: Dreissena polymorpha Kingdom:animalia Class: bivalva Family: Dreissenidae

Phylum: mollusca Order: Veneroida

Geography/ Habitat: This species was originally native to the lakes of southeast Russia[1] being first described in 1769 by a German zoologist Peter Simon Pallas in the Ural, Volga and Dnieper rivers. They are still found nearby, as Pontic (Black Sea) and Caspian (Caspian Sea) species.[2] However, it has been accidentally introduced in many other areas, and has become an invasive species in many different countries worldwide.

Life-Strategy: Zebra mussels are relatively small, with adults ranging from 0.25 to 1.5 in (0.64 to 3.8 cm) long.[4] They have tiny stripes down their shells. Zebra Mussels have a D-shaped shell. They attach to things with 'strings', byssal threads, which come out of their umbo on the dorsal (hinged) side. Removal of the mussel is therefore difficult.

Food/ Feed Strategy: filter-feeding organisms. They remove particles from the water column. Some particles are consumed as food, and feces are deposited on the lake floor. Non-food particles are combined with mucus and other matter and deposited on lake floors as pseudofeces.   

Body Form or Style:na Swim/ Locomotion Style:na Mouth Position:na

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zebra_mussel


Title:

Species #:4

Common Name:Duck Mussel Scientific Name: Anodonta anatina Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: mollusca

Class: bivalva Family: Unionidae

Order: Unionoida

Geography/ Habitat: The range of distribution for this family is world-wide. It is at its most diverse in North America, with about 297 recognised taxa, but China and Southeast Asia also support very diverse faunas.Freshwater mussels occupy a wide range of habitats, but most often occupy lotic waters.

Life-Strategy: The edge of the female's body that protrudes from the valves of the shell develops into an imitation of a small fish complete with markings and false eyes. This decoy moves in the current and attracts the attention of real fish. Some fish see the decoy as prey, while others see a conspecific. Whatever they see, they approach for a closer look and the mussel releases huge numbers of larvae from her gills, dousing the inquisitive fish with her tiny, parasitic young. These glochidia larvae are drawn into the fish's gills where they attach and trigger a tissue response that forms a small cyst in which the young mussel resides. It feeds by breaking down and digesting the tissue of the fish within the cyst Food/ Feed Strategy: Clams are filter feeders that process up to 10 gallons of water. They use siphons to draw in a stream of water that is then passed over the gills for feeding and respiration. Freshwater of clams feed on a variety of microscopic organisms, including bacteria and algae.

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Body Form or Style: na Swim/ Locomotion Style: na Mouth Position:na

Citation: http://islandwood.org/kids/stream_health/macros/clam.html


Title:

Species #:5

Common Name: Gammarus pulex Scientific Name: Gammarus pulex Kingdom:animalia Class:malacostraca Family: Gammaridae

Phylum:arthrapoda Order:amphipoda

Geography/ Habitat: G. pulex is found across Eurasia from eastern Siberia in the east to the British Isles in the west Life-Strategy: Gammarus hatch fully developed from eggs and are able to reproduce rapidly. Adults can produce two generations in a year. Food/ Feed Strategy: The main predators of Gammarus are fish - trout and salmon parr, bullheads and stone loach all eat them as do minnows and sticklebacks, it's a widely available and important food both in stilwaters and rivers.  Body Form or Style: na  Swim/ Locomotion Style:na  Mouth Position:na Citation: http://www.riverfly.co.uk/interesting.htm


Fish I.D. Project