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SUNRISE TELECOM® ®

STT 40G

STT-8100

User’s Manual SA919 MAN-22520-001 Rev. C00

www.sunrisetelecom.com


STT Scalable Network Test Solution

Warning Using the supplied equipment in a manner not specified by Sunrise Telecom may impair the protection provided by the equipment. Warning This is a Class 1 LASER product. Avoid looking directly at the Transmitter source. For added safety, turn off the laser when not in use. End of Life Recycling and Disposal Information DO NOT dispose of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) as unsorted municipal waste. For proper disposal return the product to Sunrise Telecom. Please contact our local offices or service centers for information on how to arrange the return and recycling of any of our products.

EC Directive on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) The Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive aims to minimize the impact of the disposal of electrical and electronic equipment on the environment. It encourages and sets criteria for the collection, treatment, recycling, recovery, and disposal of waste electrical and electronic equipment.

ď›™ 2009 Sunrise Telecom Incorporated. All rights reserved. Disclaimer: Contents subject to change without notice. II


STT 40G User’s Manual Table of Contents 1 Introduction................................................................................................................................ 1 1.1 Safety....................................................................................................................................... 1 1.2 Notes on Using This Manual..................................................................................................... 2 1.3 STT 40G Description ............................................................................................................... 3 1.4 Getting Started......................................................................................................................... 5 1.5 The Working Desktop............................................................................................................... 7 1.5.1 Status Bar.............................................................................................................................. 9 1.5.2 Action Bar............................................................................................................................ 13 1.5.3 Menu Bar............................................................................................................................. 14 2 Applications............................................................................................................................. 17 2.1 OTN Tests............................................................................................................................... 18 2.1.1 OTN Point-to-Point............................................................................................................... 18 2.1.2 OTN Mux/Demux Tests........................................................................................................ 20 2.1.3 OTN NE Verification............................................................................................................. 21 2.1.4 Test the FEC Behavior of a NE............................................................................................ 22 2.2 SDH/SONET Testing.............................................................................................................. 23 2.2.1 Point-to-Point Tests.............................................................................................................. 23 2.2.2 Through Mode Tests............................................................................................................ 25 2.2.3 Muxtesting OTN to/from SDH/SONET................................................................................ 26 2.2.4 APS Testing......................................................................................................................... 27 3 Configuration Tabs.................................................................................................................. 29 3.1 Configuration Overview.......................................................................................................... 29 3.1.1 Port Configuration Overview................................................................................................ 36 3.1.2 Signal Mapping Overview.................................................................................................... 40 3.2 OTN Signal Configuration....................................................................................................... 42 3.3 SDH/SONET Signal Configuration......................................................................................... 46 3.4 Unframed Signal Configuration.............................................................................................. 49 3.5 Test Pattern Selection............................................................................................................. 51 3.6 Save, Reload, and View Configurations................................................................................. 52 3.7 Measurement Parameters...................................................................................................... 53 3.8 Measurement Settings............................................................................................................ 56 3.9 System Setup......................................................................................................................... 58 3.10 Events Filter.......................................................................................................................... 60 4 Results Tabs . .......................................................................................................................... 61 4.1 Summary Results................................................................................................................... 62 4.2 Signal Results......................................................................................................................... 63 4.3 OTN Results........................................................................................................................... 64 4.4 TCM Results........................................................................................................................... 65 4.5 ODTU Results........................................................................................................................ 66 4.6 Service Disruption.................................................................................................................. 67 4.7 SDH/SONET Results.............................................................................................................. 68 4.8 G.821 (SDH)/BERT (SONET) Results................................................................................... 70 4.9 G.826 Results (SDH).............................................................................................................. 72 4.10 G.828 Results (SDH)............................................................................................................ 73 4.11 G.829 Results (SDH)............................................................................................................ 74


4.12 GR-253 Results (SONET).................................................................................................... 75 4.13 G.8201 Results (OTN).......................................................................................................... 77 4.14 M.2101 Results (SDH).......................................................................................................... 78 4.15 M.2110 Results (SDH) ........................................................................................................ 80 4.16 M.2401 Results (OTN).......................................................................................................... 82 4.16.1 M.2120 Results (OTN)....................................................................................................... 83 4.17 Results Histogram................................................................................................................ 84 4.18 View Test Records................................................................................................................ 89 4.19 SDH/SONET Propagation Delay.......................................................................................... 91 5 Overhead Monitor.................................................................................................................... 93 5.1 Overhead Transmit................................................................................................................. 93 5.1.1 OTN OH TX......................................................................................................................... 93 5.1.2 SDH/SONET OH TX............................................................................................................ 96 5.2 Overhead Receive................................................................................................................. 99 5.2.1 OTN RX............................................................................................................................... 99 5.2.2 SDH/SONET RX................................................................................................................ 101 5.3 SDH/SONET Overhead Settings.......................................................................................... 103 5.4 Pointer Monitor..................................................................................................................... 104 5.5 Pointer Adjustment............................................................................................................... 105 5.5.1 Pointer Test Sequences..................................................................................................... 107 5.6 Traces................................................................................................................................... 110 5.6.1 OTN TTI Traces................................................................................................................. 110 5.6.2 SDH/SONET J0/J1 Traces................................................................................................. 111 5.6.2.1 Trace Generation............................................................................................................ 111 5.6.2.2 TIM Detection................................................................................................................. 113 5.6.3 OTN/SDH/SONET View All Traces.................................................................................... 115 5.7 Payload Signal Label .......................................................................................................... 116 5.7.1 Transmit Payload Signal Label........................................................................................... 116 5.7.2 Expected Payload Signal Label......................................................................................... 117 6 APS......................................................................................................................................... 119 7 Communication Channel Drop and Insert........................................................................... 121 8 Save Functions...................................................................................................................... 123 9 Error Injection........................................................................................................................ 127 10 Alarm Generation................................................................................................................ 129 11 Reference............................................................................................................................. 131 11.1 Abbreviations...................................................................................................................... 131 11.2 Standard Test Patterns....................................................................................................... 141 11.3 Technology Overview.......................................................................................................... 143 11.3.1 OTN Technology.............................................................................................................. 145 11.3.2 SDH Technology.............................................................................................................. 153 11.3.3 The SONET Network....................................................................................................... 164 11.3.4 T-Carrier Technology........................................................................................................ 179 11.3.5 PDH Technology.............................................................................................................. 181 11.4 Service Information............................................................................................................ 184 11.4.1 Handling Optical Fiber..................................................................................................... 184


11.4.2 Cleaning Optical Fiber..................................................................................................... 186 11.5 Customer Service............................................................................................................... 187 11.6 Calibration.......................................................................................................................... 189 11.7 Express Limited Warranty................................................................................................... 190 Index............................................................................................................................................ 191


40G Module

1 Introduction

The STT 40G provides a single versatile, compact solution for installation, commissioning, maintenance, and troubleshooting of OTN and SDH/SONET networks. See the STT Platform User’s Manual for information on the STT system.

1.1 Safety Please read and follow these safety recommendations, to avoid injury and to prevent damage to the unit. Only qualified personnel should service the unit. See the STT Platform User’s Manual for information regarding the STT Control and Power modules. Caution: Using the supplied equipment in a manner not specified by Sunrise Telecom may impair the protection provided by the equipment. Warning: This is a Class 1 LASER product. Avoid looking directly at the Transmitter source. For safety, turn off the laser when not in use. Warning: Use of controls and procedures other than those specified in this manual may result in exposure to hazardous laser radiation. • Unterminated optical connectors may emit laser radiation. • Do not view with optical instruments. Caution: Please observe the maximum optical input power limit, or risk damage to equipment. Operating Environment: When bringing the STT from an extreme cold to warm environment, allow the STT to warm for at least 4 hours prior to use. Condensation may interfere with the operation of the test set and may result in damage if power is applied. • DO NOT operate this unit in rain, or in a direct water splash environment. • For indoor use only. • Do not operate the unit with the cover removed. • Always use the provided power cord. To avoid electric shock, the power cord protective grounding must be connected to ground. The unit is grounded through its provided power cord. • No operator serviceable parts inside the STT. Refer to qualified personnel. • Provide good ventilation on all sides, above and below. • Do not position the unit in a way that makes it difficult to disconnect it from other equipment or from the power supply. • Overvoltage protection: category II • Pollution degree II 1


STT Scalable Network Test Solution FCC Information This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the following two conditions: (1) this device may not cause harmful interference, and (2) this device must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause undesired operation. Note: This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class A digital device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference when the equipment is operated in an industrial environment. This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instruction manual, may cause harmful interference to radio communications. Operation of this equipment in a residential area is likely to cause harmful interference in which case the user will be required to correct the interference at his own expense. Any changes or modifications not expressly approved by the party responsible for compliance could void the user’s authority to operate the equipment. Caution: Exposure to Radio Frequency Radiation To comply with FCC RF exposure compliance requirements, this device must not be co-located or operating in conjunction with any other antenna or transmitter.

1.2 Notes on Using This Manual Certain conventions are used throughout this manual. The > symbol means ‘select with the cursor, then click’. An example would be: Start > Shut down (to turn the unit off via the Start item in the Menu Bar). Hardware buttons and header banners (such as ‘Running’) are shown in single quotes. Pop up messages are shown in full quotes, e.g. “Test Completed!”. A button may be referred to via text: Click the ‘Auto Configuration’ button, or via its icon: Click . Section numbers are shown in italics: Section 2.3. indicates a testing tip; information useful in conducting or configuring a test. indicates technology information which might be useful to know. This manual assumes you having a working knowledge of the Windows® operating system. Basic Windows operations are not explained. This manual assumes you have a working knowledge of the STT Control Module and/or the STT Platform User’s Manual.

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40G Module

1.3 STT 40G Description

Figure 1 STT System with STT 40G The STT Control Module features hardware buttons, including LASER and power buttons. See the STT Platform User’s Manual for details on the STT Control Module hardware, as well as on the STT Manager. Connect the STT to the network via the STT 40G connector panel. Figure 2 offers a close-up of the connectors.

Figure 2 Connectors If you have universal connectors, snap the lever up or down to release or set the connector. Make sure to carefully clean the interior of the connector (see Section 11.4.2), using a swab approved for fiber optic connectors.

Standard Interfaces SONET/SDH (40G) and OTU3 (43G)

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STT Scalable Network Test Solution Add/Drop Micro-D Type Connector: DCC/GCC Drop and Insert / Trigger In and Out (10G SONET/SDH 10.7G OTU2 Optical) Drop and Insert of Data Communication Channels (SDH/SONET) or General Communications Channels (OTN) to/from datacom interfaces. Requires conversion cable to two BNC connectors. Transmit and receive 10 Gbps (STM-64, OC-192, OTN OTU2) optical signals SMA Connector Tx Clock Output: Over 50Ω with a 1v peak-to-peak signal and at a line rate divided by 16: 2.5/2.7 GHz.

External data In (External Clock) • Bantam for 1.544 Mbps (BITS Clock) • BNC for 2.048 Mbps or 2.048 MHz • Supports 64k +8k codirectional clock for Japan per ITU-T G.703 Appendix II

Optical Power Too High Caution The received optical power must not exceed the receiver’s capability. If it does, you will see a “Optical power too high” message, and the STT 40G will not respond. To solve the problem, make sure the required attenuator is in place, and restart the application. If you should return to the STT 40G after an absence and find it not responding, excessive optical power is the likely culprit. Close the application, then reopen it. • If the Receive power is too high, and not attenuated, the unit will shut down to protect the optical receivers from being damaged.

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40G Module 1.4 Getting Started Complete the Warranty Registration Card and return it immediately to Sunrise Telecom or your national distributor. Sunrise Telecom Incorporated must receive your warranty registration information either online or by the enclosed card in order to provide you with updated software releases.

STT Instrument Mode In Instrument mode, the STT 40G is integrated into the STT Control Module, with all necessary software loaded. Plug the unit in using the AC power cord located at the back right side of the unit. Power up by turning on the Power Module. STT Standalone Mode Press the rocker switch on the STT 40G to the on (-) position in order to power it on. It takes a couple of minutes for the unit to complete the process; you’ll hear the fan start when it’s ready to go.

Rear View Power switch and plug

When it’s time to power down the unit, press the rocker switch to one side for several (six or seven) seconds, until it beeps. You may then release the switch and the unit will power off. In Standalone mode, the STT 40G analyzer comes alone. The kit includes: • One 26V power adapter (input 100-220V) for the analyzer • One crossover Ethernet cable • One CD ROM with all necessary software, installation procedures and a .pdf version of this STT 40G User’s Manual. If the STT 40G is used in Standalone mode, connect to the 15V - 3.4A power adapter provided with the analyzer. Both the power plug and the switch are located on the rear of the module, as shown aside. Please refer to the STT Platform User’s Manual. See the README file in the CD-ROM in case of difficulties. Note: See the STT Platform Module User’s Manual for details on Instrument and Standalone operating modes. Make sure all of your port connectors are solidly seated before starting a test.

STT Manager

Open the STT Manager and connect to the STT 40G. The STT Manager will appear on the Windows desktop. If you have just the one module, it will probably open automatically. If necessary, select the STT 40G module by clicking its icon on the Modules tab (shown to left). See the STT Platform User’s Manual for details. When the STT 40G window opens, the Signal tab will be to the front, so you may start configuring your testing setup.

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STT Scalable Network Test Solution Demo Mode When the STT 40G is launched from the STT Manager, but the application is not found, you will see a pop up window asking if the module should run in demo mode.

Figure 3 Demo Mode Question In demo mode, the STT 40G GUI is displayed, including possibly nonapplicable ports, configurations, and options. This is useful as a training tool.

6


40G Module

1.5 The Working Desktop Figure 4 points out some of the primary STT 40G desktop features. When you are working directly with the STT instrument, remember that the screen is a touch screen. Press to access the on-screen keyboard. You may also connect a keyboard or mouse via the PS2 or USB ports on top of the STT Control Module. When controlling the STT 40G from a PC (Standalone mode), use your mouse to click your selections, or use the keyboard shortcuts. See the STT Platform User’s Manual for details. Menu Bar

module/ task windows

Status Bar

Action Bar

Window Bar

Figure 4 STT 40G Desktop Window Bar

There may be several configuration and/or results tabs on any given window. The active tab is orange. Windows are shown via button icons in the Window Bar; ‘1-Config’ in Figure 4. The most common error made using the touch screen is to rest one’s hand on the screen while using the stylus to touch another portion of the screen. Remember to touch only one location on the screen at a time.

‘Keyboard’ Button

There are a number of ways to enter information into the STT 40G. You can add hardware (keyboard and/or a mouse) to the STT Control Module, or use the soft on-screen keyboard. Press the ‘KEYBOARD’ button on the front panel of the STT Control Module to bring it up.

Tabs and Buttons Active selections are shown in orange. The STT 40G uses tabs and buttons for organization. The tabs are the primary setup tool; select them to configure signal and testing parameters.

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STT Scalable Network Test Solution Tabs also represent specific configuration, function, and results windows. Frequently-used collections of tabs (such as the Overhead Functions window) will appear in the Window Bar as buttons, so you can always easily get to these important functions. Often, a window (such as the Results) will have more than one tab; touch a tab to select it. It will come to the front of the window. You will find two types of buttons. Buttons in the STT 40G Action Bar are for specific functions: starting results, injecting errors, etc. Buttons on windows usually lead to configuration parameters, or confirm/cancel changes. The following sections of this manual will take you through each function.

8


40G Module

1.5.1 Status Bar The Status Bar shows LEDs and banners indicating circuit status. It is active regardless of whether or not measurements are running. Figure 4 to locate the Status Bar. See Section 4 for measurements. See the Abbreviations section (Section 11.1) for definitions. STT soft LEDs automatically reconfigure themselves whenever you change the test configuration. The Status Bar at times may also present other information, such as the frequency or signal and laser wavelength rate, as well as the time of day (below ‘Clear History’) and the ‘Full Screen Status’ and ‘Clear History’ buttons. Figure 5 shows the Status Bar as it appears for an OTU3 configuration. Basic

Expanded

Figure 5 Status Bar, OTU3

Expanded Status Bar The Expanded Status Bar, shown in Figure 5, reports on the signal level and frequency offset. ‘Clear History’ button

LEDs Virtual LEDs are always available and active, presenting you with a quick live overview, using the simple red=bad, green=good standard. LEDs which flash red tell you an error or alarm was received in the past. Press the soft ‘Clear History’ button (see Figure 5) to acknowledge the history condition, and clear the LEDs. Use the flash rate to determine if the errors or alarms are historical or current. LEDs that stay steady for one or more seconds indicate a current condition. LEDs that blink at a rate faster than once per second indicate a historical condition. • When an error or alarm is detected, the LEDs stay steady red for one full second after the alarm or error condition. • A single error is indicated by a red LED for one second, followed by red flashing (half second on and half second off) thereafter. • Strings of errors at one per second (or more than one per second) are indicated by a steady red LED. • Strings of errors at less than one per second are indicated by an LED that flashes at a one second rate (as the error is detected), then at a half second rate (until the next error). The Breakaway LEDs offer more detailed information on the signal. For example, if you see an alarm indication on the Basic Status Bar, bring up the Breakaway LEDs by pressing the signal button (the vertical signal indicator, e.g. OTU3, 10G, and BERT in Figure 5) in order to see exactly which alarm is being received. See the description at the end of this section for more information.

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STT Scalable Network Test Solution

Basic Status Bar SDH/SONET/OTN (signal) SIG • Green: The STT 40G is receiving a signal at the correct signal. • Red: A signal was expected, but not received.

FRM • Green: A frame alignment word is being received. • Red: Fame alignment has been lost. If the STT 40G is configured for a particular type of framing in the Signal Configuration window, it will continuously search for that type of framing. The LED will light whenever framing is found.

AU, TU, STS, VT, Pointers (SDH/SONET only) • Green, flash: Pointer movements received. • Red: Loss of Pointer (LOP) or New Data Flags (NDF) in the received signal; LOP occurs when N (8-10) consecutive invalid pointers or NDFs are received. Steady red indicates a steady LOP; a flash indicates a brief LOP or a NDF. Use the Detailed LEDs to get the specifics. • No light: The received signal has valid pointers.

ALM • Red: The STT 40G detects an alarm condition. • No light: No alarm received.

ERR • Red: Errors are present on the circuit. BERT PAT • Green: The unit has synchronized on the test pattern in the received signal. The pattern may be observed in the results windows. • Red: Pattern synchronization is lost. • No light: Receiving live data or pattern synchronization hasn’t been detected.

BIT • Red: Bit errors are present on the circuit. Status Bar Buttons & Banners Informational messages may appear in the Status Bar. Have the Expanded version open to see all of the information. Here are some flags or banners you may see. RUNNING: Measurements are running. STOPPED: Measurements are not running. ERROR-INJ: Errors are being injected at a rate. Wavelength (rate) nm: Bit rate and frequency; the laser is on. Alarm: Alarms are being generated. Ref. Clock: Reference clock signal expected but not received.

10


40G Module

TX. Clock: Transmit clock signal source note detected. (time): Current time of day. Buttons pertaining to a specific test may appear in the Status Bar. Here are two you will see. (signal): Press the signal indicator (the vertical bar(s) showing the signal rate) on the LED bar (SDH 10G on Figure 5) to see the detailed Breakaway LEDs. See Figure 6. The LEDs which appear will be appropriate to the signal configuration. As with the Basic Status Bar, a green LED indicates the signal and framing are as expected; flashing red indicates a history alarm or error condition; solid red indicates the alarm or error is currently on the circuit. Press ‘Clear History’ to clear the flashing LEDs. Signal buttons

See the Signal Results or Abbreviations sections for definitions.

OTN OTU2

OTN OTU3

Add Drop 10G

SONET

BERT

Figure 6 Sample Breakaway LEDs

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STT Scalable Network Test Solution

‘Clear History’ button

Full Screen Status: Full screen presentation of the status of the test; shows LEDs and a text synopsis. The button is located on the right side of the Menu Bar, by ‘Clear History’. See Figure 7 for an example Full Screen Status.

Full Screen Status Buttons Press ‘Close’ to return to the standard view.

‘Full Screen Status’ button

Press ‘Clear History’ to clear a history condition, which is indicated by flashing LEDs. If LEDs are available for more than one rate (as in the bottom graphic), press the rate buttons to see the LEDs for each rate.

Errored Results

Error Free Results

Drop/Insert Results Figure 7 Full Screen Status View Windows

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40G Module

1.5.2 Action Bar Use the Action Bar buttons to quickly access frequently-used functions. If a button is not applicable to the current window, it will be grayed out and non-selectable. See Figure 4 to locate the Action Bar. Here are the possible buttons: Start/stop measurements. See Section 4. Start/stop injecting errors. The down arrow brings up the Error Injection window, where you may configure and inject errors. See Section 9. Start/stop generating an alarm. The arrow brings up the Alarm Generation window, where you may configure and generate alarms. See Section 10. Brings up the OTN Overhead Monitor/Control windows (Section 5.1.1 ).

Action Bar Example

Brings up the SDH/SONET Overhead Monitor/Control windows (Section 5) .

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STT Scalable Network Test Solution 1.5.3 Menu Bar

Here are the drop down menus available from the Menu Bar (see Figure 4.), including where to find them in this manual.

Figure 8 Menu Bar File: Manipulate measurement files, and exit STT 40G. • Open MEZ File: Open a saved measurement results file. See Section 8 for info on Saved Files. • Open Cap File: Open a saved packet capture file. Menu Bar Drop Down

• Save As: Save the current results. See Section 8 for info on Saved Files. • Print: Print the current measurements. If a printer is not attached, you will be prompted to configure one. • Print Setup: Configure a new printer. • Export: Save results in .csv. See Section 8. • Shutdown Test Module: Closes the applications and powers off the module. • Exit: Closes the open STT applications. Exit Windows and power off at the side switch to shut down the unit. View: Display or hide the following items: • Status Bar-Normal: See Section 1.5.1. • Status Bar-Expand: See Section 1.5.1. • Full Screen Status: See Section 1.5.1. Configuration: Access a number of module configuration windows: • Configurations Setup: Displays or hides the Signal Configuration collection of tabs. See Section 3.1. • Auto Configurations: Automatically configure to match the line; Section 27. • Save/View Configurations: Save or view system configurations. See Section 3.9. Result • Results: Access the Measurement windows. • View Test Records: See Section 4.18. • Propagation Delay: See Section 4.19. Tools: This pull down is one way to access many of the STT 40G test features. Function availability depends on the configuration.

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40G Module

OTN/SDH/SONET Functions Overhead Monitor: See Section 5. Alarms: See Section 10. Errors: See Section 9. Pointer Test Sequences: See Section 5.5.1. APS: Automatic Protection Switching. See Section 2. NVRAM Erase: Clear user-programed data. An “Are you sure to erase NV Ram and reset the system profile?” window will pop up. Select ‘Yes’ to proceed. All user data and configurations will be erased, and the system will reset to default values. Click ‘No’ to not reset the system profile. Use as a last resort if the STT 40G is not functioning properly. Firmware Upgrade: Update the unit’s firmware. All data will be erased. Press ‘OK’ on the popup window to confirm. To exit, press ‘Cancel’ on the next window. Window: Cascade, Tile Horizontal, Tile Vertical, Arrange Full screens, Close All Help: Access useful STT information.

About STT 40G Module

User Manual: Open a soft copy of an STT user manual.

Press to access the on-screen keyboard. You may also connect a keyboard or mouse via the PS2 or USB ports on top of the STT Control Module.

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STT Scalable Network Test Solution

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40G Module

2 Applications

Out of Service Tests • Turn up 40/43G long haul network links. • Verify error free performance of the circuit being tested. • Use the test set to verify proper operation of the NE after being installed. • Network Element verification (error injection, alarm generation, OTN Forward Error Correction verification). Verifies NE is working properly after being deployed in the field. • Perform End to End BERT to ensure error free transmission. • Combine OTN and DWDM testing for complete end to end test of long haul networks. • Perform Error Performance Analysis for bringing into service 40/43G circuits, and maintain the circuits when live traffic is being transported. • Perform APS timing tests to ensure SDH/SONET protection capabilities meet ITU/Telcordia standards. • Perform OTN-SDH/SONET Muxtest to verify that a client signal (SDH/SONET) is properly mapped into OTU3. • Using the 10/10.7G Drop/Insert port verify proper operation of 40G multiplexers by dropping/inserting 10G payloads from/to 40G, and connect it to a 10G test set (STT ONE or STT NAM) for further analysis.

In-service Tests Connect the STT 40 in Through mode or to an optical splitter, to monitor the performance of a live signal and search for any errors or alarms. • Perform physical layer performance monitoring: optical power, frequency measurement, FEC errors. • Perform Error Performance Analysis for to verify conformance to ITU and Telcordia specifications. • Use Pointer Monitoring to identify problems in network synchronization. • Capture and decode overhead bytes to monitor Synchronization Status Messages (S1 byte), APS status (K1, K2) • Perform APS timing measurement to verify network protection switching is still under the 50 ms limit. • Use Payload Through mode to perform an intrusive NE test without disrupting the live signal; inject SOH error injection or generate alarms. • Using the 10/10.7G Drop/Insert port, depending on the traffic, you can drop the payload to a 10G test set for in-service analysis. For instance, if the 40G signal is carrying 10G VCAT/GFT traffic, STT 40G can drop the 10G payload to the 10G port to be connected to STT ONE for VCAT/GFT and Ethernet analysis. 17


STT Scalable Network Test Solution 2.1 OTN Tests 2.1.1 OTN Point-to-Point

Generate an OTU–3 signal, and run a BERT on the payload. The client signal can be synchronous or asynchronous SDH/SONET, or a PRBS test signal. 1. Configure the Signal Configuration as required. Here is a sample setup:

Point-to-Point Testing

Measurement: Out-of-service (BERT) TX Standard: OTN RX Standard: OTN PORTS: OTU3 TX, RX 2. Press the Mapping button and configure: OTU3, PRBS TEST SIGNAL (from the pull down menu). Press ‘OK’. 3. Press ‘Start’ in the Action Bar. 4. View the results on the tabs which open; in particular, look at the G.821 tab. The next figure gives an overview of configuring an OTN test, pointing out many of the steps for configuring any test. 1. Set TX/RX Standard to OTN. * TX and RX Standards and Ports are set to OTU3. 2. Config OTN mapping. 3. Config SDH/SONET TX, RX mapping, if required. * N/A PRBS pattern. 4. Press ‘Start’ to start a test. SDH/SONET functions are available as well as OTN.

1. 2. 1.

2.

3.

2. 1.*

3.

1.*

Figure 9 Signal Configuration Overview (OTN)

Figure 10 presents an overview of configuring the ODU mapping.

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40G Module

1. The OTN port is set at OTU3. Press ‘OTN’ to map the OTU3. 2. Select OPU3 or OPU2.

1.

4.

2A.

3. Select the mapping; this is the SDH/SONET choice. * Example SDH mapping choices. ^ Example SONET mapping choices. A. If required, select the TCM for the OTU and/or ODU. B. Press ‘OK’ to save and exit. 4. On the Signal Configuration tab, select the payload.

*

3A. ^ 2A.

3A.

Figure 10 ODU Mapping

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STT Scalable Network Test Solution 2.1.2 OTN Mux/Demux Tests Muxtesting is required in R&D, manufacturing, and field installation. Here are some parameters to test. On the Signal Configuration tab, set up TX/RX to Independent (See Section 3.1), and select an OTN Mux or Demux Test Mode.

Example If your TX Standard is configured to SDH, and your RX Standard to OTN, you will test the mapping capabilities of the multiplexer. If you set TX Standard to OTN and the RX Standard to SDH, you will test the demapping capabilities of the network element. In order to configure RX and TX to different standards, first uncouple TX and RX by unchecking the Coupled box. Sample: 40G TX (SDH Standard) and OTU3 RX (OTN Standard). • Error insertion/alarm generation • Mapping/demapping of client signals inside OTN • MuxTest: generation of SONET signal and demap it at the OTN side • Overhead control/decode

OC-768 mapped into OTU3 signal: 43G

Client signal 40G OC-768

OTN NE

Figure 11 OTN Muxtesting • Have the STT generate client signal (e.g. 40G SONET), and verify the mapping into OTU3, then vice versa for the demapping process. • Use the STT 40G to check the frequency offset of a client signal, in order to stress the OPU justification process.

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40G Module

2.1.3 OTN NE Verification To verify the performance of NEs, perform alarm generation and verification. Check both upstream and downstream responses. This ensures interoperability with other vendors’ equipment. 1. Follow the Point-to-Point setup, then go to step 2. 0RESSTOSEND ANALARM

2. Touch the arrow on the ‘Alarm’ button in the Action Bar. A. On the Alarm Generation window (Section 10), OTN tab, select the alarm you want to generate by touching its radio button. B. Press ‘Send’ to generate the alarm. When you are finished testing, remember to press ‘Stop.’ 3. Go to the Results tab and verify the measurement results.

0RESSTO ACCESSCONFIG WINDOW LOF

OTU-AIS

Alarm Generation button OTU-BDI

Key Transmit Alarm Upstream Response Downstream Response

Figure 12 NE Verification Indication

Description

LOS

Loss of Signal

LOF

Loss of Frame

OOM

Out of Multiframe

OTU/ODU-AIS

OTU/ODU Alarm Indication Signal

OTU-IAE

OTU Incoming Alignment Error

ODU-OCI

ODU Open Connection Indication

ODU-LCK

ODU Locked

ODU-BDI

ODU Backwards Defect indication

FAS

Frame Error

MFAS

MultiFrame Error

OTU-BIP8

OTU BIP error

OTU-BEI

OTU Backwards Error Indication

FEC block error

Uncorrectable FEC block

Table 1 OTN Alarms and Errors

21


STT Scalable Network Test Solution 2.1.4 Test the FEC Behavior of a NE Test a NEs FEC response by injecting errors anywhere into the OTU frame.

Error

Error

FAS

Error

OTU

ODU Overhead

OPU

Client signal payload

FEC

FEC

Figure 13 Verifying a NE’s FEC Response 0RESSTOINJECT ERRORS

Note: The NE must have a loopback in place. 1. Send correctable errors from the STT 40G to the NE. • The STT 40G RX should not detect errors, as they are corrected.

0RESSTO ACCESSCONFIG WINDOW

Error Injection button

22

2. Send uncorrectable errors from the STT 40G to the NE. • The STT 40G RX should detect errors. The OTN ERR LED should light red. • Go to the Results Summary (Section 4.1) window and look for OTN correctable and uncorrectable errors.


40G Module

2.2 SDH/SONET Testing Conduct many legacy SDH/SONET tests: • 40G and 43G signals; 40G can be mapped down to VC-11 and VC-12. • Contiguous concatenated and bulk payloads • SDH/SONET overhead bytes control and decode: Pointer Monitoring and Adjustment, TCM, J0, J1 and J2 Trace generation • Error Performance analysis per ITU and Telcordia recommendations • APS Timing • Optical Power, Frequency measurements

2.2.1 Point-to-Point Tests Also known as Path Testing, this is an out-of-service test for performance measurement. The STT 40G transmits a test pattern to another unit for analysis, or the signal is looped back at other end of the network. This configuration is mostly used out-of-service, for bringing-into-service new networks or paths. It isn’t often used for maintenance, unless severe faults occur. Point-to-Point Testing

In an Out-of-service setup, select the main (port interface) rate, test (payload) rate, and if required, select the specific mapping (such as AU-4 versus AU-3). The main rate is the physical connection (electrical/optical) and the test rate is the one containing the test pattern and error checking. Contiguous VC Concatenation (where multiple virtual containers could be combined into a single one) may be tested on this mode. 1. Configure the Signal Configuration as required; here is a sample: Measurement: Out-of-service (BERT) TX Standard: SDH RX Standard: SDH 2. Press the Mapping button and configure as required (see Section 3.1.2). Press ‘OK’. 3. Press ‘Start’ in the Action Bar. 4. View the results on the tabs which open. In this test setup, you can transmit a test pattern, inject errors and alarms, do short and long term performance measurements (bit errors in payload, frame error, parity errors, and alarms), and perform system stress tests (pointer sequences, etc.).

23


STT Scalable Network Test Solution

TOA M

ADM

ADM

Figure 14 Dual Point-to-Point Testing With dual-ended testing, you may test different test patterns in each direction (use the ‘TX PATTERN’ button on the Signal Configuration window to select a pattern).

Loopback Testing Note You can also use the STT 40G for point to loopback testing, where a loopback is placed at the end of the link for BER testing. The loopback can be created physically. In this configuration, the same unit acts as both ends of the point-to-point test.

24


40G Module

2.2.2 Through Mode Tests Monitor a live optical circuit when a monitor jack or optical splitter is unavailable. The circuit will be disrupted when you connect the STT 40G in Thru mode. • Set the Test Mode to Single Line Thru. Thru mode passes live traffic through the STT 40G.

TM

ADM

ADM

Figure 15 SDH/SONET Thru Mode There are two possible Thru modes, transparent and Single Payload thru. • Transparent: All the traffic goes through the unit untouched and the unit can monitor it. It is comparable to Monitor mode with a 10/90 splitter. In transparent mode, the unit regenerates the signal in amplitude. The clock is recovered from the received signal. • Single Payload Thru/overhead overwrite: Regardless of the payload selection, all data in the payload space goes thru; the Section overhead bytes can be manipulated. Errors and alarms can be inserted into the overhead. Used to test network behavior under certain conditions, such as alarms and APS.

To select Single Payload Thru, the payload has to be the same for the relevant ports.

25


STT Scalable Network Test Solution 2.2.3 Muxtesting OTN to/from SDH/SONET To perform a muxtest to and from an OTN signal to an SDH/SONET signal, follow these steps. 1. Uncheck the Coupled box on the Signal Configuration window. 2. Set TX Standard to SDH (e.g. 40G). 3. Set RX Standard to OTN (e.g. OTU3). With this setup, the STT 40G will verify that the NE maps the SDH or SONET signal correctly into OTN.

26


40G Module

2.2.4 APS Testing To take an APS measurement, connect the test set to the location of concern within the network. For many applications, this will be a drop point of an ADM. For other applications, it will be a monitoring point in the ring. Examples of both are shown in Figure 16. APS time can be measured in either or both directions inside an optical ring.

-3 !)3

-3 !)3

Figure 16 APS Testing Access APS via the Tools > SDH/SONET Functions > APS. You will also need to decide whether to connect the test set In-service or Out-ofservice. For most applications, traffic cannot be interrupted, so the testing will be done In-service. If a network is being installed or a new service provisioned, then testing can be done Out-of-service. The test set will then generate a test pattern to simulate traffic. Press ‘Start’ at any time to begin an APS measurement. Press ‘Stop’ to halt a measurement already underway.

Starting the Measurement Once the three parameters (Sensor, Switch Time Limit, Test Window; see Section 2.2.4) are set, start the measurement. The test set is now armed and waiting for an APS event to be detected. Initiate the APS using a network management terminal, inserting MS-AIS with test equipment, or by breaking the working circuit. The APS time is measured and displayed, along with “PASS” or “FAIL”. 27


STT Scalable Network Test Solution

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28


40G Module

3 Configuration Tabs 3.1 Configuration Overview Use the Configuration collection of tabs to configure your test and system setups. See Section 1.5 for details on the working desktop. Before connecting the STT 40G to your circuit, you must configure the Configuration items properly. Once the Signal Configuration window has been opened, it remains accessible as a button in the Window Bar. It may appear as ‘1-Config’ or ‘2-Config’, etc., depending on which STT slot the unit is located in. You can see an example of this in Figure 4. If you need to return to a configuration window, just press the ‘x-Config’ button. ‘LASER ON/OFF’ button

The Signal Configuration tab appears when you launch the STT 40G. You may also access it via the Configuration > Configurations Setup selection on the Menu Bar. Setting up the Signal Configuration is the most important step in the test procedure. If the Signal Configuration items are configured improperly, measurement results will be meaningless. See Figure 17.

1. Configure the Measurement group; make selections from the pull down menus.

Header shows the Signal Structure.

2. Configure the PORTS. 3. Press each button to configure the Mapping.

Figure 17 Signal Configuration The Signal Configuration window shows the physical ports to the far left side of the window (See Section 1.4); you’ll see a Ports Bar on the right side as well in an Add Drop setup. The major part of the window is in essence the interior of the STT 40G. So, for a point-to-point SDH test, the signal is built up from the test pattern, multiplexed up as necessary to the high speed, then transmitted out the TX port on the left edge of the window. The received signal comes in from the left edge, through the RX port, then is demultiplexed as required inside the STT 40G, and the test pattern with its related measurements are extracted. See the Test Mode explanations following for details on each mode.

29


STT Scalable Network Test Solution

“Configuring” message

Pull down menus show the options available for each setup parameter. When an option is selected in this window, STT immediately alters its configuration to reflect the new setting. You will see a red banner reporting “Configuring” when you make a significant change to the configuration. It vanishes when the configuration process concludes. LASER ON/OFF Buttons: A soft ‘LASER ON/OFF’ button appears in the Port Bar (Section 1.5). Click the button to turn the laser on (green indicator) or off (red indicator). In a Drop/Insert Test Mode, make sure both lasers are on. When you restart the laser, you will also hear three beeps. A hard LASER button is located on the front panel of the STT Control Module chassis, so you always have instant access to laser power. Press the button to toggle the laser on and off.

Signal Configuration Parameters Measurement: In-service or Out-of-service

Generally, you want to follow the configuration along step by step, from top to bottom. So, configure everything in the top box, then configure the ports, first selecting the rates to use, then setting the mapping, and finally the test pattern if required. Measurement: Select the measurement style. Important Note: This is a key parameter, affecting the types of tests and results the unit will perform and display. Options: In-service (Live), Out-of-service (BERT) • In In-service (Live) mode, the STT 40G analyzes only overhead, ignoring the payload, using the receive ports for monitoring. DO NOT attach a cable to a transmit port. If you do connect to transmit, pay careful attention to your setup. Fewer results are available than in Out-of-service mode. • In Out-of-service (BERT), the STT 40G both transmits and receives, and analyzes both overhead and payload. The receiver attempts to establish pattern synchronization. All results are available, including G.821, G.828, G.829 and M.2101. TX/RX Standard: Select the telecom standard to operate in accordance with. Options: OTN, SDH, SONET, UNFRAMED • OTN follows ITU-T, save for the payload requirements. A. B.

OTN is set at OTU3 (approximately 43 Gbps, designed to transport an OC-768 or STM-256 signal) for most tests. 40G and 43G mappings are available for UNFRAMED.

• SDH follows the ITU-T G.707 specification. It is set at 40G. • SONET follows the Bellcore GR-253 and GR-499 specifications. It is set at OC-768. • Generally, set TX and RX to the same Standard. You might set them differently if you want to perform muxtesting from SDH to OTN, or from SONET to OTN, which also requires you to uncouple TX and RX as well. • In an UNFRAMED setup, the signal is transmitted without overhead. The test pattern fills the entire payload area. UNFRAMED uses SDH nomenclature. 30


40G Module

Test Mode Options: Single Point-to-Point, Single Line Thru, Single Payload Thru, OTN Mux, OTN Demux, OTN-OTN Drop/Insert, ONT-SDH Drop/Insert. OTN-SONET Drop/ Insert, SDH-SDH Drop/Insert, SONET-SONET Drop/Insert

• Single Point-to-Point:Test a single line/single signal. In-service and Out-of-service configurations are the same. See Figure 18.

Test Modes

one active signal port

Port Mapping

Config Pattern

Tx Port Config Rx Port Config

Ports

Interior of the STT 40G

Figure 18 Single Point-to-Point Signal Configuration

• Single Line Through: All payload and overhead bytes are passed through. The STT 40G does not change OH bytes, inject errors, or generate alarms, but does measure them.

one active signal port

received signal passes through

Mapping Port, Payload

Config Pattern

Tx Port Config

line rate matches Rx

Rx Port Config Ports

Interior of the STT 40G

Figure 19 Line Through Configuration

31


STT Scalable Network Test Solution • Single Payload Through: All payload and Path overhead bytes are passed through. The STT 40G blocks the original overhead, adds new overhead, and transmits the new overhead with the original payload. Figure 20 shows an OTN configuration, with the additional steps/overhead indicated with different colors.

You can inject errors (such as REI-L, B1, B2) and generate alarms (such as LOP, AIS-L, AIS-P). This mode is useful when injecting defects to trigger APS events, for example.

You can control SOH (SDH/SONET)/OTU/ODU (OTN) over head (except for pointers). white: original OTN OH green/gray: SDH/SONET payload blue: new OTN OH

Tx Port Config

line rate matches Rx

Rx Port Config Ports Port Mapping

Interior of the STT 40G received payload passes through Config Pattern

Figure 20 Payload Through Configuration

32

The entire payload passes through regardless of where measurements are taken.


40G Module

• OTN Mux Mode: The STT 40G emulates a multiplexer for OTN with a 40G (from OTU3) payload. Multiplexing from the low rate signal to high rate signal, on the same port. Measurements are performed on the received signal, both on the original OTU signal and the payload. 1. Test Mode: OTN Mux 2. RX Standard: SDH or SONET

1.

3. Configure Ports A. TX: OTU3 B. RX: 40G

3A.

3B.

4. Optical Mapping As required 5. Select the test pattern

4.

2.

4.

Ports

5.

Interior of the STT 40G

Note: Measurements are taken on the RX signal Figure 21 Mux Mode Signal Configuration • OTN Demux Mode: The STT 40G emulates a demultiplexer for OTN with OTU3 to 40G. Demultiplexing occurs from the high rate signal to the low rate signal on the same port. Measurements are performed on the received signal, both on the original OTU3 signal and the 40G payload. 1. Test Mode: OTN Demux 2. TX Standard: SDH or SONET 3. Configure Ports A. TX: 40G/OC-758 B. RX: OTU3 4. Optical Mapping As required 5. Select the test pattern

2. 1.

3A.

3B.

Ports

4.

4.

5.

Interior of the STT 40G

Note: Measurements are taken on the RX signal Figure 22 Demux Mode Signal Configuration

33


STT Scalable Network Test Solution • Single Standard Drop/Insert; OTN-OTN, SONET-SONET, SDH-SDH: Drop the high rate 40G signal to a 10G low rate, as defined by the standard. Figure 23 shows a SONET-SONET example. 1.Select OTN-OTN, SDH-SDH, or SONET-SONET Drop/Insert Test Mode. 4. Configure Low Side 2. Configure Port; OTU2 High Side OC-92/ Port; OTU3/ 10G OC-768/40G TX TX laser on Rx Rx 2. laser on 3. 2. Set High RX mapping.

Ports

RX port is set at rate shown.

3. Set pattern.

Interior of the STT 40G

Note: Measurements are taken on the RX signal.

Figure 23 Configure a Single Standard Drop Insert Test The figure shows the configuration procedure. The High Rate port is set at 40G, as each standard sets it (OTU3, 40G, OC-768). The Low Rate port is set at 10G, per each standard’s definition. Digital Wrapper Test Drop/insert a 40G SDH/ SONET payload to/from a 43G OTN signal; extract SDH/SONET payload from OTU3 signal, or wrap SDH/SONET client signal with OTU3 overhead and FE.

Configure the low rate mapping as required. Measurements are taken off of the test pattern at the received high rate. • Two Standard Drop/Insert; OTN-SDH, OTN-SONET: Test a 10G signal inside a 43G signal. 1.Select OTN-SDH or OTN-SONET Drop/Insert Test Mode. 4. Configure Low Side Port; SDH 10G/ OC-192 TX

2. Configure High Side Port; OTU3 TX laser on Rx 2.

2. Set High RX mapping. 3. Set pattern.

2.

Rx laser on

3.

Ports

Interior of the STT 40G

Note: Measurements are taken on the RX signal.

Figure 24 Configure a Two Standard Drop Insert Test The figure shows the configuration procedure. The High Rate port is set at 43G. The Low Rate port is set at 10G, per each standard’s definition. The High Rate 34


40G Module

RX mapping must be configured as ODU3-OPU3-ODTU23-OD(P)U2-STM-64 ASYNC or SYNC. Configure the low rate mapping as required. Measurements are taken off of the test pattern at the received high rate

Signal Configuration Common Configuration Items, Continued TX & RX: Determine if the TX and RX ports will work independently, or together. • Coupled Check box: TX and RX for a port are configured as the same when you check the box. Changing the configuration of one will automatically change the other. Applies only to the Single Point-to-Point Test Mode.

If you do not check Coupled, TX and RX are set as Independent, which enables TX to be configured independently from RX. This is useful for testing a multiplexer or the demuxing capacity of a NE. You may muxtest from one TX Standard to a different RX Standard.

This does not apply to Mux or Demux modes.

TX & RX Buttons Sets RX with the same configuration as TX. Applies to Independent TX & RX only. Sets TX with the same configuration as RX. Applies to Independent TX & RX only. The following subsections explain each additional configuration window in detail.

35


STT Scalable Network Test Solution 3.1.1 Port Configuration Overview After selecting the Measurement standard, select the ports you want to use in the dark gray PORTS Bar. Press the Port TX or RX button on the Signal Configuration window to bring up the Port Configuration (TX or RX) window.

Ports Bar example *

Figure 25 Accessing Port Configurations

Clock Offset

Click each (TX and RX) button to access the Port Configuration windows, where you can select the line rate to use. For some tests (such as Drop/Insert Test Modes), you will have ports to configure on either side of the window. If you choose an optical signal, press the ‘LASER ON/OFF’ button which appears to start or stop the laser. A green Laser LED will appear, showing you a laser is in use. Figure 4 shows a sample of this; note the laser banner indicating the wavelength. The Figure 25 shows both the TX and RX Port Configuration windows for an optical point-to-point setup. Remember to configure both the receive and the transmit sides of each port when TX & RX have been set to Independent (see Section 3.1). You may need to configure additional port settings, as described next. If you change the Line Rate, it is useful to close and then reopen the Port Configuration window, to make sure you access all of the settings.

36


40G Module

Clock Offset Use the up and down arrows to increase or decrease the frequency shift, -50-+50 ppm, depending on the signal. The Clock Offset parameter may be available on the Signal Configuration tab (for example, as the OPU Freq Offset) as well as the Port Configuration window and on the Port Bar (in a Point-to-Point mode). Using the Port Bar Clock Offset feature, you can shift the frequency offset while measurements are running. It is available for both the line and the payload signals.

TX and RX Port Configuration Parameters Line Rate: Select the line rate port. • You may see a Line Rate Configuration pop-up, depending on how you access the window. • The rates available depend on the TX/RX Standards and Test Mode. • 43G is only available in an Unframed Test Mode. See the 43G Test Notes. Line Type: Set at Optical. Wave Length: The wavelength is set at 1550 nm • The receiver has an accuracy of ± 3 dB. • 43 unframed Wavelength: 1290 to 1565 nm. The receiver can also be operated at 1310nm with a reduced sensitivity (~1 to 1.5 dB) and reduced measurement accuracy of optical input power.

TX Clock TX Clock: Determines the source of the transmit clock. Options: Internal, External, Receive • Internal: Use STT 40G internal timing. • External: Lock the signal to an external timing source, plugged in at the Ext. Clock port. Options: 2.048 Mbps, 1.544 Mbps, 64k+8k codirectional. • Receive: Use the timing received from the RX port as the clocking source. Note: The Payload clock is defaulted to internal regardless of transmit clock selection. Resolution: Select a 1, 0.1, or 0.01 ppm resolution.

10/10.7G Drop/Insert Port The Drop/Insert port appears only in Drop/Insert Test Modes. It is represented by buttons on the right side off the Signal tab. The signal is set at 10G, as represented by the standard in use. Concatenated mappings are available. This port can also be used to drop/insert 10.7G OTU2 signals from/to OPU3 signals using ODU2 into OPU3 mapping per ITU-T G.709.

37


STT Scalable Network Test Solution Auto Configuration Auto Configuration automatically configures the STT 40G test ports in a Single Test Mode, to match the incoming signal. Press the ‘Auto Configuration’ button on the Signal Configuration window (below the PORTS), or select Auto Configuration from the Menu Bar > Configuration menu to use this function. ‘Auto Config’ button

On the Auto Configuration window which pops up, select the test interface for the STT 40G to start scanning at; this saves time.

Figure 26 Select the Auto Configuration Test Interface

Press ‘Start’ once you’ve made the signal selection. The STT 40G will start scanning at the set signal rate, then drill down for the mapping.

Figure 27 Auto Configuration

The button on the Auto Config pop-up window may appear as ‘Stop’ to halt the process, or ‘Start’ to begin it anew. Close the window when the configuration

38


40G Module

process has been completed. The STT 40G will then configure itself to match the captured settings.

Auto Configuration Notes Search begins at the current configuration and channel selection. This is useful when you know the channel you want to configure to, but don’t know the payload structure or other payload parameters such as framing and pattern. The unit will find the last used settings (if there are any), and configure itself to match them (the ‘Configuring’ banner will appear). If no signal is found, the unit will start over again. The search is widened to include all receivers and signal structures. The search begins at OTU3 for OTN, STM-256 for SDH, or OC-768 for SONET, tributary 1, and continues through tributary 1 of each signal rate. Tributary 1 is the tributary most often used for signaling/overhead. If the Auto Configuration finds an unframed optical signal, there could be several causes: 1. Signal is not connected to the correct optical receiver. Try to connect the signal to the other optical receiver. An OC-768 signal will be detected by the OC-768 receiver as unframed. • 2. The signal is too strong or weak. Try to attenuate the signal. Verify that the signal is within the levels posted on the connector panel. If you know the signal and the tributary you want, particularly useful if it’s other than tributary 1, you can set that on the Mapping window. That setting becomes the last known configuration, and the unit will search from there, returning more detailed information for you.

39


STT Scalable Network Test Solution 3.1.2 Signal Mapping Overview Click the individual port signal mapping buttons on the Signal Configuration window to view or change the mapping for that port. Figure 28 is a sample OTN mapping window. The mapping in use is reflected on the buttons on the Signal Configuration window. Press the signal button on the Signal Configuration window to bring up the Mapping window

Figure 28 Signal Mapping Overview The mapping in use is highlighted. Access the tributary mapping window (if applicable) by selecting the payload/tributary buttons. Grayed out items on the Mapping window are not available. Changing the configuration will often bring up additional choices, such as selecting which payload tributary of the indicated type to use, or determining what type of data will fill the unused tributaries. Make sure to select a channel number at each level of the mapping (SONET/ SDH), as required; double-click the field to bring up the Number Pad for data entry. On the Signal Configuration window, set TX/RX to Independent (uncheck Coupled) if you want to receive and transmit on different channels.

Use the Number Pad to enter channel numbers

You may have one or two different settings which determine what will be used to fill unused channels. These settings may appear as ‘Other Channels’ or simply be a pull down menu next to a mapping choice. Here are the choices, which will depend upon the configuration: Other Channels: Determine what fill the unused (other) channels. • Broadcast: The test pattern will be transmitted on the unused channels. • AIS: Transmit AIS on the unused channels. • Unequipped: Transmit the unequipped signal.

40


40G Module

Tributary Mapping If your mapped signal contains a SDH/SONET tributary, you will want to configure it. Click the button on the Signal Configuration window which corresponds to the signal you want to configure. See Figure 28. SDH/SONET tributaries are available for OTN signals. The mapping structure conforms to ITU-T G.709 synchronous and asynchronous mapping of SDH/SONET payloads and PRBS test signals. See Section 3.2 for details on configuring an OTN test. See Section 3.3 for details on configuring SDH/SONET. When you have finished the mapping configuration, click ‘OK’ to save your changes and return to the Signal Configuration window. Click ‘Cancel’ to escape back without saving any changes.

Common Parameters A number of common parameters may be found on signal mapping windows. See Section 3.1.

Drop/Insert Port Mapping Notes Drop/insert port mapping is set 10G concatenated configurations. Figure 29 shows a sample SDH RX window.

DI Leds

Figure 29 Drop/Insert Signal Mapping

41


STT Scalable Network Test Solution 3.2 OTN Signal Configuration Figure 30 shows the OTN Signal Configuration tab.

Figure 30 OTN Signal Mapping Select OTN as the TX and/or RX Standard. Remember to press the ‘LASER’ button if necessary.

OTN Port Configuration Press ‘OTU3 TX/RX’ to verify or set the port parameters.

Figure 31 OTN Port Configuration See Section 3.1.1 for general parameters, such as TX Clock. Here are the OTN parameters. Line Rate: The port configuration is set at OTU: 43.018413559 Gbps.

42


40G Module

Scramble: For OTUn, set if the entire signal will be scrambled (On) or not (Off). FEC: Set whether or not Reed-Solomon Forward Error Correction (FEC) is in use.

OTN Mapping Press the OTN mapping button on the Signal Configuration tab to begin the signal mapping process.

Figure 32 Standard OTN Mapping Set the mapping with the buttons, then configure the remaining parameters. For an Drop/Insert Test Mode, the configuration has fewer options: ODU3-OPU3ODTU2-OD(P)U2-STM-64 ASYNC(SYNC). ODU/OPU: Select the OPU, which is where the client signal (payload) is inserted. OPU3 Options: STM-256 ASYNC/SYNC, OC-768 ASYNC/SYNC, PRBS TEST SIGNAL ODU2 Time Division Multiplexing Options: STM-64 ASYNC/SYNC, OC-192 ASYNC/ SYNC, PRBS TEST SIGNAL • For standard mapping, select a synchronous or asynchronous rate, or a PRBS test pattern.

In asynchronous mapping, the OPU signal clock is independent from the payload being mapped into the OPU client signal area. In Bit Synchronous mapping, the OPU signal clock is derived from the client signal (payload) being mapped into the OPU.

• ODU2 Time Division Multiplexing Mapping also requires you select its tributary in the ODU3. See the next figure.

43


STT Scalable Network Test Solution

Figure 33 ODU2 Mapping When you choose ODU2/OPU2 mapping, press the channel number button to select the foreground channel; the default value is 1,5,9, 13. The OPU3 Timeslots window pops up. The forground channel can be selected in two mutually exclusive ways: Tributary A/B/C/D: For ODU2 mapping, select the ODU3 tributary. • As shown in Figure 33, an ODU3 mapping grid appears, showing the timeslots in use for the selected tributary. • Selecting the tributary group from the tributary column (A, B,C,D); the tributary letter will remain highlighted, as well as the four OPU3 time slots that conform that tributary. • Selecting four individual timeslots out of the 16 OPU3 timeslots; no tributary letter is highlighted. • When a tributary is selected, The standard background channels apply. For example, if tributary B is selected, the background channels will be A (TS 1,5,9,13), C (TS 3,7,11,15) and D (4,8,12,16). If you select nonstandard timeslots, the unit will retain and reuse this information, until you change the selections, or module is reset to factory defaults. You may select only four timeslots.

Other Channels: Determine what fill the background unused (other) channels. • Broadcast: The test pattern will be transmitted on the unused channels. • AIS: Transmit the alarm signal. TCM: Enable monitoring the Tandem Connection (TC) fields (TCM-1 through TCM6) at each level. Scramble: Determine if the payload will be scrambled (On) or not (Off). See Section 3.3 for details on the SDH/SONET configuration. See Section 3.5 for Test Pattern selection.

44


40G Module

OPU3 Background Timeslot Splitting To split the remaining OPU3 timeslots into three different channels, the unit finds the first available timeslot (background channel number 1), the next one for background channel number 2, next one for background channel number 3, next for background channel number 1 and so on. Example: For foreground channel timeslots: 1,6,11,16, the background timeslots will be: • Background channel 1: timeslots 2,5 9, 13 • Background channel 2: timeslots 3,7, 10, 14, • Background channel 3: timeslots 4,8, 12, 15 Channel Grid

The channel grid on the OTN Mapping window displays the foreground (FG) and background (BG) channels (see aside).t

45


STT Scalable Network Test Solution 3.3 SDH/SONET Signal Configuration An SDH/SONET signal may be configured for the port in use, or as a tributary in an OTN signal. Select SDH/SONET as the TX and/or RX Standard. Remember to press the ‘LASER’ button if necessary.

Figure 34 SDH Signal Configuration with Port Configuration

Port Configuration Line Rate: Select the line rate port. SDH Options: 40G SONET Options: OC-768 • You may see a Line Rate Configuration pop-up, depending on how you access the window. • The rates available depend on the TX/RX Standards and Test Mode. • 43G is available for UNFRAMED only. Line Type: The line type is set to Optical Wave Length: The optical port wavelength is set at1550 nm.

TX Clock TX Clock: Determines the source of the transmit clock. Options: Internal, External, Receive • Internal: Use STT 40G internal timing. • External: Lock the signal to an external timing source, plugged in at the Ext. Clock port.

46


40G Module

- Use the BITS Clock port for a 1.5 Mbps signal. - Use the Ext Clock port for a 2 Mhz/Mbps or 64 kbps signal. • Select Receive to use the timing received from the RX port as the clocking source. Note: The Payload clock is defaulted to internal regardless of transmit clock selection. Resolution: Select a 1, 0.1, or 0.01 ppm resolution.

SDH/SONET Mapping Press a TX or RX SDH or SONET mapping button on the Signal Configuration tab to bring up the configuration window.

Figure 35 SONET Mapping Set the mapping by pressing the buttons. Other Channels: Determine what fill the unused (other) channels. • Broadcast: The test pattern will be transmitted on the unused channels. • UNEQ: Transmit the unequipped signal. Timeslot Radio Button: In a nonconcatenated mapping, select this radio button to have tributary selection based on your allocation of timeslots according to the transmitting sequence. Tributary Radio Button: In an nonconcatenated mapping, select this radio button to use the legacy KLM Tributary numbering, which is based on the mapping scheme.

47


STT Scalable Network Test Solution When you have completed the signal mapping configuration, click ‘OK’ to save your changes and return to the Signal Configuration window. Click ‘Cancel’ to escape back without saving any changes. Back on the Signal Configuration window, click ‘Start’ in the Action Bar. You will be taken to the Results > Summary window.

48


40G Module

3.4 Unframed Signal Configuration Use an UNFRAMED Standard to test a 40G or 43G signal. The test pattern fills the entire payload area. UNFRAMED is often used in lab applications, such as for a dark fiber BERT. UNFRAMED uses SDH nomenclature.

Unframed LEDs

Figure 36 Unframed Test Configuration To setup an unframed test, set the Standard to UNFRAMED on the Signal Configuration tab. Next, press the PORTS buttons to configure the physical ports. Line Rate: Determine the signal rate. Options: 43G, 40G Wave Length: The optical port wavelength is set at1550 nm. • 1290 to 1565 nm. The receiver can also be operated at 1310nm with reduced sensitivity (~1 to 1.5 dB), and reduced measurement accuracy of optical input power. TX Clock: See Section 3.1. Clock Offset: Use the up and down arrows to increase or decrease the frequency shift, -50-+50 ppm, depending on the signal. 43G Test Notes • Internal transmit clock source will be at a bit rate of 43.018414 Gbps ± 0.5 ppm over a temperature range of 0°C to 70°C, and with a frequency offset: ± 50 ppm with either 1.0 or 0.1 ppm resolution as you determine. • External transmit clock source is synchronized to external 2.048 Mbps or 2.048 MHz (SDH), 1.544 Mbps, or 64K+8K codirectional clock for Japan. • Optical Output power range: 1550 nm Short Reach: 0 to +3 dBm. • Laser Safety: IEC 60825-1, Class 1; 21 CFR 1040.10 and 1040.11. 49


STT Scalable Network Test Solution • Receiver Frequency recovery range: 43.018414 Gbps ± 50 ppm (OTN OTU3). • Complies to ITU-T G.709 and ITU-T G.959.1 Wavelength: 1290 to 1565 nm. The receiver can also be operated at 1310nm with a reduced sensitivity (~1 to 1.5 dB) and reduced measurement accuracy of optical input power. • Input power range: 1550 nm Short Reach, PIN detector: -6 to +3 dBm • Maximum input power: +7 dBm

50


40G Module

3.5 Test Pattern Selection Select the test pattern for the BERT signal (via the pattern buttons on the Signal tab). Here is a sample Pattern Selection window. See Section 11, Reference, for details on test patterns. Some patterns are not available for Unframed.

‘Pattern’ buttons

Figure 37 Select Test Pattern OTN/SDH/SONET Options: 231-1, 223-1, 220-1, 215-1, 211-1, 29-1, All 1s, All 0s, Alt 1010, 1-4, 1-8, 1-16, User Unframed Options: 231-1, 223-1, 220-1, 215-1, 211-1, 29-1 Pattern Inversion (PRBS patterns only): Transmit the selected pattern in an inverted form (1s and 0s reversed). Remove the check mark to send the pattern normally. User: Edit and send your own test pattern. Up to ten user patterns may be configured. A corresponding editing window will become active. Enter up to a 16-bit pattern in the field/s. • Any previous User patterns are stored. • Pattern names may have up to 10 characters. • You may select a previously programmed User pattern simply by selecting it from the drop down list. • Remember to deselect the ‘User’ button when you want to return to using a standard pattern; the button will turn from orange to gray. Click ‘OK’ to save your changes and return to the Signal Configuration window.

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STT Scalable Network Test Solution 3.6 Save, Reload, and View Configurations Use this window to affect the configuration profiles. Access it via Configuration > Save View Configurations.

‘View’ Config Profile

Figure 38 Save View Configurations To affect a previously saved configuration file, highlight the file name, select the button. action you want to take from the drop down menu, then press the • Lock/Lock All: Lock a record/s; it/they may not be changed or deleted. • Unlock/Unlock All: Open locked record/s. • Delete/Delete All: Delete the highlighted record/s. • Rename: Edit the record label. Enter the new label. Press ‘Enter’ to save the changes. The record will be displayed under its new name. ‘Save’: Save the current signal and test configuration to the STT 40G internal flash memory; name the file as appropriate. ‘View’: Open a Profile Review window where you may view the highlighted configuration profile. ‘Reload’: Load the highlighted configuration into the STT 40G. You will see a warning message. Click ‘OK’ to reload the configuration from memory. Click ‘Cancel’ to return to the Save/View configuration window without reloading. Upon reloading a signal configuration profile, you will need to close down and restart the STT 40G. ‘Print’: Send the configuration information to the system selected printer (local or network).

52


40G Module

3.7 Measurement Parameters Use this window to adjust a number of parameters affecting how measurements are taken and presented. The different Standard versions of the window have some different parameters; only the applicable items will appear. Figure 39 shows a sample OTN window.

Figure 39 Measurement Parameters The parameters depend on the Test Mode and Standard.

ITU-T Settings Path Allocation HRP MODEL % Options: .1 to 40% • Refer to M.2110 or M.2101 for information on how to select the Hypothetical Reference Performance model percent (HRP %). • Press the ‘Enter’ button when you have finished. Period: Controls how often a new result is displayed in M.xxx Results windows. • 1 Min, 15 Min, 2 Hours, 24 Hours, 7 Days DCC/GCC: Determine if either of these communications channels will be available. Options: None, DCC, GCC

M.2120 Thresholds • Refer to M.2120 or M.2101 for information on setting the ES, SES, and BBE thresholds.

53


STT Scalable Network Test Solution MS-REI/REI-L Count: View where and if REI measurements will be taken on an STM-256. Options (non-selectable): M1 Only, M0-M1 • ITU-T G.707 Revision 2000 added the M0 Line REI byte for rates at and above 10G. M1 REI is available for all STS-N rates. Enhanced RDI: Enable/disable the use of ERDI. Additional measurements appear in the Results if the check box is marked. M.2120 Provides procedures for fault detection and localization with and without in service monitoring for international multi-operator paths, sections, and transmission systems.

Frequency Reference Clock Ref. Clock: Use to determine the time base for making frequency measurements. Options: Internal, External • Internal uses the test set’s internal clock to make frequency measurements. • External uses timing received at the 1.5M/2M BITS or Ext. Clock port. The signal can be a NRZ (2.048 MHz) signal (square or sine wave). • The ‘Help’ button reminds you of these definitions. Note: The receiver itself always synchronizes to the incoming bit stream regardless of the Reference Clock selection. External Clock Type: If the Ref. Clock is set to External, select the reference signal source. Options: 2M Clock, 2M Data, 1.5M Data, 64K Clock

Service Disruption When the Switch Time Limit is set to a low valuie, such as 1 ms, the measurement results can count multiple events and measure them separately. When set to a bigger value, short events that are consecutive will be combined and measured as a single disrupting event.

• Uses timing received at the 1.5M/2 MHz EXT CLK port. The signal can be a NRZ (1.544 MHz or 2.048 MHz) signal (square or sine wave).

Service Disruption Switch Time Limit [ms]: Sets the maximum allowed time interval between defects. It represents the minimum error-free period between before the disruption measurement ends and results are presented. If the Test Window is set to 250 ms, the disruption time measurement starts on the onset of the first event and will continue counting until the instrument measures 250 ms of error-free signal. Options: 1-3000 ms. • In general, this value should be set to 250 ms. • The default value is 500 ms; it can be programmed to match your guidelines, SLA, and internal procedures.

• See Section 4.6 for the results. SONET Parameters MS-REI/REI-L: View where and if REI measurements will be taken on an OC-768 line. Options (non-selectable): M1 Only, M0-M1 • ITU-T G.707 Revision 2000 added the M0 Line REI byte for rates at and above 10G. M1 REI is available for all STS-N rates. Enhanced RDI Check Box: Enable/disable the use of enhanced RDI. Additional measurements appear in the Results if the check box is marked.

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40G Module

Reference Clock Ref. Clock: Determine the time base for making frequency measurements. Options: Internal, External • Internal uses the test set’s internal clock to make frequency measurements. • External uses timing received at the 1.5M/2M BITS or Ext. Clock port. The signal can be a NRZ (2.048 MHz) signal (square or sine wave). Note: The receiver itself always synchronizes to the incoming bit stream regardless of the Reference Clock selection. External Clock Type: If the Ref. Clock is set to External, select the reference signal source. Options: 2M Clock, 2M Data, 1.5M Data, 64K Clock • 2M Clock: 2 MHz • 2M Data: 2 Mbps • 1.5M Data: BITS clock in SONET mode • 64K Clock: 64K+8K codirectional clock • Uses timing received at the 1.5M/2M BITS or Ext. Clock port. The signal can be a NRZ (1.544 MHz or 2.048 MHz) signal (square or sine wave). =

55


STT Scalable Network Test Solution 3.8 Measurement Settings In this window, configure items pertaining to how measurements are taken.

Figure 40 Measurement Settings

Measurement Mode Mode: Set the mode in which measurements will be taken. Options: Timed, Continuous • A Timed measurement will stop when the specified amount of time has elapsed. This option is useful for making measurements of a specified length; 15 minute and 1 hour tests are commonly used in the industry.

If you choose Timed, move to the Duration area which appears, and enter a number of Hours between 0 and 999, and a number of Minutes between 1 and 59.

• A Continuous test will run indefinitely until you press ’Stop.’ Duration: In Timed Mode, enter the time the test will last, in the Hour and Minute fields.

Start Mode Mode: Select the method to begin your test measurements. Options: Program, Manual • Program: Program a specified date and time in the future to begin taking measurements at. Once you have selected Program, you must enter the desired date and time in the next two items. • Manual: Manually begin the test measurements at the desired time. Start Date: Applies if you have selected Program for Start Mode above. • Touch the drop down arrow to bring up the touch-sensitive calendar.

56


40G Module

• Enter the Year, Month, and Day to begin measurements. Start Time: Applies if you have selected Program for Start Mode. • Specify the Hour, Minute, and Seconds to begin measurements.

Save Mode Mode: Determine if results will be save automatically. • Auto: Results will be saved automatically. • Never: Results are not saved. Program Start

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STT Scalable Network Test Solution 3.9 System Setup Set several communication port settings.

Figure 41 System Setup Menu

Serial Port Baud Rate: Determines the number of shortest signaling elements per second on a transmission medium. Options: 1200, 2400, 9600, 19200, 38400, 57600 Parity: An extra bit, known as a parity bit, is added to the data as an accuracy check. Options: None, Odd, Even • None is the factory default setting, signifying no parity checking. • In Odd parity, the total number of ones (including the added parity bit) is odd. • In Even parity, the total number of ones (including the added parity bit) is even. • The receiving element checks the parity bit, and indicates an error if the total number of ones does not add up to the correct total. Stop Bit: Options: 1, 2 • The factory default setting is 1. Bits/Character: Defines the number of bits per character. Options: 7, 8 • The default is 8 bits per character.

Ethernet Port Setup Module IP: Enter the IP address to be assigned to the unit. Subnet Mask: Enter the subnet mask assigned to the unit (if necessary). 58


40G Module

DHCP Enabled: Allows the STT 40G to automatically retrieve the appropriate IP address when connected to a LAN. Note: The STT Control Module and the test module(s) each have an Ethernet port. This setting applies to the module’s Ethernet port. In Instrument mode, the setting should not be changed. To configure the Control Module’s Ethernet port, go the Windows desktop and right-click on My Network Places. See the STT Platform User’s Manual.

Other Settings In asynchronous transmission, the stop bit is the last transmitted character which permits the receiver to come into an idle condition before accepting another character.

Audible Alarms: Enable an audible alarm to sound whenever STT receives an error or alarm message. Laser always off on power-up for safety: Unchecked, the STT 40G laser will automatically turn on when the unit is powered up in an optical configuration. For safety’s sake, you may wish to check this box and disable the feature.

Print Event Options All Events: The STT 40G automatically transmits all alarms, errors, and results to the serial port for printing. None: The STT 40G does not send events to the serial port for printing.

Module Clock Date: Click the current date on the pull down calendar to enter the date. Time: Enter the current time of day via a keyboard, or use the up and down arrows to increase or decrease the hour/minutes. Press the ‘Get Local Time’ button to have the STT 40G retrieve the local time from the Windows operating system.

59


STT Scalable Network Test Solution 3.10 Events Filter Use the Events Filter to determine which types of errors and events will be reported on the measurement results tabs.

Figure 42 Events Filter By default, all of the check boxes are marked. If you don’t want to include a particular statistic in the results, remove the check mark. Use the ‘Clear All’ button to uncheck all of the events (none will be reported); press ‘Select All’ to check all of the events (all will be reported). See Abbreviations, Section 11.1, for definitions.

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40G Module

4 Results Tabs

Action Bar ‘Start’ button

To enter the measurement results window, click Result > Results from the Menu Bar. Start the test by clicking the Action Bar ‘Start’ button; pressing ‘Start’ will also bring up the results windows. ‘Start’ will change to ‘Stop’; click ‘Stop’ to halt the test. You may also have a test start automatically by programming one in the Measurement Settings window (Section 3.8). Once the measurement results window is open, it will appear as an ‘x-MEAS’ button in the Window Bar. You can also access results at any time by pressing ‘Meas.

Tab with menu arrow

Insert Signal Results tab drop down

The ‘RUNNING’ banner appears in a green field in the Status Bar when a test is started. Attached to it, in a yellow field, is the laser indicator(s), if appropriate. The Elapsed Time counter at the top left will begin counting. Some tabs feature a down arrow in the tab header. This means more than one results tab is available from that header. For example, you can see either the OTN or the OTN TCM results from the down arrow on the OTN TCM tab. If a Drop/Insert test is underway, the extra (down arrow indicated) results will show “Insert (result)” to remind you that the result is for the inserted signal. For example, you will see a Insert/Signal result under the Signal tab down arrow. Some tabs feature the >> symbol in the results header, next to the word Rate. The results default view is the total error rate. To see the current rate (the rate for the last one second), press >>. The header display will switch to Current Rate. Press >> on the Current Rate view to return to the standard total Rate view.

Measurements Several measurement results tabs are available; the exact results available will depend on your test signal setup and the Measurement Parameters settings. • You need not access the Results window in order for measurement results to be compiled. • Results windows allow you to view accumulated measurements. • Measurements must be stopped before changing the configuration. A warning message will appear if you attempt to change the configuration before stopping measurements. • The windows presented for OTN, SDH and SONET will differ, as will the tabs presented for In-Service and Out-of-service modes.

Results Overviews and Status You may get a quick overview of the status of the line in a number of different ways. The simplest and quickest is just to look at the LEDs (Section 1.5.1); click the rate button to see the detailed Breakaway LEDs for a fuller picture. Another is to look at the overall Summary window; see the next section. Another is to press the signal button on the Status Bar in order to see the detailed LEDs.

61


STT Scalable Network Test Solution And finally, press the Status Bar ‘Full Screen Status’ button (Section 1.5.1) for an overview.

‘Full Screen Status’ button

Figure 7 shows the Full Screen Status window. It presents an at-a-glance overview of the line. Look to the soft LEDs for additional information. Press ‘Close’ to return to a standard results window. Note that the ‘Clear History’ button is also available in the Status Bar and on the Full Status window. Use it to clear flashing history LEDs. The Full Status Screen button is available in the Status Bar.

4.1 Summary Results Figure 43 is a sample Single Point-to-Point Summary window. Time remaining: countdown (if measurement duration is set) or continous. See Section 3.3. Test elapsed time Summary flag Time & Date for each event

Current signal power & voltage Current signal frequency

Figure 43 Summary Results The Summary window reports on the primary types of errors or alarms detected for each signal in use, and reports on the signal level and signal frequency. You will see a “NO ERRORS” message if there are no errors or alarms on the line. This window will update throughout the test.

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40G Module

4.2 Signal Results Click on the Signal tab to view signal results.

Insert Signal Results tab drop down

Figure 44 Signal Results, Optical

Signal Optical Interfaces; measured at 1500 nm Power: Received power. Measurements are displayed in dBm, with an accuracy of ¹ 3 dB (TBR). Note: The module will shut down automatically if optical power is too high. Frequency Notes • The bar graph appears when you have selected an external reference clock, and have the external clock connected. It shows how fast the signal is slipping in relation to the reference clock. Frequency: Current frequency measured during the last second, in Hz. Freq. Offset: Deviation in ppm of the received frequency from the reference frequency (internal or external). Frequency: Current frequency measured during the last second, in Hz. Min NEG./Max POS. Offset: Minimum negative/ Maximum positive deviation in ppm of the received frequency from the reference frequency (internal or external).

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STT Scalable Network Test Solution 4.3 OTN Results If Tandem Connection Monitoring has been enabled, the OTN TCM window will appear in addition to the basic OTN results window (Figure 45). Select the OTN or the OTN TCM tab using the down arrow on the tab header. OTN Results Menu

The OTN Results window reports on received optical defects and alarms. Some parameters report the rate as well as the count of the error.

ODU2 > OPU3 Results Measurements are performed on the background ODU2 channel using the selected OPU3 foreground channels in the OTN Configuration window.

Figure 45 Defects Results: OTN OTN/OTU Defects

ODU Defects

LOS: Loss Of Signal

AIS: Alarm Indication Signal

LOF: Loss of Frame

OCI: Open Connection Indication

OOF: Out of Frame

LCK: Locked Defect

LOM: Loss of Multiframe

BDI: ODU Backwards Defect Indication

OOM: Out of Multiframe

TIM: Trace Identifier Mismatch

AIS: OTU Alarm Indication Signal

BIP8: Bit Interleaved Parity 8 error

IAE: OTU Incoming Alignment Error

BEI: ODU Backwards Error Indication

BDI: OTU Backwards Defect Indication BIAE: Backward Incoming Alignment Error TIM: OTU Trace Identifier Mismatch

OPU Defects

FRAME: Bit errors on frame

PLM: Payload Mismatch

MFAS: Bit errors on Multiframe bytes CORRFEC: Corrected FEC errors UNCORFEC: Corrected FEC errors BIP8: Bit Interleaved Parity 8 error BEI: OTU Backwards Error Indication 64


40G Module

4.4 TCM Results Enable Tandem Connection monitoring on the SDH or OTN Signal Configuration Port Mapping window. For SDH, High Path and/or Low Path results may be shown, depending on what was enable in Measurement Parameters.

TCM Enable

Figure 46 ODTU TCM Results

Results are available for up to six tandem connections. Touch the TCM you want results on in the TCM bar.The counts are numbers of seconds containing the error or indication. Touch the number buttons under the TCM #x header to select the TC to get results on. The TC number is also indicated in the results; e.g. TCM-4 OCI reports on OCI for TC number 4. OCI: Open Connection Indication AIS: TC Alarm Indication Signal UNEQ: Unequipped signal RDI: Remote Defect Indication IEC: Incoming Error Indication OEI: Outgoing Error Indication LCK: Locked defect TIM: Trace Identifier Mismatch BDI: Backwards Defect Indication BDI: Backwards Defect Indication IAE: Incoming Alignment Error BIAE: Backward Incoming Alignment Error LTC: Loss of Tandem Connection signal BIP8: Bit Interleaved Parity 8 65


STT Scalable Network Test Solution 4.5 ODTU Results ODTU (results are available for ODTU2 configurations (ODU1 Time Division Multiplexing).

ODTU pull down menu

Figure 47 ODTU Results

ODTU Defects LOF: Loss of Frame OOF: Out of Frame LOM: Loss of Multiframe OOM: Out of Multiframe IAE: OTU Incoming Alignment Error BDI: OTU Backwards Defect Indication BIAE: Backward Incoming Alignment Error TIM: OTU Trace Identifier Mismatch FRAME: Bit errors on frame MFAS: Bit errors on Multiframe bytes

ODU Defects AIS: OTU Alarm Indication Signal OCI: Open Connection Indication LCK: Locked Defect BDI: ODU Backwards Defect Indication TIM: Trace Identifier Mismatch BIP8: Bit Interleaved Parity 8 error BEI: ODU Backwards Error Indication PLM: Payload Mismatch 66


40G Module

4.6 Service Disruption The STT 40G offers a precise Service Disruption measurement when pseudorandom test pattern (PRBS) is in use (e.g. 2E31-1). This measurement is not available when the instrument is configured with fixed test patterns, or for In-service (Live) Test Mode. This measurement is integral part of the STT 40G comprehensive BER Test and runs concurrently with all the other performance measurements. Service Disruption measurement assumes an error-free line and pattern synchronization before the test is started. The disruption time counter starts on the onset of the first bit error, then stops counting until a predefined error-free period has passed (Test Window; Section 3.7). The Test Window (error-free period required to stop the counter) can be set to any value between 1 ms and 3000 ms. The STT 40G can detect defects and measure service disruption times as short as 50 Âľs, with a resolution of 50 Âľs.

Figure 48 Service Disruption Overview; 250 ms Test Window Although this test also measures the effect of automatic protection switching, it should not be confused with the APS pass/fail test described in Section 6. APS is When there has been only one disruption, the a more controlled test that uses a specific trigger (defect) while Service Disruption Longest will equal the Short- takes into account any defects or errors. Results are in milliseconds (ms). est.

Figure 49 Service Disruption Longest: Longest period for which service was disrupted. Shortest: Shortest period for which service was disrupted. Last: Length of the latest service disruption. Total: Total length of time during which service has been disrupted in this test. 67


STT Scalable Network Test Solution 4.7 SDH/SONET Results This window reports on received SDH/SONET defects and alarms. Use the scroll bar(s) if necessary, to see all of the results. Fewer Inserted results will be shown.

Figure 50 Defects Results: SONET

Figure 51 Defects Results: SDH Here are the types of available alarms, by signal, followed by a general list. SDH: Regenerator Section (RS), Multiplex Section (MS), High Path (HP), Low Path (LP), AU (Administrative Unit), Tandem Connection (TC), and Virtual Group (VCG) alarm results are available. SONET: Alarms may be inserted at any level; Section (S), Line (L), Path, or Virtual Tributary (V).

68


40G Module

AIS: Count of the number of seconds containing Alarm Indication Signal at an applicable layer since the beginning of the test. B1: Count of the number of seconds containing B1 RSOH errors, B3: Count of the number of seconds containing B3 Path errors. FASE: Count of the Frame Alignment Signal errors received since the beginning of the test. RATE is the average rate of received FASE since the beginning of the test. LOS: Loss of Signal is a count of the number of seconds in which signal has been lost during the test. LOF: Count of the number of seconds with Loss Of Frame since the beginning of the test. LOF occurs when 4 or 5 consecutive frames are received with errored framing patterns. LOM: Loss of Multiframe. LOP: Count of seconds which have had Loss of Pointer since the beginning of the test. LOP occurs when N invalid pointers or New Data Flags are received. Available for Administrative and Tributary Units (SDH), and for STS Path and Virtual Tributary (SONET). NDF: Number of frames with a New Data Flag. OOF: Count of Out-Of-Frame seconds that have occurred since the beginning of the test. PLM: Count of the number of seconds containing Payload Label Mismatch error. It occurs when the C2/V5 signal label bytes received are different from what was expected. RDI: Count of seconds which have had far end Remote Defect Indication since the beginning of the test. This signal is returned to the transmitting TE when the far end detects a Loss Of Signal, Loss of Frame, AIS, Trace Identifier Mismatch or Unequipped. Available for the Multiplex Section and Higher Path (SDH), Server, Connectivity and Path for VCGs, and for Line and Path (SONET). REI: Count of seconds with Remote Error Indication on the indicated path or tributary. RFI: Count of seconds which have had far end Remote Failure Indication seconds; signal failure at the far end. It indicates to the transmitting end that the receiving end has received an errored block. Available for the Multiplex Section, the Lower Order Path, or Higher Order Path sections and Payload Remote and Connectivity Remote Defect Indication for SDH; for the Line, Path and Virtual Tributary Path for SONET. TIM: Count of seconds with Trace Identifier Mismatch.

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STT Scalable Network Test Solution

4.8 G.821 (SDH)/BERT (SONET) Results This window reports on the G.821 parameters, applied to any single signal interface, or any payload. It appears only for Out-of-service (BERT) tests. For SDH/PDH, use the down arrow menu to access all of the G.xxx results tabs. Status Bar BERT LEDs

G.xxx Drop Down

Figure 52 G.821 BERT Results Current Bit: Number of current bit errors during a one second period. Bit: Count of the number of bit errors which have occurred since the beginning of the test. A bit error is a difference between the pattern of the incoming signal and the reference pattern detected after pattern synchronization. Usage: The test set is measuring a known pattern, so the measurement covers transmission performance over the entire service, not just a local section. This is the preferred measurement for out-of-service testing, and service acceptance tests. The measurement is often performed in conjunction with a loopback device at the far end. Current BER: Current Bit Error Rate. This measurement is updated every second, and is not averaged. BER: Averaging Bit Error Rate, since the beginning of the test. This measurement is reported as N/A when the test set is not synchronized on a known received pattern. Usage: The rate is sometimes used instead of a count, when the measurement is conducted for a longer period. 1x10-3 bit error rate is the threshold for non-acceptable links. ES: Count of the number of Errored Seconds which have occurred since the beginning of the test. • An ES is a one-second period in the AS during which one or more bit errors are detected. • An errored second is not counted during an unavailable second. 70


40G Module

Usage: The measurement is attractive because it takes out the effects of burstiness on service performance and because it measures the quality of service as the user actually sees it. %ES: Ratio of ES to the AS expressed as a percentage. SES: Count of the number of Severely Errored Seconds that have occurred since the beginning of the test. An SES is a one-second period in the AS during which either one or more of the followings occur: • BER is equal to or worse than 1 x 10-3 • Alarm indication signal • Loss of signal • Loss of frame alignment • Loss of pattern synchronization • Uncontrolled pattern slip The SES is a subset of ES, therefore an SES will also cause an ES count. A severely errored second is not counted during an unavailable second. %SES: Ratio of SES to the AS expressed as a percentage, since the beginning of the test. EFS: Count of Error Free Seconds since beginning of the test. An EFS is a onesecond period in the AS during which no bit errors and no pattern slips have been detected. %EFS: Percentage of Error Free Seconds since the beginning of the test which have not contained errors. AS: Count of Available Seconds is the available time in the total observation time. It is the difference between the elapsed time and the UAS and is expressed in seconds. %AS: Percentage of Available Seconds since the beginning of the test. UAS: Count of all the Unavailable Seconds since the beginning of the test. Service is not available during an UAS. The UAS register displays the unavailable time in seconds in the total observation time. A period of unavailable time begins at the onset of a period of ten consecutive SES. The unavailable time ends with the first second of a period of ten consecutive non-SES seconds. %UAS: Percentage of UAS since the beginning of the test.

71


STT Scalable Network Test Solution 4.9 G.826 Results (SDH) View G.826 based statistics, applied to any single signal interface, or any payload, at the near end (BIP based) or far end (REI based). Turn G.826 results on or off in the Measurement Parameters window (Section 3.7). This ITU-T standard is often used as an in-service error performance tool for monitoring the quality of links carrying live traffic. The parameter definitions given in G.826 are block-based. This makes in-service measurement convenient.

Figure 53 G.826 Results The following definitions are specific to this window: BE: A Block Error is a block containing one or more bit errors. %BE: Percentage of errored blocks since the beginning of the test. BBE: A Background Block Error is an errored block not occurring as part of an SES (Severely Errored Second). %BBE: The percentage of errored blocks since the beginning of the test, excluding all blocks during SES and unavailable time. SES: A Severely Errored Second is a one second period which contains greater or equal to 30% errored blocks. %SES: Percentage of Severely Errored Seconds since the beginning of the test.

72


40G Module

4.10 G.828 Results (SDH) View G.828 parameters, applied to the Path defined in the Signal Configuration window, at either end. Turn G.828 results on or off in the Measurement Parameters tab (see Section 3.7). Access the G.828 results from the G.xxx tab pull down menu. G.828 applies to SDH Paths designed after March 2000. It is not available for SONET configurations. G.828 was developed to improve the error performance analysis of new digital paths that involve new Path Terminal Equipment. Near End and Far End Results windows are available, applied to the High and Low Paths. The measurements presented are the same, applying to the indicated Path and End.

Figure 54 G.828 Results Here are the definitions specific to this window: EB: An Errored Block is one in which one or more bits are in error. ES: An Errored Second is a one second period with one or more errored blocks or at least one defect. SES: A Severely Errored Second is a one second period which contains 30% errored blocks or at least one defect. SES is a subset of ES. SEP: A Severely Errored Period is a sequence of 3 to 9 consecutive SES. The sequence is terminated by a second which is not an SES. This measurement is not good for measurement periods of less than three seconds.

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STT Scalable Network Test Solution 4.11 G.829 Results (SDH) View the G.829 parameters, applied to the Section defined in the Measurement Parameters window (see Section 3.7) at the near end. This window will not appear for SONET configurations. G.829 defines error performance events for SDH Regenerator and Multiplex sections, at either end. B1 is used for monitoring RSOH, B2 for MSOH, and B3 for VC-3/-4. The measurements presented are the same, applying to the indicated Section and end. Observing the definitions given in G.829 will ensure that error performance assessment on SDH Multiplex and Regenerator Sections yield compatible results. Access the G.829 results from the G.xxx tab pull down menu.

Figure 55 G.829 Results Window Here are the results specific to this window: BE: Background Block Error BBE: Background Block Error

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40G Module

4.12 GR-253 Results (SONET) GR-253-CORE is the “Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) Transport Systems: Common Generic Criteria specification.” These windows report on the GR-253 parameters, applied to the layer defined in the Measurement Parameters window (Section B1, Line B2 or Path B3 or VT), at the near and far end. The unit counts ES and SES for each layer based on the defined thresholds that are recommended on GR-253 for B1, B2, and B3. Turn GR-253 results on or off in the Measurement Parameters window. This Bellcore standard offers snapshot measurements, rather than ongoing counts. This window is not available for ITU-T tests. • Percentage rates (such as %SES) are the percentage of the total for the indicated error or parameters. • Higher layer alarms may bring layers underneath into an unavailable state; e.g., AIS-L will cause SES in the Path layer. The GR-253 P/V window reports GR-253 results for the Path and Virtual Tributary. The GR-253 S/L window reports GR-253 results for the Section and Line.

Figure 56 GR-253 Section and Line Results

Section AS: Count of available seconds in the test. EFS: Count of error-free seconds during which no errors accumulated.

Section Layer Errors; Near End Only ES: Errored Seconds; count of number of seconds in which at least 1 Section BIP error was detected, or during which SEF or LOS was present. SES: Severely Errored Seconds; count of seconds with K or more BIP errors detected, or when SEF or LO was present.

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STT Scalable Network Test Solution

Rate OC-1 OC-3 OC-12 OC-24 OC-48 OC-192 OC-768

K 52 155 616 1,220 2,392 8,854 22,778

Line Layer Errors ES: Line Errored Seconds; count of number of seconds in which at least 1 Line BIP detected, or an AIS-L was present. SES: Line Severely Errored Seconds; count of seconds with K or more Line BIP errors, or AIS-L was present.

Rate

K

OC-1

51

OC-3

254

OC-12

615

OC-24

1,230

OC-48

2,459

OC-192

9,935

OC-768

39,339

UAS: Count of Line unavailable seconds. The Line layer becomes unavailable at the onset of 10 consecutive seconds of SES-L/-P.

STS Path ES: STS Path Errored Seconds; count of seconds where STS Path BIP errors or AIS-P defect was detected. SES: Count of severely errored seconds; K or more STS Path BIP errors, or AIS-P defect detected.

Rate K STS-1/3c/12c/48c/192c 2400 UAS: Count of STS Path unavailable seconds. VT Path ES: Count of VT errored seconds; seconds containing at least one VT Path BIP or AIS-V defect was present. SES: Count of severely errored seconds; seconds containing K or more VT Path BIP errors, or AIS-V, LOP-V, ERDI-V or UNEQ-V defect was present.

Rate VT1.5/2/3/6

K 600

UAS: Count of unavailable seconds; seconds containing 10 consecutive SES-V. 76


40G Module

4.13 G.8201 Results (OTN) Specification G.8201 covers error performance parameters and objectives for multi-operator international paths (OTUk) within the Optical Transport Network (OTN). Measurements are block-based, using error detection code (EDC) and EDC usage inherent to the path under test; the block repetition rate is in accordance with Recommendation G.709. Here is a sample screen, showing both counts and percentages for many of the statistics.

G.xxx/x Results Menu

Figure 57 OTN G.8201 Results SM stands for Section Monitoring; it is part of the OUT overhead. The SM-BIP fields show OTU Section Monitoring errors and defects based on BIP-8 calculations. PM stands for Path Monitoring; it is part of the ODU overhead. The PM-BEI field shows ODU Path Monitoring errors and defects based on Backward Error Indications. BE: A block in which one or more bits are in error. BBE: Background Block Error—An errored block not occurring as part of an SES. ES: Errored Seconds­—A second containing one or more errors or defects. SES: Severely Errored Second—A one-second period which contains 15% errored blocks or at least one defect. AS­: Available Seconds­—The available time in the total observation time. It is the difference between the elapsed time and the UAS and is expressed in seconds. UAS: Unavailable Seconds since the beginning of the test. Service is not available during an UAS. The UAS register displays the unavailable time in seconds in the total observation time. A period of unavailable time begins at the onset of a period of ten consecutive SES. The unavailable time ends with the first second of a period of ten consecutive non-SES seconds.

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STT Scalable Network Test Solution 4.14 M.2101 Results (SDH) View pass/fail measurements in accordance with ITU M.2101 Recommendation. It reports on maintenance measurements for SDH Paths. This recommendation is used where an SDH circuit passes through international boundaries. It allocates a certain allowable error rate to each nation that carries the circuit. You merely need to enter the appropriate percentage that is to be allowed for the line under test. The STT 40G makes the M.2101 calculations and reports whether the performance is acceptable or unacceptable. Turn M.2101 measurements on in the Measurement Parameters window (see Section 3.7). Near and Far end results are available for Maintenance measurements. The definitions following pertain particularly to this window.

Figure 58 M.2101 Results Here are the Performance Objectives for M.2101 End-to-End International Trails: Performance Objectives (PO) for end-to-end International Trails Bit rate: Mbps

ES % of time

SES % of time

1.5 < rate = 5

2

0.1

5 < rate = 15

2.5

0.1

15 < rate = 55

3.75

0.1

8

0.1

160 < rate = 3500

N/A (Note)

0.1

> 3500 = N/A (Note)

N/A (Note)

0.1

55 < rate = 160

N/A: Not Applicable Note: BBE may be used for maintenance purposes; issue for further study.

Table 2 M.2101 Maintenance Objectives

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40G Module

From: Date/Time the test started To: Date/Time the test ended Report: Test results; Accepted, Aborted, Provisional, Unacceptable, Degraded ES: Errored Seconds, based on G.821 standard ES BISO: ES Bringing into Service Objective ES S1: S1 threshold for ES ES S2: S2 threshold for ES SES: Severely Errored Seconds, based on G.821 standard SES S1: S1 threshold for SES SES S2: S2 threshold for SES

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STT Scalable Network Test Solution 4.15 M.2110 Results (SDH) View acceptance measurements in accordance with ITU M.2110 specifications for bringing into service SDH and PDH Paths, Sections, transmission systems, and multiplex Sections. Turn M.2110 measurements on in the Measurement Parameters window (Section 3.7). Near and far end results are available for Maintenance measurements, as are results for MS, HP, and LP. Refer to Figure 59. Use the scroll bar to see all of the results. M.xxxx Results Menu

The definitions following pertain particularly to this window.

Figure 59 M.2110 Results From/To: Identifies the date and time interval of each of the reported performance results. The period interval used in Figure 59 is 1 minute. You may change this interval in the Signal Configuration > Measurement Parameters window. Valid entries may range from 1 minute to 7 days. Report: Shows whether or not the test was acceptable during the period. ES, ES%: Number and percentage of M.2110 Errored Seconds since the beginning of the test. An errored second is any second reported on the G.826 window for maintenance (in-service measurement). Report: Shows whether or not the test was acceptable during the period. SES, SES%: Number and percentage of Severely Errored Seconds since the beginning of the test. An M.2110 Severely Errored Second is any SES which has been reported on G.826. ES BISO: ES Bringing into Service Objective. S1: S1 threshold for ES. S2: S2 threshold for ES.

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40G Module

SES BISO: Severely Errored Seconds, Bringing Into Service Objective threshold. SES S1: S1 threshold for SES. SES S2: Threshold for SES. The S1 limit is the lower acceptance limit. If performance is better than the S1 limit the equipment under test may be brought into service with confidence. The S2 limit is the upper acceptance limit; equipment with a worse than S2 limit may not be accepted into service. See the next figure for a graphic illustration (from ITU-T M.2100).

Figure 60 S1/S2 Threshold Criteria

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STT Scalable Network Test Solution 4.16 M.2401 Results (OTN) Recommendation M.2401 addresses error performance limits and procedures for bringing -into-service and maintenance of multi-operator international Paths (ODUk) and Sections (OTUk) within an Optical Transport Network. The measurements reflect the quality of the transport services provided by the optical signal. Select this tab from the M.xxxx menu, accessed via the down arrow on the tab header.

Figure 61 M.2401 Results

In-service and Out-of-service Measurements In-Service Monitoring measurements apply to the error performance of a transport service, without affecting the client signal. This method can be used only when you have access to the error performance information from the equipment providing the optical transport. If you donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t have access to the transport equipment information, perform an Outof-service test by using a known test pattern, performing a bit-by-bit check of the signal at the receiving end. BBE: Background Block Error BBER: Background Block Error Ratio RPO: Reference performance objective for the indicated error state DPL: Degraded Performance Level UPL: Unacceptable Performance Level

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40G Module

4.16.1 M.2120 Results (OTN) View results in accordance with M.2120, for International multi-operator paths, sections and transmission systems fault detection and localization procedures.

Threshold Report (TR): An unsolicited error performance report from a ME with either a 15-minute or 24-hour evaluation period. Several TRs are defined based on filtered error performance events.

Figure 62 M.2120 Results View ES, SES, and BBE for each threshold report. See M.2120 for details.

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STT Scalable Network Test Solution 4.17 Results Histogram Use this feature to troubleshoot your circuit over time; determine if an error persists, occurs randomly or predictably. Histogram information includes pointer adjustments and optical power data. • Errors/Alarms/Pointer graphic display in real-time. • For each file, the Histogram feature will store the last 60 days of results. For the last 60 days, the resolution is 15 minutes. For the last three days, it is one minute resolution. For the last 12 hours, a one second period resolution is available. • Compare two parameters to visually detect correlation • Each time ‘Start’ is pressed, the STT 40G will replace the file in the current Histogram data.

Figure 63 OTN Bar Graph Histogram

Figure 64 SONET Histogram View

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40G Module

If once you have started taking measurements you find a histogram isn’t underway when you go to this tab, go to the View Test Records window (Section 4.18). You will likely see that there is no further room to store records. Delete some records manually, then restart measurements. The histogram should now be in progress.

Window Features Here are the features common to every Histogram view.

Left Menu Radio Buttons: Select the report view. Figure 65 shows a sample Bar Graph view, Figure 64 is a sample Histogram view. • Bar Graph: See the results for many errors or alarms at one time. • Histogram: See detailed results for one particular error at a time. Radio buttons

Zoom Use the ‘Zoom In’ and ‘Zoom Out’ buttons to select the time period interval for viewing data; DAY, HOUR, QUARTER (15 minutes), MINUTE, SECONDS will show in the field. The time frames are selectable only as they apply. The STT 40G can jump one interval at a time. Zoom Notes • When zooming to a one-second resolution, the unit will sometimes not display data for one to two seconds, due to the zooming process.

Zoom Features

• If you zoom in further than applicable (e.g. you zoom to Second in a result three days ago), no active data will be displayed. The grid will remain gray. • When zooming from one time interval to another, you will see a “Retrieving data please wait” message as the STT 40G retrieves and reformats the data for display.

Histogram Cursor Arrows

Plot Area and Headers Cursors: A histogram screen may have one or two cursors (tall bars). The gray cursor shows live data. The white cursor may be moved to pinpoint a particular time, such as an errored time period. A red bar or block indicates a received alarm or error. Use the right and left cursor arrow buttons (below the Date/Time field) to move the cursor bar. Press an arrow once, and the cursor bar will move one interval forward or backward; press it twice and the cursor will jump to the far position in the indicated direction. Use the up and down cursor arrows to scroll through the various anomalies. The red cursor box moves on the grid to each new anomaly as you change the selection. Rate/Secondary Rate: Use the drop down menu to switch between the available signals, if you are in a multirate setup. A BERT is also available. Time Scale Bar: The 0-60 bar over the plot area is the time scale, presented in seconds, minutes, etc. as determined by the zoom.

85


STT Scalable Network Test Solution Alarm Bar: This bar shows red if the STT 40G is receiving an alarm. The bar moves to the right with the passage of time (shown via the time 0–60 grid; the time shown is in accordance to the time scale/zoom setting you are working in: seconds, minutes, etc. The orange triangle is a time position marker. Untouched, it shows the current time. Move the triangle to a specific time to mark it. Scroll Bar: An up/down scroll bar may be located to the right of the results display. Often, the error you need data on will not be visible; scroll to find the error. A green block indicates no alarms are being received. When you see a red block on the alarm bar, scroll down the results display to find the error or alarm being reported on. Count: Reports the number of errors of the indicated Type. Date and Time: Reports the date and time for the location the cursor is placed at. On a saved result, you may see a QUARTER indication in the Time/Date field, telling you which quarter of the hour the results apply to. Date/Time Field

Type Field: Select the measurement parameter type. Here is a listing of the available types for each rate. See Section 4 for measurement definitions and Overhead Functions (Section 5) for optical results and definitions. OTN Options: Errors may be available at any level; HP, LP, V, AU, Line, Section, etc. OOF, LOF, REI, PJUS, NJUS, NDF, TIM, RDI, AIS, PLM, UNEQ, LOM, LOP, RFI, B1, B2, B3, REI-L, BIP2. SDH Options: Errors may be available at any level: LP, HP, TU, AU, etc. Code, LOS, OOF, LOF, TIM, AIS, RDI, LOP, PLM, RDI, UNEQ, LOM, LOP, B1, B2, B3, REI, BIP, PJUS, NJUS, TU, FASE, PVAL, PVAL, OPTPWR, FREQ-OFFSET SONET Options: Errors may be available at any level: ODU2/3, OPTU, od, TCM1,odTCM2, ODTU 2/3, OTN, S, P, V, etc. Code, LOS, OOF, LOF, TIM, AIS, RDI, LOP, AIS, RDI, PLM, UNEQ, PLM, B1, B2, B3, REI, BIP-2, PJUS, NJUS, NDF, FASE, PVAL, PVAL, OPTPWR, FREQ-OFFSET, IAE, BAIE, LTC, OTC, CORRFEC, UNCORRFEC, FRAME When you change the Type field, the final third field will change in a corresponding manner. Here are the possibilities: Count: Appears as applicable; counts the received errors. dBm: Level measurement; appears for Optical Power measurement. Export: You may save a histogram by using the File > Export function (Section 8). Use the standard Windows Export Measurement window to save the file to your chosen location, under the name your provide. Export the file in the .csv (Comma Delimited) format, in order to open the results in a program such as Excel.

Bar Graph View In the Bar Graph view (tick the ‘Bar Graph’ radio button), you can see the measurements of many errors or alarms at one time. They are shown in white. Green indicates no error or alarm condition is present. The errors are listed on the left side of the window, the time beneath the bar.

86


40G Module

Errored LEDs; see Histogram

Figure 65 Bar Graph View (10G) The red outlined square in the cursor bar (as shown in Figure 65) indicates the specific anomaly selected for report in the Type field. You may change the error selection by either touching the graph at a spot which directly corresponds to the type of error and the specific time frame you want data on by selecting the error from the Type pull down menu, or by scrolling to the anomaly you want to see. An up/down scroll bar may be located to the right of the results display. The error you need data on may not be visible; scroll to find the error. A white block indicates no alarms are being received. When you see a red block on the alarm bar, scroll down the results display to find the error or alarm being reported on.

Histogram View In the Histogram view (check the ‘Histogram’ radio button), you can see the specific signal results for one error or alarm at a time. Figure 64 is a sample Histogram view. Use the ‘Zoom In’ and ‘Zoom Out’ buttons to change the screen resolution (HOUR, QUARTER, etc.). The Alarm Bar above the grid shows red if an event is recorded; scroll as required to find the event. Scroll or choose an anomaly from the Type drop down menu to move between the available errors. The error type is reported both in the Type field, and at the bottom of the grid. The indicator at the bottom of the grid (LOS in the sample figure) will also show a color. If the histogram is reporting on more than one error (for example, in the Positive Justification ((PJUS)) histogram, you will also see data for Negative Justification ((NJUS))), you will see each error has its own color (red or green), so that you may differentiate between the anomaly indications. Comparison: Compare two errors/alarms. In the Histogram view, checking this box brings up a second error data field for comparison. One common scenario would be to have each signal the same, while comparing two different errors (such as OC-768 for each rate, comparing the Bit and B2 error

87


STT Scalable Network Test Solution Types). You might also compare CRC and Bit error rates, or Code and CRCs for an electrical signal, or a B1/2/3 error and pointer adjustments. Examples •

• •

One common scenario would be comparing two different errors, such as the Bit and B2 error Types for an OC-768 rate. Figure 66 is an example of this type of comparison. Compare CRC and Bit error rates. Compare B1/2/3 error and pointer adjustments.

Figure 66 Comparison Histogram

BERT Notes Select BERT as the Rate to see BERT measurements. • When you are in BERT mode, access to the different types of error available will depend on whether you are in the Histogram or Bar Graph view. • In the bar graph window, both BIT and LOPS are available.

88

Remember, you can use Result > View Test Record to look at a saved Histogram Analysis.


40G Module

4.18 View Test Records Access the View Test Records window via the Result > View Test Records item in the Menu Bar. See Figure 67. It presents a list of records saved from the Results windows. Remember, you can also use File > Open to open records saved on the STT Control Module or an external PC (via the Save As function).

Figure 67 View Test Records Highlight the record you wish to affect, then double click it to or press â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Viewâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; to open it. The results windows and a configuration window open, and the record appears as a button in the Window Bar (X-MEZx). Next is a sample Configuration window, which shows the test setup.

89


STT Scalable Network Test Solution

Figure 68 Record Configuration Window View Test Records Buttons Affect a saved record; select an action from the drop down list, then press this button to carry the selection out. Options: Lock, Unlock, Rename, Delete, Lock All, Unlock All, Delete All • Select Lock to lock the record; it may not be changed or deleted. • Select Unlock to open a locked record. • Select Delete to delete the highlighted record. • Select Rename to edit the record label (name of the record). • Select Lock All to lock all of the records; they may not be changed or deleted. • Select Unlock All to unlock the records. • Select Delete All to delete all of the records. • Archive/Archive All: Archive the highlighted file or all files from the View Test Record list to the hard drive. The files can then be opened with File > Open.

Notes: If you are saving a record with the same name as an already saved record (for example, MEZ1), the new file will write over the old without warning. This is set at Results. Saved measurement results will show for the record.

Use the File > Save As function to save the new copy of the file on the STT Control Module or controlling PC as necessary.

90


40G Module

4.19 SDH/SONET Propagation Delay The Propagation Delay measurement works by transmitting a single bit error in the test pattern. The time it takes for the error to reach the receiver is the propagation time through the network. Access the feature via the Result > Propagation Delay menu. • View the propagation delay of a looped back signal. • Set Test Mode to Single Point-to-Point. • Select SDH or SONET as the TX/RX Standard. • The test set measures the number of unit intervals it takes for the signal to return. A unit interval is the amount of time it takes to transmit one bit (488 nS for an 2M signal). This number is translated into a number of microseconds of round trip delay.

Performing an Analysis 1. Enter Propagation Delay from the Result menu. 2. Calibrate the equipment before performing a delay measurement. Connect a short cable from TX to RX, then press ‘Calibrate’.

Figure 69 Propagation Delay Calibration 3. After you see the “Calibration complete!” message, connect STT 40G to the network to be tested, and press ‘Restart’. • The unit will report “Analysis Complete!” and display the delay, round trip time, and round trip offset data.

Figure 70 Propagation Delay Analysis

91


STT Scalable Network Test Solution Up to three seconds of delay can be measured, with a resolution of 1 us.

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40G Module

5 Overhead Monitor

Click the ‘OTN OH Mon’ or SDH SONET ‘OH Mon’ button on the Action Bar to access optical Overhead functions. A group of Overhead Function tabs will appear.

5.1 Overhead Transmit 5.1.1 OTN OH TX

Select the OTN TX tab to transmit Overhead bytes. Select OTN or ODTU from the header menu.

‘OTN Overhead Monitor’ button

Figure 71 OTN TX Overhead with TTI Here are the abbreviations used on this window: FAS: Frame Alignment Signal

OA: OA1 and OA2 are framing bytes; OA1 is always F6 and OA2 is 28

MFAS: MultiFrame Alignment Signal SM: Section Monitoring

TTI: Trail Trace Identifier

BIP 8: Bit Interleaved Parity 8

BEI: Backward Error Indication

GCC: General Communications Channel RES: Reserved 93


STT Scalable Network Test Solution JC: Justification bits (J0, NJO, PJ0) TCM ACT: Tandem Connection Monitoring Activation TCM: Tandem Connection Monitoring PM: Path Monitoring EXP: Experimental APS/PCC: Automatic Protection Switching/Protection Communications Channel

Byte Color Coding Yellow: Framing bytes Green: OTU (Optical Transport Unit) OH Light blue: ODU (Optical Data unit) OH Dark blue: OPU (Optical channel Payload Unit) OH

Editing Bytes Select the byte you want to affect on the OTN TX tab, then press ‘Edit’ or double click the byte to open the appropriate Byte Edit window. In Figure 72, the OTN Payload Byte Edit window is active. In Figure 72, an ODU TCM byte is shown. The format is set at Encode; selects its value from the drop down list. If a Format is set at Binary, enter a new value in the field.

Figure 72 OTN Byte Edit Window Press ‘OK’ when you are through editing the byte. You will return to the OTN TX window. Press ‘Cancel’ to exit the window without saving the changes. Press ‘Sequence’ on the Byte Edit view of the window to edit a test sequence. See Section 5.1.2 for details.

94


40G Module

Figure 73 ODTU TX Overhead with Byte Sequence

95


STT Scalable Network Test Solution 5.1.2 SDH/SONET OH TX Select SDH/SONET TX to transmit Overhead bytes. Cursor

SDH/SONET Overhead Monitor button

Byte Info & Control

Regenerator Section OH

Multiplex Section OH

Path OH

Configuration

Figure 74 Overhead Transmit Select the SDH/SONET TX tab to transmit Overhead bytes.

Overhead Field As shown in Figure 74, the different Overhead bytes are easily distinguished by color. • RSOH or Section OH bytes are yellow. • MSOH or Line OH bytes are green. • The central teal bytes are Pointers (SDH only; SONET does not include the pointers in the OH). • The vertical teal byes are POH. Move the red cursor to highlight the byte you are interested in.

Byte Control The highlighted byte will be decoded in the Byte Control area. The data reported depends on the functionality of the byte. In Figure 74, J1 has been selected. The Byte Control area tells you that this byte is the HP J1 Trace byte, and also the size of the byte (at the DECODE line), and shows the trace itself. If the STT 40G is receiving a J1 trace already, it appears in the Trace field. To further configure the transmit and receive trace bytes, see Section 5.6. A few bytes, such as pointers (e.g. H40 and parity bytes [e.g. B1] are for viewing only. You may choose the display format for the remaining bytes. You may enter the byte value (or choose a message) for a number of the bytes, such as the Reserved and Datacom bytes.

96


40G Module

If you have highlighted an S1, K1, or K2 byte, standard definitions are available, if you have selected ASCII as the FORMAT. Use the CHANNEL, REQUEST, MESSAGE, or LABEL drop down list (as appropriate) to see the decodes available for the byte. FORMAT: Select the format the bytes will be displayed in; ASCII or BINARY, or BINARY or ENCODE, depending on the byte. • If BINARY or ENCODE: Enter the digits yourself in the VALUE field. If you change the bytes, the new decode will appear at the MESSAGE line. • If ASCII: Select a specific message to transmit from the Label drop down menu which appears. For example, the C2 byte operates this way. BITS (1-8/5-8) or VALUE: Enter the bits to transmit. Here are the fields available to each byte: A1, A2, E1, E2, F1-F3, G1, D1-D9, N1, Z2: Binary, Hex K1: Format, Request, Channel K2: Format, Channel, Architect, Alarm K3: Format, Channel S1: Format, Message C2: Format, Label

‘Byte Control’ button

Sequence: Determine a sequence of bytes to transmit for the highlighted OH byte. Press the ‘Sequence’ button to activate the function. The button will then appear as ‘Byte Cntrl,’ to return you to that view.

Figure 75 Overhead Byte Sequences

Sequence for ‘X’ byte

• Single: Transmit the programmed sequence once. • Continuous: Transmit the programmed sequence until you stop taking measurements.

97


STT Scalable Network Test Solution Edit the byte sequence in the grid, and determine which frame that sequence will be transmitted on. Use the scroll bar to access all of the editable rows. Frame: Enter the frame number the corresponding sequence will transmit on. Hex: Enter the byte sequence for that frame. • Press ‘Send’ to transmit the sequence. • Press any OH byte on the left portion of the window to return to the standard window view.

Configuration Fields STM-1#, STS-1#: Use the Up and Down arrows to select the STM/STS to transmit data on. Ring/Linear: Choose the APS bytes decoding for Linear (ITU-T G.783) or Ring (ITU-T G.841) systems.

Press Press

98

to transmit the configured bytes. to return to the Byte Control view.


40G Module

5.2

Overhead Receive View OTN, SDH, or SONET overhead bytes via the OH button in the Action Bar. Sometimes, a bar will pop up offering you a choice of bytes to view.

5.2.1 OTN RX Select this tab in order to view the received Overhead bytes. You can see the captured bytes changing live. The layout is the same as in the previous OTN TX window (Section 5.1.1).

Figure 76 Overhead Receive, OTN

Basic Byte Capture and Decode 1. Select a byte you want data on. The byte is highlighted in red (F6, OA1 in Figure 76). 2. A Byte Decode window will pop up, where you view the decode information for the highlighted byte. See the next figure. â&#x20AC;˘ Go to Section 5.6.1 to transmit and receive TTI traces.

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STT Scalable Network Test Solution

‘Decode’ button

Figure 77 OTN RX with Byte Decode Window

Multiframe/Free Drop Down: Select the multiframe to get data on. • Free: Looks at any multiframe. • Lock on MF: Locks on PSI in the first multiframe. The first APS byte is also multiframe dependent. • To enter a specific multiframe to lock onto, use the corresponding Up and Down arrows, or enter the number directly into the field. MF 1 is normally used to carry the PSI information.

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40G Module

5.2.2 SDH/SONET RX View the received Overhead bytes. See the following SONET sample window. The layout is the same as in the previous Overhead Transmit window (Section 5.1.1).

Figure 78 Overhead Receive, SONET Overhead bytes are received when you enter this window. You can see the captured bytes changing live on the window.

Basic Byte Capture and Decode 1. Select the byte you want data on. It is highlighted in red (G1 in Figure 78). 2. Look at the Byte Decode field to view the decode information for the highlighted byte. • The J0/1 trace decode field include a FORMAT drop down choice. Select ASCII or hex code for the display format. Go to Section 5.6.2 to send and receive J traces.

Configuration Field STM-1#, STS-1#: Select the STM/STS you want to transmit data on. • Use the corresponding Up and Down arrows to make the selections.

Overhead Receive Buttons ‘Hold’/‘Continue’: Determine how data will be displayed. ‘Hold’: Freeze the display. ‘Continue’: Return to a continuously updating display. ‘Capture’: Set the specific bytes to capture in the Setup and Trigger tabs which appear when you press ‘Capture’. Click the Setup tab (on the left of Figure 79) to start the process.

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STT Scalable Network Test Solution

Figure 79 Setup and Trigger Tabs

Configure a Byte Capture 1. Setup Capture - -

Time Units: Determine if you want to capture bytes by counting the number of Seconds or the number of Frames. Time Mode: Elapsed or Duration

• When you have finished the Setup, select the Trigger Capture tab. 2. Trigger Capture A. Set the Trigger to Off to capture the specified bytes at any time. To see an alarm condition before capturing bytes, select the alarm from the pull down list. 3. Start the test. A. Return to the Capture tab, and press ‘Start’. • Bytes will be captured according to your configuration, and shown on the Byte Decode portion of the Overhead Receive window, shown next.

Figure 80 Capture Specific Bytes Press ‘Decode’ to return to the Byte Decode frame view. 102


40G Module

5.3 SDH/SONET Overhead Settings To determine how Overhead will be presented, select the Settings tab. Not all settings apply to all standards.

Figure 81 Overhead Settings APS: Choose the APS bytes decoding format. Options: Linear, Ring • Linear follows ITU-T G.783 • Ring follows ITU-T G.841 DCC Through: N/A Orderwire Through: N/A Orderwire: N/A Orderwire Pattern: N/A SDH/SONET OH (TX): The STS/STM overhead is transmitted on STS-1/STM-1. SONET/SDH OH (RX): The STS/STM overhead is received on STS-1/STM-1. TCM HP/LP (TX): Enable the transmission of tandem connection monitoring (TCM) bytes for the High or Low Path. TCM HP/LP (RX): Enable the reception of TCM bytes for the High or Low Path.

103


STT Scalable Network Test Solution 5.4 Pointer Monitor (SDH/SONET)

In this window you can monitor the pointer. Measurements must be running in order to detect pointer movement. Figure 82 presents a sample SONET window (an SDH window of the same signal would show AU and TU pointers).

Figure 82 Monitor Pointers Here are the window definitions. H1 /V1 BYTE: H1/V1 byte pointer value. H2/V2 BYTE: H2/V2 byte pointer value. POINTER VALUE: Observe the pointer value, in decimal. Loss of Pointer Secs: Number of seconds in which the pointer was lost. Justification: Count of the number of times the pointer value has changed. Positive Justification: Number of positive justification bytes; increase in pointer value. Negative Justification: Number of negative justification bytes; decrease in pointer value. New Data Flag Count: Number of seconds with a New Data Flag. Implied Offset: The difference between two frequencies causing pointer movements. Calculated by the formula: (PPJC-NPJC)/(6.64xES Time)

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5.5 Pointer Adjustment Adjust the pointer, thus stressing the network. Press ‘Send’ to put the new settings in effect. You may see the effects of any adjustments in the Pointer Monitor window.

Figure 83 Pointer Adjustments Observe the type of pointer to adjust in the field header(s). This is preset to AU, TU, or AU and TU (simultaneous pointer adjustment), and depends on the test configuration. AU+TU is available for a VC-12 configuration. Check the AU+TU box to send both types of pointer adjustments. Otherwise, you may transmit one type of adjustment at a time. Adjustment Radio Button: Press to keep traditional adjustment. Increase/decrease the pointer value with the arrows. Offset Radio Button: Increase/decrease the pointer in ppm steps.

Adjustment Parameters NDF: Determine the New Data Flag setting. Options: On, Off • ON: The unit will transmit the enabled code (1001) in the NDF bits of the H1 byte. • OFF: The unit transmits disabled code (0110). SS: Select the S bits to transmit. SDH, SONET Options: 10–SDH, 00–SONET, 01, 11–UNKNOWN VT1.5 Options: 11–VT1.5, 00–VT6, 01–VT3, 10–VT2 TU Options: 11–TU-11, 00–TU-2, 01–UNKNOWN, 10–VT-12 • These bits sit between the NDF and the pointer value.

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STT Scalable Network Test Solution Pointer Value: Enter the pointer adjustment value. Use a keyboard or the arrow buttons to enter/select a value from 0-782. • To have the STT 40G alternately transmit negative and positive pointer adjustments, press ‘Alternate’.

Offset Parameters Reference: Determine where the offset is applied: line rate or VC container with payload. Options: Line, Payload

Offset Pointer Adjustment

Offset (ppm): Enter the pointer adjustment value. Options: -100 to 100 ppm To transmit the pointer offset, press ‘Send’. Press ‘Stop’ to stop transmitting pointer offset. Press the ‘Test Sequence’ button to perform G.783 test sequences. See Section 5.5.1.

‘Test Sequence’ button

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5.5.1 Pointer Test Sequences G.783 pointer test sequences are an important tool for qualifying and installing optical networks. This feature allows an engineer to stress test the robustness and jitter tolerance of the network. It is available for Single Point-to-Point and Single Line Test Modes. To access the setup, press the ‘Test Sequence’ button on the Pointer Adjustment window. Measurements can’t be running when you start this test. Figure 84 shows the first Pointer Test Sequence setup screen.

Figure 84 Pointer Test Sequences In this window, items that do not apply to your setup appear grayed out. Simply skip those items and move on to the next black item.

Test Setup Type: Decide the type of pointer to be affected by the test sequence. Sequence: Decide how to affect the pointer sequence. • Opposite: Increase/decrease the pointer value in alternating sequence. • Single: Increase or decrease the pointer value. • Burst: Generate a sequence of changes in the pointer value in one direction only (increase or decrease). • Transient: Generate changes in the phase of the pointer adjustment. • Periodic: Generate periodic changes in the pointer value.

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STT Scalable Network Test Solution • 87-3: Generate an 87-3 pattern (87 consecutive pointer adjustments, 3 consecutive pointer value, with no adjustments). • 26-1: Generate an 26-1 pattern (26 consecutive pointer adjustments, 1 consecutive pointer value, with no adjustments). • Custom: Customize your pointer sequence. Movement: Specify whether the pointer is increasing or decreasing. • Inc: Increase the pointer value. • Dec: Decrease the pointer value. • Inc/Dec: Alternate the pointer value. • Applies only to Opposite sequences. Anomaly: Specify the type of anomaly, if any. • Added: Have an additional pointer value. • Cancel: Reduce the number of adjustments by one. Unit: Select the type of unit to count. Options: Frame, ms, Second N: Specify the number of pointer adjustments in a row. Options: 1-255 (default=6) n: Specify the number of pointer adjustments in a row. Options: 1-255 (default=4) • This only applies to Custom test sequences. Note: The value of n can never be higher than N. T: Specify the average pointer spacing in time. T is known as T2 or T5 in G.783 Options: 8-8000 (default=8000) t: Specify the average added pointer spacing in time; it only applies when Anomaly is set to ADDED. Options: 8-8000 (default=272) frames • t is known as DS3 or T4 in G.783. Cycle: Specify the test cycle. Options: 16-480000 (default=80000) frames

Test Config Initialization (mm:ss): Specify the initialization period. Options: 0-99:59 minutes:seconds (default 1:00) • During the initialization period, the unit sends pointer increase/decreases (as set in the ‘Movement’ field).

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Cool Down (mm:ss): Specify the cool down period. Options: 0-99:59 minutes:seconds (default: 30 sec.) • During the cool down period, the unit transmits the normal periodic sequence (87-3 sequence), or no pointer adjustments at all (all other sequences). Start: Determine if the test will be timed. Options: Continuous, Timed • Continuous: The test will run continuously once you press the ‘Start. It will end when you press ‘Stop’. • Timed: The test will end once you have started it after the amount of time specified in the ‘Duration’ field. Enter the test duration at the next line. Duration: Enter the length of time a Timed test will last.

Start the Pointer Test Sequence Test Press ‘Start’ when you are ready to start the test. The button will appear as ‘Stop’; press it to halt the test.

• The timer counts how long the test has been running. If the test is timed, the test will start when the timer reaches the count set as in the Duration field.

• The bar graph at the bottom shows the progress of each phase of the test. • Measurements are not taken during the initialization or cool down periods. In the measurement period, the sequence continues as the unit compiles standard measurements.

Status • Use the LEDs as a visual reference. In particular, check the SDH/SONET ALM and ERR LEDs. LEDs show green when there are no errors. They show red when errors or alarms are present. • The Results tabs open automatically. Here is a sample Summary window.

Figure 85 Summary Results with Pointer Adjustments

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STT Scalable Network Test Solution 5.6 Traces 5.6.1 OTN TTI Traces Use this feature to configure the TTI bytes and to check for TIM. See the next figure. Use the Transmit feature (Section 5.1) to transmit other OH bytes.

Figure 86 OTN TTI

Trace Generation See Section 5.6.2.1 for specifics on configuring traces. These definitions are unique to this window. Byte: Select the trace byte. Options: SM TTI, PM TTI , TCM 1-6 TTI (if enabled) Mode: Determine the type of data to transmit. SAPI: Set the SAPI. DAPI: Set the DAPI. Operation Bytes: Trace text, entered by the user.

Trace Identifier Mismatch Detection TIM is declared when the received TTI is different from the expected TTI. Only SAPI and DAPI bytes are monitored for TTI TIM alarm. Operation bytes are ignored. See Section 5.6.2.2 for details on details on configuring TIM detection. Following are the definitions for terms unique to this window. Byte: Select the trace byte. Options: SM TTI, PM TTI , TCM 1-6 TTI (if enabled) Mode: Enable to have the TIM alarm be reported in Measurement Results. SAPI: Set the expected SAPI. DAPI: Set the expected DAPI. 110


40G Module

5.6.2 SDH/SONET J0/J1 Traces Use this feature to configure the J0, J1, or J2 bytes and to check for TIM. See Figure 87. Use the Transmit feature (Section 5.1) to transmit other OH bytes. When you are configured to expect a trace, and the trace received does not match the trace configured here, you will see a Trace Identifier Mismatch (TIM) alarm in the Results windows. MS-TIM/TIM-S is declared when this happens with J0 trace, or HP-TIM/TIM-P when it happens with J1 trace.

Figure 87 J0/J1 Traces

5.6.2.1 Trace Generation Configure the trace as you wish, then press ‘Send’ to transmit it. Use the OH Receive window to view the received trace. Here are the generation settings: Byte: Determine which type of trace will be configured. Options: J0, J1-Path, J2 Mode: Determine the type of data to transmit. Options: User, Thru, Default • Select Thru to retransmit the received Path/Section trace. • Select User to transmit user data. Use this procedure: 1. Select User. 2. Enter your trace in the Trace field. 3. The new trace is transmitted when you press the ‘Send’ button. • Default transmits the Sunrise Telecom message: “S” for 1 byte, “STT 40G MODULE!” for 16 bytes, “STT 40G TRANSPORT TESTING! WE MAKE NETWORKS WOR” for 64 bytes.

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STT Scalable Network Test Solution Length: Select the size of the trace to generate. Options: 1 BYTE, 16 BYTES, 64 BYTES • J0: 16 bytes, E.164/ASCII sequence + CRC-7 • J0: 64 bytes E.164/ASCII sequence • J1/J2 Path trace: 16 bytes E.164/ASCII sequence + CRC-7 • J1/J2 Path trace: 64 bytes E.164/ASCII sequence Format: Observe the format in use, determined at the Standard item in the Signal Configuration window.

Send Trace Buttons Transfer the trace configured as the expected trace in the TIM field to the transmit side. Transmit the trace. Transfer the trace configured as the expected trace in the Trace field to the receive side. Set: Confirm the expected trace as configured. Note: To configure a trace to generate manually, select one of the keyboard icons ( ) on the bottom of the window to bring up a detailed soft keypad which will aid you in composing the trace. See the TIM Detection subsection next for details.

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5.6.2.2 TIM Detection The right hand frame of the J0/J1 window allows you to configure the STT 40G for trace identifier mismatch (TIM) detection. Type: Determine which type of TIM will be expected. • J0, J1 HP: RS-TIM/TIM-S • J1-LP: HP-TIM/TIM-P • J2: LP-TIM TIM-V Mode: Determine whether or not the TIM alarm will be reported in Measurement Results. • Enable the alarm (TIM ENABLE) to have the unit report a TIM when the received J0, J1, or J2 trace does not match the trace configured here. Length: Select the length of this trace. Options: 1 BYTE, 16 BYTES, 64 BYTES Format: Observe the format in use, determined at the Standard line in the Signal Configuration window.

Send Trace Buttons Load from Trace: Transfer the trace configured as the transmit trace in the TIM field to the expected side. Set: Confirm the configured trace as the expected trace. Press to access the soft ASCII/Hex keyboard to compose the trace with. See the next figure for a sample of the keyboard window.

Figure 88 ASCII/Hex Edit Pad Touch the character keys to enter the trace. In addition to the many alphanumeric characters, there are a number of special ASCII characters. See a standard ASCII 113


STT Scalable Network Test Solution reference table for details on ASCII. Use the scroll bar to the right to access all of the characters. Use the buttons to the right of the keyboard to backspace, delete or insert characters, as well as clear (delete) the entered trace. Press ‘HEX’ to change from an ASCII to a Hexadecimal display, and back again. ‘OK’ confirms the new trace, and returns you to the J0/J1 Traces tab. ‘Cancel’ returns you to the tab without saving and confirming the trace. Padding: Options: 0x00, 0x20 0x00: null 0x20: 20 (space)

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5.6.3 OTN/SDH/SONET View All Traces Select the View All Traces tab to get a snapshot of each trace currently being received/transmitted.

Figure 89 OTN/SDH/SONET View All Traces

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STT Scalable Network Test Solution 5.7 Payload Signal Label The C2/V5 signal label bytes provide information about the payload signal. A received signal label which does not match the Expected Signal Label set here will generate a PLM error.

Figure 90 Payload Signal Label

5.7.1 Transmit Payload Signal Label Configure the label as you wish in the TX Payload Signal Label frame, then press ‘Send’ to transmit it. Here are the generation settings: Byte: Determine which type of trace will be configured. Options: C2-HP, V5-LP • C2-HP: Configure a High Path label. • V5-LP: Configure a Low Path label. Format: Select the method by which you want to choose the label. Options: ENCODE, BINARY • BINARY: Configure the label using the Bit 1-8 field. Enter the binary digits directly into the field.The drop down list will be grayed out. • ENCODE: Select the label from the drop down list. The BINARY field will be grayed out. Touch the down arrowhead to access the drop down list, and select the label you want to transmit. • After selecting or entering a label, the other Format will show the corresponding change. 116


40G Module

Example In the ENCODE Format, select ‘ATM mapping’ as the signal label, and the grayed out Bit 1-8 field will update to show ‘00010011’.

5.7.2 Expected Payload Signal Label Configure the label for the STT 40G to expect to receive in the Expected Payload Signal Label frame, then press ‘Set’ to confirm it. A received payload label not matching the label set here will generate a mismatch error. Here are the settings. Byte: Determine which type of trace will be configured. Options: C2-HP, V5 • C2-HP: Configure a High Path label. • V5: Configure a Low Path label. PLM Alarm: Activate the expected Payload Signal Label function. Once enabled, a received payload label must match the HP or LP label configured, or a mismatch error will be reported in Measurement Results. Label: Select a label to expect from the Label drop down list. The binary translation of the label will be shown above at the Bits 1-8 line. • Press ‘Set’ to confirm the new configuration.

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6 APS

Access the APS timing feature via the Tools > SDH/SONET Functions > APS path from the Menu Bar.

Figure 91 APS Timing Window Measurement resolution: 1 millisecond Measurement accuracy: ± 125 µs

APS Button You may press ‘Start’ at any time to begin an APS measurement. Press ‘Stop’ to halt a measurement already underway. Sensor: Select which event will trigger the switching procedure from the drop down list. OTN Options: LOS, OTN-LOF, OTN-LOM, OTU3-AIS/IAE/BIAE/RDI ODTU Options: ODTU-LOF/LOM, ODTU-AIS/OCI/LCK/BDI/PLM SDH/SONET Options: LOS, LOF, MS-AIS/RDI/REI, AU-AIS, HP-RDI/REI, LP-RDI/ BIP, TU-AIS/LOP/LOM, LP-REI/RDI/PLM/UNEQ

• For an out-of-service test, make sure that pattern synchronization is established before beginning the test.

• The errors available will depend on your test configuration. • RDI: Look for Remote Defect Indication on the indicated path or tributary. • REI: Look for Remote Error Indication on the indicated path or tributary. • AIS: Look for an Alarm Indication Signal on the indicated path or tributary.

• Bn errors: Select to look for that parity error. • LOS, LOF, LOP, REI, and RDI are available as applicable. • Generally, the MS_AIS/AIS_L is used. 119


STT Scalable Network Test Solution Switch Time Limit [ms]: Set criteria for the maximum APS time allowed for the network to pass APS testing. Options: 0-200 ms • In general, this value should be set to 50 ms. • After the APS time is measured, “PASS” or “FAIL” will be displayed along with the measured time. Test Window [ms]: Set the test window time. Options: 250-3000 ms During an automatic protection switchover, AIS may come and go as the NEs progress through their algorithm to switch traffic to the protection circuit. The ‘Test Window’ allows you to set a time limit on how long to wait. The Test Window must be longer than the Switch Time Limit, but should not be so long that other network events are mistakenly combined with the APS time measurement. Here is another way to think of Gate Time and Test Window: (Gate Time) – (Test Window) = the minimum interval required for the circuit to be error free. A good value for the Test Window is 300 ms.

Starting the Measurement Once the three parameters are set, start the measurement. The test set is now armed and waiting for an APS event to be detected. Initiate the APS using a network management terminal, inserting MS-AIS with test equipment, or by breaking the working circuit. The APS time is measured and displayed, along with “PASS” or “FAIL”.

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7 Communication Channel Drop and Insert

Perform a drop and insert to a protocol analyzer. It is available both In-service and Out-of-service for SDH/SONET signals. Access DCC through Tools > OTN/SDH Functions > DCC/GCC Add Drop.

D&I To do a drop and insert on the DCC/GCC, plug an SA332 cable (contact Sunrise Telecom Customer Service to order this cable) in at the DCC/GCC port, and select Add/Drop at DCC port as the Mode. The Add/Drop function starts immediately. Use an RS-488 protocol analyzer to see the data.

Choose the Communication Channel To select the communication channel to test, go to Tools > OTN/SDH Functions > DCC/GCC Add Drop. A selection window appears, as shown aside.

Communication Channel: Determine the communication channel to use. • Off • OTN-GCC0/1/2GCC: Select GCC Group 0, 1 or 2 communication channels. Choose the DCC/GCC byte

• SDH-RSDCC: Use the SDH Multiplex Section or SONET Line D4-D12 channel. • SDH-MSDCC: Use the SDH Multiplex Section or SONET Line D4-D12 channel.

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8 Save Functions

The STT 40G provides several ways to save measurement results. 1: Results are saved automatically on the module itself, 2: The ‘Save As’ function saves results on the hard drive, 3: Export files to text files on the hard drive, and 4: Generate a Report. Table 7 presents an overview of the save functions. Function

Features Format Open With

Save Location

Histogram?

Events?

Automatically Save

.mez

STT 40G

Yes

Yes

Save As

.mez

File > Open

hard drive*

Yes

Yes

Export

.csv

Excel

hard drive*

No

Optional

(text)

Note Pad®

View Test Records Section 4.18. ®,

**

Word Pad® MS Word® Generate Report

.pdf

Acrobat

hard drive*

No

Optional

Reader®, etc.

* STT Control Module hard drive or external controlling PC hard drive. ** You may elect not to save events; useful if there are a large number of events.

Table 3 Save Functions

Saving Measurement Results • Auto: Results are saved automatically on the STT 40G in accordance with the Save Mode on the Measurement Settings window; see Section 3.8. Usually, you will want to save results automatically. Results are saved on the STT 40G as a .mez file. Use View Test Records, Section 4.18, to view test records. • Export: Export open files via Menu Bar > File > Export to the Control Module’s (Instrument mode) or your PC’s (Standalone mode) hard drive (flash drive, network, etc.). Files exported in .csv (Comma delimited) can be used in spreadsheets such as Excel. The STT 40G will not open exported files. • Save As: You may select a record in the View Test Records window to save under a new name.

Select Menu Bar > File > Save As to save the test record in a directory to the Control Module’s (Instrument mode) or your PC’s (Standalone mode) hard drive (flash drive, network, etc.) in a pre-specified directory, as a .mez file. Use File > Open to open a .mez file from the hard drive. Next is a sample Save As window.

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Figure 92 Save a Result to the Hard Drive

Name the file as necessary. Once a file has been saved to a hard drive, you can easily copy it onto other media (such as a USB flash drive) or onto a LAN, so that you may share or backup the data.

• Generate Report: Once measurements are underway, you may generate a PDF report, using the File > Generate Report function.

If any events have been recorded, you will see a pop up message asking if you want to include the events in the report (they take up a fair amount of space). The Generate Report window will appear, as shown in the background of Figure 93.

File > Generate Report Choose measurements Select additional content Press ‘Generate Report’ The report is created

Export results

Figure 93 Generate a Report

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Enter the information you want added to the report, from the test location to the contact information to the trouble ticket identification number, and any comments, then press ‘Generate Report’ to create the PDF. The Save window will appear; name the report as required, and save it. The STT Manager has a Reporter folder, where reports are saved automatically.

Trouble Ticket ID:

Frequency Frequency: 39813120000Hz Freq. Offset: 0.000ppm Min NEG. Offset: 0.000ppm Max POS. Offset: 0.000ppm

SONET SECTION Name LOS: LOF: OOF: TIM-S: B1/CV-S: FASE:

Count 0 0 0 0 0 0

Rate

0.000E+0 0.000E+0

LINE Name AIS-L: RDI-L: B2/CV-L: REI-L:

Count 0 0 3 0

Rate

3.417E-13 0.000E+0

PATH Name AIS-P: LOP-P: TIM-P: RDI-P: SRDI-P: CRDI-P: PRDI-P: PLM-P: UNEQ-P: B3/CV-P: REI-P: Sunrise Telecom Inc.

Count 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Rate

0.000E+0 0.000E+0 STT: Scalable Test Tookkit

www.sunrisetelecom.com

Figure 94 Generated Report

Generate Report Buttons ‘Open Profile’: Open a previously saved report profile, to reuse it or use it as a basis for a new profile. ‘Clear Profile’: Erases all the data in the currently open profile. ‘Save Profile’: Saves the current profile under a name you provide. ‘Set As Default’: The profile will automatically appear each time you start the report generation process. ‘Generate Report’: Create a results report with the current Profile information appended to it. 125


STT Scalable Network Test Solution Use a PDF reader (such as Acrobat Reader, available at http://www.adobe.com/ products/acrobat/readstep2.html) to open the report.

View Test Records Use the button on the View Test Records window (Section 4.18 for details) to open a test record from the STT 40G.

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9 Error Injection

0RESSTOINJECT ERRORS

Click the down arrow on the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Error Injectâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; button (see aside) on the Action Bar, or select Tools > SDH/SONET Functions > Errors from the Menu Bar to access the Error Injection configuration window. You may insert errors on a payload rate. Error injection is usually performed to verify presence of a loopback.

0RESSTO ACCESSCONFIG WINDOW

Error Injection button

How to Insert Errors Press the main portion of the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Error Injectâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; button (see aside), or the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Sendâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; button on a configuration window, to inject errors as they are currently configured. When the mode is set to Rate, pressing either button will toggle the error injection on and off.

Figure 95 Error Injection, OTN, SDH, SONET, OPTU 127


STT Scalable Network Test Solution To start error injection, press the ‘Send’ button; the button then appears as ‘Stop’. The STT 40G will insert errors as you specify. If you are looped back while injecting errors, the ERR LED will light red. An ‘ERROR-INJ’ banner will appear in the Status Bar if you are injecting errors at a particular rate. Press ‘Stop’ to stop injecting errors; the ‘ERROR-INJ’ banner will vanish. Type: Determine the type of error to insert. ODTU Options: LOS, LOF, OOF, LOM, OOM, OTU-AIS/TIM/BDI/IAE/BIAE, FAS (OA1, OA2), MFAS, SM-BEI, CORRFEC, UNCORRFEC ODU Options: ODU-AIS/OCI/LCK/TIM/BDI, PM-BIP8, PM-BEI OPU Options: PLM TCM: Select the TC to inject errors into, 1-6. Select the error: TCM-OCI/AIS/LCK/ TIME/BDI/IAE/ BIAE/LTC SDH Options: RS - LOS/LOF/TIM, HP - UNEQ/PLM/TIM/RDI, TU - LOP/AIS, LPUNEQ/PLM/TIM/RDI/SRDI/CRDI/PRDI, AU - LOP/AIS, MS - AIS/RDI SONET Options: Section - LOS, LOF, TIM, Line AIS, FDI, Path - LOF, AIS, UNEQ, PLM, TIM, RDI, SRDI, CRDI, PRDI, Virtual Tributary (V) - LOP, AIS-UNEQ, PLM, TIM, RDI, LOM, RFI, SRDI, CRDI, PRDI, EPLM

Insertion Select the error injection method. Availability depends on the configuration. Options: Continuous, Periodic, Single • Single: An alarms is generated once for a specific number of consecutive frames. Enter the number of frames in the On Frame field. • Burst: Errors are injected in a burst, and can be controlled on a frame by frame basis. Burst Size Options: 1-8000 errors; Select the number of errors to inject at a time Frame Options: All Frame, 1-2 to 1-16; Select the number of frames that the errors will be injected into. • Rate: Errors are injected into every frame at the rate you specify. Standard Options: 1E-3 to 1E-9, USER; Select the error inject rate. USER Options; 1E-9 to 2E-3 Ramp: When checked errors are injected starting 1E-9, then descending to the checked error rate (1E-5 in Figure 95)

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10 Alarm Generation

0RESSTOSEND ANALARM

0RESSTO ACCESSCONFIG WINDOW

Use this function to select and transmit an alarm. When an alarm is being transmitted, an â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Alarmâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; indication is displayed in the Status Bar. The alarms available to transmit depend on your configuration. To access this feature, click the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Alarmâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; button on the Action Bar. To generate the alarm, press the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Sendâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; button (which will then appear as â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Stopâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;). You can transmit alarms while making measurements or viewing data. The selected radio button shows which (if any) alarm is currently being generated by the STT 40G. Make sure to disable all alarms (press â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Stopâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;) when you are through.

Alarm Generation button

Figure 96 Alarm Generation, OTN

Figure 97 Alarm Generation: SDH, SONET

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STT Scalable Network Test Solution Unframed Test Mode: LOS only. OTN OTU: LOSD LOF, OOF, OOM, AIS, SM-TIM, SM-IAE, SM-BDI, SM-BIAE, LTC ODU: AIS, OCI, LCK, BDI, PM-TIM, PM-BDI TCM1-6: OCI, AIS, LCK, TIM, BDI, IAE, LTC, SM-BDI, SM-BIAE

SDH/SONET RS: LOS, LOF, RS-TIM MS: MS-AIS, MS-RDI AU: AU-LOP, AU-AIS HP: HP-AIS, HP-UNEQ, HP-TIM, HP-RDI, HP-PLM, HP-ERDI (Payload, Server, Connectivity) TU: TU-LOP, TU-AIS, TU-LOM LP: LP-UNEQ, LP-TIM, LP-RDI, LP-PLM, LP-ERDI (Payload, Server, Connectivity) TC Alarm Generation

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11 Reference

This section provides miscellaneous useful information. Included are common abbreviations, standard test patterns, and a technology overview.

11.1 Abbreviations

Here is a list of abbreviations. Some abbreviations are created by combining two abbreviations. For example, AU-NDF is a New Data Flag on the Administrative Unit.

A AC - Alternating Current ACK - Acknowledge ACT - Activation (in the TCM ACT byte) ADM - Add/Drop Multiplex AFBER - Average Framing Bit Error Rate AI - Adapted Information AIS - Alarm Indication Signal; an all-ones signal, which replaces normal traffic signal when it has a defect (to prevent downstream failures or alarms). AISS - Alarm Indication Signal Seconds ALM - Alarm AMI - Alternate Mark Inversion APS - Automatic Protection Switching ARP - Address Resolution Protocol. Method for finding a hostâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s hardware address when only its network layer address is known. Primarily used to translate IP addresses to Ethernet MAC addresses. ARQ - Automatic Repeat Request AS - Available Second ATC - LCAS Source message ASCII - American Standard Code for Information Interchange AU - Administrative Unit; In SDH, the AU is the VC plus pointers (H1, H2, H3 bytes) AU-AIS - AIS on the AU AU-n - Administrative Unit-n AUG - Administrative Unit Group AUG-N - Administrative Unit Group-N AUNJUS - Administrative Unit-n Pointer Negative Justification AUPJUS - Administrative Unit Pointer Positive Justification. AVG - Average

B B1 - B1 BIP-8 Parity Errors B2 - B2 BIP-8 Parity Errors B3 - B3 BIP-8 Parity Errors 131


STT Scalable Network Test Solution B8ZS - Bipolar 8-Zero Substitution BDI - Backward Defect Indication BDI-O - Backward Defect Indication-Overhead. Reports on upstream signal failure. BDI-P - Backward Defect Indication Payloadâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;Reports on upstream signal failure in the payload. BEI - Backward Error Indication BI - Backward Indication BIAE - Backward Incoming Alignment Error BIP-x - Bit-Interleaved Parity; used as parity code error checking on a Path BER - Bit Error Rate Bn - B1/2/3 parity error in SDH/SONET; APS. BPV - Bipolar Violation BPVR - Bipolar Violation Rate

C C-n - Container-n; where the payload is inserted. It can be C11 for 1.5M, C12 for 2M, C3 for 34 or 45M and C4 for 139M. CAS- Channel Associated Signaling Cbit - C-bit Parity Error Count CBR - Constant Bit Rate CFI - Canonical Format Indicator cHEC - Core HEC (GFP) CLK - Clock CID - Channel ID (GFP) CLKSLIP - Clock Slip. One clock slip occurs when the measured frequency deviates from the reference frequency by one unit interval. A 1.5M unit interval is equal to 647 nanoseconds; a 2M unit is equal to 488 nanoseconds. CLR - Clear CMI - Coded Mark Inversion; E4 line coding CNFG - Configuration COD - Code CONFIG - Configuration CORRFEC - correctable FEC CoS - Class of Service (GFP) CRC - Cyclic Redundancy Check CRC-4/6 - Cyclic Redundancy Check Code - 4/6 CRC-N - Cyclic Redundancy Check-Nth order (also GFP and LCAS) CRDI - Connectivity Remote Defect Indication. CSF - Client Signal Fail (GFP) CSU - Customer Service Unit CTL- Control CTRL - Control field sent from source to sink (LCAS)

D DAPI - Destination Access Point Identifier; contains information about the country

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of origin, the network operator, and administration dB - Decibel dBm - Decibel ratio of watts to one milliwat (output power) DCS - Digital Cross-connect System DGRM - Degraded Minute DN - Down DS - Differential Services for the Internet DS1 - Digital Signal 1 DSCP - Differentiated Services Code Point (IP) DSX - Digital Signal Cross-connect

E E - Equipment E1 - 2.048 Mbps signal EBER - E-bit Error Rate EBIT - B-bit EDC - Error Detection Code eHEC - Extension HEC (GFP) EOF- End of Frame (GFP) EOS - Ethernet over SONET EOS - End of Sequence (LCAS) EQP - Equipment ERDI - Enhanced RDI; Payload, Connectivity and Server RDI Err - Error ERR INJ - Error Injection ES - Errored Second ESCON - Enterprise Systems Connection ESF: Extended Super Frame framing ETH - Ethernet EXI - Extension Header Identifier (GFP) EXP - Experimental EXT - External EXT CLK - External Clock EXTERN - External ExTI - Expected Trace Identifier EXZS - Excess Zeros Seconds

F F1 - Function key 1 FAS - Frame Alignment Signal FAS RAI - Frame Alignment Signal Remote Alarm Indication FASE-Frame Alignment Signal Error FBE - Framing Bit Error FEBE: Far End Block Error (DS3) FBER - Framing Bit Error Rate FCS - Frame Check Sequence (GFP) FDI - Forward Defect Indication FDI-O - Forward Defect Indication-Overheadâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;Reports on downstream signal failure in the overhead. 133


STT Scalable Network Test Solution FDI-P - Forward Defect Indication-Payloadâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;Reports on downstream signal failure in the payload. FEAC - Far End Alarm and Control Channel FE - Fast Ethernet - 10BASE-T, 100BASE-TX, running at 10 Mbps and 100 Mbps. FEBE - Far end Block Error (renamed as REI) FEC - Forward Error Correction FERF - Far End Receive Failure (renamed as RDI) FOP-CRC - Failure of protocol excessive errors (LCAS) FRAI - Frame Remote Alarm Indication FREQ - Frequency FRM - Frame

G Gbps - Gigabits per second GCC - General Communications Channel GE - Gigabit Ethernet; 1000Base-T Ethernet running at 1Gbps. GFP - Generic Framing Procedure (GFP) GFP-CH-SBIT - GFP Channel S-bit GFP-F - Frame-Mapped GFP (PDU oriented mode) GFP-FCS - GFP Frame Check Sequence GFP-T - Transparent GTP mode (GFP Block code adaptation mode) GID - Group Identification (LCAS)

H HDB3 - High Density Bipolar Three HEC - Header Error Check (GFP) HEX - Hexadecimal HO - High Order (as in High Path) HO - Hold off (LCAS) HOVC - Higher Order Virtual Container HP - High Path Hz - Hertz

I

IAE - Incoming Alignment Error IEC - Incoming Error Count IFG - Inter-Frame Gap (GFP) INTERN - Internal INJ - Inject INV - Inverted IPG - Inter-Packet Gap (GFP) IPX - Internetwork Packet EXchange

J JOH - Justification Overhead

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K kbp/s - KiloBits Per Second kbps - KiloBits Per Second

L L - Line LCAS - Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme LCD - Liquid Crystal Display LCK: Lock Defect LED - Light Emitting Diode LH - Linear Extension Header LM - Loss of Multiframe LO - Low Order (as in Low Path) LOA - Loss of Alignment LOC - Loss of Transport Capacity (LCAS) Lock - OTN Locked Defect; request to perform OOS tests LOF - Loss of Frame LOFS - Loss of Frame Second LOM - Loss of Multiframe LOP - Loss of Pointer LOPC - Loss of Partial Transport Capacity (LCAS) LOPS - Loss of Pointer Seconds LOS - Loss of Signal LOSS - Loss of Signal Second LOTC - Loss of Total Transport Capacity LOVC - Low Order Virtual Container LP - Low Path Lpp - Level peak-to-peak LTC - Loss of Tandem Connection LVL - Level

M M - Megabits per second MAC - Media Access Control (GFP) MAPOS - Multiple Access Protocol (GFP UPI) MAX - Maximum Mbps - Megabits per second Mbps - Megabits per second Mbps - Megabits per second MF - Multi-Frequency MFAS - MultiFrame Alignment Signal MFAS-RAI - MultiFrame Alignment Signal Remote Alarm Indication MFI - Multiframe Indicator MI - Management Information (LCAS) MIN - Minimum MON - Monitor m-law - Mu-law; voice companding law MS - Multisection MST- Member Status (LCAS, GFP) 135


STT Scalable Network Test Solution MSU - Member status unavailable (LCAS) MSU_L - Member status unavailable, LCAS enabled criteria Mux - Multiplex

N NDF - New Data Flag NE - Network Element NFAS: Non Frame Alignment Signal NI - Network Interface NORM - Normal Operating Mode (LCAS) NIU - Network Interface Unit NJUS - Negative pointer Justification NV RAM - Non Volatile Random Access Memory

O OAM&P Operations, Administration, Management and Protection OChr - Optical channel with reduced functionality OCC - Optical Channel Carrier OCCo - Optical Channel Carrier – overhead OCCp - Optical Channel Carrier – payload OCCr - Optical Channel Carrier with reduced functionality OCh - Optical Channel Layer OCG - Optical Carrier Group OCI - Open Connection Indication ODU - Optical Data Unit ODTUG - Optical channel Data Tributary Unit Group OOF - Out Of Frame OOFS - Out Of Frame Seconds OCI - Open Connection Indication OH - Overhead OMS - Optical Multiplex Section OMU - Optical Multiplex Unit OOM1 - Out of Multiframe 1 (VCAT) OOM2 - Out of Multiframe 2 (VCAT) OOS - OTM Overhead signal OPS - Optical Physical Section OPTPWR - Optical Power OPU - Optical Channel Payload Unit OPUk - Optical Channel Payload Unit-k OPU1 Payload - 2.488 320 Gbps OPU2 Payload - 9.995276962 Gbps OPU3 Payload - 40.150519322 Gbps OSC - Optical Supervisory Channel OTH - Optical Transport Hierarchy OTM - Optical Transport Module OTN - Optical Transport Network OTS - Optical Transmission Section OTS-OH - Optical Transmission Section Overhead OTU - Optical Transport Unit 136


40G Module

OTU1 - Optical Transport Unit 1; 2.666057143 Gbps OTU2 - Optical Transport Unit 2; 10.709225316 Gbps OTU3 - Optical Transport Unit 3; 43.018413559 Gbps OUI: Organizational Unique Identifier of the MAC address (identifies the network adapter vendor).

P P - Path PAT - Pattern PAT SYNC - Pattern Synchronization PBIT - DS3 parity error PCC - Protection Communication Channel PCM - Pulse Code Modulation PCM-30(31)/C - PCM with CRC-4 checking enabled PDH - Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy PDU - Protocol Data Unit PFI - Payload FCS Indicator (GFP) PJ - Pointer Justification PJUS - Positive pointer Justification PLD - Payload PLI - Payload Length Indicator (GFP) PLM - Payload Label Mismatch PM - Performance Monitoring PM - Path Monitoring; end-to-end connection monitoring in OTN PMI - Payload Missing Indication PNTR - Pointer POH - Path Overhead ppm - Parts per million PRBS - Pseudo Random Bit Sequence PRDI - Payload Remote Defect Connectivity Indication PSI - Payload Structure Identifier PTE - Path Terminating Element PTI - Payload Type Identifier (GFP) PTR- Pointer

Q QRS - Quasi Random Signal

R 3R - Reamplification, Reshaping and Retiming R - Receive RAI - Remote Alarm Indication RCV - Receive RDI - Remote Defect Indication REF - Reference RES - Reserved (for future use) REI - Remote Error Indication RFI - Remote Failure Indication RPR: Resilient Packet Ring (GFP-T) 137


STT Scalable Network Test Solution RS - Reed-Solomon RS - Regenerator Section RS-Ack - Re-Sequence Acknowledge (LCAS) RS-TIM - Regenerator Section-Trace Identifier Mismatch RT - Remaining Time RX - Receive

S S - Section SAPI - Source Access Point Identifierâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;contains information about the country of origin, the network operator, and administration S/N - Signal-to-Noise Ratio SDH - Synchronous Digital Hierarchy SM - Section Monitoring (for OTN, includes TTI, SAPI, DAPI, etc.) SES - Severely Errored Second SF - Super Frame SF-D4: Super Frame framing. SIG - Signal Sk - Sink (LCAS) SLC-96 - Subscriber Loop Carrier - 96 channel; T1 framing SLM - Signal Label Mismatch SM - Section Monitoring SMOH - Section Monitoring Overhead SNK - Sink (LCAS) So - Source (LCAS) SOH - Section Overhead SQ - Sequence Indicator (LCAS) SQM: Sequence number mismatch error SRC - Source (LCAS) SRDI - Server Remote Defect Indication SSF - Server Signal Failure (GFP) STM - Synchronous Transport Mode STM(-N) - Synchronous Transport Module (-N) STS - Synchronous Transport Signal (51.840 Mbps); STS-n, where n is a multiple of the basic rate. STT - Scalable Test Toolkit SW - Software SYLS - Synchronization Lost Seconds SYNC - Synchronized

T T - Transmit T1 - 1.544 Mbps transmission rate T/S - Timeslot TC - Tandem Connection TC-RDI -Tandem Connection Remote Defect Indication TC-REI - Tandem Connection Remote Error Indication TCM - Tandem Connection Monitoring TCMOH - Tandem Connection Monitoring Overhead 138


40G Module TCOH - Tandem Connection Overhead TCT - Tandem Connection Trace TCTE - Tandem Connection Terminating Element TE - Terminal Equipment TERM - Terminated TH - Type Header tHEC - Type HEC (GFP) THRU - Through TIM - Trace Identifier Mismatch TM - Terminal Multiplexer TS - Timeslot TSD - Trail Signal Degrade (LCAS) TSF- Trail Signal Fail (LCAS) TSTSIG - Test Signal TTI - Trace Trail Identifierâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;identifies the signal from source to destination. TX - Transmit TxClk - Transmit Clock TU - Tributary Unit TU-n - Tributary Unit-n TUG(-n) - Tributary Unit Group (-n) TUNJUS - Tributary Unit Pointer Negative Justification TUPJUS - Tributary Unit Pointer Positive Justification TxTI - Transmitted Trace Identifier (OTN)

U UAS - Unavailable Second UI - Unit Interval UNCORRFEC - Non-correctable FEC UNEQ - Unequipped UNFRM - No framing UPI - User Payload Identifier (GFP) uS - microsecond

V V - Virtual concatenation path; e.g. STS-2v V - Virtual Tributary V - Volts VAC - Volts AC VC- Virtual Container VC- Virtual Connection VC-n - Virtual Container-n VC-n-X - X concatenated Virtual Container-ns VC-n-Xc - X Contiguously concatenated VC-ns VC-n-Xv - X Virtually concatenated VC-ns VCAT - Virtual Concatenation VCG - Virtual Concatenation Group VF - Voice Frequency VT - Virtual Tributary

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STT Scalable Network Test Solution

W WTR - Wait to restore (LCAS) WDR - Wander

Y YEL - Yellow YEL ALM - Yellow Alarm YELS - Yellow Alarm Second

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40G Module

11.2 Standard Test Patterns This section defines the patterns transmitted and recognized by the STT 40G. The long patterns are written in hexadecimal notation, also known as “hex”. You can tell if a pattern is written in hex because it will be written with pairs of numbers separated by commas. Hex is a 16-digit number system consisting of the digits 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F. The hex pattern 15 FA translates to the binary pattern 0001 0101 1111 1010, where the left-most bit is transmitted first. 2e31: The industry-standard 2e31-1 pseudo random bit sequence. This signal is formed from a 23-stage shift register and is not zero-constrained. This pattern contains up to 30 zeros in a row when it is inverted. 2e23: The industry-standard 2e23-1 pseudo random bit sequence. This signal is formed from a 23-stage shift register and is not zero-constrained. This pattern contains up to 22 zeros in a row and violates standards for consecutive zeros in AMI-coded transmission. 2e20: The 2e20-1 pseudo random bit sequence. This signal is formed from a 20-stage shift register and is not zero-constrained. This pattern contains up to 19 zeros in a row and violates standards for consecutive zeros in AMI-coded transmission. QRS is derived from this pattern. 2e15: The 2e15-1 pseudo random bit sequence. This signal is formed from a 15-stage shift register and is not zero-constrained. This pattern contains up to 14 zeros in a row and does not violate standards for consecutive zeros in AMI-coded transmission. 2e11: This is the pseudorandom 2047 bit code. The pattern conforms to the ITU O.152 technical standard. 2e9: This is the pseudorandom 511-bit code. The pattern conforms to the ITU V.52 technical standard. 2e7: This is the pseudorandom 127-bit code. 2e6: This is the pseudorandom 63-bit code. 1111: The all 1s pattern is used for stress testing T1 AMI and B8ZS lines. If the pattern is sent unframed, it will be interpreted as an AIS (Alarm Indication Signal). 0000: The all zeros pattern. This pattern is often used to make sure that clearchannel lines have been properly provisioned for B8ZS during circuit turn-up. If a portion of the circuit is AMI, then pattern synch and/or signal will be lost. 1010: The alternating ones and zeros pattern. The pattern is frame aligned with “f” showing the location of the framing bit. The pattern is: f 0101 0101. 3-24: The 3 in 24 pattern is used for stress testing AMI lines. It is the 12.5% minimum 1s density pattern. The pattern is frame aligned (“f” is the framing bit) as shown in its binary form: f 0100 0100 0000 0000 0000 0100. 1-16: The 1 in 16 pattern is used for overstressing AMI lines. It violates industry standards for pulse density. Therefore an AMI circuit that fails this test could still be a good circuit. The pattern is frame aligned (“f” is the framing bit) as shown in its binary form: f 0100 0000 0000 0000. 141


STT Scalable Network Test Solution 1-8: The 1 in 8 pattern is used for stress testing AMI and B8ZS lines. The pattern is also called 1:7 in older literature. The pattern is frame aligned (f is the framing bit) as shown in its binary form: f 0100 0000. 1-4: The 1 in 4 pattern is used for stress testing circuits. OCT55: This is the original 55-octet pattern. It is used for stress testing T1 circuits and network elements. If transmitted in a framed signal with AMI coding, it will violate the 15-zero constraint. It does not violate the zeros constraint in an unframed signal. If framed, the framing bit is inserted at octet boundaries. Here is the actual pattern: 80, 80, 80, 80, 80 80, 00, 80, 80, 80, 80, 80, 80, C0, 80, 80, 80, 80, E0, 80, 80, 80, 80, AA, AA, AA, AA, 55, 55, 55, 55, 80, 80, 80, 80, 80, 80, FF, FF, FF, FF, FF, FF, 01, 80, 01, 80, 01, 80, 01, 80, 01, 80, 01, 80. DLY55: The Daly 55 Octet pattern is a special stress pattern that obeys industry standards for pulse density and maximum consecutive zeros in both AMI and B8ZS coded circuits. It is used for stress testing T1 circuits and network elements. If transmitted in a framed signal with AMI coding, it will violate the 15-zero constraint. It does not violate the zeros constraint in an unframed signal. If framed, the framing bit is inserted at octet boundaries. Note that the Daly 55 octet pattern replaced the original 55 octet pattern. Here is the Daly 55 octet pattern: 80, 80, 80, 80, 80, 80, 01, 80, 80, 80, 80, 80, 80, C0, 80, 80, 80, 80, E0, 80, 80, 80, 80, AA, AA, AA, AA, 55, 55, 55, 55, 80, 80, 80, 80, 80, 80, FF, FF, FF, FF, FF, FF, 01, 80, 01, 80, 01, 80, 01, 80, 01, 80, 01, 80. FOX: The industry-standard FOX pattern is used in data communications applications. The ASCII translation of the pattern is the â&#x20AC;&#x153; Quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dogs 0123456789 â&#x20AC;&#x153; sentence. The pattern is frame aligned to ensure proper ASCII translation of the bits. It is recommended that the pattern be sent with framed signals, otherwise, ASCII translation is not possible. Here is the pattern: 2A, 12, A2, 04, 8A, AA, 92, C2, D2, 04, 42, 4A, F2, EA, 72, 04, 62, F2, 1A, 04, 52, AA, B2, 0A, CA, 04, F2, 6A, A2, 4A, 04, 2A, 12, A2, 04, 32, 82, 5A, 9A, 04, 22, F2, E2, 04, 8C, 4C, CC, 2C, AC, 6C, EC, 1C, 9C, 0C, B0, 50. QRSS: This is the Quasi Random Signal pattern. It is formed from a 20-stage shift register and is zero-constrained for a maximum of 14 consecutive zeros. When transmitted in a framed signal, up to 15 consecutive zeros will occur, in accordance with AMI minimum density requirements.

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40G Module

11.3 Technology Overview This section is an introductory guide to the Optical Transport Network (OTN), the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) and SONET (Synchronous Optical Network) technology. Due to the ever-increasing demands for bandwidth delivered to the end user in a multitude of formats, the OTN is evolving. It aims to combine the high reliability of the established SDH/SONET backbone with the vast carrying capacity of the newest DWDM technology. SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy), based on the American SONET standard, was introduced to the telecommunications network in 1994. It was designed to transport CEPT asynchronous transmission rates. In the SDH world, PDH rates (based on the 2 Mbps E1 rate) are multiplexed to create the SDH rates. SDH defines Synchronous Transport Module (STM) levels and electrically equivalent synchronous transport signals for the fiber-optic based transmission hierarchy. STM1 is at the 155,520 kbps rate. This comprehensive, synchronous transport system provides a simple, common, and flexible telecommunications infrastructure. SONET was formulated by the ECSA (Exchange Carriers Standards Association) for ANSI. SONET defines Optical Carrier (OC) levels and electrically equivalent synchronous transport signals (STS) for the fiber-optic based transmission hierarchy. The optical standard provides many advantages. Generic standards allow products from different manufacturers to connect, and allows for greater flexibility in the future. Less equipment is required than in older systems, so fewer breakdowns occur. SDH and SONET overhead bytes allow for easy fault sectionalization. A synchronous multiplexing format defines how lower-level digital signals may be structured in an SDH/SONET signal, which simplifies the multiplexer and switch interfaces. SDH and SONET employ a system called “Direct Synchronous Multiplexing.” It is no longer necessary to demultiplex tributary channels before switching—a requirement with the existing PDH networks. In the existing networks, simple point-to-point transmission technology is used to link the network switches or customer locations. A fractional 2M or 1.5M signal from a phone call must be multiplexed up to a 1.5M/2M signal, then the 1.5M/2M signal must be multiplexed up to 34M. To switch the fractional signal, the full 34M signal must be demultiplexed. This requires a full set of muxes at each end of a 34M transmission link, when in actuality it is only some of the low-order signals which need switching. See the next figure for a depiction of PDH drop and insert.

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STT Scalable Network Test Solution



-



-

-



 

-









-

 



-

K K

Figure 98 PDH Drop and Insert With OTN, SONET and SDH, the low-speed signals may be extracted without demultiplexing the entire signal through multiple stages.

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40G Module

11.3.1 OTN Technology Here are some OTN highlights:

â&#x20AC;˘ Combines SDH/SONET OAM&P (Operations, Administration, Management, and Protection) advantages with DWDM bandwidth expandability.

â&#x20AC;˘ Adds Forward Error Correction techniques to reduce number of optical regenerators and improve linkâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s performance.

â&#x20AC;˘ Transparent for various clients. â&#x20AC;˘ Continuous end to end performance monitoring. The OTN offers a backbone for a wide range of services, from SDH/SONET to IP-based services, ATM, Frame Relay and audio/visual services. Here is a partial list of the OTN ITU-T Recommendations: G.709: Structures and mapping G.798: Terminal Equipment Functional Characteristics G.872: OTN Architecture G.874/875: Management aspects G.959: Physical Layer The primary recommendation, G.709, is sometimes referred to as the Digital Wrapper (DW) recommendation, because the technology takes optical fiber transmission a step further by wrapping on additional overhead to multiplexed wavelengths. The wrapped overhead enables management of the client (user) information. Forward Error Checking (FEC) is used for error control. Figure 99 presents an overview of the OTN.

$EFINITIONSAND.OTES )R$))NTER $OMAIN)NTERFACE )A$))NTRA $OMAIN)NTERFACE

.%.ETWORK%LEMENT /4./PTICAL4RANSPORT.ETWORK

5SER/2CARRIERMAYORIGINATEORTERMNATE/4.FRAMING FORANYDIGITALPAYLOAD

Figure 99 Optical Transport Network

145


STT Scalable Network Test Solution The OTN structure will seem familiar. You can see the similarities to SDH/SONET.

Figure 100 OTN Layers The Optical Transmission Section Layer (OTS) provides OAM&P between network endpoints (NE). The Optical Multiplex Section Layer (OMS) provides connection monitoring and some troubleshooting capability, on DWDM networks, including between multiplexing NEs. The Optical Channel Layer (OCh) describes the optical link transport between two pieces of Network Equipment (NEs); that is, the multiplexing.

OH

OTN Overhead signal

OH OH

Client

Client

Client

Optical Ch. Payload Unit Optical Ch. Data Unit

OPU ODU

FEC Optical Ch. Transport Unit

Optical Channel 1

Wavelength 1

Optical Channel 2

Wavelength 2

Optical Channel n

Wavelength n

OMS

Optical Multiplex Section

OTS

Optical Transmission Section

Figure 101 OTN Transport Structure • Client: User data/signal. • Overhead is added to the client signal to form the Optical channel Payload Unit (OPU). • Additional overhead is added to the OPU to form the Optical channel Data Unit (ODU).

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40G Module

â&#x20AC;˘ Additional overhead and FEC are added to the ODU to form the Optical Transport Unit (OTU). â&#x20AC;˘ Additional overhead is added to the OTU to form a single (one color) optical channel (OCh). â&#x20AC;˘ Additional overhead may be added via the Optical Supervisory Channel (OSC) to the OCh to form the OMS and OTS. See the next section for more information n OTN overhead. â&#x20AC;˘ The G.709 frame used for the OTN OTU includes 64 Forward Error Checking (FEC) blocks. FEC is particularly useful for checking the high bit rate (10 Gbps plus) signals over the long haul (when signal degradation is more likely to occur). Figure 102 shows the OTN mapping.

X

/43 /-3 /CH #/--3/( //# 'ENERAL-ANAGEMENT#OMMUNICATIONSOVERHEAD

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/4- N M X /#' N M

XI XJ XK

X

/#H

X

/##

X /#H

X

/##

X

X

/##

/#H

+EY /##/PTICAL#HANNEL#ARRIER /#'/PTICAL#ARRIER'ROUP /$5/PTICAL$ATA5NIT /05/PTICAL0AYLOAD5NIT

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X X X

/$5 /$5 /05

X X X

/05 /05 /05

CLIENT SIGNALS ' ' '

//3/4-/VERHEAD /3#/PTICAL3UPERVISORY#HANNEL /4-/PTICAL4RANSPORT-ODULE /45/PTICAL4RANSPORT5NIT

Figure 102 OTN Multiplexing Hierarchy

Line Bit Rates Each line bit rate is transmitted at a different rate, though the frame size remains the same. It takes about eleven OTU2 frames to carry one SDH/SONET 10G frame. â&#x20AC;˘ OPU1 Payload: 2.488 320 Gbps â&#x20AC;˘ OPU2 Payload: 9.995276962 Gbps â&#x20AC;˘ OPU3 Payload: 40.150519322 Gbps â&#x20AC;˘ OTU1: 2.666057143 Gbps â&#x20AC;˘ OTU2: 10.709225316 Gbps â&#x20AC;˘ OTU3: 43.018413559 Gbps

147


STT Scalable Network Test Solution OTN Overhead Signal (OOS) Overhead performs a number of monitoring and correction functions. See the next figure.

FAS

FAS

FAS Components

MFAS

+EY "$) / "$) 0 &$) / &$) 0 /#) /43 /-3 0-) 44)

"ACKWARD$EFECT)NDICATION /VERHEAD "ACKWARD$EFECT)NDICATION0AYLOAD &ORWARD$EFECT)NDICATION /VERHEAD &ORWARD$EFECT)NDICATION 0AYLOAD /PEN#ONNECTION)NDICATION /PTICAL4RANSMISSION3ECTION /PTICAL-ULTIPLEX3ECTION 0AYLOAD-ISSING)NDICATION 4RACE4RAIL)DENTIFIER

Figure 103 OOS Optical Channel Structure The Optical Channel consists of an Overhead section, the client signal, and a FEC section. See Figure 104.   &!3/45 #LIENT /05 &%# /$5 SIGNAL .OTES &!3&RAME!LIGNMENT3IGNAL /45/PTICAL4RANSPORT5NIT /$5/PTICAL$ATA5NIT /05/PTICAL0AYLOAD5NIT &%#&ORWARD%RROR#ORRECTION

Figure 104 Optical Channel Structure The client signal (the payload) may consist of any telecom protocol, from SDH to IP. 148


40G Module

ODU1 to ODU2 Mapping

OTU

A specialized version of OTN mapping multiplexes ODU1 signals into an ODU2. See the next figure (after G.709). RES

Align.

• SM: Section Monitoring

• RES: Reserved

4x Align. ODU2 ODU2 OH

Align. OTU2 OH OTU2 ODU2 OH

Align. ODU1 OH

Key FEC: Forward Error Checking ODU: Optical Data Unit OH: Overhead OPU: Optical Payload Unit OTU: Optical Transport Unit

OPU1 OH

Channel

ODU1 ODU1 OH

Client Layer Signal STM-16, GFP, etc.

Align. ODU1 OH

OPU1 OH

• GCC: General Comms.

Client Layer Signal STM-16, GFP, etc.

OPU2 OH

OTU Components:

OPU2 OH

GCC0

OPU1 OH

SM

Client Layer Signal STM-16, GFP, etc.

OTU2 FEC

Note An ODU1 floats in the OPU2 payload area. An ODU1 frame crosses mulitple ODU2 frames.

Figure 105 ODU1 to ODU2 Multiplexing

149


STT Scalable Network Test Solution â&#x20AC;˘ Optical Data Unit (ODU) Tandem Connections The ODU overhead provides Path and tandem connection monitoring, and user signal adaptation (into the OPU). There are six tandem connection fields. TC monitoring tracks the error performance of a signal entering and exiting a vendorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s network. The six fields allow for a variety of network topologies.

4#- 4#- 4#- 4#- 4#- 4#-

4#- 4#- 4#- 4#- 4#- 4#-

4#- 4#- 4#- 4#- 4#- 4#-

4#- 4#- 4#- 4#- 4#- 4#-

4#- 4#- 4#- 4#- 4#- 4#-

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Figure 106 ODU Tandem Connections

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40G Module

• FEC Forward out-of-band error checking enables detection and correction of errors in an optical link. FEC usage reduces the number of optical regenerators required and improves link’s performance. FEC testing verifies the error correction capability of network equipment (NE). The Reed-Solomon (255, 239) code is used for OTN FEC. Each OTU row is broken down into 16 subrows, of 255 bytes each. The subrows are byte-interleaved, and a FEC byte is created and inserted into byte 240 of that first subrow. The process is repeated for each subrow. 1….. 7 8……14 15, 16 17……………3824 3825………….4080 1 2 4

FA

OTU

ODU

OPU

Client

FEC

OTU Row 1 sub-row

1…………………………………. 239 …………255

Information Bytes

Parity Check Bytes

2 sub-row 1…………………………………. 239 …………255

Information Bytes

16 sub-row

Parity Check Bytes

1…………………………………. 239 …………255

Information Bytes

Parity Check Bytes

Figure 107 FEC Structure The FEC code detects 16 bit errors or corrects up to 8 bit errors in a subrow. The Reed-Solomon FEC is standardized for the IrDI interface. The IaDI interface may use other codes. See Figure 107 to locate the interfaces.

151


STT Scalable Network Test Solution â&#x20AC;˘ OPU Overhead The OPU OH consists of the Payload Structure Identifier (PSI) , which contains the Payload Type Indicator (PTI), and overhead bits associated with the mapping of the clientâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s payload. Figure 108 shows the OPU structure and payload types.

   $EFINITIONS 03)0AYLOAD3TRUCTURE )DENTIFIER 040AYLOAD4YPE Figure 108 OPU Overhead

152


40G Module

11.3.2 SDH Technology The lowest level SDH signal is the Synchronous Transfer Mode 0 (STM-0). This signal has a rate of 51.84 Mbps. The higher level signals are obtained by the byteinterleaved multiplexing of lower level signals. Basically, the bytes are interleaved in such a format where the low-speed signals are still visible. Figure 109 illustrates SDH multiplexing. There is no additional signal processing except the direct conversion from electrical to optical form. The available SDH rates are STM-0 (51.840 Mbps), -1 (155.520 Mbps), -4 (622.08 Mbps), -16 (2.5 Gbps) and -64 (9.953 Gbps). Table 8 displays some SONET line rates and the SDH equivalent formats. ITU-T SDH

Bellcore SONET

STM-0

51 Mbps

OC/STS-1

51 Mbps

STM-1

155 Mbps

OC/STS-3

155 Mbps

OC/STS-9

466 Mbps

OC/STS-12

622 Mbps

OC/STS-18

933 Mbps

STM-4

622 Mbps

STM-8

1,244 Mbps

OC/STS-24

1,244 Mbps

STM-12

1,886 Mbps

OC/STS-36

1.866 Mbps

STM-16

2,488 Mbps

OC/STS-48

STM-64

9953.28 Mbps

2,488 Mbps

OC/STS-192

9,953.28 Mbps

Table 4 Synchronous Technology Signal Line Rates The STM-1 rate is where the various rate systems meet; SONETâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s STS-3/ OC-3 (Optical Carrier 3) is equivalent to the STM-1. The rate is 155.52 Mbps. A converter makes the transformation from electrical to optical formatting.

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153


STT Scalable Network Test Solution

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Figure 110 SDH Equipment and Sections Here is a listing of the SDH network equipment. See Figure 110. Terminal Multiplexer: The Path terminating element (PTE) multiplexes tributary signals at the entry level. The simplest SDH link would consist of two terminal multiplexers, and optionally a regenerator, linked by a fiber. Regenerators: These are required when the signal goes over 100 km, as amplitude and time may cause distortion of the signal. Unlike PDH (plesiochronous) repeaters, SDH regenerators must synchronize to a framing signal. Regenerators also do fault monitoring. Regenerators take their clocking off the received signal. They replace the Regenerator Section Overhead bytes before retransmission occurs. Synchronous Multiplexers: S-MUXs map the PDH 2M signals into virtual containers. The higher rates are achieved in one step (STM-1, -4, -16, or -64). The signal is scrambled when NRZ line coding (optical) is used, allowing the other end to achieve permanent synchronization, even though long strings of consecutive identical digits are sent. The Multiplexer Section Overhead does fault monitoring. The broadband cross-connecting muxes deal with STM or other high bandwidth signals, consolidating or segregating them as required. Wideband DCSs terminate SDH and 34M signals, switching at the VC level. Broadband DCSs do the same, switching at the STM-n level. SDH multiplexers may be installed at the customer premises. ADM: Add/Drop Multiplexers can easily multiplex/demultiplex an individual tributary. They have an optical interface and PDH interfaces. They provide interfaces between the various network and SDH signals. They align the payload signal with the STM-1 frame. DCC: Digital Cross-connection allows electronic cross-connecting at both the lower-rate tributary levels and the high-rate SDH level.

154


40G Module STM-n Framing STM-1 has a bit rate of 155.52 Mbps. The smallest unit is the 8-bit byte; the frame contains 2430 bytes (270 columns by 9 rows), and has a duration of 125 microseconds. It has Section Overhead (SOH), an AU (Administrative Unit) pointer area, and a payload area. See Figure 111. One byte in an STM-1 frame can carry 64 kbps of data: 1 byte x 8000 frames/s=64 kbps Higher rates are formed by multiplying the basic 155.52 Mbps rate N times. The defined rates are STM-4 (622.08 Mbps), STM-16 (2488.32 Mbps) and STM-64 (9953.28 Mbps). Each STM-n contains NxAUGs along with the SOH. The entire SDH frame is scrambled, except for the first row of the SOH. Figure 112 shows the frame.

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STT Scalable Network Test Solution

SDH Overhead Overhead provides management and maintenance facilities for each Path and Section of the SDH link. This functionality makes SDH circuits quick to troubleshoot.

SDH Section Overhead SOH is added to the information payload to create an STM-n. It includes block framing, maintenance, performance monitoring, and other operation function information. SOH is broken down into Regenerator SOH, terminated at regenerator functions, and Multiplex SOH, which passes through regenerators and is terminated where the AUGs are assembled and disassembled. The following figure shows the layout of SOH in an STM frame. SOH is contained in rows 1-3 and 5-9 of columns 1-9xN of the STM-N. Note the AU pointer (s). It indicates the beginning of the data. !!!!!!*  "%& $$$ !DMINISTRATION5NIT0OINTER """+ + $ $$ $$$ 3::::-% 

Figure 113 STM Section Overhead RSOH: The first three rows of Section overhead are Regenerator SOH. A1, A2: Frame Alignment Pattern (1111 0110, 0010 1000); indicate the start of the STM-1 frame B1: Parity check, used for regenerator Section error monitoring (BIP-8) JO: Regenerator Section Trace- verifies continued connection to intended transmitter D1â&#x20AC;&#x201C;D3: Data Communication Channels (NMS); 192 kbps channel E1: Orderwire; for voice communication F1: Users Channel S1-S2: Spare bytes; called Z0 MSOH: The rows 5-9 of the Section overhead pertain to Multiplexer SOH B2: Parity Check, error monitoring for the previous frame (BIP-24) D4â&#x20AC;&#x201C;D12: Data Communication Channel; 576 kbps channel E2: Orderwire; for voice communication K1, K2 (bits 1-5): Automatic Protection Switch (APS) K2 (bits 6-8): MS-RDI; returns indication to transmit end when received end has detected an incoming Section defect or is receiving MS-AIS M1: MS-REI; multiplex Section REI; conveys count of interleaved bit blocks that have been detected in error by B2 156


40G Module

S1: Synchronization status messages; bits 5-8 used. Z1, Z2: Undefined SDH Path Overhead (POH)

VC-3, 4 Path Overhead (Higher Order) J1: Path Trace Message; allows Path receiving terminal to verify its connection to the intended transmitter B3: Path Parity Check (BIP-8) C2: Virtual Container Structure; indicates composition or maintenance status of the VC G1: Path Status & Alarm Performance Information (error count and VC-4 RDI) F2, F3: User Channel between Path elements H4: Payload position indicator K3: Spare N1: Network operator byte; may be used for Path protection switching (Tandem Connection Monitoring)

VC-11, 12, 2 POH (Lower Order) V5: Error checking and Path status; includes BIP-2 parity check J2: Lower order Path trace; allows Path receiving terminal to verify its connection to the intended transmitter N2: Tandem Connection Monitoring functions K4 (bits 1-4): Path APS K4 (bits 7-7): Reserved for optional use K4 (bit 8): Spare for future use Note on 10G Mapping Each concatenated rate is particularly suitable for carrying a specific line rate signal: 10G

VC-4-64c/STS-192c

8G

VC4-16c4/STS-48C

1G

VC4-8c/STS-12C

G

VC4-3c/STS-9c

1.0625 G

VC4-2c/STS-6C

2.125 Gbps

STS-3c

Table 5 10G Concatenation Rates

157


STT Scalable Network Test Solution SDH Multiplexing Elements Virtual Containers The Virtual Containers carry information between two Path access points. A pointer in the STM-1 frame indicates the first byte of each VC, allowing the VCs to float within the payload, for easy multiplexing and demultiplexing. The VC supports Path layer connections in the SDH. VCs contain supervision and maintenance (Path Overhead) functionality. The information payload and POH are organized in a block frame structure repeating every 125 or 500 microseconds. The following figures indicate how the VCs are constructed, and define the POH. Note that VC-11 carries a standard 1.5M signal. VC-12 carries a 2M. You can also see that a VC-3 may have a rate of 34M or 45M, depending on the mapping.

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RDI 8

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Data

VC11 = 1.554 Mbps VC12 = 2.048 Mbps VC11 = 6.312 Mbps

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A lower order VC consists of a single container (VC-1 or -2) and the appropriate POH. A higher order VC consists of either a single container (VC-3 or -4) or an assembly of TUGs along with the appropriate POH.

Tributary Units TUs are how lower rate signals (such as 2.048 Mbps) are placed into a VC. TUs may be fixed (locked into position, no pointer required) or floating (requires a pointer). TUs are the information structure providing adaptation between the lower order Path layer and the higher order Path layer. Bit synchronous mapping is used for non-channelized 2.048 Mbps signals. Byte synchronous mapping is used for channelized 2.048 Mbps. TUs consist of the information payload (lower order VC) and a pointer. The TU pointer indicates where each TU within the VC frame begins. A TUG (TU Group) consists on one or more TUs occupying a fixed position in a higher order VC payload. A TUG-2 is a group of identical TU-1s or a TU-2. A TUG-3 is a group of TUG-2s or a TU-3. If there is a change in the payload, a New Data Flag (NDF) is sent, and the accompanying pointer value becomes the new AU pointer value. The pointer can also be incremented or decremented to accommodate frequency offsets between the VC and the multi Frame.

Administrative Units An STM-n consists of n AUGs (Administrative Unit Groups) together with SOH. The AU provides adaptation between the higher order Path layer and the multiplex Section layer. It consists of the higher order VC (information payload) and the AU pointer. An AU-4 is a VC-4 plus an AU pointer. An AU-3 is a VC-3 plus an AU pointer. The AU pointer indicates where each VC within the AU frame begins. It is contained in bytes H1, H2, and H3. If there is a change in the payload, a New Data Flag (NDF) is sent, and the accompanying pointer value becomes the new AU pointer value. The pointer can also be incremented or decremented to accommodate frequency offsets between the VC and the SOH.

APS Automatic Protection Switching (APS) keeps the network working even if a network element or link fails. When a failure is detected by one or more network elements, the network proceeds through a coordinated, predefined sequence of steps to transfer (or switchover) live traffic to the backup facility (also called “protection” facility). See Figure 116 for the architecture. This is done very quickly to minimize lost traffic. Traffic remains on the protection facility until the primary facility (also called “working” facility) fault is cleared, at which time the traffic reverts to the working facility. In a SONET or SDH network, the K1 and K2 Line overhead bytes (also called the “APS channel”) are used by the NEs (Network Elements) to exchange request and acknowledgments for protection switch actions.

159


STT Scalable Network Test Solution

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Figure 116 1+1 APS Architecture During the protection switchover, the network elements signal an APS by sending AIS throughout the network. AIS is also present at the ADM drop points. The AIS condition may come and go as the network elements progress through their algorithm to switch traffic to the protection circuit. What causes the network to initiate an automatic protection switchover? The three most common causes are: detection of AIS, detection of excessive B2 errors, and initiation through a network management terminal. According to GR-253 and G.841, a network element is required to detect AIS and initiate an APS within 10 ms. B2 errors should be detected according to a defined algorithm, and more than 10 ms is allowed. This means that the entire time for both failure detection and traffic restoration may be 60 ms or more (10 ms or more detect time plus 50 ms switch time).

SDH Performance Monitoring SDH has excellent operations and maintenance facilities built in. One SDH link reaches all of the network elements in its architecture setup, and all of the elements monitor for faults. Simple loopbacks are also available for basic testing. SDHâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ample overhead provides for quick detection and reporting on failures, and easy troubleshooting, as the location of the error (the section of which it occurs) is inherent in the error report. The following graphic gives an outline of some basic errors:

160


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Figure 117 SDH Errors: REI, RDI Alarm Indications LOS (Loss of Signal): Received amplitude is below predefined level OOF (Out of Frame): Five consecutive frames with FAS errors; position of frame alignment bytes unknown LOF (Loss of Frame): Once OOF occurs, if three msec occur without two consecutive unerrored frames, LOF is declared LOP (Loss of Pointer): 10 consecutive invalid pointers; pointer value unknown Path AIS: All ones in the TU or AU pointer. SOH is OK AIS (Alarm Indication Signal): Sent away from the error, as a â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;keep-aliveâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; signal (all 1s) MS-AIS (Multiplexer AIS): Valid RSOH; all 1s for rest of the signal RDI (Remote Defect Indication): Signal has Section defect or receiving MS-AIS RFI (Remote Failure Indication): Signal failure REI (Remote Error Indication): One or more errors detected by a parity check

161


STT Scalable Network Test Solution The following list provides additional detail:

SDH Defects to ITU-T G.707 and G.783 Abbreviation Meaning LOS Loss of Signal TSE

Test Sequence Error, Bit error (in the test pattern) Error

LSS

Loss of Sequence Synchronization;

LTI

Loss of incoming Timing Intervals;

Regenerator Section OOF Out Of Frame

162

LOF

Loss Of Frame

B1 (8 bits)

Regenerator Section error monitoring

Multiplex Section B2 (n x 24 bits)

Multiplex Section error monitoring

MS-AIS

Multiplex Section AIS

MS-RDI

Multiplex Section Remote Defect Indication

MS-REI

Multiplex Section Remote Error Indication

Administrative Unit AU-LOP

Loss Of AU Pointer

AU-NDF

AU Pointer New Data Flag

AU-AIS

AU AIS

AU-PJE

AU Pointer Justification Event

HO Path B3 (8 bits)

HO Path error monitoring (VC-3/4)

HP-UNEQ

HO Path Unequipped

HP-RDI

HO Path Remote Defect Indication;

HPRDIEP

HO Path RDI Payload Defect

HPRDIES

HO Path RDI Server Defect

HPRDIEC

HO Path RDI Connectivity Defect

HP-REI

HO Path Remote Error Indication

HP-TIM

HO Path Trace Identifier Mismatch

HP-PLM

HO Path Payload Label Mismatch


40G Module

Tributary Unit TU-LOP

Loss of TU Pointer

TU-NDF

TU pointer New Data Flag

TU-AIS

TU AIS

TU-LOM

Loss Of Multiframe (H4)

LO Path BIP-2

LO Path error monitoring (VC-11/12)

B3 ( 8 bits)

LO Path error monitoring (VC-3)

LP-UNEQ

LO Path UNEQuipped

LP-RDI

LO Path Remote Defect Indication

LPRDIEP

LO Path RDI Payload Defect

LPRDIES

LO Path RDI Server Defect

LPRDIEC

LO Path RDI Connectivity Defect

LP-REI

LO Path Remote Error Indication

LP-RFI

LO Path Remote Failure Indication

LP-TIM

LO Path Trace Identifier Mismatch

LP-PLM

LO Path Payload Mismatch

163


STT Scalable Network Test Solution 11.3.3 The SONET Network The lowest level SONET is termed the Synchronous Transport Signal Level 1 (STS-1). This signal has a rate of 51.84 Mbps. Its optical equivalent, as obtained by a direct electrical conversion of the STS-1 signal, is the OC-1, Optical Carrier Level 1. The higher level signals are obtained by the byte-interleaved mapping of lower level signals. Basically, the bytes are interleaved in such a format where the low-speed signals are still visible. There is no additional signal processing except the direct conversion from electrical (STS) to optical (OC) form. These higher signal levels are denoted by STS-N and OC-n. According to SONET standards, n can equal 1,3,12, 48, and 192, etc. Table 10 displays some SONET line rates and the SDH equivalent formats. Line Rate

SONET SDH

SONET Capacity

SDH Capacity

51.840 Mbps

OC-1 STS-1

STM-0

28 DS1s or 1 DS3

155.520 Mbps

OC-3

STM-1

84 DS1s or 3 DS3s 63 E1s or 1 E4

622.080 Mbps

OC-12

STM-4

336 DS1s or 12 DS3s

252 E1s or 4 E4s

2.488 Gbps

OC-48

STM-16

1344 DS1s or 48 DS3s

1008 E1s or 16 E4s

9.952 Gbps

OC-192 STM-64

5376 DS1s or 192 DS3s

4032 E1s or 64 E4s

39.813 Gbps

OC-768 STM-264 21,504 DS1s or 768 DS3s

_

16,128 E1s or 256 E4s

Table 6 Synchronous Technology Rate Equivalencies The OC-3 (Optical Carrier 3) rate is where the various rate systems meet. STS-3 it is equivalent to the STM-1 (Synchronous Transport Mode), in the SDH standard. The rate is 155.52 Mbps. OC-12 is equivalent to STS-4, at 622.08 Mbps, etc. STS-N frames consist of a number of STS frames multiplexed together. The high rate frame is made by interleaving the STS-nâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s byte by byte (for example, by multiplexing three STS-1s together to make an STS-3). By multiplexing in this manner, the columns of each lower rate STS are also interleaved. As each of the first three columns of each STS are overhead, the resulting STS-3â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s first nine columns are overhead. Since error checking is usually only done once for the entire frame, only the overhead in the first STS is usually actually used. The remaining overhead is left as undefined. The STS-1s are still accessible in a higher STS-n rate. Concatenated payloads, designated STS-Nc or OC-Nc, are not divided into individual STS-1 channels. Rather, the entire SPE is used for a single payload. For example, an OC-3 is usually divided into three 52 Mbps STS-1 channels, each with its own pointer and Path overhead. An OC-3c is a single 155 Mbps channel with a single pointer and Path overhead. Concatenation is used for data-based networks such as ATM and Packet Over SONET.

164


40G Module

OC-3cs are often used for transporting ATM cells. Figure 118 depicts the multiplexing process. In this figure, three STS-1s are multiplexed to form one STS-3. A1, A2, A3, B1, B2, etc., represent the overhead bytes for each STS-1 signal. SPE A, B, C represent the synchronized payload envelopes for the 3 STS-1 signals. COLUMNS ! ! ! 30%! !!!30%!  ROWS

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Virtual Tributaries SONET also defines synchronous formats at sub-STS-1 levels. The STS-1 payload is subdivided into Virtual Tributaries (VTs)-synchronous signals used to transport lower-speed transmissions. â&#x20AC;˘ STS-1 SPE has a channel capacity of 50.11 Mbps; designed to transport a DS3 tributary signal. â&#x20AC;˘ The VT frame structure transports a lower rate signal, such as the DS1 signal. There are three common sizes of VTs; VT 1.5, VT-2, and VT-6. â&#x20AC;˘ Each VT 1.5 frame consists of 27 bytes (3 columns of 9 bytes). These bytes provide a transport capacity of 1.728 Mbps, and thus, can accommodate the transport of a DS1 signal. 28 VT 1.5s may be multiplexed into the STS-1 SPE. â&#x20AC;˘ Each VT-2 frame consists of 36 bytes (4 columns of 9 bytes). These bytes provide a transport capacity of 2.304 Mbps, can accommodate the transport one E1 signal. 21 VT-2s may be multiplexed into the STS-1 SPE.

165


STT Scalable Network Test Solution â&#x20AC;˘ Each VT-6 frame consists of 108 bytes (12 columns of 9 bytes). These bytes provide a transport capacity of 6.912 Mbps and will accommodate the mapping of a DS2 signal. Seven VT-6s may be multiplexed into the STS-1 SPE. â&#x20AC;˘ Different types of VT groups may be mixed into one STS-1 SPE. The next figure shows the overall SONET multiplexing structure.

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Figure 119 SONET Multiplexing Hierarchy The basic devices are defined as follows: 1. Digital Loop Carrier systems (DLC): Specialized SONET back-to-back mux systems providing circuit concentration in the local loop market. These elements are similar to the Terminal Mux, but transmission speed is normally limited to 155 Mbps. 2. Terminal Mux: Performs the simple multiplexing of SONET and standards DS1/ DS3 channels onto a single SONET bearer. 3. Add/Drop Mux: A terminal multiplexer with the ability to operate in through mode (ADM) and add and drop channels to the through signal. This may be used to add, drop, or cross-connect tributary channels. They may operate at any SONET rate.

At an add/drop site, only those signals that need to be accessed are dropped and inserted. The remaining traffic continues through the network element without requiring signal processing.

4. SONET DCS (Cross Connect): A SONET cross-connect accepts various SONET rates, accesses the STS-1 signals, and switches at this level. The major difference between a cross-connect and an add/drop multiplex is that a cross-connect may be used to interconnect a much larger number of STS-1s. It is ideally used at a SONET hub. 166


40G Module

5. Regenerator: Required for SONET and transmission over 35 miles. These are not just simple signal reconstitutes, but have alarm and error checking capability. Figure 120 is an illustration of SONET architecture and devices.

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Frame Formats Figures 121 and 122 display the frame formats of the STS-1 signal. The STS-1 frame format is usually depicted as a matrix of 9 rows of 90 bytes. The signal bits are transmitted starting with those on the top left hand byte in row 1, until all the bits in the 90th (last) byte in row 2 are transmitted. This process continues until the 90th byte of the 9th row is transmitted. The entire frames are transmitted in 125 microseconds. The frame is comprised of two main areas: transport overhead (TOH) and the synchronous payload envelope (SPE). The TOH and SPE are two distinct and readily accessible parts within the frame structure. The Path overhead (POH) is contained in the SPE. The SPE is the defined area within he STS-N which carries the data for customer services. The SPE is designed to traverse the network from end to end. Once the payload is multiplexed into the SPE, it can be transported and switched without having to be examined or demultiplexed at intermediate nodes. For this reason, SONET is called service-independent and transparent. See the next figure for the SPE format:

167


STT Scalable Network Test Solution



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Figure 121 SPE Format The TOH provides the facilities required to support and maintain the SPE between nodes in a synchronous network (i.e. alarm monitoring, bit-error monitoring, and data communications channels). The STS-1 payload has the ability to transport up to 28 DS1s or 1 DS3. The next figure shows the STS-n frame. ! ! !  ! ! !  * : :  "

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Figure 122 STS Frame Format The SONET network may be described in terms of three different network spans. These spans allows for fault sectionalization. â&#x20AC;˘ Path: Allows network performance to be maintained from a customer service end-to-end perspective. â&#x20AC;˘ Line: Allows network performance to be maintained between transport nodes. This provides the majority of network management reporting. â&#x20AC;˘ Section: Allows network performance to be maintained between line regenerators (repeaters) or between a line regenerator and an SONET network element.

168


40G Module

Figure 123 displays a representation of these network spans. 343 N/# N $3 N

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STS-1 Overhead The embedded overhead in the SONET signal supports network maintenance at each level of these network spans. Thus, the Path, Line, and Section Overhead are distinct. Section Overhead â&#x20AC;˘ Framing â&#x20AC;˘ Performance monitoring â&#x20AC;˘ Local orderwire â&#x20AC;˘ Data communications channel (132 kbps) Line Overhead â&#x20AC;˘ Pointer to the start of the synchronous payload envelope â&#x20AC;˘ Performance monitoring of the individual STS-1s â&#x20AC;˘ Express orderwire â&#x20AC;˘ Protection switching information â&#x20AC;˘ Line alarm indication signals (AIS) â&#x20AC;˘ Line Remote Defect Indication (RDI-L) indication STS Path Overhead â&#x20AC;˘ Performance monitoring of the STS SPE â&#x20AC;˘ Signal label â&#x20AC;˘ Path trace The high level of network management possible with the SONET depends on the information provided by the overheads within the STS frame. Basically, the Path Overhead provides the facilities needed to support and maintain the transportation of the SPE between Path terminating locations where the SPE is assembled and disassembled. The Line and Section Overhead provide the facilities to support and maintain the transportation of the SPE between the adjacent nodes.

169


STT Scalable Network Test Solution In higher OC rates, generally only the Section and Line overhead in the first STS is utilized. The rest is ignored. Each SPE within the OC-n signal has independent Path overhead. This figure shows the labels of the overhead, which will be gone into in more detail in the following sections. 4RANSPORT /VERHEAD

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Figure 124 SONET Overhead Bytes

Further Section Overhead Definitions • The framing bytes, A1 and A2, provide a frame alignment pattern (11110110 00101000, binary, F6 28 hex). • The B1 parity check byte provides Section error monitoring. It uses a bit-interleaved parity 8 code (BIP-8), with even parity. • The E1 Section orderwire byte provides for voice communications among regenerators, hubs, and remote terminal locations. • The F1 byte is the Section User Channel, for user’s purposes. It is terminated at all Section level equipment. • The last three Section OH bytes, D1-D3, proved a data communications channel for Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning (OAM&P).

Line Overhead The three bytes H1-H3 facilitate the operation of the STS-1 payload pointer. The payload pointer is involved with synchronization of SONET. Ideally, all synchronous network elements should derive their timing signal from the same master network clock. However, current synchronized network timing schemes allow for the existence of more than one master clock. SONET uses pointers to compensate for frequency phase variations caused by multiple timing sources. Pointers enable the transparent transport of synchronous payload envelopes across plesiochronous boundaries. This means the SPE can be switched and transported though SONET without having to be examined an demultiplexed at intermediate nodes. The use of pointers avoids the delays and loss of data associated with the use of large (125 µs frame) slip buffers for synchronization. This permits the ease of dropping, inserting, and cross-connecting these payloads in the network. The pointer 170


40G Module

is simply an offset value that points to where the SPE begins. Figure 125 shows the H1-H2 pointers. ( .

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Figure 125 H1-H2 Pointers â&#x20AC;˘ H1-H2: Pointer; values range from 0 to 782 â&#x20AC;˘ H3: Pointer Activity (Byte stuffing) â&#x20AC;˘ The B2 byte provides a BIP-8 Line error monitoring function. â&#x20AC;˘ K1 and K2 provide Automatic Switching Protection (APS) signaling between Line terminating equipment. â&#x20AC;˘ D4-D12 provide a data communications channel at 576k for message-based administrative, monitor, maintenance, alarm, and other communications needs. â&#x20AC;˘ S1 provides synchronization status, reporting on the signal clock source and quality. â&#x20AC;˘ The E2 byte provides an express orderwire channel for voice communications between Line terminating equipment. â&#x20AC;˘ M0 is used for Remote Error Indication (REI-L). This provides a count of the far end Line B2 errors. In STS-3 and higher signals, M0 is replaced by M1, which serves the same purpose. See Figure 124 for the position of M0.

Path Overhead Figure 124 shows the Path Overhead bytes. â&#x20AC;˘ The J1 byte makes up a 64-byte fixed-length string, which is transmitted one byte per SPE frame. It can contain any alphanumeric message. The continuity of connection to the source of the Path can be verified at any receiving terminal by checking this message string. â&#x20AC;˘ The B3 byte provides a BIP-8 Path error monitoring function. â&#x20AC;˘ The C2 byte indicates the construction of the STS SPE. â&#x20AC;˘ G1 provides alarm and performance information. It conveys this information back to the originating STS Path Termination equipment. This byte allows the monitoring of a two-way Path at either end, or at any point along the way. â&#x20AC;˘ The F2 byte is the Path userâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s channel; it is provided for proprietary network operator communications between Path Termination equipment. 171


STT Scalable Network Test Solution

â&#x20AC;˘ The H4 byte is the VT multi Frame indicator. Currently, it is used only for VT multiframe carried by that particular SPE. â&#x20AC;˘ Bytes Z3 and Z4 are reserved for future use. â&#x20AC;˘ Byte Z5 provides Path tandem connection monitoring information. This is an important feature for customers with multiple service providers.

VT Overhead The first byte in the VT SPE is the V5 VT Overhead byte. See Figure . 6 .

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Figure 126 VT Overhead Details Some overhead bytes contain special functions, like Path Overhead byte G1â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s alarm and performance information. These bytes make effective in-service testing possible within a SONET network. Loss of Signal (LOS), Loss of Frame (LOF), and Loss of Pointer (LOP) cause Alarm Indication Signal (AIS) to be transmitted downstream. These AIS signals vary depending on the level of maintenance hierarchy affected. Maintenance signals, in response to AIS, are sent upstream to warn of the trouble downstream.

Nomenclature Defects are identified by their location in the network: Section, Line, Path, or Virtual Tributary Path. The abbreviations -S, -L, -P, and -V are used to distinguish between these. Sometimes you will see AIS-P written as P-AIS, but they mean the sameâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;a Path-level AIS defect. There are two classes of defects: near end and far end. Near end defects are any defects detected on the line being tested. Far end defects are always a response to a near end defect. In SONET, far end defects always have â&#x20AC;&#x153;remoteâ&#x20AC;? somewhere 172


40G Module

in the name, like Remote Defect Indication (RDI), which is a far end response to an AIS defect.

Loss of Signal: LOS LOS occurs when the data is all zeros for 2.3 to 100 microseconds (less than a frame).

Loss of Framing: LOF LOF occurs when there is no valid framing pattern for 3 ms (24 frames). LOS and LOF defects can be caused by optical power that is either too low or too high. In many cases when a LOF occurs, it is due to the optical receiver being saturated. Inserting an attenuator clears up the problem. This is common when interfacing between single mode and multimode equipment. Both LOS and LOF are cleared with 2 consecutive valid frames.

Loss of Pointer: LOP LOP occurs for Path or Virtual Tributaries when there is no valid pointer for 8 to 10 frames. The LOP is cleared when a valid pointer appears for 3 consecutive frames. Payload Label Mismatch: PLM PLM occurs when the value of the C2 byte does not match the expected value, indicating that two network elements are not configured for the same payload. Unequipped: UNEQ Unequipped is used for Paths and Virtual Tributaries that have not been provisioned. It serves the same role as an idle code. Trace Identifier Mismatch: TIM TIM occurs when the expected Path or Virtual Tributary trace (J1 or J2 byte, respectively) does not match the expected value, alerting to a potential provisioning problem. The TIM measurement is optional. Alarm Indication Signal: AIS SONET AIS comes in three varieties depending on whether the originating defect occurred in the Line, Path, or Virtual Tributary Path. There is no Section AIS. Line AIS is triggered on a Loss of Signal (LOS) or Loss of Frame (LOF). The AIS signal is given valid Section overhead (framing), but the remainder of the signal an all-ones (scrambled). AIS-L is detected when bits 6-8 of the K2 byte are â&#x20AC;&#x153;111â&#x20AC;? for five consecutive frames. Path AIS is triggered by a Line AIS or a Loss of Pointer (LOP). The AIS-P sets the H1-H3 bytes to all ones. AIS-P is detected when H1-H2 are all ones for three consecutive frames. VT AIS is triggered by a AIS-P, LOP-P, UNEQ-P, TIM-P, PLM-P, or LOP-V. AIS-V are also triggered by a DS1 LOS, OOF, or AIS. The AIS-V sets the entire VT to all-ones, including the VT overhead. AIS-V is detected when V1-V2 are all ones for three consecutive frames.

173


STT Scalable Network Test Solution Remote Defect Indicator: RDI RDI is a far end response to a major fault, such as a LOS or AIS. The network element that detects the defect generates an RDI in the overhead of the signal heading toward the origin of the problem. SONET RDI, like AIS, comes in three varieties. Older specifications use FERF instead of RDI. An RDI that lasts for 2.5 ± 0.5 seconds becomes an RFI “Remote Failure Indication.” Line RDI is triggered by AIS-L, LOS, or LOF. RDI-L is indicated by setting bits 6-8 of the K2 byte to “110.” RDI-L is detected when this code is seen for 5 to 10 consecutive frames. Path RDI is indicated by bit 5 of the G1 byte. RDI-P is detected if this bit is set to 1 for 10 consecutive frames. VT RDI is indicated by bit 8 of the V5 byte. RDI-V is detected if this bit is set to 1 for 10 consecutive subframes (the V5 byte is only sent once every four SONET frames). Path RDI and VT RDI has changed considerably over the years. The RDI-P/V mentioned above are called “one-bit” RDI defects. The current specifications include an enhanced RDI, called ERDI-P/V. These indicate the presence of more types of defects besides AIS. The details on ERDI-P/V follow.

Enhanced RDI: ERDI Traditional RDI do not indicate Unequipped, Payload Label Mismatch, and other serious defects. These are covered by ERDI. ERDIs allow for more specific designation of what caused the defect: server, connectivity, or payload defects. Payload defects would not trigger an RDI in older systems, since these systems do not include PLM or LCD (Loss of Cell Delineation—an ATM defect) in their definitions.

RDI-P ERDI-P

G1 Bits 5-7

ERDI-P Priority

Trigger

Interpretation

0xx

N/A

No defects

No RDI-P defect

1xx

N/A

AIS-P, LOP-P

One-bit RDI-P defect

101

1

AIS-P, LOP-P

ERDI-P server defect

110

2

UNEQ-P, TIM-P

ERDI-P connectivity defect

010

3

PLM-P, LCD-P

ERDI-P payload defect

001

4

No defects

No RDI-V defect

Table 7 Path ERDI

RDI-V ERDIV

Z7 Bits 5-7

V5 Bit 8 ERDI-P Trigger Priority

Interpretation

yxx

0

N/A

No defects

No RDI-V defect

yxx

1

N/A

AIS-V, LOP-V

One-bit RDI-V defect

101

0

1

AIS-V, LOP-V

ERDI-V server defect

110

0

2

UNEQ-V,TIM-V ERDI-V connectivity defect

010

1

3

PLM-V

ERDI-V payload defect

001

1

4

No defects

No RDI-V defect

Table 8 VT ERDI 174


40G Module

Backwards compatibility is ensured by the tables above. If ERDI-P is not supported, the equipment only looks at G1 bit 5, ignoring bits 6 and 7. If ERDI-V is not supported, the equipment only looks at V5 bit 8, ignoring Z7. ERDI-P and ERDI-V are detected if the appropriate bit code persists for 5 to 10 consecutive frames. The ERDI-V specification has gone through many revisions and may behave very differently on different network equipment and test sets.

Parity Parity is a means to detect bit errors on live data. Parity is calculated after scrambling, and then placed into the parity byte of the next frame (before scrambling). For example, the B1 byte of a given frame is based on the previous frame. Because the parity is calculated over 8 bits, this is called BIP-8. VT1.5 uses BIP-2 since it only looks at even/odd numbered bits. Section parity (B1) is calculated once over the entire SONET frame. For OC-n signals, there is still only a single B1 byte. Line parity (B2) is calculated over the entire frame, except the Section overhead. An OC-n signal has N B2 bytes. Essentially, each STS-1 within the OC-n is calculated separately. For concatenated signals, the parity just pretends the payload is split into N STS-1 signals. Line parity is sometimes called BIP-Nx8 parity, so that an OC-12 would use BIP-96. Path parity (B3) is calculated once over the payload (SPE). For OC-n signals, there are N B3 bytesâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;one for each STS-1 payload. For concatenated signals, there is only one B3 byte. By calculating parity separately for Section, Line, Path, and Virtual Tributaries, the source of the errors can be isolated quickly. For example, if the test set detects a B2 (Line) error, but not a B1 (Section) error, the problem originates before the last regenerator. If multiple types of parity errors occur simultaneously, they are probably caused by the same fault and the technician should focus on the closest one. For example, if both a B2 (Line) and B3 (Path) error are detected, there is a problem between the test set and the last Line network element; the B3 error can be ignored until the B2 error is resolved. Parity errors are also called Code Violations (not to be confused with bipolar violations) and designated CV-S, CV-L, CV-P, and CV-V.

Remote Error Indicator: REI REI is a far end response to parity errors. When a network element detects one or more parity errors, it sends an REI in the overhead of the signal back in the direction the parity error originated. The REI provides an indication of the number of parity errors detected. There is no REI for the Section layer. REI-L appears in the M0 and M1 bytes. The value of the byte indicates the number of B2 errors: 0-8 for M0 (STS/OC-1 signals) and 0-255 for M1 (STS/OC-3 and higher signals). REI-P appears in bits 1-4 of the G1 byte, giving a number from 0-8 B3 errors. REI-V appears in bit 3 of the V5 byte and only gives a simple indication whether BIP-2 errors were present, not a number. 175


STT Scalable Network Test Solution Performance Monitoring The following parameters are calculated separately over Section, Line, Path, and Virtual Tributary path for both the near end and far end (except Section). SEFS (Severely Errored Frame Second-Section only): A SEFS occurs when the framing pattern has an error for four or more consecutive frames. CV (Code Violations): CV is a count of B1/B2/B3/BIP-2 errors (near end) or REIL/P/V errors (far end). ES (Errored Seconds): ES is any second with one or more errors. For example, if there are 5 B1 errors within one second, there would be 5 CV-S and 1 ES-S. If there is one B1 errors a second for five seconds, there would be 5 CV-S and 5 ES-S. SES (Severely Errored Seconds): SES is any second that exceed a specified threshold of errors or AIS/RDI. SES will also be counted for Loss of Signal (LOS) and Severely Errored Frame (SEF). The threshold depends on the Line rate and type of error. For example, SES-L triggers on 615 B2 errors at OC-12 but 2,459 at OC-48. An AIS-L triggers an SES-L at any rate. UAS (Unavailable Seconds): UAS starts after 10 seconds of SES and clears after 10 seconds without an SES. FC (Failure Counts): A failure is a defect (AIS, RDI, etc.) which persists for 2.5 Âą 0.5 seconds. Failure Counts are not counted for Section. Failures can help distinguish between isolated events and a single persistent event. For example, an AIS-L that last 15 seconds would be one failure, but three AIS-L occurrences that lasted 5 seconds each would be three failures. In both cases, 15 unavailable seconds (UAS) would be recorded. AS (Available Seconds): The elapsed time minus UAS. This is a nonstandard PM parameter, but is included here as some users used to DS1 and DS3 testing may expect to see it.

176


40G Module

Figure 127 SONET Alarm Signal Flow

SONET Defects to ANSI DS1.105 and Telcordia GR-253 Abbreviation Meaning Section (S) LOS Loss of Signal OOF Out Of Frame LOF Loss Of Frame B1 (8 bits) Section error monitoring Line (L) B2 (n x 8 bits) AIS-L RDI-L REI-L

Line error monitoring Line AIS Line Remote Defect Indication Line Remote Error Indication

STS Path (SP) LOP-P NDF-P AIS-P B3 (8 bits) UNEQ-P RDI-P ERDI-P PAY ERDI-P SER ERDI-P CON

Path Loss of Pointer Path New Data Flag Path AIS Path error monitoring Path Unequipped Path Remote Defect Indication: Path RDI Payload Defect Path RDI Server Defect Path RDI Connectivity Defect FEBE

177


STT Scalable Network Test Solution PDI-P TIM-P PLM-P

Virtual Tributary (VT) LOP-V NDF-V AIS-V LOM BIP-V UNEQ-V RDI-V ERDI-V PAY ERDI-V SER ERDI-V CON REI-V RFI-V PDI-V TIM-V PLM-V

Path Payload Defect Indication Path Trace Identifier Mismatch Path Label Mismatch Loss of Pointer VP New Data Flag VP AIS Loss of Multiframe VT error monitoring VT Unequipped VT Remote Defect Indication VT RDI Payload Defect VT RDI Server Defect VT RDI Connectivity Defect VT Remote Error Indication VT Remote Failure Indication VT Payload Defect Indication VT Trace Identifier Mismatch VT Path Label Mismatch

â&#x20AC;˘ Network differential delay measurement to verify conformance to ITU-T specifications.

178


40G Module

11.3.4 T-Carrier Technology 45M Usage 45M DS3s (AKA T3s) are widely embedded in the network transport architecture as a convenient means of carrying 672 voice channels in one circuit. A 45M signal consists of digital data transmitted at 44.736 megabits per second (Mbps), plus or minus 20 parts per million. Newer 45M applications include the transport of broadcast-quality video, ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) physical layer connections, and supercomputer direct links. Many types of network elements (equipment) have DS3 interfaces. An M13 mux multiplexes 28 DS1s into a single DS3. A fiber mux may have one or more 45M low speed tributaries and has a high speed (STM-n) output. A 3x1 Digital Cross-connect System (DCS) has many 45Ms as inputs and crossconnects the 1.4Ms inside the 45Ms. See Figure 128 for a simple example of typical equipment in a 45M circuit.

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Figure 128 Typical 45M Circuit

Alarm Information AlS: Alarm Indication Signal, is used to indicate a transmission failure within the network. When any intermediate network element receives a loss of signal on its input, it is supposed to propagate an AIS on its output. The AIS signal is a valid framed signal with payload containing a repeating 1010 pattern. A 45M circuit passes through an intermediate network element. In comparison, a terminal network element terminates the 45M circuit so that no form of DS3 passes through to the other side of the element. An M13 multiplex is an example of a terminating network element where the 45M stops and the 1.5Ms continue on. Yellow Alarm: Also known as far end alarm, a yellow alarm is transmitted on a DS3 circuit when the terminating element such as an M13 multiplex loses framing on its received 45M signal or receives an AIS signal. If the terminating element is an M13 multiplex, it also transmits AIS on the DS1s. See Figure 129. The yellow alarm lets the M13 multiplex at the other end know that there is a service outage on the circuit. The yellow alarm is transmitted by setting the X bits to 0.

179


STT Scalable Network Test Solution

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1.5M Usage 1.5M lines are widely embedded in the network distribution architecture as a convenient means of reducing cable pair counts by carrying 24 voice channels in one 4-wire circuit. End users have migrated their private networks onto leased 1.5Ms as a means of reducing their network operation costs. DS1 is a universal digital access point to traditional digital networks and newer fiber optic synchronous networks.

AIS and Yellow Alarms For 1.5M, AIS and yellow alarms work just like they do in 45M. An intermediate network element such as an M13 multiplex, 1x1 DCS, or SONET/SDH mux, is supposed to transmit AIS downstream when it receives a loss of signal.

Alarm Conditioning

Terminating elements also need to properly condition the DS0s that the DS1 carries when the frame is lost. For instance, A D4 channel bank is supposed to condition its channel cards to take them out of service and transmit an appropriate out-ofservice signal to the low speed equipment which is attached. See Figure 130 for diagrams of how the AIS and yellow alarms are transmitted.

DS0 D4

LOF or AIS

LOS

Yellow Alarm Transmission

Figure 130 DS1 AIS & Yellow Alarms

180

DS1

DS1

RAI

M13

Channelized M13 AIS AIS

AIS Transmission


40G Module

11.3.5 PDH Technology PDH is an almost-synchronous international transmission network. Numerous signals, almost in synch, are received at a mux, where they are multiplexed into a single signal. The entire signal must be demultiplexed in order to switch one lower-order signal. Here is a list of the standard rates, or CEPTs, and how they are multiplexed up: • CEPT1/E1: 2.048 Mbps — 32 64 kbps streams • CEPT2/E2: 8.448 Mbps — 4 2.048 Mbps tributaries • CEPT3/E3: 34.368 Mbps — 4 8.448 Mbps tributaries • CEPT3/E4: 139.264 Mbps — 4 34.368 tributaries In the PDH system, no standards exist for optical transmission equipment. This means different manufacturers make equipment to different standards, so the equipment may therefore not interface.

Technical Standards PDH transmission technology is defined by a number of technology standards. Usage of standards ensures that various pieces of equipment are compatible, and that networks operate in a predictable, reliable manner. The following standards cover many of the important aspects of PDH technology. Refer to these documents when you require detailed information. ITU-T G.703: Physical/Electrical characteristics of interface. ITU-T G.704: Synchronous frame structures. ITU-T G.706: Frame alignment and Cyclic Redundancy Check procedures. ITU-T G.732: Characteristics of primary PCM multiplex equipment operating at 2048 kbps. ITU-T G.742: Second order digital multiplex equipment operating at 8448 kbps and using positive justification. ITU-T G.751: Digital multiplex equipment operating at the third order bit rate of 34368 kbps and the fourth order bit rate of 139264 kbps and using positive justification. ITU-T G.775: Loss of signal and alarm indication signal defect detection clearance criteria at equipment interfaces described in Rec. G.703 and operating at bit rates described in Rec. G.702. ITU-T G.821: Error performance of an international connection forming part of an integrated services network. ITU-T G.826: Error performance parameters and objectives for international, constant bit rate digital paths at or above the primary rate. ITU-T M.2100: Performance limits for bringing into-service and maintenance of international PDH paths, Sections and transmission paths. ITU-T O.151: Error performance measuring equipment for digital systems at the primary bit rate or above.

181


STT Scalable Network Test Solution ITU-T O.152: Error performance measuring equipment for 64 kbps paths. ITU-T O.153: Basic parameters for the measurement of error performance at bit rates below the primary rate.

2.048 Mbps Data Rate The E1 signal (bitstream) is transmitted at a rate of 2.048 Mbps (2 048 000 bits per second). This transmission rate is achieved by multiplexing 32 individual 64 kbps bitstreams:

64 kbps/Channel

x 32 Channels = 2048 kbps =

2.048 Mbps

This 2.048 Mbps signal is the overall E1 transmission rate.

Higher Rate Multiplexing 2M signals may be multiplexed together at a mux. Four 2M (or E1) tributaries may be multiplexed together to create a 8.448 Mbps signal. An E3, with a rate of 34.368 Mbps, is created by multiplexing four 8.448 Mbps signals, and an E4, with a rate of 139.264 Mbps, consists of four multiplexed E3s. The lower rate signals (called tributaries at this point) are bit interleaved to higher rates in multiplexers, in the tributary numbering order. The tributaries have different clock sources. Each multiplexer and demultiplexer has its own internal clock source. The mux uses its internal clock to generate one higher rate signal, using bit stuffing as necessary to achieve synchronization. In demultiplexing, the mux reverses the process, having locked onto the frame alignment signal, and onto the clocking of the received data signal. It removes the justification stuff bits, then reclocks the signals for transmission. Hence, the variations in clocking between multiplexers donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t matter.a

CRC Error Checking A Cyclic Redundancy Check-4 (CRC-4) is often used in E1 transmission to identify possible bit errors. CRC-4 allows detecting errors within an in-service 2.048 Mbps signal. The equipment which originates the 2M data calculates the CRC-4 bits for one submultiframe. Then it inserts the CRC-4 bits in the CRC-4 positions in the next submultiframe. The receiving equipment performs the reverse mathematical computation on the submultiframe. It examines the CRC-4 bits which were transmitted in the next submultiframe, then it compares the transmitted CRC-4 bits to the calculated value. If there is a discrepancy in the two values, a CRC-4 error is reported. There is one major disadvantage of relying on CRC-4 errors to determine the performance of an E1 circuit: each individual CRC-4 error does not necessarily correspond to a single bit error. Multiple bit errors within the same submultiframe will lead to only one CRC-4 error for the block. Also, it is possible that errors could

182


40G Module

occur such that the new CRC-4 bits are calculated to be the same as the original CRC-4 bits. Thus, CRC-4 error checking provides a most convenient method of identifying bit errors within an in-service system, but provides only an approximate measure of the circuit’s true performance. Consider the MFAS framing, illustrated in Figure 131. Each MFAS frame can be divided into “submultiframes”. These are labeled SMF#1 and SMF#2 and consist of 8 frames apiece. We associate 4 bits of CRC information with each submultiframe. The CRC-4 bits are calculated for each submultiframe, buffered, then inserted into the following submultiframe to be transmitted. 4IME3LOT - &2-

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Figure 131 CRC-4 Multiframe Format

183


STT Scalable Network Test Solution 11.4 Service Information In general, handle fiber patch cords and connectors carefully. Always replace dust covers. Keep the optical connectors clean, and make a practice of not looking into fiber ends. The following sections give more specifics. An optical fiber is a strand of glass about the same diameter as a human hair strand, yet it is remarkably durable. Careful handling will ensure continued high performance and long life. • Do not pull or kink patch cords, as the glass strand in the middle might become damaged or broken. • A sharp bend will cause excessive signal loss. • Keep patch cord bend radiuses no less than an inch. • Use specialized optical cable raceways and plenums whenever they are available. • Don’t use tie wraps as you would with electrical cables. Tie wraps will put strain on the fiber.

11.4.1 Handling Optical Fiber There are several types of optical connectors in use today. Figure 132 shows two useful ones: SC and LC. In this example, an SC to FC bulkhead adapter will be used to connect the two fibers together. Figure shows a multi-mode LC connector.

SC

Figure 132 SC to LC Cord

184

LC


40G Module

Figure 133 Duplex Multi-mode LC Connectors • When using optical connectors, insert or remove the ferrule straight into the sleeve. • Minimize wiggling the connector as this may loosen the tight fit that is required for the ferrule and sleeve. • For SC connectors, orient the prominent key on the connector body with the slot in bulkhead adapter. Push the connector in until it clicks. To remove, pinch the connector body between your thumb and finger, and gently pull straight out. • FC connectors require more care. Find the small key and orient it with the equally small slot in the threaded section of the bulkhead adapter. This key is not very visible. Thread the outer barrel only lightly—finger tight. Never use pliers! • Overtightening the barrel will not improve signal transmission, and could cause permanent damage. To remove, unthread the barrel, and gently pull straight out. • Most problems with FC connectors are due to key misalignment. This is difficult to detect because when the key is misaligned the barrel may be threaded, which then hides the misaligned key. One indication of misalignment is when the barrel only catches the first one or two threads. The connector will not be completely seated in the bulkhead adapter. • A properly connected FC connector should seat completely, with the barrel threading several turns.

185


STT Scalable Network Test Solution 11.4.2 Cleaning Optical Fiber To ensure long life of the connectors and to minimize transmission loss at the connection point, fiber optic connectors must be kept clean.

Precautions • When not in use, always replace dust covers and caps to prevent deposits and films from airborne particles. A single dust particle caught between two connectors will cause significant signal loss. Dust particles can scratch the polished fiber end, resulting in permanent damage. • Do not touch the connector end or the ferrules, since this will leave an oily deposit from your fingers. • Do not allow uncapped connectors to drop on the floor.

How to Clean • Should a fiber connector become dirty or exhibit high loss, carefully clean the entire ferrule and end face. • Special lint-free pads should be used with isopropyl alcohol. • Even though not very accessible, the end face in a bulkhead adapter on test equipment can be cleaned by using a special lint-free swab, again with isopropyl alcohol. • In extreme cases, a test unit may require more thorough cleaning at the factory. • Cotton, paper, or solvents should never be used for cleaning since they may leave behind particles or residue. • Use a fiber optic cleaning kit especially made for cleaning optical connectors, and follow the directions. • Canned air can do more harm than good if not used properly. Again, follow the directions that come with the kit. Take care of your fiber. Always replace dust covers. Keep optical connectors clean and make a practice of not looking into fiber ends.

186


40G Module

11.5 Customer Service Sunrise Telecom Customer Service is available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Customer Service performs the following functions: • Answers customer questions over the phone on such topics as product operation and repair • Repairs malfunctioning STT 40G promptly • Provides information about product upgrades The warranty period covering the STT 40G is three years from the date of shipment on hardware and software; one year on accessories and the battery. A Return Merchandise Authorization (RMA) Number is required before any product may be shipped to Sunrise Telecom for repair. Out-of-warranty repairs require both an RMA and a Purchase Order before the unit is returned. All repairs are warranted for 90 days. Please contact Customer Service if you need additional assistance:

Customer Service Sunrise Telecom (Headquarters) 302 Enzo Drive San Jose, CA 95138 U.S.A. Tel: 1 408 363 8000 or 1 800 701 5208 (24 hr) Fax: 1 408 363 8313 Internet: http://www.sunrisetelecom.com E-mail: support@sunrisetelecom.com Sunrise Telecom offices are located around the world. • SUNRISE TELECOM ATLANTA 3075 Northwoods Circle, Norcross, GA 30071, USA Tel: 770-446-6086, Fax: 770-446-6850 catv@sunrisetelecom.com • SUNRISE TELECOM CHINA Room 1503, Tower 3 , No.1, Xizhimenwai Street Xicheng District, Beijing, 100044, CHINA Tel: +86-10-5830-2220, Fax: +86-10-5830-2239 info@sunrisetelecom.com.cn • SUNRISE TELECOM FRANCE SAS ZA Courtaboeuf 2 - Immeuble le Ceylan 6 Allée de Londres 91140 Villejust, FRANCE Tel: +33 (0) 1 6993 8990, Fax: +33 (0) 1 6993 8991 info@sunrisetelecom.fr

187


STT Scalable Network Test Solution • SUNRISE TELECOM GERMANY GmbH Buchenstr. 10 D- 72810 Gomaringen, GERMANY Tel: +49 (0) 7072 9289 58, Fax: +49 (0) 7072 9289 55 info@sunrisetelecom.de • SUNRISE TELECOM TAIWAN 21, Wu Chuan 3rd Road, Wu-Ku Hsiang Taipei County, 248, Taiwan, R.O.C. Tel: +886-2-2298-2598, Fax: +886-2-2298-2575 info@sunrisetelecom.com.tw

188


40G Module

11.6 Calibration The recommended calibration interval for the STT 40G is every 12 months. Return the unit to a Sunrise Telecom authorized service center or directly to the factory for calibration. Contact Customer Service to arrange this service.

189


STT Scalable Network Test Solution 11.7 Express Limited Warranty This Sunrise Telecom product is warranted against defects in materials and workmanshipduring its warranty period. The warranty period for this product is contained in the warranty page on http://www.sunrisetelecom.com. Sunrise Telecom agrees to repair or replace any assembly or compo足nent found to be defective under normal use during this period. The obligation under this warranty is limited solely to repairing or replacing the product that proves to be defective within the scope of the warranty when returned to the factory. This warranty does not apply under certain conditions, as set forth on the warranty page on http://www. sunrisetelecom.com. Please refer to the website for specific details. THIS IS A LIMITED WARRANTY AND THE ONLY WARRANTY MADE BY SUNRISE TELECOM. SUNRISE TELECOM MAKES NO OTHER WARRANTY, REPRESENTATION OR CONDITION, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMS THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NON-INFRINGEMENT OF THIRD PARTY RIGHTS.

190


40G Module

Index Symbols 43G Unframed 49 Unframed only 46 43G Notes Transmit Clock 49 43G Test Notes 49 >> Rate 61 0000 141 1-16 141 1.5M AIS 180 Yellow 180 1010 141 1010 pattern AIS 179 2e11 141 2e15 141 2e20 141 2e31 141 2e6 141 2e7 141 2e9 141 3-24 141 45M Yellow Alarm 179

A Abbreviations 131 OTN/OTU Defects 64 Acronyms 131 Action Bar 13 Add/Drop Connectors 4 Add/Drop Mux 166 ADM 154,166 Administrative Units 159 AIS 161,173 1.5M 180 SONET 172 Alarm Generation 129 OTN NE Application 21 Alarms Enable audible 59 Alarm Results RDI 69 ANSI/Telecordia 30

Applications 17 Muxtesting OTN to/from SDH/SONET 26 OTN MuxTest 20 OTN NE Verification 21 OTN Point to Point 18 OTN Tests 18 Performing an Prop. Delay Analysis 91 SDH/SONET Through Mode Tests 25 Test the FEC Behavior of a NE 22 APS 119,159 Application 27 Bytes 103 APS bytes 98,103 APS Testing Applications 27 ASCI/Hex Edit Pad 113 Asynchronous mapping 43 AU+TU Pointer adjustment 105 AUGs 159 Auto Configuration 38 Auto Configuration Notes 39 Automatic Protection Switching 159 AU pointer 104,159

B B1 69 B1 byte 170 B3 69 B3 byte 171 BERT Breakaway LEDs 11 Histogram 88 LEDs 10 BERT Notes Histogram 88 BIP 72 BIT LEDs 10 BIT ERROR LEDs 10 Block Error 72 BNC External Clock 4 Breakaway LEDs 9,11 Broadcast 40 Buttons About 7 Action Bar 13 Alarm 13 Errors 13 191


STT Scalable Network Test Solution Error injection 13 Overhead 13 Results 13 Start/stop 13 TX & RX 35 Byte Capture 102 Byte Capture and Decode 99,101 Byte Control 96

C Caution Exposure to Radio Frequency Radiation 2 Touch screen 7 C2-HP 116 C2 byte 171 CALIB 91 Calibration 189 Capture Specific Bytes 102 Caution 1 Optical Power 1,4 Channel number 40 Cleaning Optical Fiber 186 Clear History Button 12 Clear History button 11 Clock 59 Clock Offset 37 CODE 37 Communication Channel DCC/GCC 121 Communication Channel BERT DCC, GCC 121 Communication port settings 58 Configuration 14 Save, view, load 52 Configuration Overview 29 Configurations Save, Reload, and View 52 Configurations Setup 29 Configuration profiles 52 Configuration Tabs 29 Connectors 3 External Clock 4 Micro-D 4 Contiguous VC Concatenation Testing 23 Coupled 35 Signal Configuration 35 CRC-4 182 Current Rate 61 Customer Service 186,187

192

D Data Communicatiosn Channel 121 DCC/GCC Enable 53 Demux Mode 33 D&I DCC 121 D1-D3 bytes 170 Data Rate 182 DCC 154 DCC/GCC Drop & Insert 4 Defects AIS 68 LOF 69 LOM 69 LOP 69 LOS 69 NDF 69 OOF 69 PLM 69 RDI 69 RFI 69 Defects Results 68 Demo Mode 6 Description 3 Desktop 7 Status Bar Buttons & Banners 11 Status Bar LEDs 7 Digital Loop Carrier 166 Digital Wrapper (DW) 145 Digital Wrapper Test 34 Direct Synchronous Multiplexing. 143 Disposal and Recycling II DLC 166 DLY55 142 Drop and insert 121 DCC 121 Drop/Insert Down arrow results 61 Single Standard 34 Drop/Insert; Two Standards 34 Drop/Insert port In-Service Applications 17 Out of Service Applications 17 Drop/Insert Port 37 Mapping Notes 41 DS1 Frame ESF 138 SLC-96 133 DS3 179


40G Module

E E1 byte 170 EDC 77 Electrical or Optical Line Type 37,46 Enhanced RDI Measurement Parameters 54 Technology 174 Enter information 7 ERDI Technology 174 Error Injection 127 ERRORS LEDs 10 Ethernet port Configuring 59 Ethernet Port Setup System Setujp 58 Events Filter 60 Expected Payload Signal Labe 117 Export 123 Express Limited Warranty 190 External Clock 54

F F2 byte 171 Far End Alarm 45M 179 fault sectionalization SONET 168 FCC Information 2 FEC 43 Figure 001 STT System with STT 40G 3 002 Network Connectors 3 003 Demo Mode Question 6 004 STT 40G Desktop 7 005 Status Bar, OTU2 9 006 Sample Breakaway LEDs 11 007 Full Screen Status View 12 008 Menu Bar 14 009 Signal Configuration Overview (OTN) 18 010 ODU Mapping 19 011 OTN Muxtesting 20 012 NE Verification 21 013 Verifying a NEâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s FEC Response 22 014 Dual Point-to-Point Testing 24 015 SDH/SONET Thru Mode 25 016 APS Testing 27 017 Signal Configuration 29 018 Single Point-to-Point Signal Configuration 31

019 020 021 022 023 024 025 026 027 028 029 030 031 032 033 034 035 036 037 038 039 040 041 042 043 044 045 046 047 048 049 050 051 052 053 054 055 056 057 058 059 060 061 062 063 064 065 066

Line Through Configuration 31 Payload Through Configuration 32 Mux Mode Signal Configuration 33 Demux Mode Signal Configuration 33 Configure a Single Standard Drop Insert Test 34 Configure a Two Standard Drop Insert Test 34 Accessing Port Configurations 36 Select the Auto Configuration Test Interface 38 Auto Configuration 38 Signal Mapping Overview 40 Drop/Insert Signal Mapping 41 OTN Signal Mapping 42 OTN Port Configuration 42 Standard OTN Mapping 43 ODU2 Mapping 44 SDH Signal Configuration with Port Configuration 46 SONET Mapping 47 Unframed Test Configuration 49 Select Test Pattern 51 Save View Configurations 52 Measurement Parameters 53 Measurement Settings 56 System Setup Menu 58 Events Filter 60 Summary Results 62 Signal Results, Optical 63 Defects Results: OTN 64 ODTU TCM Results 65 ODTU Results 66 Service Disruption Overview; 250 ms Test Window 67 Service Disruption 67 Defects Results: SONET 68 Defects Results: SDH 68 G.821 BERT Results 70 G.826 Results 72 G.828 Results 73 G.829 Results Window 74 GR-253 Section and Line Results 75 OTN G.8201 Results 77 M.2101 Results 78 M.2110 Results 80 S1/S2 Threshold Criteria 81 M.2401 Results 82 M.2120 Results 83 OTN Bar Graph Histogram 84 SONET Histogram View 84 Bar Graph View (10G) 87 Comparison Histogram 88 193


STT Scalable Network Test Solution 067 068 069 070 071 072 073 074 075 076 077 078 079 080 081 082 083 084 085 086 087 088 089 090 091 092 093 094 095 096 097 098 099 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 194

View Test Records 89 Record Configuration Window 90 Propagation Delay Calibration 91 Propagation Delay Analysis 91 OTN TX Overhead with TTI 93 OTN Byte Edit Window 94 ODTU TX Overhead with Byte Sequence 95 Overhead Transmit 96 Overhead Byte Sequences 97 Overhead Receive, OTN 99 OTN RX with Byte Decode Window 100 Overhead Receive, SONET 101 Capture Specific Bytes 102 Setup and Trigger Tabs 102 Overhead Settings 103 Monitor Pointers 104 Pointer Adjustments 105 Pointer Test Sequences 107 Summary Results with Pointer Adjustments 109 OTN TTI 110 J0/J1 Traces 111 ASCII/Hex Edit Pad 113 OTN/SDH/SONET View All Traces 115 Payload Signal Label 116 APS Timing Window 119 Save a Result to the Hard Drive 124 Generate a Report 124 Generated Report 125 Error Injection, OTN, SDH, SONET, OPTU 127 Alarm Generation, OTN 129 Alarm Generation: SDH, SONET 129 PDH Drop and Insert 144 Optical Transport Network 145 OTN Layers 146 OTN Transport Structure 146 OTN Multiplexing Hierarchy 147 OOS 148 Optical Channel Structure 148 ODU1 to ODU2 Multiplexing 149 ODU Tandem Connections 150 FEC Structure 151 OPU Overhead 152 SDH One-Step Multiplexing 153 SDH Equipment and Sections 154 Building an STM-N Frame 155 STM-1 Frame 155 STM Section Overhead 156 VC-1, -2, -11, -12 158 VC-3 and VC-4 158

116 1+1 APS Architecture 160 117 SDH Errors: REI, RDI 161 118 Bit-Interleaving Multiplexing 165 119 SONET Multiplexing Hierarchy 166 120 SONET Architecture & Devices 167 121 SPE Format 168 122 STS Frame Format 168 123 Network Spans 169 124 SONET Overhead Bytes 170 125 H1-H2 Pointers 171 126 VT Overhead Details 172 127 SONET Alarm Signal Flow 177 128 Typical 45M Circuit 179 129 DS3 AIS Generation 180 130 DS1 AIS & Yellow Alarms 180 131 CRC-4 Multiframe Format 183 132 SC to LC Cord 184 133 Duplex Multi-mode LC Connectors 185 Foreground channel 44,64 Framing bytes SONET 170 Frequency Results 63 Frequency Offset 37 Frequency Results CLKSLIP 63 FRM LED 10 Full Screen Status 12,62 Full Screen Status Button 12,62

G G.8201 Results 77 G.8201 Results 77 G.821 (SDH)/BERT (SONET) Results 70 G.821 (SDH)/BERT (SONET) Results 70 G.821 Results (ITU-T)/BERT (ANSI) %AS 71,77 %EFS 71 %ES 71 %SES 71 %UAS 71,77 AS 71 BER 70 BIT 70 Current BER 70 EFS 71 ES 70 SES 71 UAS 71


40G Module

G.826 Results 71,72 %BE 72 %SES 72 BBE 72 BE 72 SES 72 G.828 Results 73 EB 73 ES 73 SEP 73 SES 73 G.829 Results 73,74 GCC 121 GCC/DCC Enable 53 Generate Report 124 Get Started 15 Getting Started 5 GGC Technology 149 GR-253-CORE 75 GR-253 Near End Results Section Layer Errors 75 GR-253 Results 75,81 GR253 Far End Results Far End SONET 76 GR253 Near End Results Line Layer Errors 75 STS Path 76

H H1-H2 Pointers 171 H4 byte 172 Handling Optical Fiber 184 Hex 141 Higher Order POH 157 Histogram 84 Bar Graph View 86 Histogram View 87

I In-service 30 In-Service testing SONET 172 Insert / Trigger In and Out 4 In-service Tests 17 Instrument Mode Get started 5 Interfaces Electrical, Optical 3

Inversion Test Pattern 51 ITU-T 30 ITU-T Settings Measurement Paramters 53

J J0/J1/J2 Traces 109 TIM 112 Trace Generation 111 J1 byte 171

K K1, K2 159 Keyboard 7,15 Soft, hardware 7 KLM Tributary numbering 47

L Laser always off 59 LASER ON/OFF Buttons 30 LEDs 9 AU, TU, STS, VT, Pointers 10 BERT 10 BIT 10 Breakaway detailed 9 ERR 10 FRM 10 PAT 10 SDH/SONET/OTN (signal) 10 SIG 10 Status Bar 9 Line Overhead 169,170 Line Type Electrical or Optical 37,46 LOF 161,172,173 Loopback Testing 24 LOP 69,161,172,173 LOS 161,172,173 Loss Of Frame 69 Loss of Pointer 69 Lower Order POH 157

M M.2100 78,80 M.2101 Results 78 M.2110 Results 80 M.2110 Results 79 M.2110 (SDH) Results 80 195


STT Scalable Network Test Solution M.2110 Results ES 80 ES BISO 80 ES S1 80 ES S2 80 SES 80 SES BISO 80 SES S1 81 SES S2 81 M.2120 Results 83 M.2120 Thresholds Measurement Paramters 53 M.2401 Results 82 M13 mux 179 M2100 Results 74 M2xx.xx Measurement Parameters, enable 53 Maintenance signals SONET 172 Mapping 39,40 OTN 43 SDH/SONET 47 Measurement:In-service or Out-of-service 30 Measurement Parameters ITU-T Settings 53 Measurement Paramters M.2120 Thresholds 53 Measurements 61 APS 27,120 BERT (SONET) Results 70 Frequency 63 G.8201 Results 77 G.821 Results 69,71 G.826 Results 72 G.828 Results 73 G.829 Results 73,74 GR-253 Results 75,81 M.2101 Results 78 M.2110 Results 79 M.2110 (SDH) Results 80 M.2401 Results 82 OTN Results 64 Results Histogram 84 SDH/SONET Results 68 Service Disruption 67 Signal Results 63 Summary Results 61,62 View Test Records 89 Measurement Parameters 53 ANSI/Telecordia Settings 54 ITU-T Settings 53 Measurement Settings 54,56

196

Menus 14 Menu Bar 14 Micro-D Type Connector DCC/GCC 4 Monitor In-Service Tests 17 Monitor Pointers 103 H1/V1 104 H2/V2 104 JUSTIFICATION 104 LOP SECS 104 NDF 104 NEGATIV JUSTIF 104 P.VALUE 104 POSITIV JUSTIF 104 MS-AIS 161 MS-REI/REI-L Measurement Parameters 54 MSOH 156 Multiplexing PDH higher rate 182 SONET 153 Multiplexing Elements 158 Mux Mode: 33 Muxtest 35

N NDF 159 New Data Flag 159 Notes on Using This Manual 2 Number Pad 40

O OC 143 OC-1 164 OCT55 142 ODTU Results 66 ODU1 to ODU2 Mapping Technology 149 ODU/OPU Set the mapping 43 ODU1 Time Division Muliplexing Results 66 ODUk 82 Offset Frequency, Clock 37 Offset Pointer Adjustmen 106 OH Transmit tab 96 OOF 161 Operating Environment 1 Optical carrier levels 143 Optical Fiber


40G Module

Servicing 184 Optical ports wavelength 54,55 Optical port wavelength 49 OPU3 Time Slots 44 OPU Freq Offset 37 OPU signal clock 43 Orderwire 170 OTN In-service and Out-of-service Measurements 82 Mapping 43 Signal Configuration 42 OTN Mapping Set the ODU/OPU 43 OTN/OTU Defects Abbreviations 64 OTN Port Configuration 42 OTN/SDH/SONET View All Traces 115 OTN Byte Edit 94 OTN Demux Mode Test Mode 33 OTN OH TX 93 OTN Results 64 OTN RX OH 99 OTN TTI Traces 110 OTUk 82 Out-Of-Frame 69 Out of Service Tests 17 Overhead 156 Sequence 97 Overhead Byte Sequences 97 Overhead Monitor 91,93 Overhead Receive 99 Overhead Settings 103 Overhead Transmit 93 Pointer Adjustment 105 Pointer Monitor 104 Overhead Receive 98 Overhead Monitor 99 Overhead Settings G.707 Rev 103 OH Rx 103 OH Tx 103 Overhead Transmit 93

P Parity 175 PAT LEDs 10 Path AIS 161 Path Allocation 53 Path Overhead 169

bytes 171 Path Testing 23 Payload Scramble 44 Payload clock 37 Payload Envelope 169 Payload Label Mismatch 69 Payload Pointer 170 Payload Through 32 Payload Signal Label 116 PCC 94 PDH Standards 181 PDH Technology 181 Performance Monitoring 176 SDH 160 Performance Monitoring Parameters AS 176 CV 176 ES 176 FC 176 SEFS 176 SES 176 UAS 176 PLM 173 PLM Alarm Enable 117 PM 77 POH 157 Pointer Adjustment 109 Pointer Value 105 Pointer Bytes 170 Pointer Adjustment 104 New Data Flag 105 Pointer 105 SS 105 pointer sequence 107 Pointer test sequences 107 Port Drop/Insert 37 Ports 3 Signal configuration 29 PORTS Bars 36 Port Bar 36 Port Configuration 36 Power Results 63 PRBS patterns 51 Print Configuration 52 Print Event Options 59 Profile Configurations 52 197


STT Scalable Network Test Solution Program Start measurements 56 Propagation Delay SDH/SONET 91 Protection Communications Channel Overhead Monitor 94 Purchase order number 187

Q QRS 142

R Rate >> 61 RDI 69,161,169,174 Rear View 5 Records 89 Recycling and Disposal II Reed-Solomon Error Checking 43 Reference 131 Abbreviations 131 Standard Test Patterns 141 Technology Overview 143 Reference Clock 37,47,54,55 Measurement Parameters 54 Reference signal source 54 Regenerator 154 SONET 167 REI 69,72,161,175 REI-L 171 Reload 52 Remote Defect Indication 69,169 Remote Failure Indication 69 Repair 187 Resolution 37,47 Results 59,61 Events Filter 60 G.826 72 G.828 73 G.829 74 GR-253 75 M.2101 78 M.2110 80 M.2401 82 ODTU 66 OTN 64 Saving 123 SDH/SONET 68 Service Disruption 67 Signal 63 Summary 62 198

TCM 65 Results Histogram 84 Results Overviews 61 Results Tabs 61 Return Merchandise Authorization 187 RFI 69,161 RMA Number 187 RSOH 156

S S1 79,80 S2 79,80 Safety 1 Save, Reload, and View Configurations 52 Save Functions 123 Save Mode 57 Saving Results 123 Scramble 44 OTN 43 SDH Technology 153 SDH/PDH 30 SDH/SONET/OTN (signal) LEDs 10 SDH/SONET J0/J1 Traces 111 SDH/SONET Mapping 47 SDH/SONET OH TX 96 SDH/SONET Point to Point Tests Applications 23 SDH/SONET RX OH 101 SDH/SONET Signal Configuration 46 SDH/SONET Testing Applications 23 SDH Defects to ITU-T G.707 and G.783 162 SDH Overhead 156 Section Overhead 169 SEP 73 Serial Port 58 System Setup 58 Service Disruption 67 Settings 54 Service Information 184 Handling Optical Fiber 184 SIG LED 10 Signal button 9 Signal Configuration 29,52 Line Rate 37 Measurement 30 Other Channels 40 OTN 42


40G Module

SDH/SONET 46 Standard 30 Test Mode 31 Signal Configuration Tabs 29 Signal indicato 11 Signal Mapping 40 Signal Results 63 Frequency 132 Single Line Through 31 Single Payload Through 32 Single Point-to-Point Test Mode 31 SM 77 SMF 183 SOH 156 SONET Technology 164 SONET/T-CARRIER 30 SONET Defects to ANSI T1.105 and BELLCORE GR-253 177 SONET Frame Format 167 SONET Network 164 SPE 167 Standalone Mode Get Started 5 Standard 30 Standard Test Patterns 1-4 142 1-8 142 1010 141 2e11 141 2e15 141 2e20 141 2e23 141 ALL0 141 Status 61 Full screen 12 Status Bar 9 Buttons & Banners 10 Expanded 9 STM-1 155 STM-n Framing 155 STS 143 STS-1 164 STS-1 Overheads 169 STS-1s Overhead 169 STT Manager 5 STT ONE Description 3 Synchronous Multiplexers 154 synchronous payload envelope 167 synchronous transport signals 143 System Setup 57,58

System Setup Tab Serial Port 58

T Table 01 OTN Alarms and Errors 21 02 M.2101 Maintenance Objectives 78 03 Save Functions 123 04 Synchronous Technology Signal Line Rates 153 05 10G Concatenation Rates 157 06 Synchronous Technology Rate Equivalencies 164 07 Path ERDI 174 08 VT ERDI 174 Tandem Connection Enable 44 T-Carrier Technology 179 T1 Usage 180 Tabs 7 About 8 Measurement Settings Tab 54 System Setup Tab 57 Tandem Connection Results 65 Tandem Connection monitoring 65,172 TCM 44,94 Enable 103 Results 65 TCM Results 65 TC Measurements TC-AIS 65 Technology PDH 181 SDH 153 SONET 164 T-Carrier 179 The SONET Network 164 Technology Overview 143 Telecom standard 30 Terminal Multiplexer 154 Terminal Mux SONET 166 Test Mode 31 Test pattern User 51 Test Patterns definitions 141 FOX 142 Test Pattern Selection 51 Thru mode 25 TIM 173

199


STT Scalable Network Test Solution Timed measurement 56 Time of day 11,59 Timeslots 47 TIM Detection 112,113 TOH 167 Touch screen 7 Traces 110 OTN/SDH/SONET View All 115 OTN TTI Traces 110 SDH/SONET J0/J1 Traces 111 Trace Generation 109,111 Transmit clock 37,46,49 Transport overhead 167 Tributaries 182 Tributary Mapping 41 Tributary Units 159 TTI 93 TUs 159 Tx Clock Output Connectors 4 TX & RX 40 TX & RX Buttons 35 TX and RX Coupled 35

U UNEQ 47,173 Unequipped 40 Unequipped signal 47 Unframed Alarm Generation 130 UNFRAMED 30 Unframed Signal Configuration 49 Unit Interval (UI) 91

V V5-LP 116 VC 158 lower, higher order 159 VC-1, 2, 11, 12 POH (Lower Order) 157 VC-3, 4 Path Overhead (Higher Order) 157 View All Traces OTN/SDH/SONET 115 View Test Records 88,89 Virtual Containers 158 Virtual Tributaries 165 VTs 165 VT Overhead 172

200

W Warning 1 Class 1 Laser 1 Nonspecified procedures 1 Warranty 187 Period 187 Warranty Registration 5 Wave Length 54,55 Optical Port 37,46,49 WEEE II Working Desktop 7

Y Yellow Alarm 1.5M 180

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