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Ageing in Hong Kong

Study on Local Elderly Housing & Multi-generational Living in Future Yuen Sar Lilian Lam


2013 - 2014 Bartlett School of Architecture, UCL MArch Architecture (ARB/RIBA Part 2) BENVGA05 Thesis Ageing in Hong Kong? Study on Local Elderly Housing & Multi-generational Living in Future

Yuen Sar Lilian Lam Thesis tutor: Professor Murray Fraser

With Thanks to Professor Murray Fraser, Izaskun Chinchilla, Carlos Jimenez, Dr Sophie Handler, Professor David R. Phillips, Professor Nelson Chow, Dr Moon-wah Cheung, Joseph Ser, Connie Lam, Kwok-foon Poon, Wai-ping Leung, Lai-him Lau and my family


Index

1

Introduction

1-3

Research into the Current Supply of Housing for the Elderly

4 - 59

Public Rental Housing Schemes for Elderly 1.02 ‘ Housing for Senior Citizens’ 1.03 ‘ Self-contained Small Flats’ 1.04 Elderly Residential Care Home 1.01

2

3

Future Prospects of Elderly Housing Development 2.01 ‘Ageing in Place’ 2.02 ‘Universal Design’ and Home Modifications 2.03 ‘Housing with Care’ 2.04 Cross-generational Living 2.05 Upcoming Challenges

60 - 81

Multi-generational Living as Future of Elderly Housing 3.01 What Makes a Desirable Living Environment? 3.02 ‘Active Ageing’ 3.03 Multi-generational Living 3.04 Case Studies

82 - 105

Conclusion

107 - 110

Bibliography

111 - 114

Image References

115 - 116


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Ageing in Hong Kong? Study on Local Elderly Housing and Multi-generational Living in Future

Introduction As in the rest of the world, Hong Kong is facing the challenge of an ageing population. The life expectancies were 80.5 and 86.7 respectively for males and females in 2011, and these numbers will increase to 84.4 and 90.8 in 2041. According to demographic projections, the proportion of population aged 65 and over will rise remarkably from 13% to 30% from 2011 to 2041.1 Longer longevity and decline in fertility are major causes for the trend. Situated on China’s south coast, Hong Kong is famous for its high population density and expansive skyline. As a former British colony, and now a Special Administrative Region after its return to China in 1997, Hong Kong has a different and independent economical and political system from mainland China. Known as one of the leading international financial centres, the city now houses more than 7 million people. In Hong Kong, there is no official definition of ‘elderly people’. Persons aged 60 and over are regarded as old, as this is the general retirement age in society and majority of existing elderly welfare services are made available to those of such age. Since 1970s, the local government has formulated a variety of policies to cater for the needs of increasing number of elderly people, in which housing provision plays a significant role. However the current market of elderly housing is extremely small and most existing purpose-built accommodation for the elderly are not designed to empower ageing in a sustainable way. In recent years, the need for elderly housing has also changed in scope. Mere provision of accommodation can no longer satisfy rising aspirations of Hong Kong people. In recent years, theories of ‘ageing in place’, ‘universal design’ and ‘housing with care’ have emerged. The concept of ‘elderly housing’ is shifting towards


Introduction

combination of physical accommodation with the integration of healthcare and community support services. Today, people not only live longer, but also begin ageing later than those in previous decades. At the same phase of life as our ancestors, Hong Kong's elderly population are generally healthier, fitter, and more health-conscious. Educational attainments and financial power have also risen, allowing the upcoming elderly generation to become more independent. While there are still preconceptions associating the elderly with negative images of a sad future, the vast majority in fact still have a lot to offer to society. Instead of overseeing their potential and treating ageing as a social problem, we should regard elderly people as valuable assets in leading our society towards a better future. This thesis examines housing options for the ageing population in Hong Kong. Divided into three chapters, the first describes a field visit paid in February 2014 to review the current housing situation of the elderly in the city, and to identify shortcomings in existing provisions. The second chapter introduces the prospects of local elderly housing developments and set out the challenges ahead. The concept of multi-generational living is brought up in the final chapter. Suggesting that subjective quality of life is more important than physical and mental wellbeing for most elderly people, future housing should empower successful ageing through bonding the young and the old together to bring satisfaction in life. Noting a growing trend of elderly people who are living in solitude in Hong Kong, the chapter looks at how multi-generational living can tackle the negative impacts caused by social isolation. With reference to overseas case-studies, it will discuss if multi-generational living, in contrast with conventional isolated ways of living following retirement, might offer a way forward for future Hong Kong elderly housing developments.

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Ageing in Hong Kong? Study on Local Elderly Housing and Multi-generational Living in Future

(Endnotes) 1 HK Census and Statistics Department (2012) â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Press Release (31 Jul 2012) - Hong Kong Population Projections 2012-2041â&#x20AC;&#x2122; <http://www.censtatd.gov.hk/press_release/pressReleaseDetail. jsp?charsetID=1&pressRID=2990> (accessed 24 April 2014)


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Research into the Current Supply of Housing for the Elderly


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In Hong Kong, public housing services are provided by quasi-independent authorities such as the Hong Kong Housing Authority (HKHA), a statutory body * Affordable housing the government provides for lowincome residents

chiefly responsible for public rental housing* developments, or the Hong Kong Housing Society (HKHS), a non-profit-making and self-financing organization.1 Due to the lack of resources, existing housing provision for elderly people is limited to the lowest-income group. Astonishingly, there are no housing projects specifically tailored for the elderly in the private market.2 There is a strong demand for the heavily subsidised public housing in Hong Kong, especially among the older generation because it offers such low rents. At present, there are 38.6% of elderly people living in public rental housing.3

1.01 Public Rental Housing Schemes for Elderly The elderly population is given priority in public rental housing allocation through schemes provided by HKHA. The average waiting period can thus be shortened from 4-6 years to just 2-3 years.4

Single Elderly Persons Priority Scheme This scheme started in 1985. Applicants must be at least 58 years old when they apply, and usually receive an allocated home when they reach 60.5

Elderly Persons Priority Scheme Any two related (or unrelated) older persons who are willing to live together in a 2-person unit can apply when they are 58, and receive an allocation at the age of 60.6


Chapter 1 Research into the Current Supply of Housing for the Elderly

Harmonious Families Priority Scheme Encourage young families to take care of their old parents by offering housing priority to applicants with elderly family members. Eligible families may opt to live in the same flat or two nearby units depending on their situation.7

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1.02 ‘Housing for Senior Citizens’ HKHA offers 2 types of public housing for elderly people - ‘housing for senior citizens’ and ‘self-contained small flats’. The former are units that come with communal facilities and warden-care, while ‘self-contained small flats’ are individual flats equipped with basic living facilities. There are then three types of units under the category of ‘housing for senior citizens’.

FIGURE 1.01


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Type-1: Converted Flats on Lower Levels of Domestic Blocks Type-1 units are usually located on the first two levels for easier access. These units, converted from conventional self-contained flats, are each shared among three to four elderly people. On levels above are younger domestic households living in self-contained flats. Residents are each allocated a room inside the unit, while sharing the bathroom and kitchen with others. From the outside, it is impossible

FIGURE 1.02 Vacant Type-1 units contrasting with occupied selfcontained flats


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to differentiate between converted units and self-contained flats. Residents in same block can access all levels from the same lift lobby, yet for the convenience of the elderly, their mailboxes are on the corresponding levels they reside on. FIGURE 1.03

FIGURE 1.04


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Built in 1991, the building design of Tak Shui House is now old-fashioned.8 Its circulation spaces are equipped with non-slip tiles, handrails and also emergency alarm system (EAS), but are not well-lit. With 24 flats on each floor, 21 of them are converted flats, while the remaining three are used as office, recreation room and living unit respectively for 24-hour warden.9

FIGURE 1.05


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FIGURE 1.06 Emergency alarm

FIGURE 1.07 Recreation room


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N

The unit that I visited contained four rooms but had only two female occupants. Most type-1 residents tend to be family-less. Wai-ping Leung has been living in Room D for almost 20 years. Even though Leung has not develop a close friendship with her neighbour who moved in at a similar time, she feels more secure having someone next door.10 Leung has managed to fit in a bed, a drawer chest, a cupboard, a foldable table, a television and a fridge in her tiny room of only 6.5m2.

FIGURE 1.08 Tak Shui House 2/F plan 1:500


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FIGURE 1.09 Wai-ping Leung, ď˝&#x17E;80 years old


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FIGURE 1.10

FIGURE 1.11


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As residents are responsible for their own gas and electricity bills, they each have their own stoves and gas meters in the communal kitchen. Electricity meters and light switches are installed in their own rooms. Four aligned light fittings are provided in every shared space, connected respectively to each residentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s room. The communal bathroom only provides basic utilities. With EAS also installed in the unit, the warden can be notified when residents require help.11 FIGURE 1.12 Individual lights and switchboard

FIGURE 1.13 Individual stove and gas meters


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FIGURE 1.14

FIGURE 1.15 EAS connected to main control


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FIGURE 1.16 (left) Ready meals menu (right) Laundry receipt

Leung rarely uses the kitchen. Instead, she receives daily ready meals and laundry services from non-governmental organizations (NGOs).12 Most elderly residents of public housing have good connections with NGOs which regularly visit the residents and organize social events in the recreation room.13

Type-1 design is the oldest among the three kinds. Due to lack of space and the nature of communal living, disputes often arise among non-related residents, especially if they speak different dialects. Thus HKHA started phasing out type-1 housing since 2011. Existing residents were encouraged to evacuate, with subsidies provided to do so. However, many insisted to stay because they want to reside in the Rental subsidies are available for eligible public housing residents14 #

living environment they are familiar with. Besides, the rental cost is much lower# compared to other arrangements, and with fewer residents, they now enjoy more freedom in using the communal facilities.15


Chapter 1 Research into the Current Supply of Housing for the Elderly

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FIGURE 1.17


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Type-2: Housing Built Above Commercial Podium/Car Park Type-2 housing is an individual purpose-built low-rise block commonly built above car park or podium. The design is included during planning stage of new public housing estates, with layout resembling that of a hostel. Every resident gets a room while sharing bathrooms, kitchens and dining areas with others on same floor.

FIGURE 1.18 Tak Hong House


Chapter 1 Research into the Current Supply of Housing for the Elderly

20

N

Tak Hong House was built much later in 2001.16 Above the kindergarten on the first floow, second floor houses female residents, while third to fifth floors are for male residents. Some 170 out of 216 units are currently occupied and 24-hr warden service and a more advanced EAS are provided. Apart from alarm buttons on the walls, residents are given wireless devices connected to central system.17

Compared to type-1, the design of type-2 is more inviting and elderlyfriendly. Corridors are wider, common lounges are furnished and well-lit, bedrooms are also larger and more comfortable. There are common rooms on every floor and a large atrium space connecting all levels, often being used by NGOs for social events.18

FIGURE 1.19 2/F plan 1:500


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FIGURE 1.20 (left) G/F lobby (right) Type-2 lobby

FIGURE 1.21 Improved EAS

FIGURE 1.22


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FIGURE 1.23

FIGURE 1.24

Even though residents can walk freely around the building, they can use only communal facilities specifically assigned for them. Every two residents share a bathroom, while around five share a kitchen. There is dining space outside the kitchen. Again, residents have to pay their own bills, thus locked boxes of gas holders are seen attached to separate stoves.


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FIGURE 1.25

FIGURE 1.26 Individual gas switches


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FIGURE 1.27

FIGURE 1.28


Ageing in Hong Kong? Study on Local Elderly Housing and Multi-generational Living in Future

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FIGURE 1.29 Laundry room


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FIGURE 1.30 Female elderly bedroom


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FIGURE 1.31


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Conflicts related to the sharing of space and facilities are frequent among residents and usually handled by the warden. Due to high vacancy rate^ in recent years, the government started taking in non-elderly applicants to avoid waste of resources. There is currently an equal mix of old and young residents in Tak Hong House. However, this actually creates more problems due to different living patterns between generations.20

^ As living standards in Hong Kong have increased, communal living is unfavoured. Many elderly applicants with superstitious beliefs are unwilling to accept rooms in which the ex-residents have passed away19

FIGURE 1.32 Courtyard


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Type-3: Units on Lower Levels of Small Household Developments The layout of type-3 is similar to that of type-2, but instead residents have self-contained bathrooms and the units are located on lower levels of small household developments rather than in an individual tower block. The units I visited were on the first three levels of Ko Shing and Ko Yuet House completed in 1999.21 There are 90 male units in Ko Shing House, and 54 female units and 12 couple units in Ko Yuet House.22 They are connected by a three-storey link bridge, making both buildings a complex that shares the same lift lobby. FIGURE 1.33 Ko Shing House


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The floors above are self-contained flats occupied by non-elderly domestic households. Even though residents from different groups live in the same block, they rare meet as they each use separate entrances and lobbies. The benefit is that elderly residents get to live in a more secure and quieter environment and disturbance to families living above is avoided during emergencies (the call for ambulance services is commonplace in elderly housing), yet the downside is the elderly are isolated from the local community.23 FIGURE 1.34 Link bridge

FIGURE 1.35 (left) Type-3 lobby (right) Separate entrance


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FIGURE 1.36 1/F-3/F typical plan 1:1000

N

FIGURE 1.37 4/F plan 1:1000

N


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FIGURE 1.38 General households living above


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Ageing in Hong Kong? Study on Local Elderly Housing and Multi-generational Living in Future

FIGURE 1.39 Single female unit

Complimentary home modifications are offered to wheelchair users. Compared to type-2, it is clearly better for residents to have self-contained bathrooms. Around five to seven residents share a kitchen and dining area which are located near to their own units along the corridor. An open air corridor allows natural ventilation, however it also hinders spontaneous interactions between neighbours as most residents keep their doors closed when the weather become either too hot (with the air-conditioning on) or too cold.


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FIGURE 1.40

FIGURE 1.41 Bathroom heat lamp

FIGURE 1.42


Ageing in Hong Kong? Study on Local Elderly Housing and Multi-generational Living in Future

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FIGURE 1.43 Modification for wheelchair users

FIGURE 1.44


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FIGURE 1.45 Couple unit


Ageing in Hong Kong? Study on Local Elderly Housing and Multi-generational Living in Future

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FIGURE 1.46

FIGURE 1.47 Common room


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The government also started taking in non-elderly residents several years ago due to decreased popularity. Among the 146 occupied units, 31 of them are now occupied by non-elderly residents.24

FIGURE 1.48


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1.03 ‘Self-contained Small Flats’ The original intent in developing ‘housing for senior citizens’ was to respond to huge demand from the large number of single elderly people in Hong Kong at that time. As time changes, such living arrangements no longer satisfy the general public, and nowadays most elderly people would rather live in self-contained flats. The 24hour warden and EAS services that come with the package are no longer attractive because community support services provided by the government and NGOs have greatly improved in recent years.25 FIGURE 1.49 Lam Tin Estate


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In newly developed public housing, such as Lam Tin Estate completed in 2009, a lot of user-friendly elements have been incorporated into the dwellings. ‘Universal design’ features are included to create a comfortable living environment regardless of residents’ age or physical conditions. Public spaces are nicely designed and equipped with barrier-free circulation paths, plenty of seating, and a variety of recreational facilities suitable for all ages.

The two flats I visited were both in studio layouts. Equipped with basic bathroom and kitchen fittings, light switches and socket outlets, residents only need to carry out slight redecoration before occupation.

FIGURE 1.50 Typical plan 1:500


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FIGURE 1.51 Unit for 1-2 persons 1:100

The first flat was designed for one or two persons and had an area of just 17.97m2.26 Yuk-chun Chau has been living alone here since 2009 and is very satisfied with the living environment and recreational facilities. Most Hong Kong elderly tend to be conservative about knowing their neighbours; thus elderly residents usually do not develop close friendships with each other even the neighbourhood is friendly.27 FIGURE 1.52


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FIGURE 1.53 Yuk-chun Chau, ~70 years old


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FIGURE 1.54 Lai-him Lau, ~50 years old and Lauâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s father, ~80 years old


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FIGURE 1.55 Unit for 2-3 persons 1:100

The second flat was designed for two or three persons, with an area of 21.81m2.28 Lai-him Lau moved in with her 80-year old father in 2009. They lived together in a large family before she decided to move to a smaller flat so to take better care of her father, who has a long-term illness. Overall she is satisfied with her flat due to its convenient location and safe neighbourhood.29


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FIGURE 1.56


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FIGURE 1.57


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1.04 Elderly Residential Care Home The housing types mentioned above are geared to those who are independent and capable of looking after themselves. Elderly with serious health * long-term care for people in residential settings rather than in their

issues however often have to opt for residential care*. Hong Kong has a high rate of

home

available, many elderly people are forced to live in care homes even if they aspire to

# long-term care provided in the community rather than in institutions or hospitals

elderly institutionalization, of 6.8% of the total, compared to other countries. Due to inadequacy in subsidized community care# services and a lack of private services

stay at home.30 Evergreen Home is operated by Caritas, a reputable charity in Hong Kong. This residential care home is located in a historic building and started serving physically infirm elderly people in 2002. Most residents, given an average age of 85 years, require intensive care as their health conditions have declined over the years. Among the 150 places available, 30 of them are private and the remaining 120 are subsidized by the government.31

In the interview with Kwok-foon Poon, the superintendent of Evergreen Home, she said the design was a negative example to follow. As Caritas was not involved at design stage, most of the hardware does not meet current users' needs. Much retrofitting was required after occupation.32 Situated on the first two levels, the home is blocked off by a historical granite facade which had to be preserved. This leads to poor natural lighting and ventilation, which are in fact important elements in a care home. Users therefore depend highly on artificial lighting even in daytime.

The layout comprises a long corridor with sleeping units, common rooms and function rooms distributed along both sides. The lengthy corridor looks depressing,


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FIGURE 1.58 Historical facade

despite the tremendous efforts the staff put into decorating it. Since there are only a few private rooms and most rooms are shared among four or five elderly people, residents have little privacy. Doors are kept open all day for caretakers to easily monitor residentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; conditions. Poon complained about the bathroom design with features like heavy sliding doors, pull-handles and grab-bars being far away from the shower bench, thereby causing difficulties for elderly users.33


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FIGURE 1.59 1/F plan (not to scale)

N


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FIGURE 1.60


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FIGURE 1.61 Shared room


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Only the rooms facing north have access to an elongated balcony. Poon criticized the use of side-hung rather than sliding windows, as there is a threat of getting hit by an opening window when someone passes through. Door thresholds hinder the mobility of wheelchair users. Besides, it gets very hot in summer as the split air-conditioning units are placed in the middle of the balcony. Drainage pipes are exposed in various unexpected spots, posing safety hazards for residents.34 The lack of communication between designers and building users has clearly undermined the intention of creating a desirable living environment.

FIGURE 1.62 Faulty designs


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FIGURE 1.63 Private room


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FIGURE 1.64 Canteen

FIGURE 1.65 (left) Nurse room (right) Rehabilitation room


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FIGURE 1.66 Balcony

FIGURE 1.67 Supports for preserved facade


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FIGURE 1.68 Faulty designs


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FIGURE 1.69 Kitchen

FIGURE 1.70 Laundry room


Chapter 1 Research into the Current Supply of Housing for the Elderly

(Endnotes) 1 Phillips, D. and Chan, A. (2003) Ageing and Long-Term Care: National Policies in the Asia-Pacific, Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies: 31 2 Hong Kong Housing Society and the University of Hong Kong (2003) Comprehensive Study on the Housing Needs of the Elderly in Hong Kong (Executive Summary), Hong Kong: Hong Kong Housing Society: 13 3 HK Census and Statistics Department (2013) Hong Kong 2011 Population Census Thematic Report: Older Persons, Hong Kong: HK Census and Statistics Department: 8 4 Phillips and Chan, op. cit: 31-2 5 Hong Kong Housing Authority (2014) ‘Single Elderly Persons Priority Scheme’ <http://www. housingauthority.gov.hk/en/flat-application/application-guide/elderly-persons/single-elderlypersons-priority-scheme/index.html> (accessed 18 April 2014) 6 Hong Kong Housing Authority (2014) ‘Elderly Persons Priority Scheme’ <http://www. housingauthority.gov.hk/en/flat-application/application-guide/elderly-persons/elderly-personspriority-scheme/index.html> (accessed 18 April 2014) 7 Hong Kong Housing Authority (2014) ‘Harmonious Families Priority Scheme’ <http://www. housingauthority.gov.hk/en/flat-application/harmonious-families-priority-scheme/index.html> (accessed 18 April 2014) 8 Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2012)‘Public housing estates in Lam Tin’ <http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Public_housing_estates_in_Lam_Tin#Tak_Tin_Estate> (accessed 18 April 2014) 9 Ser, J. (2014) Interview between author and Joseph Ser, Hong Kong (10 February 2014) 10 Leung, WP. (2014) Interview between author and Wai-ping Leung, Hong Kong (10 February 2014) 11 Ser, op. cit 12 Leung, op. cit 13 Ser, op. cit 14 Ibid 15 Ibid 16 Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, op. cit 17 Ser, op. cit 18 Ibid 19 Ibid 20 Ibid 21 Lam, C. (2014) Interview between author and Connie Lam, Hong Kong (11 February 2014) 22 Ibid 23 Ibid 24 Ibid 25 Ser, op. cit 26 Ibid 27 Ser, op. cit 28 Ibid 29 Lau, LH. (2014) Interview between author and Lai-him Lau, Hong Kong (10 February 2014)

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Ageing in Hong Kong? Study on Local Elderly Housing and Multi-generational Living in Future

30 HK Elderly Commission (2011) ‘Consultancy Study on Community Care Services for the Elderly – Final Report’: 13 <http://www.elderlycommission.gov.hk/en/download/library/Community%20 Care%20Services%20Report%202011_eng.pdf> (accessed 18 April 2014) 31 Poon, KF. (2014) Interview between author and Kwok-foon Poon, Hong Kong (12 February 2014) 32 Ibid 33 Ibid 34 Ibid


2

Chapter

Future Prospects of Elderly Housing Development


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FIGURE 2.01

AGEING IN PLACE

elderly-friendly housing

healthcare

social care


Chapter 2 Future Prospects of Elderly Housing Development

2.01 ‘Ageing in Place’ Given an general increase in living standards in Hong Kong, the mere provision of physical accommodation cannot meet aspirations of the elderly generation anymore. In recent years, the concepts of ‘ageing in place’ and ‘community care’ have emerged. These advocate housing provision with an integration of supporting services, allowing the elderly to stay in their own home for as long as possible. In Hong Kong, 81.4% of elderly people prefer to remain living at home instead of receiving residential care even when their health conditions deteriorate.1 Elderly people who stay connected to their community often have better psychosocial outcomes.2 The three elements empowering the idea of ‘ageing in place’ are housing safety, health and social care.

In public housing, most management staff are willing to handle elderly cases, but it is stressful to counsel those particularly who have special needs beacause of a heavy workload and insufficient training in social work. Fragmented elderly services provided by the government or NGOs are not enough to fully support those who are frail and at-risk.3 Disconnection between housing and care services makes it difficult for elderly residents to receive help. In recent years, public housing providers have provided more resources to coordinate management teams and social welfare service providers to encourage ‘ageing in place’.4

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Ageing in Hong Kong? Study on Local Elderly Housing and Multi-generational Living in Future

2.02 ‘Universal Design’ and Home Modifications Naturally Occurring Retirement Communities (NORC) stands for housing or neighbourhoods where a large portion of residents are elderly people. The communities were not purpose-built for the elderly, but are places in which elderly people have been living since youth. There are currently a significant number of empty-nest elderly residents in public housing built in the 1960s. Most of these residents are reluctant to move out as they have decades of memories attached, despite their facilities no longer suit their needs for daily living.5

Since 2000, HKHS has started ongoing renovations and improvement works to enhance facilities in existing housing estates, so as create a more user-friendly and safer living environment for elderly residents. Works include the enhancement of lift services, provision of barrier-free access and ab increase in social gathering spaces and facilities. It improves elderly people’s accessibility throughout the estate, thus creating stronger social capital within the community.6 Complimentary home modifications are also conducted for elderly residents to increase independence, make tasks easier and improve safety by preventing falls.7 Public housing providers also start incorporating ‘universal design’ into new developments to create living environments suitable for all, regardless of age or physical conditions.8 ‘Universal design’ is closely related to ‘accessibility design’, but however has distinct principles. While ‘accessibility design’ focuses on those with limited mobility and specialized needs, ‘universal design’ extracts those features from ‘accessibility design’ that can become the norm to benefit everyone. ‘Universal design’ is invisible when it is most effective.9


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A visit was paid by me to the HKHS Elderly Resources Centre, which raises awareness of home safety for the elderly through education, assessments and consultation. A range of furniture and smart home housing appliances suitable for the elderly were on display.

FIGURE 2.02


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FIGURE 2.03 (left) Couch cane and electric lift chair (right) Electric adjustable bed

FIGURE 2.04 (left) Automatic light (right) Bath aids


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FIGURE 2.05 (left) Height adjustable sink (right) Stove with removable drawer trolleys

FIGURE 2.06 (left) Height adjustable toilet (right) Shower aids


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FIGURE 2.07 (left) Smart home (right) Finger pulse oximeter

FIGURE 2.08 Infra-red motion sensors to detect falls


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FIGURE 2.09 (left) Height adjustable bed (right) Double door peepholes

FIGURE 2.10


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2.03 ‘Housing with Care’ Senior Citizens Residence Scheme Spotting a strong demand for purpose-built elderly housing from the middleincome group, HKHS launched the Senior Citizens Residence (SEN) scheme in 2003 to provide, on a trial basis, one-stop services covering accommodation, recreational and healthcare services for elderly people.10 Given the scheme advocates privacy and independency, the buildings are designed in a home-like context to avoid an institutional feeling. ‘Universal design’ is adopted throughout the estates which house elderly residents of various dependency levels from healthy to frail.11 This type of housing is called Continuing Care Retirement Community (CCRC).12

Two projects were built in 2004 under this scheme – Jolly Place in Tseung Kwan O and Cheerful Court in Jordan Valley.13 These projects with the concept FIGURE 2.11


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of ‘housing with care’ are rather experimental in present-day Hong Kong, yet undoubtedly offer the elderly a new choice of living. In total the two estates provide 576 units, 14 whether in studio flats or 1-bedroom settings of sizes from 23 to 37m2,15 and are targeted at middle-class elderly singles and couples. Applicants must aged 60 or above and meet income and asset limits as the projects were subsidized by the government through setting a nominal land premium.16

The SEN flats are rented under a lease-for-life arrangement. The tenant pays a lump-sum of around HKD500 to 800 thousand (GBP40000 to 64000) as the entry contribution, depending on the prevailing market rent at time of application, tenant’s age and the unit type.17 Over the tenure, the resident is only required to pay monthly management fees and basic service charges. The tenancy terminates upon tenant’s wish or on the death of the tenant.18 Although tenants never own the property, most reckon that the accompanying medical and care services can make FIGURE 2.12


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up for it. “I don’t have any children, so there is no one to pass my assets to anyway,” resident Lam said.19

Supporting facilities are located on the first few levels, which includes a polyclinic, rehabilitation centre, fitness room, libraries, hobby rooms, swimming pool, and podium gardens. Elderly nursing homes are also included so that a tenant can stay within the community even when he/she is too frail to live independently.20 Residents enjoy free basic care arrangements such as EAS, basic medical care, routine concern calls and healthy lifestyle consultation. Under a user-pays principle, they can also acquire additional services like private nurse care, catering and personal care.21 For some elderly people, it seems risky to invest a large sum of money without getting property ownership in return. However, when comparing this with renting a private flat monthly for around HKD8000 (£640) without receiving any care services, the SEN housing is a good alternative for the middle-class who pay the most taxes while receiving fewest welfare benefits. More than 300 applicants are currently on waiting list for the 576 homes, even though the annual turnover rate is only about 4%.22


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Tanner Hill Estate Targeted at affluent seniors, Tanner Hill project provides quality retirement living supported by healthcare and lifestyle services. Its inspirations are drawn from successful retirement living projects in countries such as Japan, Singapore, Australia and the United States.23 FIGURE 2.13

Also by HKHS, the project is a more advanced and luxurious version of SEN developments. Sited in North Point, it offers residents proximity to urban amenities for cosmopolitan lifestyles. The 30-storeyed towers are constructed on a 9-storeyed podium that contains a clubhouse, shops, health clinic, day care centre, rehabilitation centre and also an elderly nursing home. The construction is almost finished and occupation will start in mid-2015.24

It adopts a similar financial model as in SEN scheme, but requires a higher entry contribution of at least HKD4 million (ÂŁ320,000).25 The reason for such high costs is because this development does not enjoy any nominal or concessionary land premium. The benefit is HKHS can set criteria for applicants under a market-driven approach.26 There does not need to be any asset or means testing to attract wealthier applicants.27


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The project offers 588 units with a broad range of designs from 31 to 100m2, in forms of studio, 1-bedroom, 2-bedroom or 3-bedroom flats.28 ‘Universal design’ is again adopted through elderly-friendly features and smart home facilities. With larger flats, tenants can even live with their family members or caretakers. However, any non-elderly resident is regarded only as temporary resident who is not entitled to tenure rights, and needs to move out after the tenant’s death or upon tenure termination.29

Even though the scheme has been criticized for being too costly, pointing out also the plot could be used to meet more urgent housing demands, many people are still interested. “The annual expense for a residential care home is around HKD200 to 300 thousand (£16-24,000). I would consider moving to the Tanner Hill if the entry contribution is around HKD2 million (£160,000) as the facilities and services are much better than that offered by residential care homes,” said a current SEN housing resident.30

FIGURE 2.14 2-bedroom unit


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FIGURE 2.15 Show suite demonstrating integration of care services into housing provision

FIGURE 2.16 Personal care devices


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2.04 Cross-generational Living Harmony Place is another development by HKHS targeted towards the elderly group. Different from other projects, it advocates the concept of crossgenerational living for mutual support while maintaining privacy in life. It gives priority to buyers who also rent a flat in the same block for their elderly relatives. To encourage the norm of living with elderly among younger generations, it is not necessary for the elderly tenants to be parents of the buyers, as long as they are somehow related.31 Unlike other CCRC projects, the tenure for these elderly flats lasts only for two years.32

There are 214 flats for sale and 60 rental flats in the 40-storeyed building. As the rental units are targeted at the elderly, they are located on the first six floors above podium level, and are incorporated with ‘universal design’ features. The size of units for sale ranges from 47 to 113m2 (2-bedroom to 3-bedroom flats) and they cost around HKD15 thousand (£1,200) per m2.33 The size of rental flats ranges from 28 to 47m2 (studios to 1-bedroom flats) with monthly rent of around HKD15 thousand (£1,200).34

As the first cross-generational housing project built in Hong Kong, it is indeed an experimental approach.35 The project aims at middle-income young families in the district who are struggling to find separate accommodation in the same building for their parents. According to real estate agents, there is a good response since many young adults want to stay closer to their elderly parents.36


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FIGURE 2.17

FIGURE 2.18 Show flat


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2.05 Upcoming Challenges Insufficient Capacity and Options Hong Kong has long been facing topographical and spatial challenges in its housing provision. This has limited housing providers from developing retirement villages or the kinds of elderly communities as found overseas.37 Given the high demand for general housing, these housing providers do not need to develop new housing models to sell properties, and this causes a lack of range in alternative living arrangements for elderly people. At present, as noted, there are no housing projects in the private market tailored for the elderly.38 Private developers are generally uninterested in CCRC developments as it involves huge capital investments and a long payback period of at least 20 to 30 years. Besides, it requires greater effort in terms of property management. Most developers would rather invest in trouble-free real estate products with quicker returns.39

With most current policies targeted at low-income elderly residents only, the middle-income and high-income elderly are easily overlooked. Despite having the purchasing power to acquire high quality housing and care services, there are not many options offered in the marketplace.40

To tackle the problem, Hong Kong government should be considering options such as offering tax incentives, granting density bonus or concessionary land premium to attract private developers into creating a broader range of housing options for the elderly generation.41

Traditional beliefs Traditionalyl Chinese people have valued living in stability, and thus they prefer owning a flat over renting one. Most regard home purchase as a key form of investment. Hence, the importance of being an owner is deeply rooted in the minds of Hong Kong


Chapter 2 Future Prospects of Elderly Housing Development

elderly people, and most want to leave their houses to their children as an inheritance after death. It is therefore understandable why most people feel insecure and reluctant towards lease-for-life tenure arrangements.42

However, with decline in fertility, many elderly people might not even have offspring to leave their assets to. While decades ago most retirees depend solely on their children, the rising elderly generation tends to be more independent, especially those who lived abroad and are more knowledgeable about alternative options for elderly housing.43 It is therefore anticipated that demands for CCRC housing will keep growing in future.

Inadequate Retirement Protection Existing retirement protection for elderly people in Hong Kong is insufficient as there is no universal pension system.44 Not until 2000 was the Mandatory Provident Fund set up to start to help the working population. However it provides little financial security for retirees as the compulsory contribution is low and requires many years to build up sufficient amount for retirement.45 At present, only 19% of Hong Kong elderly people receive retirement protection, with 47.3% of them not having any arrangements to meet future financial needs.46 More than one-third of the soon-to-be-old thought they could rely on their children, but in reality only 3% of the current elderly get financial assistance from their offspring.47

Without much savings, it is difficult for most elderly to purchase good elderly housing services even if they are interested in doing so. Thus future CCRC projects need to provide more flexibility in tenure and payment arrangements for those who are unable or unwilling to pay large initial lump-sum initial payments.48 Having made this vital point, it is now necessary in the next chapter to look at the wider issues of providing for elderly citizens.

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(Endnotes) 1 HK Census and Statistics Department (2009) Thematic Household Survey Report No.40 - Sociodemographic Profile, Health Status and Self-care Capability of Older Person, Hong Kong: HK Census and Statistics Department: 18 2 Sau Po Center on Ageing, The University of Hong Kong and Hong Kong Housing Society (2012) Promoting Ageing-in-Place for Elderly Tenants in Rental Housing Estates of the Hong Kong Housing Society – Final Report, Hong Kong: Hong Kong Housing Society: 19 3 Sau Po Center on Ageing, The University of Hong Kong and Hong Kong Housing Society, op. cit: 13-4 4 Chow, N. (2014) Interview between author and Nelson Chow, Hong Kong (14 February 2014) 5 Cheung, MW. (2014) Interview between author and Moon-wah Cheung, Hong Kong (14 February 2014) 6 Cheung, op. cit 7 Cheung, op. cit 8 Chow, op. cit 9 Hong Kong Housing Society (2005) Universal Design Guidebook for Residential Development in Hong Kong, Hong Kong: Hong Kong Housing Society: 15-6 10 HK Government Information Centre (2009) ‘LCQ5: Provision of Elderly Housing’ <http://www. info.gov.hk/gia/general/200904/22/P200904220120.htm> (accessed 21 April 2014) 11 Hong Kong Housing Society (2004) ‘Background – Design’ <http://www.hkhs.com/ sen_20040903/eng/cheerful_court/background/design.htm> (accessed 21 April 2014) 12 Cheung, op. cit 13 Ibid 14 Hong Kong Housing Society (2011) 家在房協 – 歲月流情篇, Hong Kong: Hong Kong Housing Society: 19 15 Hong Kong Housing Society (2004) ‘What's New - Senior Citizen Residences Scheme - Cheerful Court’ <http://www.hkhs.com/sen_20040903/eng/cheerful_court/news/news_tko.htm> (accessed 21 April 2014) 16 HK Government Information Centre, op. cit 17 Hong Kong Housing Society (2004) ‘What's New – Entry Contribution’ <http://www.hkhs.com/ sen_20040903/eng/cheerful_court/news/news_contribution.htm> (accessed 21 April 2014) 18 Hong Kong Housing Society (2004) ‘Background – Executive Summary’ <http://www.hkhs.com/ sen_20040903/eng/cheerful_court/background/exesum.htm> (accessed 21 April 2014) 19 Yau, E. (2012) ’Hong Kong ill prepared to care for middle-class retirees’, South China Morning Post <http://www.scmp.com/lifestyle/family-education/article/1074642/homestretch> (accessed 21 April 2014) 20 Hong Kong Housing Society (2011), op. cit: 21 21 Hong Kong Housing Society (2004) ‘Facilities & Services – Care Arrangement’ <http://www.hkhs. com/sen_20040903/eng/cheerful_court/fs/care_arr.htm> (accessed 21 April 2014) 22 Yau, op. cit 23 So, A. (2012) ‘Society homes in on aged’, The Standard <http://www.thestandard.com.hk/news_ detail.asp?pp_cat=30&art_id=119479&sid=35334088&con_type=3> (accessed 21 April 2014) 24 Staff from Joyous Living Show Suite (2014) Interview between author and staff from Joyous Living Show Suite, Hong Kong (13 February 2014) 25 Oriental Daily (2012) ‘富貴長者屋400萬入場’ <http://orientaldaily.on.cc/cnt/


Chapter 2 Future Prospects of Elderly Housing Development

news/20120208/00176_062.html> (accessed 21 April 2014) 26 HK Government Information Centre, op. cit 27 Hong Kong Housing Society (2014) ‘Tanner Hill Project’ <http://www.joyousliving.hkhs.com/en/ living/tanner> (accessed 21 April 2014) 28 Ibid 29 Staff from Joyous Living Show Suite, op. cit 30 Oriental Daily, op. cit 31 Wong, O. and Liu, Y. (2013) ‘New home deal has Granny flat included’, South China Morning Post <http://www.scmp.com/property/hong-kong-china/article/1356083/new-home-deal-hasgranny-flat-included> (accessed 21 April 2014) 32 Lam, HW. and Lam, SM. ‘樂融軒長者租樓優先買樓’, Sina Hong Kong <http://finance.sina.com. hk/news/-40-6290148/1.html> (accessed 21 April 2014) 33 Hong Kong Housing Society (2013) ‘Price List No. 3A’ <http://www.harmonyplace.com.hk/files/ download/20131220192404_536.pdf> (accessed 21 April 2014) 34 Hong Kong Housing Society (2013) ‘Rental Price List’ <http://www.harmonyplace.com.hk/files/ download/20131122214119_235.pdf> (accessed 21 April 2014) 35 Wong, O. and Liu, Y., op. cit 36 Ibid 37 Hong Kong Housing Society and The University of Hong Kong (2003) Comprehensive Study on the Housing Needs of the Elderly in Hong Kong (Executive Summary), Hong Kong: Hong Kong Housing Society: 23 38 Ibid: 13 39 Cheung, op. cit 40 Hong Kong Housing Society and The University of Hong Kong, op. cit: 27 41 Chow, op. cit 42 Cheung, op. cit 43 Ibid 44 Chow, op. cit 45 Hong Kong Housing Society and The University of Hong Kong, op. cit: 25 46 HK Census and Statistics Department (2009), op. cit: 6 47 Hong Kong Housing Society and The University of Hong Kong, op. cit: 25 48 Ibid: 39

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3

Chapter

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3.01 What Makes a Desirable Living Environment? A range of factors needed to be considered when housing the elderly. Design should take health and safety needs into account. As elderly people often experience a decline in visual acuity, memory and mobility, this means that good lighting, barrierfree access, simple and direct circulation paths are required. Elderly people living in safe environments are less likely to injure from fall, more willing to get out and about, and less prone to isolation and mobility problems.1

Reduced physical functioning makes elderly people feel insecure and more sensitive to their surroundings, including threats of danger. Thus housing design should make residents feel safe with well-lit environments and no dark corners. Site orientation should be well considered for abundant sunshine and ventilation to enhance comfort.

Aside from the accommodation, the services available in the neighbourhood should also be affordable. Proximity to services such as shops, recreational programs, clinics, social support, legal help and public transport can help elderly people feel engaged in the local community. As elderly people often stay around public spaces, facilities should be well designed to encourage positive social interactions for the elderly to expand their social networks. However, elements listed above are only the basics. To achieve successful ageing, it will take more than mere provision of a welldesigned shelter and associated services.


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3.02 ‘Active Ageing’ ‘Active ageing’ refers to the continuing participation in social, economic, cultural, spiritual and civic affairs, aside from staying physically active. As ageing take place within the context of friends, work associates, neighbours and families, then a sense of interdependence and intergenerational solidarity are also important for ‘active ageing’.2

When making definition for ‘successful ageing’, many would focus on objective measures relating to physical and mental health. In fact, subjective quality of life is more important. A majority of elderly people rate themselves as ageing successfully even when they do not meet all the physical or mental criteria.3 Optimism, sense of fulfilment and active social lives are seen as more important.4

A lot has changed in Hong Kong society in past decades. Domestic household size has been shrinking as more married couples tend to form families with fewer children. The proportion of elderly people living alone has been increasing with a sharp drop in those living with their own children. Traditional Chinese culture has strongly emphasized family togetherness, and thus most elderly view living under the

FIGURE 3.01 Percentage of HK elderly (aged 65 and over) living alone

16% 15% 14% 13% 12% 11%

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010


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same roof with their offspring as a blessing. Although many adult children are still willing to live with their elderly parents, higher housing costs, small flat sizes and inter-generational conflicts caused many to end up living separately.

Elderly people living alone become vulnerable when illness and hardships arise. Those who live solitarily will feel lonely and depressed more easily compared to those who live as a couple or in multi-generational households.5 In the midst of rising numbers of single-elderly households in Hong Kong, there is an urgent need for more community cohesion. Strong connections with a supportive social network can bring sense of purpose in life, thus enhancing wellbeing of elderly people. Conventional elderly housing will no longer fit tomorrowâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s older persons who are fitter, better-educated and more demanding. A new form of living is needed to answer their demands as well as their desire for privacy and independence.


Chapter 3 Multi-generational Living as Future of Elderly Housing

3.03 Multi-generational Living In present-day Hong Kong society, in which utilitarian beliefs are deeply rooted, elderly people tend always to be associated with negative images of inefficiency and non-productivity. In fact, the elderly generation should be seen as a human treasure and as precious social capital. The vast majority of them still have a lot to offer to the younger generations after retirement. Hence they should be considered as assets rather than problems to be solved.

Recently, more people around the world have started to rediscover the value of multi-generational living. Especially after the steep economy recession from 2008, adult children who can no longer afford to maintain their own household have had to go back to living with their elderly parents. Multi-generational living benefits all generations, since it enables a sharing of family resources and encourages mutual support.6

Inter-generational activities are also gaining popularity in many countries as a way to re-establish broken links between the young and the old. In Germany and Switzerland, many organizations have already expanded multi-generational living from the scale of domestic household towards schemes of communal size. Many multi-generational housing projects have thus been realized in recent decades. Multigenerational housing has the benefit of being open to all, regardless of age or origin. The young and the old, who were often strangers before, are purposely brought together under the same roof. Families can live in separate units to preserve privacy, but they also actively interact with their neighbours in daily activities and communal events. By setting up frequent dialogues among generations, closer relationships can be cultivated and in the long run induce mutual support.7

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Elderly people are no longer merely the receivers for care and support. Rather, they can contribute the wisdom, knowledge and experience they have obtained over the life to younger generations, and in return gain new skills and a sense of worth. Through participation in intergenerational activities, their health and wellbeing can significantly improve. By developing friendships with people beyond their usual social network, they feel less lonely and isolated.8 Through a better understanding of the older generation, younger people can gain a sense of community and social responsibility.9 Inter-generational interactions enhance their self-esteem and social skills, bringing them high personal development.10 The gathering of diverse groups together dispels negative misconceptions and strengthens community bonding. Residents recognize they can all be contributing members regardless of age, gender or backgrounds as they share inspirations, talents and resources. Traditions can also be passed on more easily.11


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3.04 Case Studies FIGURE 3.02

Am Bahnhof, Germany Am Bahnhof, developed by Stiftung Liebenau, started to be occupied in 1995.12 The complex houses 117 people in 79 units in seven blocks.13 By creating ‘living spaces for young and old’, Am Bahnhof helps the elderly in a preventative way by establishing a social support network that avoids the need of assistance later on. “Self-help” is strongly encouraged, as the foundation believes that nursing homes or assisted-living dwellings are not sustainable either financially or socially in the long run. Joining the young and the old together keeps elderly people active, and with the proper integration of professional coordination services, a functional mutual help system postpones needs for special care.14

The desired composition of residents in Am Bahnhof consists of one-third of young people and two-thirds of old people. In principle, Am Bahnhof is open to people of all ages. Yet to deliberately maintain the healthy mix of generations, its occupancy is intentionally controlled.15 Whenever a unit becomes available, the management organization, set up by the foundation, along with the residents’ council will choose a new tenant who is willing to commit and devote himself to the community.16


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FIGURE 3.03 Age structure

age 90+

age <18

1.7%

19.0%

age 80-89

13.8%

age 18-39

age 70-79

20.7%

12.1%

8.6%

age 40-49

15.5%

8.6%

age 60-69

age 50-59

Am Bahnhof is located next to the train station, with design intention of connecting the complex to the transportation network and keeping it open. Each building has its own outdoor space planted with trees and bushes to create a lively atmosphere for elderly people to sit and children to play. Plant beds available for amateur gardeners living in Am Bahnhof give residents a sense of belonging where they can decorate their own living environments.17 Abundant outdoor spaces allow residents to meet spontaneously and develop friendships. FIGURE 3.04 Site plan

N


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90

FIGURE 3.05

70% of the units are 2-bed flats with an area of 41 to 70m2, and house one or two occupants.18 The design is elderly-friendly and made barrier-free to maximize independency.19 With a balcony and bay windows in all units, the residents can stay connected to the neighbourhood without even having to leave their flats.20 Most residents also regard the brightness of the rooms essential to their daily living.21

Aside from high-quality design, abundant communal space is equally vital to keep residents active and engaged with the community. Common rooms in the main building next to the train station act as central meeting venues for joint activities among residents, or communal events open to public. They are openly available for free, but a nominal fee is required for participation in activities. There are spaces for all ages and groups â&#x20AC;&#x201C; a playroom for children, meeting hubs for young people and collective meeting place for families.22 The foundation often cooperates with youth centres, schools, and other local institutions to organize activities to ensure residents stay attached to the local community.23 Residents are encouraged to host their own highly diverse activities including coffee mornings, memory training, senior gymnastics, or parent-and-children conferences.24 Proximity to everyday facilities brings convenience to elderly residents. Living in the city centre, they can


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FIGURE 3.06

FIGURE 3.07 2-room unit 1:200


Chapter 3 Multi-generational Living as Future of Elderly Housing

reach grocery stores, the church, chemist or doctors easily.25

The non-profit development is supported by an innovative financial model. Apart from 14 units owned by Stiftung Liebenau, all others units are all for sale to private parties for their own use, as capital investments, or as a provision for old age. Property owners are granted with residency rights but can only occupy the unit when they turn 60 years old. Those who do not fulfil the requirement can rent out the flats through the foundation, and receive a steady income by paying 6-8% of the rent as an administration fee. Whenever the owner needs to use the flat, the tenancy agreement can be terminated according to relevant laws.26 A social fund has been formed from capital stock through property sale. The interest generated supports the operation of the management organization and all communal facilities in Am Bahnhof. The management organization is thus kept independent so the residents cannot assert right over its services. Its role is to ensure that the multi-generational system works well and to encourage residents to help themselves, or look for assistance from the networked community, without having to depend on paid services. As a neutral entity, it initiates projects, supports initiatives by the residents, and even provides conflict meditation services.27

Am Bahnhof offers a truly promising model in promoting elderly care through prevention. Multi-generational living in Am Bahnhof keeps the elderly active while retaining their freedom and privacy. It makes it especially suitable for empty-nest or childless elderly people to counteract loneliness and isolation by expanding their social networks to know more young people. Elderly residents feel secured not only because they live in a safe environment, but because they realize that assistance will be available from the community whenever they need it.

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Community engagement is strengthened as residents are given a balance between rights and duties. On one hand, they are granted freedom to choose new tenants and to launch their own activities, while on the other they know their obligations towards things like nominal payments for participation in activities or obeying house rules set by the organization.

Hence the method of housing management is as essential as the architectural design. By keeping the management organization fair and unprejudiced, it optimizes its neutral role as motivator, moderator and networker.28 The financial model Am Bahnhof employs has the potential to be adapted to future housing projects in Hong Kong. As the units are open for sale, this would fit some elderly peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s traditional belief in leaving an inheritance for their offspring. When the owners do not need the accommodation, and have to let the flat out, the property can still be regarded as an investment that provides a stable source of income.


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Giesserei, Switzerland FIGURE 3.08

Developed by Gesewo in 2013, Giesserei is a multi-generational housing located in a former industrial area in Switzerland.29 The complex offers 153 units of 2-bed to 8-bed for 300 residents.30 With close proximity to transportation systems and everyday facilities31, Giesserei also creates a vibrant living environment for residents of all generations.

The project consists of two blocks of six-storeyed buildings facing each other, forming a large internal courtyard in the centre. The blocks are connected at both ends by a couple of two-storeyed buildings cotaining the communal spaces. The courtyard not only serves as a passage, but also as the main meeting and playing area for residents.32

The building construction is as innovative as the multi-generational living concept with the use of a movel timber-frame structure.33 The simple structural


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FIGURE 3.09

FIGURE 3.10

system gives high flexibility to the unit plans. Ranging from 48sq m to 370sq m34, diversity in unit sizes encourages a broad mix of residents â&#x20AC;&#x201C; i.e. singles, couples, small and large families, students, artists and professionals.35 All the units are barrier-free and wheelchair-friendly.36

One special architectural feature is the design of balconies. All of them have a generous width of 2.6m so that residents can enjoy more of the outdoor


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96

FIGURE 3.11

FIGURE 3.12

environment.37 No partitions are erected between balconies in the different units, thus creating elongated corridors of patios that encourage spontaneous interactions between neighbours.38

Compared to Am Bahnhof, the degree of autonomy given to residents of Giesserei is much higher. In fact, the project was initiated in 2006 by an architect Hans Suter, who advertised his vision of multi-generational housing in a local


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FIGURE 3.13

newspaper to gather together like-minded people. Suter then approached a housing cooperative, Gesewo, as it was famous for supporting self-governing projects and realized his ideas as the Giesserei.39

A variety of programs are available in Giesserei â&#x20AC;&#x201C; organic restaurant, bike shop, childcare, working spaces, community hall and workshops for wood and metal.40 This broadens the spectrum of people residents who meet daily and thus draw them closer into the local community. Communal activities like outdoor gardening, children activities and group working on household repairs are held to enhance community cohesion. Mutual aid systems are induced across generations. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Every day I experience examples of mutual support from babysitting by the elderly people for the young parents, elderly residents being taught how to use the Internet, to tutoring children by retirees,â&#x20AC;? observed Hans Suter.41

The housing cooperative does not draw any profit from Giesserei, and thus the rent is comparatively low within local rental market.42 In Giesserei, 34 units are


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98

FIGURE 3.14

subsidized to ensure there is a healthy social mix.43 Gesewo set up loands and funds to assist residents who are less privileged or are having temporary difficulties.44, 45 This ensures equal opportunities among people of various economic circumstances in enjoying benefits of multi-generational living.

The project also strongly emphasizes ecological sustainability. Building materials are locally sourced and sustainably produced. Staircases and lift cores which cannot be built in timber are constructed out of recycled concrete.46 Heating is supplied from an urban waste recycling plant nearby47 and insulation is enhanced by using highly-insulating timber construction to reduce energy loss.48 Photovoltaic cells are also incorporated to minimize environmental impacts.49 A vehicle-free environment is achieved through the abundant provision of bike storage spaces and low car-parking ratio so as to encourage greener lifestyles.50

The success of this project relies heavily on the activeness and participation of residents. Gesewo believes that communal living cannot simply be achieved through


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99

FIGURE 3.15

FIGURE 3.16

the sharing of spaces, but through giving residents complete autonomy. The residents in Giesserei form a housing committee that runs the project as if the cooperative never existed.51 Gesewo is thus only responsible for rent collection, funding the committee annually and supervising large-scale renovation.52 The committee sets up their own house rules and is responsible for issues ranging from organizing communal events to repair works and the hiring of cleaners. It is the committee, instead of Gesewo, which recruits new tenants as the cooperative realises that it is the existing residents who will


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100

FIGURE 3.17

FIGURE 3.18

actually be living with newcomers. Tenants need to display a strong sense of commitment instead of mere interest in attaining cheap accommodation.53 Every Giesserei resident has to devote at least 36 hours of work annually to help the housing committee. It is also possible to substitute working hours with monetary contributions, but the principle is that everyone is given a role in the community.54


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With hectic lifestyles in Hong Kong, this complete autonomy in housing management might be an obstacle to attracting potential residents, since this would mean extra effort required from them. Housing management policy in present-day Hong Kong still stays at the level that residents feel more comfortable to receive services provided in a top-down approach. The form of living that Giesserei advocates might hence not be suitable for most Hong Kong people. Yet holding hope towards the future, there will certainly be people with open minds and adventurous spirits who are interested in new forms of living.


Chapter 3 Multi-generational Living as Future of Elderly Housing

Homesharing: Match-up Program Between Young and Old Homesharing is another example of inter-generational living in a smaller scale. This new living concept has recently been developed in the United Kingdom.55 In homesharing, an elderly person with a spare room in their home will be paired up with a young person studying, or on internship or working for a low wage.56 In return for being given a roof over head at little or no cost, the homesharer provides the elderly persons with several hours of household assistance every day, such as gardening, shopping, cooking and cleaning.57 Apart from this daily contribution to domestic chores, homesharers also need to follow rules about the number of nights he/she must spend in the house, or on usage of shared facilities.

The homesharer is regarded as a â&#x20AC;&#x153;lodgerâ&#x20AC;? in legal terms. Thus there is no formal tenancy agreement, allowing more flexible arrangements between the two parties.58 The matchmaking process is usually handled by reputable external organizations. Like-minded individuals will meet or arrange visits before final decisions are made.59

Even though homesharing sounds risky, in fact it has a lot of benefits to offer to both parties. The elderly participant can benefit from additional income and opportunity to share their home with someone with great strength and flexibility. Homesharing not only means having a companion or someone to share meals with, but the elderly person can feel more secure by having somebody in the same house at night. Evidence shows that having a homesharer reduces fall risks and improves the wellbeing of elderly people.60 Homesharing also offers an alternative for elderly people who do not want to leave their house and move into nursing homes.61

Apart from providing young people with a cost-effective accommodation, young people can settle in a new area more easily with the help of a friendly

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home provider. Through frequent interactions with their hosts, various skills and experience can be obtained as an addition to developing close friendships.62

Homesharing is particularly successful in London due to the high number of elderly people living alone with spare rooms and younger people struggling for cheap accommodation.63 It is especially beneficial to empty-nest elderly, as coresidence with a homesharer helps them combat sadness and loneliness of not having their children around. In Hong Kong, the current generation of elderly people might well feel conservative towards taking on such a differnt concept of living, but as people are gradually getting more open-minded, there is potential for such ideas to grow in near future, particularly as there is also such a high housing demand in the city.


Chapter 3 Multi-generational Living as Future of Elderly Housing

(Endnotes) 1 World Health Organization (2002) Active Ageing: A Policy Framework, Madrid: World Health Organization: 27-8 2 World Health Organization, op. cit: 12 3 Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2v014) ‘Successful aging’ <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Successful_aging> (accessed 18 April 2014) 4 Ings, R., Crane, N. and Cameron, M. (2012) Be Creative Be Well: arts, wellbeing and local communities, an evaluation, London: Arts Council England: 13-4 5 Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations (2011) Current Status of the Social Situation, Wellbeing, Participation in Development and Rights of Older Persons Worldwide, New York: United Nations: 6 6 Rosenblum, C. (2013) ‘Multigenerational Households on the Upswing’, The New York Times <http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/15/realestate/multigenerational-households-on-the-upswing. html?_r=1&> (accessed 18 April 2014) 7 The Federal Ministry of Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth (2014) ‘Was ist ein Mehrgenerationenhaus?’ <http://www.mehrgenerationenhaeuser.de/3> (accessed 18 April 2014) 8 Springate, I., Atkinson, M. and Martin, K. (2008) Intergenerational Practice: a Review of the Literature, Slough: National Foundation for Educational Research: 12-3 9 ‘Youth-Senior Connection: Intergenerational Resources’ <http://www.stthomasu.ca/research/ youth/manual/program.htm> (accessed 18 April 2014) 10 Springate, I., Atkinson, M. and Martin, K., op. cit 11 Generations United (2007) ‘The Benefits of Intergenerational Programs’ <http://www.gu.org/ LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=71wHEwUd0KA%3D&tabid=157&mid=606> (accessed 18 April 2014) 12 Huber, A. (2008) New approaches to housing for the second half of life, Basel: Birkhäuser: 99 13 Stiftung Liebenau (2014) ‘Lebensräume "Am Bahnhof" – Meckenbeuren’ <http://www.st.annahilfe.de/standort/lebensraeume-am-bahnhof/index.html> (accessed 7 April 2014) 14 Huber, A. , op. cit: 99-100 15 Ibid: 100-1 16 Ibid: 102-3 17 Ibid: 103-4 18 Ibid 19 Ibid: 111 20 Ibid: 103-4 21 Ibid: 106 22 Ibid: 104 23 Ibid: 111 24 Ibid: 110 25 Ibid: 104 26 Ibid: 101-2 27 Ibid: 102 28 Ibid: 111 29 Gesewo (2014a) ‘Die Giesserei, das Mehrgenerationenhaus’ <http://www.gesewo.ch/giesserei. html> (accessed 18 April 2014)

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30 Gesewo (2014b) ‘Wohnungen in der Giesserei’ <http://www.gesewo.ch/wohnungen-106.html> (accessed 18 April 2014) 31 Gesewo (2014c) ‘Lage und Erschliessung’ <http://www.gesewo.ch/lage-erschliessung-107.html> (accessed 18 April 2014) 32 Kucera, A. (2013) ‘Neue Formen des Zusammenlebens: Mehr als wohnen’ Immobilien Nachrichten, Neue Zürcher Zeitung <http://www.nzz.ch/aktuell/wirtschaft/immobilien/mehr-alswohnen-1.18183919> (accessed 18 April 2014) 33 Bogusch, W. (2013) ‘Built with high, ecological standards – a multi-generation house’, HOLZMA <http://www.holzma.com/en-en/references/referencedatabase/weinmann/Pages/Builtwithhigheco logicalstandards.aspx> (accessed 18 April 2014) 34 Kucera, A., op. cit 35 Meuter, M. (2013) ‘Besucheransturm auf Mehrgenerationenhaus in Winterthur’, Lignum Journal < http://www.lignum.ch/auf_einen_klick/news/lignum_journal_holz_news_schweiz/news_ detail/?tx_ttnews[tt_news]=1511&cHash=2df2e675a5451edf80a6fae4d61aa716> (accessed 18 April 2014) 36 HOB, Ausgabe (2012) ‘Five-storied timber-frame multi-generation house - a dream or already a reality?‘, HOLZMA <http://www.holzma.com/en-en/references/referencedatabase/weinmann/ Pages/Fivestoriedtimberframemultigenerationhouseadreamoralreadyareality.aspx> (accessed 18 April 2014) 37 Gesewo (2014b), op. cit 38 Kucera, A., op. cit 39 Gabathuler, M. (2013) Governance and funding of social innovation, Munich: GRIN Publishing GmbH: 2 < http://www.grin.com/en/e-book/268850/governance-and-funding-of-socialinnovation> (accessed 18 April 2014) 40 Kucera, A., op. cit 41 Kucera, A., op. cit 42 Kucera, A., op. cit 43 Gesewo (2014d) ‘Freie Wohnungen’ <http://www.giesserei-gesewo.ch/mieteninvestieren/freiewohnungen> (accessed 18 April 2014) 44 Gesewo (2014e) ‘Solidaritätsfonds’ <http://www.gesewo.ch/solidaritaetsfonds.html> (accessed 18 April 2014) 45 Gesewo (2014f) ‘Pflichtdarlehensfonds’ <http://www.gesewo.ch/pflichtdarlehensfonds-72.html> (accessed 18 April 2014) 46 Gesewo (2014g) ‘Siedlungskonzept‘<http://www.giesserei-gesewo.ch/siedlung/siedlungskonzept> (accessed 18 April 2014) 47 Ibid 48 Kucera, A., op. cit 49 Gesewo (2014g), op. cit 50 Gesewo (2014h) ‘Gemeinschaft’ <http://www.gesewo.ch/gemeinschaft-108.html> (accessed 18 April 2014) 51 Kucera, A., op. cit 52 Ibid 53 Gesewo (2014i) ‘Selbstverwaltung’ <http://www.gesewo.ch/selbstverwaltung.html> (accessed 18 April 2014) 54 Kucera, A., op. cit


Conclusion

55 My Ageing Parent (2014a) ‘Homesharing helps avoid care home costs’ <http://www. myageingparent.com/home-sharing-a-unique-care-solution/> (accessed 18 April 2014) 56 English Forum on Ageing (2013) ‘Could ‘homesharing’ help solve the care needs of the elderly... and the housing needs of the young?’ <http://www.agenda-efa.org.uk/site/2013/04/could-homesharinghelp-solve-the-care-needs-of-the-elderly-and-the-housing-needs-of-the-young/> (accessed 18 April 2014) 57 Homeshare International (2014) ‘United Kingdom’ <http://homeshare.org/programmesworldwide/united-kingdom/> (accessed 18 April 2014) 58 Room for Tea (2013) ‘A New Kind of Home Sharing Network’ <http://www.roomfortea.com/ about/faqs#question4> (accessed 18 April 2014) 59 Homeshare International, op. cit 60 Ibid 61 My Ageing Parent (2014a), op. cit 62 My Ageing Parent (2014b) ‘What are the benefits of homesharing’ <http://www.myageingparent. com/homesharing-the-young-helping-the-elderly/> (accessed 18 April 2014) 63 Homeshare International, op. cit

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Conclusion In regard to dealing with the housing of its ageing population, the current situation and prospects of elderly people in Hong Kong have been examined in this thesis. Currently, there is an insufficient amount of purpose-built elderly housing and also very limited choices. Since the housing was built to meet urgent demands in the past, it was not designed to be that sustainable. Most existing elderly housing providers offers physical accommodation without any real coordination of care services to support the concept of 'ageing in place'. Elderly people thus have to rely on other sources to acquire fragmented healthcare or social care services. These existing designs can no longer satisfy either the needs or lifestyles of the upcoming elderly generation. For those who can no longer live independently, an elderly residential care home becomes the only resort even if they are eager to stay at home.

Fortunately, there are improvements and changes which have appeared in recent years. Apart from improving existing housing that accommodates the ageing population, housing providers are now integrating ‘universal design’ features into new housing to create living environments suitable for all. Additional measures are also implemented to coordinate housing providers and care service providers in the goal of supporting ‘ageing in place’. In response to demands from seniors with better purchasing power, HKHS started to design new elderly housing models on a trial basis with reference to successful retirement housing models overseas. Residential projects which promote ‘housing with care’ are being developed to house middle-income and high-income elderly under a lease-for-life system. With fully integrated care services in the daily lives of residents, it means they can stay in their own community even when they get frail. Housing which advocates cross-generation living is also being designed to promote mutual support between the younger and older generations.

While the emergence of these new housing models indeed broadens the spectrum of choices available to local elderly people, there are still major challenges


Conclusion

ahead. Little incentives for private developers, and low purchasing power because of inadequate retirement protection are two problems yet to be solved. But in the long run, there seems to be a positive future for elderly housing developments with a growing interest in new living arrangements that can empower successful ageing.

The thesis also looks into the wider criteria for creating desirable living environments for elderly people and the definition of successful ageing. While most people regard physical and mental wellbeing as important factors of successful ageing, in fact it is the sense of fulfilment that is more crucial to elderly people. In the midst of growing number of elderly people living in solitude, promotion of multi-generational living can be a solution to counteract the loneliness and isolation most would encounter in their later stage of lives. In a multi-generational housing projects that are open to all regardless of age or origin, the young and the old are given opportunities to devote their skills and talents to achieve mutual support. Elderly people regain their sense of worth as they contribute the wisdom and experience they have gained over their life course. Such a form of living is in the long run more beneficial and sustainable compared to other conventional forms of living for all ages. By looking at specific case studies of multi-generational living in Europe, the thesis has also identified that the success of these projects mainly lies in active participation of residents with high degree of autonomy and flexibility in terms of management. Abundant provision of communal spaces to encourage spontaneous or regular interactions between the young and the old is equally vital to strengthen community cohesion.

There is definitely a future for multi-generational living to be integrated into elderly housing developments in Hong Kong. The ultimate goal of this thesis, though, is not to argue which housing model is the best for elderly people. Instead, the solution of accommodating the expanding older population lies in the extensiveness and flexibility of choices available. While some elderly persons enjoy having their

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families around, others would appreciate the joy of living alone more. Diversity should be based on the provision of a living environment that is healthy, safe, secure and user-friendly, since without the right framework and hardware, any housing project is doomed to fail. After all, with rising life expectancies, everyone is going to live much longer in the future, and so have plenty of time to explore and pick the best form of living that are most suitable for him/her. It is our goal as architects to become involved and design these improved kinds of dwellings for inter-generational life.


Conclusion

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Bibliography Publications Phillips, D. and Chan, A. (2003) Ageing and Long-Term Care: National Policies in the Asia-Pacific, Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies Hong Kong Housing Society and the University of Hong Kong (2003) Comprehensive Study on the Housing Needs of the Elderly in Hong Kong (Executive Summary), Hong Kong: Hong Kong Housing Society HK Census and Statistics Department (2013) Hong Kong 2011 Population Census Thematic Report: Older Persons, Hong Kong: HK Census and Statistics Department HK Census and Statistics Department (2009) Thematic Household Survey Report No.40 - Sociodemographic Profile, Health Status and Self-care Capability of Older Person, Hong Kong: HK Census and Statistics Department Sau Po Center on Ageing, The University of Hong Kong and Hong Kong Housing Society (2012) Promoting Ageing-in-Place for Elderly Tenants in Rental Housing Estates of the Hong Kong Housing Society – Final Report, Hong Kong: Hong Kong Housing Society Hong Kong Housing Society (2005) Universal Design Guidebook for Residential Development in Hong Kong, Hong Kong: Hong Kong Housing Society Hong Kong Housing Society (2011) 家在房協 – 歲月流情篇, Hong Kong: Hong Kong Housing Society World Health Organization (2002) Active Ageing: A Policy Framework, Madrid: World Health Organization Ings, R., Crane, N. and Cameron, M. (2012) Be Creative Be Well: arts, wellbeing and local communities, an evaluation, London: Arts Council England Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations (2011) Current Status of the Social Situation, Wellbeing, Participation in Development and Rights of Older Persons Worldwide, New York: United Nations Springate, I., Atkinson, M. and Martin, K. (2008) Intergenerational Practice: a Review of the Literature, Slough: National Foundation for Educational Research Huber, A. (2008) New approaches to housing for the second half of life, Basel: Birkhäuser

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Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2014) ‘Successful aging’ <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Successful_ aging> (accessed 18 April 2014) Rosenblum, C. (2013) ‘Multigenerational Households on the Upswing’, The New York Times <http:// www.nytimes.com/2013/12/15/realestate/multigenerational-households-on-the-upswing.html?_ r=1&> (accessed 18 April 2014) The Federal Ministry of Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth (2014) ‘Was ist ein Mehrgenerationenhaus?’ <http://www.mehrgenerationenhaeuser.de/3> (accessed 18 April 2014) ‘Youth-Senior Connection: Intergenerational Resources’ <http://www.stthomasu.ca/research/youth/ manual/program.htm> (accessed 18 April 2014) Generations United (2007) ‘The Benefits of Intergenerational Programs’ <http://www.gu.org/ LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=71wHEwUd0KA%3D&tabid=157&mid=606> (accessed 18 April 2014) Stiftung Liebenau (2014) ‘Lebensräume "Am Bahnhof" – Meckenbeuren’ <http://www.st.anna-hilfe. de/standort/lebensraeume-am-bahnhof/index.html> (accessed 7 April 2014) Gesewo (2014a) ‘Die Giesserei, das Mehrgenerationenhaus’ <http://www.gesewo.ch/giesserei.html> (accessed 18 April 2014) Gesewo (2014b) ‘Wohnungen in der Giesserei’ <http://www.gesewo.ch/wohnungen-106.html> (accessed 18 April 2014) Gesewo (2014c) ‘Lage und Erschliessung’ <http://www.gesewo.ch/lage-erschliessung-107.html> (accessed 18 April 2014) Kucera, A. (2013) ‘Neue Formen des Zusammenlebens: Mehr als wohnen’ Immobilien Nachrichten, Neue Zürcher Zeitung <http://www.nzz.ch/aktuell/wirtschaft/immobilien/mehr-alswohnen-1.18183919> (accessed 18 April 2014) Bogusch, W. (2013) ‘Built with high, ecological standards – a multi-generation house’, HOLZMA <http://www.holzma.com/en-en/references/referencedatabase/weinmann/Pages/Builtwithhighecologi calstandards.aspx> (accessed 18 April 2014) Meuter, M. (2013) ‘Besucheransturm auf Mehrgenerationenhaus in Winterthur’, Lignum Journal <http://www.lignum.ch/auf_einen_klick/news/lignum_journal_holz_news_schweiz/news_detail/?tx_ ttnews[tt_news]=1511&cHash=2df2e675a5451edf80a6fae4d61aa716> (accessed 18 April 2014) HOB, Ausgabe (2012) ‘Five-storied timber-frame multi-generation house - a dream or already a reality?‘, HOLZMA <http://www.holzma.com/en-en/references/referencedatabase/weinmann/Pages/Fivestori edtimberframemultigenerationhouseadreamoralreadyareality.aspx> (accessed 18 April 2014) Gabathuler, M. (2013) Governance and funding of social innovation, Munich: GRIN Publishing GmbH <http://www.grin.com/en/e-book/268850/governance-and-funding-of-social-innovation> (accessed 18 April 2014) Gesewo (2014d) ‘Freie Wohnungen’ <http://www.giesserei-gesewo.ch/mieteninvestieren/freiewohnungen> (accessed 18 April 2014) Gesewo (2014e) ‘Solidaritätsfonds’ <http://www.gesewo.ch/solidaritaetsfonds.html> (accessed 18 April 2014) Gesewo (2014f) ‘Pflichtdarlehensfonds’ <http://www.gesewo.ch/pflichtdarlehensfonds-72.html> (accessed 18 April 2014) Gesewo (2014g) ‘Siedlungskonzept‘<http://www.giesserei-gesewo.ch/siedlung/siedlungskonzept> (accessed 18 April 2014)


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Interviews Ageing Facilities Interview between author and Dr Sophie Handler, London (3 February 2014) Hong Kong Housing Authority public rental housing management staff Interview between author and Joseph Ser, Hong Kong (10 February 2014) Interview between author and Connie Lam, Hong Kong (11 February 2014) Public rental housing residents Interview between author and Wai-ping Leung, Hong Kong (10 February 2014) Interview between author and Lai-him Lau, Hong Kong (10 February 2014) Professor of Social Policy at Lingnan University, Hong Kong Interview between author and Professor David R. Phillips, Hong Kong (12 February 2014) Superintendent of Evergreen Home, Caritas Interview between author and Kwok-foon Poon, Hong Kong (12 February 2014) Joyous Living Show Suite staff Interview between author and staff from Joyous Living Show Suite, Hong Kong (13 February 2014) Professor Nelson Chow, Department of Social Work and Social Administration, The University of Hong Kong Interview between author and Nelson Chow, Hong Kong (14 February 2014) Member of Hong Kong Elderly Commission Interview between author and Moon-wah Cheung, Hong Kong (14 February 2014)

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Image References All images not referenced below are produced by the author 1.01 Hong Kong Housing Authority (2014) ‘Types of Senior Housing’ <http://www.housingauthority. gov.hk/en/public-housing/meeting-special-needs/senior-citizens/types-of-senior-housing/index.html> (accessed 18 April 2014) 1.08, 19, 50-1, 55 Joseph Ser, staff of the Hong Kong Housing Authority 1.36-7 Connie Lam, staff of the Hong Kong Housing Authority 2.11 (left) Hong Kong Housing Society (2011) '彩頤樂安居-設施巡禮' <http://www.hkhselderly.com/Publish/ upload/erc/tn_dsc_0046.jpg> (accessed 27 April 2014) 2.11 (right) Hong Kong Housing Society (2011) '樂頤居設施巡禮' <http://www.hkhselderly.com/Publish/upload/ copywriter/tn_cheerful__court_0486.jpg> (accessed 27 April 2014) 2.12 Hong Kong Housing Society (2011) 家在房協 – 歲月流情篇, Hong Kong: Hong Kong Housing Society: 21 2.13 Oriental Daily (2012) ‘富貴長者屋400萬入場’ <http://orientaldaily.on.cc/cnt/news/20120208/ photo/0208-00176-062h1.jpg> (accessed 27 April 2014) 2.14 Hong Kong Housing Society (2014) ‘Tanner Hill Project’ <http://www.joyousliving.hkhs.com/images/ stories/flat555_new.jpg> (accessed 27 April 2014) 2.17 Hong Kong Housing Society (2014) ‘樂融軒 Harmony Place’ <http://www.harmonyplace.com.hk/ images/other_download/20131122220816_8.jpg> (accessed 27 April 2014) 2.18 GoHome.com.hk (2014) 'Harmony Place 樂融軒' <http://www.gohome.com.hk/new-property/ Harmony-Place/ad-10795/en/> (accessed 27 April 2014) 3.01 Hong Kong Council of Social Service (2014) 'Percentage of elderly aged 65 and over living alone' <http://www.socialindicators.org.hk/en/indicators/elderly/31.11> (accessed 27 April 2014) 3.02 Huber, A. (2008) New approaches to housing for the second half of life, Basel: Birkhäuser: 99 3.03 Ibid: 100


Image References

3.04 Ibid: 104 3.05 Ibid: 106 3.06-7 Ibid: 105 3.08-9 Hannes Henz (2013) 'Die Wohngenossenschaft' Gesewo <http://wwww.gesewo.ch/seiten/aktuell_ info/aktuell_start1.html> (accessed 27 April 2014) 3.10 Galli Rudolf 'Multi-generational House Giesserei' <http://www.galli-rudolf.ch/typo3temp/ pics/7d9c03eef6.jpg> (accessed 27 April 2014) 3.11 Hannes Henz (2013) 'Fassade der Giesserei' <http://wwww.gesewo.ch/images/gesewo_img/ medienmitteilung/Fassade%20der%20Giesserei.JPG> (accessed 27 April 2014) 3.12, 14, 18(right) Giorgia M端ller (2013) 'Neue Formen des Zusammenlebens: Mehr als wohnen' <http://www.nzz.ch/ aktuell/wirtschaft/immobilien/mehr-als-wohnen-1.18183919> (accessed 27 April 2014) 3.13 Galli Rudolf 'Multi-generational House Giesserei' <http://www.galli-rudolf.ch/uploads/tx_ tpgrprojekt/120_Grundrisse_100_2.jpg> (accessed 27 April 2014) 3.15-6 Gesewo (2011) 'Geschichte' <http://www.giesserei-gesewo.ch/siedlung/geschichte> (accessed 27 April 2014) 3.17 Michael Meuter (2013) 'Mehrgenerationenhaus Giesserei' <http://www.lignum.ch/uploads/ RTEmagicC_Gesewo_Mai13.JPG.JPG> (accessed 27 April 2014) 3.18 (left) Gesewo (2013) 'Bildergalerie' <http://www.gesewo.ch/files/Inhalte%20extern/Galerien/Giesserei/2_ web_2013%2006%2001_3079.jpg> (accessed 27 April 2014)

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