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A sustainable approach to golf course design Denise Wong, BLA 2012


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“Success depends almost entirely on how effectively you learn to manage the game’s two ultimate adversaries: the course and yourself.” Jack Nicklaus

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Table of Contents

1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2. Research Question . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3. Issues. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4. Methodology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.1 Stakeholders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.2 Legislative and Policy Framework Key Documents. . . . . . . . . . . . 8

6. Waitemata Golf Course. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 6.1 History. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 6.2 Timeline. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

7. Investigation of Chosen Site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 8. Tides. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 8.1 Tidal Currents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

4.3 Blue Spaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

9. Marine Ecology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

4.5 Site Selection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

9.2 Biozones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

4.4 Assumptions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.6 Considerations for Site Selection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

9.1 Biogeochemical Cycles in the Water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 9.3 Pelagic Environment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

4.7 Analysis of Selected Site. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

10. Golf Course Pond. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

5.1 Waiheke Island 9 hole golf course. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

10.2 Littoral Shelf. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

5. Sites Investigated. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 5.2 Remuera 18 hole Golf Course. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

5.3 Waitakere 18 hole Golf Course . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 5.4 Peninsula 18 hole Golf Course. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 5.5 Waitemata 18 hole Golf Course. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

10.1 Littoral Zone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 10.3 Shoreline. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 10.4 Erosion and Sediment Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 10.5 Healthy Ponds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

11. Fountain Pump System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

11.1 Algae Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21


12. Site Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 13. Water Level Fluctuations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 14. Case Study 1: Old Collier Golf Club, Florida, USA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 15. Case Study 2: World Ice 9 hole Golf Course, Greenland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 16. Design Concepts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 16.1 Concept A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 16.2 Concept B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 16.3 Concept C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 16.4 Concept D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

17. Design Criteria. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 17.1 Cut and Fill Balance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

19. Sand Green Water Interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 19.1 Capillary Action. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 19.2 Geotechnical Fabric. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

20. Course Layout and Size. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 21. Perspective Images of New Golf Course. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 22. Coastal Erosion and Flooding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 23. In 100 years... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 24. References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 25. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

17.2 Green Network Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 17.3 Interesting Golf Course. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 17.4 Dependence on Stormwater Pump Station. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 17.5 Ecology Enhancement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 17.6 Resilience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

18. Proposed New Design Layout. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

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1. Introduction

From a bird’s eye view, golf courses represent a quiet oasis in a residential jungle, a place to rest and recharge along water features and in trees high above the course.

Although golf course renovation and construction changes the natural landscape, with good design and management the new mosaic of altered and introduced habitats can provide a safe haven to birds and other wildlife. Pesticide use on golf courses are changing thanks to safer products, smarter application and no-spray zones to protect the surrounding marine environment.

The habitat value of golf course ponds to marine life and waterbirds, its ability as stormwater mitigation is dependent on the size of the ponds. Larger ponds attract more waterbirds, but wading birds such as the pukeko require waterscapes with shallow vegetation which provide cover and foraging areas.

The Waitemata Golf Club has been in existence for over a century. It is surrounded by a thriving community of people who enjoy the green healthy spaces for sport and recreation. It has been chosen to be the subject of this research project because unlike most of the other golf courses investigated which almost always need some form of renovation for various reasons, this one requires a more imminent intervention from a landscape architecture point of view. It is already inundated and stormwater is actively pumped out by an adjacent pumpstation. Sea level rises will make it almost impossible for the golf course to exist within the next 50 to 100 years. A design process which investigates and tries to solve the existing problem of high tide water inundation, maximising its current ecological attributes must also ultimately make it an interesting golf course. One which never loses its charm, always presenting the golfer with interesting problems. His delight increasing no matter how often nor for how many years he plays it, affording him real pleasure to the last green on the last day.

On this course, there shall be all manner of good holes and no two of them alike. The changing tides will change the way it is played depending on time and tide. To some of the little harbours where the flag flies, there shall be narrow and hazardous channels. Here all manner of fine, precise shots shall be called for. Some will have to played low, some quite high and some must run for a long way, while others must stop short. A temporal change as sea level rise will see changes to the dry bunkers constructed to accommodate the current high tides. No longer then will a sand wedge be used to lift the ball out with a dust of sand, but a divot of wet sand instead.

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2. Research Question

How can a landscape architectural approach to threatened landscapes such as the Waitemata Golf Course help to mitigate the adverse effects of sea level rises and in doing so,

create a unique and intriguing golf course for its members?


3. Issues

The site is on the Devomport peninsula spanning approximately 1km by 1km and is bounded by major roads to the west, north and east. Ngataringa Bay on the western side of this site is an archaeologically significant site. Narrowneck Beach to the north-east of this site is one of the Auckland Council protected coastlines (See Fig. 1) Environmental issues which need addressing prior to design, planning and implementation include:

1. Will there be any impacts to water quality from surface drainage run-off or sub-surface infiltration resulting from the long-term application of chemicals for turfgrass management on this golf course?

2. Will the proposed design avoid or minimise impacts to the adjacent marine ecology such as Narrowneck beach and the mangrove swamp in Ngataringa Bay?

3. What impact will the proposed new design have on the ecological systems of the existing site, adjacent properties, community such as plant communities, people living around the course who use it for sport and recreation, views from their houses and wildlife habitat?

´

This map/plan is illustrative only and all information should be independently verified on site before taking any action.Copyright Auckland Council. Boundary information from LINZ (Crown Copyright Reserved). Whilst due care has been taken, Auckland Council gives no warranty as to the accuracy and completeness of any information on this map/plan and accepts no liability for any error, omission or use of the information. Height datum: Auckland 1946.

Fig.1: Scale @A3 1:5000 Aucklandpriority Council priority coastal areas for survey map. coastal areas for survey

Created: Friday, 5 October 2012,5:08:16 p.m.

Scale @ A3 1:50000

Climate changes resulting in sea level rises will impact on its coastline, threatening to cut it off from from the rest of Auckland. If this was to happen, the Devonport Ferry Terminal south of the Waitemata Golf Course will be left isolated from other road and public transport links. The specific issues for redesign, construction and management for the Waitemata golf course is based on its location within the Auckland isthmus, its characteristics, climate and Auckland Council regulations.

4. How will sensitive areas on site and adjacent properties be protected from potential water pollution due to earth disturbance and erosion during the construction and renovation process? 5. How will the new golf course affect the existing character of Devonport peninsula and the rest of Auckland through alteration of the topography and vegetative cover?

6. Are there significant historical, cultural or archaeological resources existing on the site or near the site that will be adversely affected by the new golf course and require research or preservation?

7. Does the redevelopment of Waitemata golf course constitute the elimination of some open or green spaces? 8. Can this site provide a viable means of remediation or rehabilitation and environmental enhancement for its community and Auckland Council

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4. Methodology

Like any development project being proposed for a particular location, the redesign of Waitemata golf course will undergo a comprehensive review and approval process by a local regulatory agency, in this case Auckland Council. It must be thoroughly reviewed and evaluated to determine its impacts and benefits to the environment as well as residents in the area. Typically during the review process, public hearings are conducted to allow all the stakeholders an oppotunity to comment and express any opinions regarding the proposed project.

4.1 Stakeholders

The stakeholders for this site are Auckland Council, Sport NZ, Regional sports trusts and organizations, private sector, iwi, Surfbreak Protection society, NZ Sports Turf Institute, Waitemata golf club members, residents in Devonport, Royal Forest and Bird Protection Society, community partnership groups wuch as Waicare and Landcare, Department of Conservation and Ministry for the Environment.

4.2 Legislative and Policy Framework Key Documents

The Waitemata golf course has a non exclusive lease from Auckland council which means that the public as well as golf members are allowed use of the parks here. Auckland Council has a major role in the provision and management of public open spaces with approximately 50,000 hectares distributed across Auckland. The site consists of Alison Park, Seabreeze Reserve, Allenby Park and Woodall Park which are managed under the Reserves Act. 1977.

These open spaces are administered by the Department of Conservation (DoC) under the Conservation Act 1987. DoC also manages the marine reserves on Narrowneck beach, Ngataringa Bay and the Hauraki Gulf next to the site under the Marine Reserves Act 1971, the Hauraki Gulf Marine Park Act 2000 and Walkways Act 1975. Tangata Whenua have a spiritual and physical relationship with open space, including significant natural and cultural features and landscapes, which are integral to their cultural identity.

4.3 Blue Spaces

A huge part of Auckland’s open space network is its blue spaces. This includes the beaches, harbours, streams and coastal environment. These areas offer opportunities for active and passive recreation. They also serve important biodiversity, ecological and conservation purposes.

The design proposal to mitigate flooding of the site if the Seabreeze stormwater pump station was decomissioned with the incorporation of a bigger and larger retention pond will contribute to these blue spaces. Its value, contribution and role as part of Auckland’s open space blue space network is important and has been given particula consideration in a number of chapters in the Auckland Plan.

4.4 Assumptions

For the purposes of this research project, it has been assumed that all stakeholders have been consulted and approval including consents under the Resource Management Act 1991, Local Government Act 2002 and Biosecurity Act 1993 have been granted for the redesign and renovation of Waitemata golf course.

4.5 Site Selection As site visits for this project is preferable during the investigative stage, 5 Auckland golf courses were given thorough on-site and background analysis to select a suitable site for this research project.

4.6 Considerations for Site Selection

Each golf course was given an initial subjective view for an intuitive feel as to whether it is already interesting or whether much can be done to improve its presence state. In addition, statistical information for the number of club members, average age of members, membership fees, other recreational facilities, location, land value and availability of land parcels nearby for expansion are considered, demographics for the surrounding community, population of the suburb and median household income. The number of visitors to the area also impact on the success of the golf club.

The presence of coastal features, large rivers or lakes, visually dominant ridgelines or slopes or the interface of land and water areas, land/water interfaces, vegetation cover, varied or convoluted landforms, a strong sense of history, native/ endemic heritage. diversity and variety within each golf course.

4.7 Analysis of Selected Site

This includes GIS mapping for landscape assessment of the site, hydrology, topography, adjacent and surrounding features which impact on the site and the effects on these surrounding areas which the new proposed golf course will have.


5. Sites Investigated

The following are golf courses investigated for potential redevelopment.

5.1 Waiheke Island 9 hole golf course

Located in the middle of the island of Waiheke on a lowly elevated site, it has no water views. The golf club charges each of their 280 members pay $400 per year for exclusive use of the 9 hole course. Residents on this island are older than their city counterparts, with a median age of 41. (compared to Auckland region as a whole 34). Personal and household income levels are lower ($38,000) than the region as a whole ($63,000).

In the summer, the small population of 8,400 residents here swell due to visitors and tourists seeking to make use of the open space, sandy beaches and boutique vineyards. More than 30,000 visit the island every summer. The golf course was basic with very little maintenance done on the greens and fairways. It has the potential to become part of Waiheke Island’s tourism drawcard if it can be renovated into an 18 hole course with spectacular water views. There are no land parcels adjacent to the course suitable for this expansion which would give it any significant sea views. Other land parcels available for purchase which are big enough to build an 18 hole course with sea views are too expensive to make it sustainable economically and viable due to its small local population and low household income. Waiheke Island has one of the most expensive real estate in Auckland. A 50 hectare land parcel on 88 Onetangi Road was for sale for $6 million. The steep topography and restrictions such as the Trig Station on the site makes it unsuitable. Another 40 hectare waterfront land parcel was for sale at $30 million.

5.2 Remuera 18 hole Golf Course

Set in idealic settings with many water features, adjacent to the Waiatarua Reserve, this golf course has 1400 members, each paying a joining fee of $5000 and $2500 per year for unlimited rounds of golf here. The total income for year ending 2011 from membership subscriptions, bar and catering totals $2.8 million. The club pays Auckland Council $100,000 for an exclusive lease on the property.

In 2011, more than $800,000 was spent on course repairs and maintenance. This is reflected in the pristine condition of the greens, fairways and golf club facilities. There is always room for improvement, as golfing equipment technology advances with greater hitting distances. As membership numbers grow from surrounding residential areas of Remuera, St. Johns and Meadowbank, there could possibly be a 27 hole course with 3 starting positions. This could come from leasing more land from Waiatarua Reserve.

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10 5.3 Waitakere 18 hole Golf Course

5.4 Peninsula 18 hole Golf Course

This golf course is located in an area well endowed with visitor attractions, including beaches, parks (regional and local parks, Department of Conservation land and the Forest and Bird Matuku Reserve to which the public have access), tracks and trails, many with magnificent views and horse riding. (Fig. 2). The Waitakere Ranges Regional Park has been formed over 110 years through gifts and grants. Over time, parts of it have been classified as reserve, park, and water catchment area. The club has about 600 members, each paying a yearly subscription of $700 to play here. The course is surrounded by the native bush of the regional parkland, is located near the head of the valley off Falls Road. Covering a total area of 35 hectares which includes all areas covering the golf links, clubrooms and club depot, it excludes the surrounding native bush, the park house, park depot and the public picnicking area at the end of the Falls Road. There is potential for the boundaries of the golf course to incorporate part of the Waitakere Ranges, making it a public park for recreational activities based on golf, picnicking, walking and tramping tracks. This may mean increasing the total area to 70 hectares. Lot 3 DP 193044 25.2120Ha

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A M E D RO A D

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Pt Lot 2 DP 10692 3.9128Ha

R DP 40739 Lot 6 OA D 3m2 DP 40739 Pt Lot 32 Lot 9 Lot 16 948m2 DP 40739 Lot 1 DP 40739 DP 40739 1.0652~HaDP 40739 1062m2 835m2 1004m2 Lot 1 Lot 15 DP 43426 DP 40739 9135m2 1017m2

Lot 1 DP 43157 19.4502Ha

Lot 1 DP 40874 6225m2

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N IT Y RO AD Lot 3 DP 40874 4889m2 U

Lot 28 Pt Lot 32 DP 40739 DP 40739 999m2 986~m2 Pt Lot 25

Lot 4 Lot 9 DP 40874DP 40874 1098m2 1404m2

Located to the east of the Hibiscus Coast Highway at Red Beach, this 45 hectare golf course (Fig. 3) is surrounded by private, well establised residential properties, typically on 800 m2 sections.

On the northern, south-western and southern boundaries of this golf course and the opposite side of Hibiscus Coast Highway, the neighbouring properties are zoned Medium Intensity in the Auckland Council District Plan 2011 which enables subdivision to a site of 600 m2. On the eastern boundary lies some High Intensity residential properties of 275m2 households.

There are a variety of mature and established native and exotic trees scattered throughout the course between the grassed fairways. There are also two large ponds in the middle of the site and a stream flows north east from the ponds converging with another stream in the north east part of the site. A single stream flows out of this golf course to the north east, entering the Hauraki Gulf about 1 km away. Housing pressure to accommodate population growth in this area means it is economically more viable to use this land for housing development and relocating the golf course to the east coast for a better and more scenic golf course.

5.5 Waitemata 18 hole Golf Course A well established golf club with 900 members each paying $1000 per year for full membership. The club generates a revenue of nearly $800,000 from green fees, bar trading and donations. It spends a modest amount of $330,000 on course maintenance and $8000 on drainage expenditure for year ending 29 Feb 2012.

At the last general meeting held on 11 October 2011, a motion was passed to improve drainage at the Waitemata golf course, especially on holes 3,8 and 9. Funds from their Emergency Reserves will be channelled into the Drainage Project account set up for this purpose. Phase 1 will cost $60,000 with the same amounts for Phase 2 and Phase 3. This funding will come from an additional levy and subscriptions on members. This golf course requires two interventions from a landscape architecture point of view. Its current topography shows unsustainable elevations where a mechanical pump has to maintain water levels at -2.5m to keep the course dry at high tide every day. Course conditions deteriorate when the ground becomes wet and soggy. (Fig.4) The remedy is in filling as seen in the picture below which means more unplayable areas marked GUR (ground under repair).

The current members are on average in their 60s and live locally. The surrounding residential area is of high socio economic and high household income demographics which makes it sustainable to retain this sports venue for recreation.

Pt Allotment 9 PSH OF Waitakere 10.0370~Ha

Pt Allotment 88 PSH OF Waitakere 34.4801~Ha Pt Allotment 9 PSH OF Waitakere 35.2460~Ha

FA

LL

Allotment 86 PSH OF Waitakere 51.7997Ha

S RO

AD

Allotment W85 PSH OF Waitakere 31.7112~Ha

Legend Regional Park Boundary Waitakere Golf Club Road

0

45

90

180

270

Meters 360

DISCLAIMER: Aerial Imagery and Topo Information is sourced from Land Information New Zealand data. Crown Copyright Reserved. Accuracy +-12m Parcel and Address Information (CORAX) supplied by Ollivier & Co.

Fig.2: Map of Waitakere golf course in Waitakere Ranges which Waitakere Park Parkland is a National Heritage and Reserve Waitakere Golf Course Map Produced By GIS Unit, Information Services, Corporate Services Auckland Regional Council February 2008

Fig.3: Locality Plan showing Peninsula Golf Course site within residential areas of Silverdale and Orewa.

Fig.4: Constant in filling of topsoil and sand is required during the wet winter months and the ground level is actually below sea level at high tide.


6. Waitemata Golf Course

The Waitemata Golf Course has been chosen as the subject of this research project because it presents two challenges to the landscape architect. Its contours can be manipulated to increase its present and future sustainability and ecological values. The golf course can be modified to present the golfer with a more challenging and scenic experience.

6.1 History

Waitemata Golf Club is second oldest golf club in Auckland. It was formed at a meeting in 1905, and the course was paddocks lying between Albert Road and the Takapuna Jockey Club’s racecourse. The Club prospered and in 1907 engaged its first professional. In 1910 the Waitemata Ladies Golf Club was formed. In 1909 a lease was negotiated for the old Devonport Cemetery Reserve on the southern side of Old Lake Road, but this new course did not prove satisfactory, and in 1917 the Club decided to move to a new course to be constructed at the racecourse. The new course, opened in 1919, was only 9 holes. In 1934, when the Takapuna Jockey Club disbanded, the Golf Club leased the area. drainage was a problem until the early 1960s, when the present course was constructed. (North Shore Times Advertiser, 07 August 1979; p. 30) The land for this golf course was reclaimed mangrove swampland between Ngataringa Bay and Narrowneck The course is also known as Alison Park. (The Hundred of Devonport: A Centenial History. Ed. S. Musgrove )

The first full season of the Waitemata Golf Club, on Alison Park took place in 1906, with annual subs of one guinea for men, and ten shillings and sixpence for women. Players were to use caddies and pay them sixpence for the afternoon and one penny for each ball found. The original 9 holes course was within the perimeter of a horseracing track. Motorbike racing, horse racing greyhound and professional foot racing shared Alison Park until 1934.

Fig.5: Historical photos of the Takapuna Jockey Club and the circular racetrack (Source: http://www.channelmag. co.nz/in-the-channel-mainmenu-10/webpage-587/north-shore-history-with-david-verran)

The course has struggled with water inundation problems for a long time. An attempt to flush algal bloom from a Devonport duck pond went wrong about 20 years ago, leaving shocked golfers to watch the fairways of the neighbouring course disappear under salt water. (North Shore Times Advertiser, 26 October 1993; p. 1) 11


12 6.2 Timeline The evolution of this site has been an interesting one. Going back to its original 9 holes golf course in the proposed design to make it more resilient to climate change and sustainable makes sense.

1881: Takapuna Jockey Club, founded Charles al History Online — North Shore Library Collections — by All the winners. Dacre

1905: Waitemata Golf Club founded. Women were included 5 years later. 5/10/12 9:29 PM

1934: Takapuna Racecourse wound up. Golf course took over from the racecourse at the site.

me — North Shore Collections

itle reator ate of Image

mage ID

5m

-2.5m

2m

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The Takapuna Racecourse was created from reclaimed mangrove swampland Ngataringa Bay and Narrowneck (Devonport peninsula), and All between the winners. became a golf in 1934 after the Takapuna Jockey Club was wound Photographercourse unknown. up.1928 Source: “The Hundred of Devonport: A Centenial History” Ed. S. Musgrove (Auckland: Devonport Borough Council, 1986)

Scale @A3 1:50000

D_GPA_0006_0_1

escription of Image

Card-mounted original photogaph showing racehorses coming into the straight on the Takapuna Jockey Club's racecourse. Close-up of nine horses and jockeys. Crowd hazy in background. Photograph dated 1928-29.

ubjects

Alison Park (Devonport) Takapuna Jockey Club Takapuna Racecourse

istorical Notes

The Takapuna Racecourse was created from reclaimed mangrove swampland between Ngataringa Bay and Narrowneck (Devonport peninsula), and became a golf course in 1934 after the Takapuna Jockey Club was wound up. The grounds were leased by the Waitemata Golf Club (founded 1905), which

This map/plan is illustrative only and all information should be independently verified on site before taking any action.Copyright Auckland Council. Boundary information from LINZ (Crown Copyright Reserved). Whilst due care has been taken, Auckland Council gives no warranty as to the accuracy and completeness of any information on this map/plan and accepts no liability for any error, omission or use of the information. Height datum: Auckland 1946.

Click on image to enlarge Created: Friday, 5 October 2012,4:52:10 p.m.

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Map Title

Scale @ A3 1:50000

This map/plan is illustrative only and all information should be independently verified on site before taking any action.Copyright Auckland Council. Boundary information from LINZ (Crown Copyright Reserved). Whilst due care has been taken, Auckland Council gives no warranty as to the accuracy and completeness of any information on this map/plan and accepts no liability for any error, omission or use of the information. Height datum: Auckland 1946.


In 2011, king tides and heavy rainfall contributed to flooding in including the Waitemata Golf course and the sports ground at Stanley Bay. (Devonport Flagstaff, 28 January, 2011; p. 10-11)

1959: Auckland Harbour Bridge built. Population of North Shore back in the 1950s was only 50,000.

The failure of two pump stations caused raw sewage to flow on to the Waitemata Golf Course which shows how vulnerable the site is if left dependent on these pump stations. (North Shore Times Advertiser, 30 November 1999; p. 1)

2012: Population of North Shore has increased to 220,000. More growth predicted for the next 20 years.

2100: 1m Sea Level Rise predicted as oceans warm and glaciers melt

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MHWS=3.3m

MLWS=0.4m Seabreeze Wastewater Pump Station pumps between 2,000 m3 (after a period of dry weather) and 9,000 m3 (heavy rain event) daily. The variation is due to groundwater and storrmwater inflow and infiltration in the wastewater system. The pressure of increasing population to this area will impact on this pump station.

The Seabreeze Stormwater Pump Station is adjacent to the stormwater pond at an elevation of 1.1m above chart datum. It consists of 3 pumps which all work simultaneously to maintain the level of the body of drain water around the golf course at -2.5m (chart datum) which equates to above ground contour level of -1m. The levels used by Alggi are based on heights above mean tide. As the Mean High Water Spring level here is 3.3m and Mean Low Water Spring level is 0.4m, the mean tide is 1.5m.

Wastewater Pump Station Stormwater Pump Station

This map/plan is illustrative only and all information should be independently verified on site before taking any action.Copyright Auckland Council. Boundary information from LINZ (Crown Copyright Reserved). Whilst due care has been taken, Auckland Council gives no warranty as to the accuracy and completeness of any information on this map/plan and accepts no liability for any error, omission or use of the information. Height datum: Auckland 1946.

Created: Friday, 5 October 2012,5:02:12 p.m.

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Map Title

Scale @ A3 1:500


7. Investigation of Chosen Site Legend

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Stormwater Drain 20110810 Overland_Flow_Path clip_kerblines DevonportContours Flood_Plain clip_impervious clip_buildings nzcoast_nztm

Mangrove swamp on Ngataringa Bay

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Fig.6: Stormwater drains around the site collects and pools here before being pumped out of the site into the mangrove swamps of Ngataringa Bay.

GIS map of overflow path pattern and stormwater drains The entire area of the golf course and Woodall Park is already under water at high tide if not mitigated by surrounding raised landforms, stormwater pump station and surrounding deep stormwater drains which traps all the runoffs from the roads and houses. The overflow path pattern on these GIS maps show a serious threat to the marine ecology of the Hauraki Gulf. As the population of Northshore increase and more housing is needed, this will add to the threat of losing this valuable historical landscape to sea level rises.

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Overland_Flow_Path clip_kerblines DevonportContours Flood_Plain clip_impervious clip_buildings nzcoast_nztm

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Fig.7: GIS map of site which shows significant hydrological problems for the golf course. Overflow flood patterns lead into the site due to its low elevation.

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Fig.8:窶イhart datum map for Auckland

Tides and Chart Datum Channel for ferry to Devonport Ferry Terminal and Auckland CBD has to be maintained at a reasonable depth for the bigger ships to come in and out of the ports. It is threatened by enroaching sedimentation and a growing mangrove colony on Ngataringa Bay from nutrient rich stormwater outflows pumped out from the the drains around the Waitemata Golf Course. Eutrophication of this body of water will threaten the species diversity of this marine ecology. A 3m tidal difference brings the shoreline out by 2km from the stormwater outlet drain under Lake Road.


Fig.9:窶ウlevation map which shows the site in blue as the same as sea level.

The site is surrounded by built up urban middle density housing on the eastern side and an arterial road (Lake Road) linking the Devonport Ferry commuters to the North Shore suburbs. On the western side of Lake Road is the mangrove swamp of Ngataringa Bay and on the eastern side is Waitemata Golf Course. As seen on the Legend on this map, the entire site sits below sea level at high spring tide.

The stormwater drainage system surrounding the site plays a critical role in flood prevention and inundation. A pump located on the entrance into this stormwater drain from Ngataringa Bay inlet plays a critical role in maintaining water levels in these stormwater drains. Fig.10:窶ィuilding footprint around the site where stormwater run-offs originate from.

Legend

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High : 82.25 Low : -9

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8. Tides

The moon revolves around the earth in a 28 day cycle during which various spatial relationships between the sun, moon and earth occur. This causes variations in the tides. When the all three are aligned, there is a maximum tidal range called spring tide. The average of all the maximum spring tides gives the value for Mean High Water Spring which is 3.3m for this site in Devonport. The average for minimum spring tides gives us the Mean Low Water Spring value which is 0.4m here.

During first quarter and third quarter conditions, when half the moon is bright, the sun and moon are at right angles to the earth. Working in opposition to each other , they produce a minimal tidal range called neap tide. The Mean High Water Neap value here is 2.8m and Mean Low Water Neap value is 1m. For most people that live on a marine coast, tidal fluctuations do not have a significant impact on their recreation, transportation or their work. This is not the case for Waitemata Golf Course. It relies on the Stormwater Pump Station to keep water levels in the stormwater pond at -2.5m which prevents the site from flooding.

8.1 Tidal Currents

The movement of masses of water from one location to another and back again, such as occurs during the flooding and ebbing of the tides, causes currents. In some places, these currents may be very strong, with the power to erode sediment and transport it long distances. At the Waitemata Golf Course, the mangrove swampland on Ngataringa Bay and the small changes in elevations over a relatively large distance, mean that it is quite slow and will have no noticeable effect on the bottom. cc

Fig.11:窶サhe tidal record for any given location is much like the fingerprints of a person - no two are the same. Each coastal location has its own unique coastal configuration, bottom topography and geographic position.


9. Marine Ecology

The marine environment adjacent to the Waitemata golf course supports a very abundant and diverse suite of organisms. This means an appropriate chemical environment, proper nutrients, a food supply and the right physical conditions dictate the proper environment for their existence.

9.1 Biogeochemical Cycles in the Water

Although phosphorus and nitrogen are not among the most abundant elements in the sea, they are one of the most important because of their role in the organic cycle. They are essential nutrient elements for living organisms. These two elements are present in various states and they show great variation in concentration. This variety is due to uptake by living organisms and release by decaying tissue. It is also due to circulation within the sea.

The sea has an organic cycle that is quite similar to that of any environment, aquatic or terrestrial. It involves carbon, the basic constituent of all living compounds. Nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon combine during photosynthesis to produce plant tissue, which serves as food for animals. Both plants and animals produce organic matter through expiration. This material decays to produce the raw materials necessary to start the cycle all over again.

9.2 Biozones

Each group of organisms occupies a part of the marine environment where it can find food, shelter and reproduce. This is its habitat.

In broad terms, there are two marine environments: the pelagic, which is the water environment, and the benthic, which is the bottom environment. Within each of these is a variety of environments.

9.3 Pelagic Environment

All organisms that live in the sea but not on the sea floor are termed pelagic. This extends from the shoreline to the greatest depths of the ocean. It is subdivided by depth into the neritic province which is the water environment over the continental shelf and the oceanic province.

There are important reasons for separating the waters over the shelf from those over the rest of the ocean basins. A fairly distinct community of organisms occupies the neritic province, largely because of the high nutrient levels. The chemistry of the water over this shelf is also different, primarily because of the great variety of dissolved materials carried into the marine environment by run-off from the surrounding land. Because this runoff varies over time, the neritic waters experience considerable variation in the abundance and distribution of dissolved ions.

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10. Golf Course Pond

Ponds and lakes function in diverse roles on a golf course, such as (a)in the playing strategy of a golf hole, (b) aesthetic beauty, (c) wildlife habitat, (d) the primary water source for irrigation, (e) a reservoir for water being pumped from a municipal supply in situations where the water delivery rate does not meet the water demand rate of the irrigation system, (f) an outlet for surface and subsurface drainage water, (g) a water retention facility for flood control and pollution abatement.

10.1 Littoral Zone

The intertidal zone is commonly referred to as the littoral zone. It extends between the high tide and low tide mark. The sublittoral zone covers the continental shelf. It is an environment of abundant and diverse organisms because of light penetration and the availability of nutrients. 10.2 Littoral Shelf Golf courses with ponds should have a littoral shelf around the pond edge. It involves a shallow water shoreline of 300mm to 600mm depth with a base slope of 3 to 1 or flatter. This feature functions as a safety ledge, an additional biological filter and a habitat for aquatic life such as birds, amphibians, small fish and insects. The drop off beyond the littoral shelf to the pond floor should be a relatively steep slope of 6 to 1 so the growth of water weeds is minimised. The remainder of the pond floor may have a slope of 4 to 1 or flatter. (Beard,2002) The incorporation of littoral shelves are crucial in pond management beyond just serving as a safety ledge. It entails the establishment of a vegetative buffer on the shoreline which serves as a filtration, curbing surface runoff of sediment and nutrients into the surrounding body of water.

The littoral shelf prevents erosion of an exposed bank subject to tidal fluctuations and if a rain occurs when the water level is down and raindrops directly dislodge the bare soil.

10.3 Shoreline

The edge of the shore may be a retaining wall of wood or may consist of coarse gravel, crushed stone, gabion diking, or large rocks. This allows the turfed area to extend to the shoreline and facilitates maintenance and trimming of the grassed edge.

The shoreline should be constructed to serve as a natural buffer zone to trap and degrade organic materials, silt and chemicals that might otherwise enter the pond and adversely affect water quality. An unmowed grass buffer strip is one of the best vegetations for the entrapment of lateral surface water and acts as a natural filter that protects the water quality of the pond. Stone or riprapping and certain plant species such as carex, baumea and oioi will be needed where there is substantial fluctuarions in the water level.

10.4 Erosion and Sediment Control

Water velocity and volume creates eroson damage. The goal of an erosion and sediment control plan in the design is to release storm water at a controlled rate to reduce damage. A controlled rate means keeping storm water slowed down and spread out over as large an area as possible. There are 3 types of erosion by water to consider in this project.

1. Splash erosion which occurs as raindrops break the bonds between soil particles, makling particles more vulnerable to movement by the flow of water. 2. Sheet erosion which begins when surface water carries along particles which were detached by raindrops

3. Rill erosion which happens as surface water quickly establishes its own path, accumulative and involves rapid water movement, soil dislodging and being carried away at an accelerated rate. (White, 2000)

10.5 Healthy Ponds

The goal is to prevent as much nutrient as possible from getting into the water. This can be achieved by a no mowing, no fertizer 10 metres zone around the water’s edge. The use of slow release fertilizer as well as letting the turf grass grow longer in the turf-grass-pond interface zone will help minimise chemical runoffs entering the water. A slight geological relief such as a swale or berm helps prevent organic nutrients and fertilizers from running directly into the water. (Otterbine Barebo, Inc, 2012)


11. Fountain Pump System

A fountain is not only an aesthetic feature on a golf course. It serves a more important function in the mechanical circulation and aeration of the water to control algae growth.

Much less phosphorus is released from bottom sediment when the water overlying the bottom is oxygenated. Bottom water can become anoxic due to biological demand, thus causing a release of phosphorus into the water column above. When bottom water mixes with the upper water, in the presence of sunlight, algae blooms and grows.

Aeration can control sediment release of phosphorus. A fountain pump draws cooler water from the lower pond depths and pressurizes it so that it can be sprayed into the air, where it is oxygenated and in turn falls to the water surface where a mixing action results.

Aeration will reduce odours in the pond especially one which is eutrophic. The Waitemata stormwater pond collects all runoffs from fertilized turf grass from the golf course and the surrounding houses.

11.1 Algae Management

Algae is vital to all ponds and lakes. It is one of the food sources for fish and other pond organisms. Too much algae causes problems such as clogged filters, odours, oxygen depletion, toxins and unsightly scum.

The general cause of algal blooms is excess nutrient levels in the presence of other favourable environmental conditions.

Fig.12: A fountain adds to the golfer’s enjoyment and total experience of the course. Its other benefits are not as visual but just as important. Source: www.thebendguide.com

Algae populations are affected by (a) water circulation, (b) aeration, (c) water depth, and (d) periodic drainage and water replacement if the pond is used as a storage reservoir for irrigation or in the case of Waitemata Golf Course, ebb tide low water levels.

Algae problems can be severe during warm summer months when water temperatures rise. Algae control is best achieved by looking at the nutrient input, especially phosphorus. Phosphorus is removed from the water column using alum (Aluminium hydroxide) to flocculate the phosphorus, which then settles to the pond bottom. Dilution and flushing also decreases algal bloom, which is a natural phenomena here as the tide comes in and out twice a day but the downside of this is that nutrient levels increase downstream in Ngataringa Bay and The Hauraki Gulf.

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12. Site Analysis

Sections from the existing topography show the watershed and hydrology of the site.

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Fig.13: Section AA where existing stormwater pond and pump station is.


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Sections A to G show the direction of water flow into the site

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Fig.14: Section DD shows northern end of course where elevation is lower.

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Fig.15: Section HH showing higher elevation on the southern end of the site where the existing club house is located


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Sections A to G show the direction of water flow into the site

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Fig.16: Section EE Narrowneck beach on the north eastern end of the site

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Fig.17: Section BB where the stormwater drains next to Wairoa Road is located


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Sections A to G show the direction of water flow into the site

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Fig.18: Section FF across Seabreeze Rd and main drainage pipes from golf course substrate water drains into stormwater drain.

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Sections A to G show the direction of water flow into the site

Fig.19: Section GG where Lake Road intersects golf course and Ngataringa Park

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13. Water Level Fluctuations

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The terrestrial contours relate to heights above mean tide levels which is the average between high and low tide (Fig.21). For example, the mean spring tide level is 3.3m (MHWS) + 0.4m (MLWS) = 3.7m / 2 = 1.85m and the mean neap tide level is 2.8m (MHWN) + 1m (MLWN) = 3.8m / 2 = 1.9m. This means that a contour line of 0m on land is actually 1.85m - 1.9m above Datum.

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A B on this site, it To fully understand the effects of high tide and low tide levels involves bringing together two different sets of data with different datums and relating them to each other in a way which makes sense.

The depth of the ocean has levels measured relative to the lowest astrological tide and mean lower low water(MLLW). A chart datum is the level of water that charted depths displayed on a nautical chart are measured from. The US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration uses MLLW which is the lowest tide recorded at a tide station each day during the recording period. It is only a mean, so some tidal levels may be negative relative to MLLW. The same applies to Mean High Water Spring (MHWS), Mean High Water Neap (MHWN), C C Mean Low Water Spring (MLWS) and Mean Low Water Neap (MLWN). They are only mean values which is why high spring tides can vary between 3m to 3.6m (mean = 3.3m) at the site. Charted depths and drying heights on a nautical chart are given relative to chart datum.(Fig.20 to Fig.25) D

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Fig.20: Section HH shows elevations above high spring water levels F

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Presently, the Seabreeze Pump Station maintains the pond level at - 2.5m relative to the 0m terrestrial contour. If the pump was not used at all, the level in the pond would be around 1m above the 0m contour line and the entire golf course would be under water with some parts up to 2m under water during spring high tides.(Fig.20 to Fig.25) E

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If the 3 pumps in the Seabreeze Pump Station were programmed to maintain the level at -1m, this would decrease its workload by half, making it more sustainable and the ability to accommodate rises in sea levels. Mean High Water Spring 3.3m above Datum

1.5m 0.8m

Mean High Water Neap 2.8m above Datum 0 m contour which is 1.85m above Datum (being elevation above mean tides. Spring: 3.3 + 0.4 = 3.7, Neap: 2.8 + 1 = 3.8) Mean Low Water Neap 1m above Datum Mean Low Water Spring 0.4m above Datum

Fig.21: Relative datum for nautical and terrestrial charts

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Fig.22: Section AA where existing stormwater pond and pump station will be affected by high tide levels if pump does not work.

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Fig.23: Section BB high tide levels not affecting the golf course on this southern end.


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Fig.24: Section DD where high tide levels will affect the existing golf course

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Fig.25: Section FF showing elevated landform separating Woodall Park from Narrowneck beach.

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Fig.26: Section FF has low elevations and will be affected by high tide water levels

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Fig.27: Section GG where golf course will be affected by high tide water levels


14. Case Study 1: Old Collier Golf Club, Florida, USA.

Environmental pressures in the fast growing South Florida region, including demands for dwindling freshwater resources and declines in sensitive native habitats, led developers at Collier Enterprises down an unconventional path when they set out to create a world class golf course that would complement nature. With water conservation as a primary aim, they identified a salt-tolerant grass, seashore paspalum to use on its entire course including greens, tees, fairways and roughs.

It is also the first golf course in the world to irrigate with brackish water, using a state of the art computerized system and native plants that further reduce the need for watering.

They also have an Integrated Pest Management program which reduces reliance on pesticides and fertilizers, resulting in substantial cost savings and better water quality.

Their commitment even extended to bridge surfaces, benches and trash cans which are constructed from 100% post-consumer recycled materials. Today, more than 100 species of birds including the bald eagle, great horned owl and gopher tortoises share this course with the club’s golf members. Fig.28: Photo of Old collier Golf Club and ponds

Healthy wetlands not only serve important hydrologic functions, they also provide the ingredients essential for sustaining a diversity of wildlife. These ingredients are food, water, shelter and mating spaces. The ability to provide them depend on : 1. Size - the bigger the wetland, the better it is at sustaining a wide variety of species

2. Diversity - structural diversity increases wildlife diversity. Include a progression of submerged, emergent and shoreline plants, as well as rocks and tree snags where animals can rest or hide. Plant diversity increase sources of food and cover throughout the year. 3. Buffers - Shoreline plantings filter pollution and provide wildlife spaces,while enhancing the beauty of the golf course’s waterscapes. Mowing and spraying avoided in buffer zones, and off limits as “Out of Bounds” areas for golfers.

4. Corridors - connecting habitat patches can mean the difference between survival and extinction for some species. Protected natural habitat corridors from cart paths and roads. 33


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15. Case Study 2: World Ice 9 hole Golf Course, Greenland Set in one of the world’s most spectacular landscapes 600 km. north of the Arctic Circle golfers from across the world travel to a hard and extreme tournament for the coveted title of The World Ice Golf Championship in Greenland. It is a 9 hole golf course but the tournament involves playing it 4 times or 36 holes.. Changing conditions depending on the time of day, sunshine, wind and snow conditions mean different course conditions each time.

Freezing glaciers and huge icebergs frame the course and continue to move slowly all year round - even in March the “green” is cut literally days before the event.

Playing golf on a frozen seascape is not the only task at hand. Coping with extreme temperatures, which can fall to minus 50º C with the wind-chill factor, challenges players both physically and mentally. The ‘green’ is white, the ball is fluorescent orange and there is the unlikely risk of losing a ball to a polar bear. The real architect of the course every year is the ocean, which interacts with the weather and the formation of icebergs in January and February to create an external framework for the course.

The course itself is laid out in March on the fjord ice, close to the town a week prior to the actual championship. Its shape is determined largely by the positions of icebergs in the fjord.

The couse is a nine holes par 35 or 36 and consist ideally of 5 par 4’s, 2 par 3’s and 2 par 5’s. The distance is about 5-7% shorter than a normal average golf course (5.400 – 5.800 metre for 18 holes). The foundation is variable and can be very different from hole to hole. On one side of an iceberg there can be a lot more snow than on the other, and the ice is very different to that on an ice rink. Over the very hard ice surface lies a layer of 1-2 cm of frozen “powder”, which makes the surface itself rough and uneven. The “green” is white and the ball is red, but apart from that ice golf is very similar to traditional golf, although it is necessary to adjust the course itself and the rules of the game to suit the unusual conditions that prevail on the ice. Records cannot be beaten hole-by-hole, day-by-day or even event-by-event as the course is constantly altering as movements in the pack-ice allow new jutting outcrops of ice to emerge into the course.

Fig.29: Photos and plan of World Ice 9 hole golf course.


16. Design Concepts

The findings from sections which show the direction of water flow as well as GIS mapping of the overflow path patterns, green spaces, contextual geography of the site has led to the following draft design concepts. Each concept has its pros and cons and the aim is to evaluate these advantages and disadvantages to come up with the concept which best suits all the design criterias.

16.1 Concept A

Keep elevated part of Alison Park which is the southern end of the existing golf course, Allenby Reserve and Woodall Park. Surrounding roads and impervious surfaces drain into stormwater pond in between these green spaces. Pros: Ecological retention of current green spaces and trees

Cons: Stormwater drain runs around the perimeter of this round site. Difficulty in breaking the continuity of its current flow with this design concept.

Fig.30:窶イoncept A

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16.2 Concept B Redirect Lake Road to go around Allenby Avenue, Wairoa Rd and Seabreeze Rd before joining up again with the northern end of Lake Road. This opens up the site completely to join up with Ngataringa Park utilising the old portion of Lake Road into a walkway instead of a busy road. Pros: Ecological retention of current green spaces and trees

Cons: Disruption of peak hour traffic on Lake Road. Widening of Allenby, Wairoa and Seabreeze roads required to accommodate more traffic. Noise and traffic disturbance to houses along Seabreeze, Wairoa and Allenby Roads.

Fig.31:窶イoncept B


16.3 Concept C Retain elevated part of Alison Park, Allenby Reserve and Woodall Park. Keep existing stormwater drain around the site and excavate into the site to create a pond. Surrounding roads and impervious surfaces drain into stormwater pond in between these green spaces.

Pros: Ecological retention of current green spaces and trees. Retention of current stormwater drain and utilising its potential to be used as thoroughfare for kayaks and small boats as sea level rises in the future.

Cons: Loss of 9 holes to existing 18 hole golf course which is the same for all the other proposed concepts

Fig.32:窶イoncept C

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16.4 Concept D Keep the southern end of the existing golf course as the elevation is higher than the northern end. Convert Allenby Reserve on the south of the site and Woodall Park on the northern end of the site into a wetland or salt marsh. Redirect Lake Road to go around Allenby Avenue, Wairoa Rd and Seabreeze Rd before joining up again with the northern end of Lake Road. This opens up the site completely to join up with Ngataringa Park utilising the old portion of Lake Road into a walkway instead of a busy road. Pros: Ecological rejuvenation of saltmarsh plant and animal species in the area. A larger pond also means better connectivity with the sea. This concept has the highest possibility of cutting out the use of the Stormwater pump station completely. Cons: Cut and fill inbalance too great for economical and sustainable landscape architecture practice.

Fig.33:窶イoncept D


17. Design Criteria

Concept Plan 9 hole Waitemata Golf Course

After evaluation of all the pros and cons of Concepts A,B,C and D, choosing one to take the design process to the next step depends on the following criteria.

17.1 Cut and Fill Balance

Existing carpark

Existing Woodall Park

17.2 Green Network Connections

Wairoa Road

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New pond to replace 9 holes on golf course. This is the lower side of the landscape where most of it is below sea level. It also takes advantage of the existing stormwater drain which forms the perimeter of this pond.

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Sand bank which can be san bunkers depending on time and tide.

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2 1 Existing trees on the golf course to be retained as shown.

Existing club house

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a by Ro Allen

The nearest Winstone Aggregate dumping ground for any excess soil is in Mt Eden. Each truck can only take 10 m3 to 20 m3 of soil. For such a large site, it would require hundreds to trips to and from the site.

Existing Allenby Reserve

Fig.34: Concept plan based on Concept C which satisfy most of the design criteria and potential to satisfy all 6 criterias when final design is fully refined and developed.

The health and wellbeing of a community depends directly and indirectly on the number of green spaces. Retaining as many of the existing trees as possible and planting new natives such as kowhai to add colour, at the same time provide food for native birds will enhance its function as one of the green corridors in the surrounding landscape. Some exotic species which add texture, colour and interest amongst the natives will also enhance its picturesque and naturalistic features.

17.3 Interesting Golf Course

Can the existing golf course be renovated to become a more interesting and picturesque one? In addition to the natural features of this site, the golf course will incorporate design features such as teeing areas, green complexes, sand and grass bunkers and water features to define the strategy of each hole. This will produce the desired visual quality and also a good one from the point of view of playing golf. A golf course’s reputation is among its principal assets. Reputation is what attracts visitors and societies and is the very foundation stone of a club’s membership.

Strategy, aesthetics and conditioning when combined help create quality golf courses. For example, when a player states pleasure or a dislike for a particular course the reason usually falls into one of these 3 categories.

The aim of this design is to maximise its natural landscape features to develop a new golf course which chameleon nature, excite, intrigue and is strategically sound to give the golfer a memorable experience, one which they would like to repeat again.

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17.4 Dependence on Stormwater Pump Station There are currently 3 pumps which work simultaneously to maintain the water level at 2.5m below sea level. In spite of that, a king tide will flood the site and this will be even worse when sea levels continue to rise

Mangroves grow from the edge of Lake Road to Stanley Bay providing a buffer for runoffs into Ngataringa Bay.

Sections

Inlet on western side of Lake Road for incoming and ebb tide waters. A filtration grill under Lake Road prevents debris from being washed into the pond.

Pump House on the corner of Lake Road and Seabreeze Road maintains the level of water around the golf course in the stormwater drains by pumping water out.

Large stormwater pipes connected to the Pump House with filtration grills to prevent debris from clogging up pump and washing into Ngataringa Bay. This maintains a fairly constant level of water around the course.

17.5 Ecology Enhancement

Increasing biodiversity of the bird and plant species here would directly benefit the wider environment of Auckland.

17.6 Resilience

Adaptability to daily tidal changes of water levels and also its long term adaptability to sea level rises predicted is an important criteria for the new design.

New Existing

Section A-A Wairoa Road Reserve and its mature trees retained, with improved drainage into pond.

Wairoa Road’s stormwater run offs will drain into stormwater drain around and into the pond.

Existing stormwater drains around the course takes a heavy load from surrounding elevated built up urban areas. Retaining the eastern end next to Wairoa Road and excavating the western end to a depth of 4m will ease the load on the pump and allow a 3.5m fluctuation of Mean High Water Spring Tide and Mean Low Water Spring Tide levels around the course.

New Existing

Section B-B Ngataringa Park is elevated enough to be resilient to sea level rise.

Existing Lake Road will stay the same but will need to be elevated to accommodate predicted sea level rise in the next 50 years by 1m.

Existing stormwater drains will link to main stormwater system of new pond.

Existing golf course Hole 13 will be renovated for Hole 9 of new golf course, retaining all existing trees here.

New Existing

Section G-G 0

50m


Fig.35: Sections and water levels of new pond

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18. Proposed New Design Layout

New contours

There is a balanced cut and fill of earth where cuts from the northern end of the existing site to make the pond is utilised to fill the southern end of the course, elevating it by an average of 1m above its current level. This will give it better resilience against king tides and sea level rises.

Fig.36:窶ィoth plans of existing and new contour lines are to Scales @ A1 1:2500

0.5m

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N Scale 1:2500 @A1

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There shal course and shall be gr others very and hollow and about shall still w hour of de where the ardous cha shots shall played low a long way will be nec to belittle P


N E W

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C T

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I O

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A Sand Pond Green Interface

2100 prediction 1m sea level rise mark (MHWS)High tide mark (MLWS)Low tide mark

Sand stays dry protected from capillary action from wet marine clay. Geotech fabric separates sand from coarse metal. Permeable to water and air only. Coarse metal sandwiched between two layers of geotech fabric Geotech fabric separates coarse metal from marine clay Marine clay which is below low tide mark stays wet all the time.

2.5 m 1.5 m -1.5 m

AA BB

Scale @A1 1:1000 (horizontal only, vertical exaggerated to give clarity of heights)

18 m

B

10 m Section B-B

Scale @A1 1:50

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19. Sand Green Water Interface

The sand bunkers separates the greens from the water. If sand sits directly on top of marine clay, capillary action of water from the wet clay will make the sand wet. Separating the layers of clay soil, coarse metal and sand with a geotechnical fabric which is permeable to water and air only keeps the sand dry from a rising water table at high tide.

19.1 Capillary Action

Capillary action in a soil results in the “capillary fringe� immediately above the groundwater table. The height of the capillary rise depends on the type of soil as the pore openings in a soil vary with the grain size. A fine grained soil develops a higher capillary fringe area than a coarse-grained soil. This is because the fine grained soil can act as many very small glass tubes, each having a greatly confined meniscus. At the Waitemata golf course, the marine clay soil has one of the highest capillary water rises. On the other hand, capillary rise can be as low as zero in coarse sands and gravels.

Separating the clay with coarse gravel which has almost zero capillary rise, protects the sand from getting wet.

19.2 Geotechnical Fabric

Geotextiles are non-biodegradable, permeable fabrics which, when used in association with soil, have the ability to separate, filter, reinforce, protect, or drain. Typically made from polypropylene or polyester, geotextile fabrics come in three basic forms: woven (looks like mail bag sacking), needle punched (looks like felt), or heat bonded (looks like ironed felt). It is the non-woven, heat bonded one which looks like felt which is utilised for this golf course. It is permeable to water and air but keeps the fine particles of sand from sinking down through the coarse gravel layer. It also stops the clay and sediment from below to come up through the gravel into the top sand layer.

Rainfall on the sand will soak through the geotech fabric and drain below. The high tide mark is below the second layer of geotech fabric which leaves the sand above dry.

Fig.37: Examples of Geotechnical fabrics and layering them to prevent capillary action transferring water from wet clay to sand above. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Geotextile-GSI. JPG#filehistory


N E

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W S

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C

E

Fountain for oxygenation of pond water

C T I O N 866 m

C

C

Section C-C

C

Besides its aesthetics and visual appeal, mechanical circulation and aeration of the water controls algae. Cooler water is drawn from the lower pond depths and pressurized so it can be sprayed into the air, where it is oxygenated and in turn falls to the water surface where a mixing action results. Aeration reduce odours in ponds that are eutrophic by reducing algae population. Much less phosphorus is released from bottom sediment when the water overlying the bottom is oxygenated. Bottom water can become anoxic due to biological demand, thus causing a release of phosphorus into the water column above. When bottom water mixes with the upper water, in the presence of sunlight, algae blooms and grows.

Scale @A1 1:1500 (horizontal only, vertical exaggerated for clarity of heights and depths)

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20. Course Layout and Size S The first golf rules were written in 1741. The very first rule of these first rules states: “1. The ball shall be teed no more than one club’s length from the hole�. Later the rules were revised to read two club lengths, then four, then ten. Finally someone somewhere began the profession of golf course architecture by simply separating the teeing ground completely from the area around the object hole. (Hurdzan,2004) The new course is relatively shorter than the old one but it has been strategically designed to reward good play, without necessarily penalising poor play. The controlling factors that define shot value are hazards such as water, sand, trees, rocks, vegetation, undulatin and length. Each form of hazard requires a different skill level for recovery and for some, like out of bounds, water and very dense vegetation, there is no chance of a recovery. Mild hazards such as short rough, gentle undulation add little to the difficulty of the recovery shot for even beginner golfers.

The defining feature of this new course is the sand bunker interface between the pond and the green. For any golfer, a sand bunker is a common source of hazard, but it can be large or small, deep or shallow, soft or firm, sloped or flat, gathering or rejecing and so on. Some parts of the bunker where it has high edges would be functionally worth one full shot penalty The stroke atings are based on the degree of difficulty of that hole relative to the easiest (Hole No 6, Stroke 9) and the hardest (Hole No 4, Stroke 1) hole on the course.

Each hole has been named after the surrounding streets, parks and reserves near Waitemata Golf Course to bring some relevance and context in its nomenclature to visitors, members and the local community.

U R F

234,000m2 including pond

A C E A R E A S

158,000m2 including sand bunkers Need 27,000m3 of sand

103,000m2 playing area Need 103,000m3 of earth to increase elevation by 1m


A3 11

A5 Hole 5 Waypoint

#DrgID #LayID

A2 10

128

1m 11

m A4

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Hole 2 Seabreeze

3m

26 A5 Hole 5 Waypoint

198m

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A4 Hole 2 Seabreeze

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Scale @ A1 1:1000 217m

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Vauxhaull

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Woodall

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Hauraki

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21. Perspective Images of New Golf Course


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E R S P E C T I V E


P E R S P E C T I V E 51


Projects

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22. Coastal Erosion and Flooding

In 2009, an extensive survey of all coastal golf courses in Ireland demonstrated a significant problem with erosion and that the most common method of addressing the problem has been the use of traditional hard engineering structures. Very few golf clubs used soft engineering techniques for addressing the problem such as modifying the layout of the links course, (Natura,2009)

Coastal Erosion and Flooding on Golf Links in Ireland Client: Failte Ireland Year: 2009 The objective of this survey was to assess the extent to which coastal erosion and flooding are issues for links golf courses in Ireland. Global warming is already resulting in acceleration of sea level rise and increased storm surges which have serious implications for the sand dunes on which links courses are located. .

For Waitemata Golf Course to survive the next 100 years, Lake Road on the western end and Old Lake Road on the eastern Narrowneck Beach end will have to be elevated by another 2m above its current level.

Coastal protection at North West Golf Club, Co. Donegal

Fig.38:窶クatura Consultants survey to assess the extent of coastal erosion and flooding issues for links golf courses in Ireland. This environmental impact assessment was conducted due to global warming accelerating sea level rises and increasing storm surges which have serious implications for the sand dunes on which links courses are located. (Source: www.naturaconsultants.com/coastal-erosion-andflooding-on-golf-links,2009)

Golf Links included in the survey

St. Annes Golf Club, North Bull Island, Dublin Bay

This survey has produced the first comprehensive information on coastal erosion and flooding problems on golf links in Ireland. It demonstrates clearly that there is a significant problem with erosion and that the most common method of addressing this has been the use of traditional hard engineering structures. Few golf clubs appear at present to be considering alternative, soft engineering techniques for addressing the problem. Managed realignment, by


23. In 100 years...

If sea levels continue to rise as predicted, the sand bunkers between the pond and greens at Waitemata Golf Course may look like this Kingsbarns Golf Links at St. Andrews in Scotland. This course has long been known for its “intimate connection with the sea, and the fact that its golf origins date to 1793 is testimony to the attributes of the site”. (Barr,2007)

Playing the course will certainly be different then. There will be no bail out from this rugged rocky shoreline. Your only hope will be a miraculous bounce back out of the rocks onto the green and when it does, it will be pretty dramatic. Just tell your playing partners that’s exactly how you planned it.

Fig.39: Kingsbarns Golf Links, Fife, Scotland. Hole No. 15, 212 yards, Par 3. Designer: Kyle Phillips (Source: 1001 Golf Holes You Must Play Before You Die, Barr,J. 2007, p.656-7)

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24. References

Auckland Council. (2005). Wetland management Areas. Retrieved 03 12, 2012, from Proposed Auckland Regional Plan: Air, Land and Water Plan Indicating Provisions Appealed June 2005, Schedule 1: www. aucklandcouncil.govt.nz Barr, J. (2007). 1001 Golf Holes you must play before you die. London, UK: New Burlington Books. Council, Auckland. (2011). Auckland Regional Policy Statement. Retrieved 03 10, 2012, from What is the Auckland Plan: www.aucklandcouncil.govt.nz Institute, N. Z. (2008). Environmental Law compliance for New Zealand Golf Clubs. Retrieved 03 10, 2012, from NZ Sports Turf Institute: New Zealand Golf: www.nzsti.govt.nz American Society of golf Course Architects. (2002). Master Planning for golf courses. Brookfield, Wisconsin, USA: ASGCA. American Society of Golf Course Architects. (2002). The Golf Course Remodeling Process. Brookfield, Wisconsin, USA: ASGCA. Beard, J. (2002). Turf Management for golf courses (2 ed.). Chelsea, MI, USA: Ann Arbor Press. Dye, A. (1997). Masters of the Links: Adding Tees to Existing golf courses. (G. Shackelford, Ed.) Berkshire, England, UK: Sleeping Bear Press. Hurdzan, M. (2004). Golf Greens: History, Design and Construction. Hoboken, New Jersey, USA: John Wiley & Sons. Love, B. (2008). An Environmental Approach to Golf Course Development. Brookfield, WI, USA: American Society of golf Course Architects. Natura Consultants. (2009). Erosion Control of Links Golf Courses in Ireland. Retrieved 05 10, 2012, from Natura Landscape Assessment: www.naturaconsultants.com MacKenzie, A. (1997). Masters of the Links: Water Holes Should Tempt, Not Torture. (G. Shackelford, Ed.) Berkshire, England, UK: Sleeping Bear Press. MacKenzie, A. (1995). The Spirit of St Andrews. Chelsea, MI, USA: Sleeping Bear Press. Otterbine Barebo, Inc. (2012). Pond and Lake Management: Water Quality Management for Ponds and Lakes. (O. Inc, Producer, & aeration@otterbine.com) Retrieved 08 02, 2012, from www.otterbine.com: http://www.otterbine.com/assets/base/resources/Pond and Lake Management Manual. pdf Sidorsky, R. (2005). Golf courses of the world 365 days. New York, USA: Harry N.Abrams, Inc., Publishers. Tillinghurst, A. (1997). Masters of the Links: Essays on the Art of golf and Course Design. (G. Shackelford, Ed.) Berkshire, England, UK: Sleeping Bear Press. White, C. (2000). Turf Managers’ Handbook for golf course construction, renovation and grow-in. New York, NY, USA: John Wiley & sons. USGA. (2006). Wildlife Links: Improving Golf’s Environmental Game. (K. Erusha, Ed.) Far Hills, New Jersey, USA: USGA Green Section. USGA. (2002). Building the USGA Green: Tips for Success. (J. Moore, Ed.) Far Hills, NJ, USA: USGA. FIGURES AND PHOTOS Fig.29 www.worldicechampship.com website Fig.5 www.aucklandcouncil/historical/rodneycouncil Fig.28 www.oldcolliergolfclub.com All other photos of Waitemata Golf course and surrounding areas taken by Denise Wong, April 2012


25. Acknowledgements

Zane Egginton, Unitec for his support, advise, critique, dedication and countless hours of help throughout the year. His invaluable expertise in Vue, ArchiCAD, Indesign, Illustrator, presentation, layout and oceanography helped me put this research project together.

David Smith, Remuera Golf Club for his help in all matters concerning golf course construction, management and reference books which were invaluable to the research and writing of this book. Bert Vercruyssen, Watercare Ltd for giving me the information on the Seabreeze Wastewater Pump Station needed for the analysis of this site. Mohammed Sahim Razak, Auckland Council for his help and information on the Seabreeze Stormwater Pump Station .

Frank Tian, Auckland Council for his help and information on the Seabreeze Stormwater Pump Station and historical information pertaining to flooding and hydrology of Waitemata Golf Course

Willy Coenradi, Wilcon Sylvan Parks and Reserve Management Ltd for providing geotechnical fabric used in sand bunker detail model, his help and advise in construction detail of sand bunker using layers of geotechnical fabric, coarse metal marine clay and sand. Ian Henderson, Unitec for his critique on the site and presentation layout.

Peter Connolly, Unitec for his critique on the game of golf and golf courses.

Peter Griffiths, Unitec for his critique on the impact of sea level rises on the site

Hamish Foote, Unitec for his many lectures and time dedicated to this Negotiated Studies paper.

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