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Chiang Mai

Chiangmai is the largest and most culturally significant city in northern Thailand. The city sits along the Ping River, where the city’s histroic importance is derived from.

Chiang Mai has a tropical wet and dry climate, tempered by the low latitude and moderate elevation, with warm to hot weather year-round, though nighttime conditions during the dry season can be cool and are much lower than daytime highs.

London

MAX TEMP 42.4°C

Chiang Mai, Thailand

FACMU X BARTLETT UNIT 22 IN COLLABORATION WITH FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE, CHIANG MAI UNIVERSITY (FACMU)

{ INSTRUCTORS }

{ GROUPMATES }

Izaskun Chinchilla Carlos Jimenez Dr. Rattapong Angkasith Damnoen Techamai Supuck Prugsiganont Julian Huang

Gabe Cheung Lilian Lam Joanne Preston Joi Botun Boy Tarn

{ Group 5: Passive Bamboo Curtain } { Site location} Classroom window wall facing car parking area { Site dimension } 6m (W) x 5m (H) x 3m (D) { Materials used } Bamboo sticks, bamboo sieves, recycled plastic sheets, recycled bicycle tyres, washing lines, ropes

[ FACMU X BARTLETT UNIT 22: FUTURE-NATURAL ] From 2 Dec 2013 to 7 Dec 2013, Bartlett Unit 22 attended a 5-day intensive design and making bamboo workshop with Chiang Mai University students in Thailand. The brief of the workshop is to redefine the relationship between “human” and “nature”. Modern architecture has sheltered us from natural environment, yet this act of protection actually became an act of destruction of mother nature. Thus the goal of the workshop is to investigate how this situation can be reversed and transformed into a more harmonious relationship.


CHIANG MAI UNIVERSITY

NG PI VE RI R

OLD CITY

CHIANG MAI AIRPORT FACMU CHIANG MAI CITY

Umbrella Court

Entrance next to carpark

Outside classroom

Towards the lawn

GROUP

2

GROUP

3

GROUP GROUP GROUP

1

4

5

[ 5 DAYS, 5 GROUPS, 5 ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS, 5 BUILT DESIGNS ] 5 groups of students with a mixture of both 4th year and 5th year students from Bartlett and FACMU started with preliminary conceptual designs a week before the workshop started. The designs are finalized on the 2nd day of the workshop and bamboo constructions were finished in 3 days’ time. Each group was allocated with a particular architectural element to start their designs, in which the element is related (for Bartlett students) to their own design work done in the first semester.


GROUP

2

GROUP

1

GROUP

3

[CANOPY] Flamed Seed Catcher

[UMBRELLA] Interactive Diagnostic Umbrella

[CARPET] Gentle Walkway

Taking bee nests as inspiration, the structure unolds into honeycomb shape to form shelter, catching falling seed deposits to feed birds and help nature grows. The design reverses the traditional role of umbrella which allows users to reconnect with nature when umbrella is closed. Shadows created on users’ bodies informs them of particular health properties of sunlight.

GROUP GROUP

4

[LOUVER] Solar Blossom

Through using reflective materials, the design not only provides shading, but also to commodify sunlight, making it a more valuable resource.

5

The natural carpet allows user to navigate through nature without disturbing it while protecting the users’ feet and actively repairing damaged landscapes.

[CURTAIN] Passive Bamboo Curtain

The design questions the role of traditional glass windows in tropical climates. The double -layered bamboo structure acts as an alternative replacement providing several functions such as solar shading, ventilation, rain collection and seatings.

[ 5 DAYS, 5 GROUPS, 5 ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS, 5 BUILT DESIGNS (CON’T) ]


A

B

View towards school building

Lane to backyard

C

D

Window wall of exhibition hall

Entrance feature next to site

F

E

Interior of exhibition hall

Side view of window wall

Car parking area Entrance 4

D Lawn

C

A B E

5

F

H G

Lawn 3 1 2 *top floor

G

H

Ground floor plan of FACMU

Backyard

Umbrella court

[ SITE ANALYSIS ] The site is located on ground level, next to the car parking area where most students would walk past throughout the day. As most students in Chiang Mai drive to school, the site location is a popular spot for students to gather and meet up with friends. A window wall facing the car park which encloses an exhibition hall is chosen. According to the Chiang Mai students, it is always very hot inside the hall during summer, therefore the room is often not in use and is only occupied when senior year students require extra spaces for making large models. Therefore, the first idea is to promote the space to more users. In between the window wall and the car park is a small lawn where a few tall trees are planted, providing shade and natural views. The second idea is to preserve the natural view for users both inside and outside the room.


001 PRELIMINARY IDEA - curtain which reveals Before meeting with the Chiang Mai students, they have sent us a preliminary design, which proposes using bamboo to imitate the properties of curtain, yet reversing the idea of having the curtain to reveal interior space rather than concealing.

foldable

002 FIRST IDEA - replacment of window wall With the design sited under a tropical climate, questions are being raised regarding the massive use of glass windows in modern buildings. Most of these designs traps the heat and only make the interior hotter due to greenhouse effect. Extra shading such as curtains have to be added on to shield off the heat. Thus the proposal of replacement the existing window wall with a new bamboo facade is being made.

light shelf

rain screen

seating

The design then evolved to combine several pieces of dynamic elements to fulfill several properties of what a modern window wall should provide - shading, rain shielding, protection from natural elements and shelter, We then add in extra features which our new design can provide - seating to encourage interaction and screens to control views.

foldable seat

light shelf to shield off summer light

rain screen which can be rolled or unrolled with indoor handle

[ DESIGN DEVELOPMENT ]

foldable seat transforming into screen for extra privacy in room


003 FINALIZED DESIGN - passive bamboo facade After analyzing the existing structure and the structure of our design with our structural consultant Roberto, we agreed that a stronger bamboo structure is required to hold all the design elements. Besides in reality we are not allowed to remove the existing window wall, nor exert any loads on it, a self supportive bamboo structure needs to be set up first. Both 3D modelling and physical modelling skills are applied in designing the basic structure. Finally, a bamboo structure with 900mm depth is designed to provide extra structural stability.

as the existing window wall cannot be removed, there are two layers in our design - one interacting with the exterior while the other interacting with the interior

INTERIOR

rain catcher

EXTERIOR

solar/rain screen

seating 900mm

thai stilts game

3D modelling to finalize with dimension of structure and to test the feasibility of moving screens

the interior side contains shelves for exhibitions inspired from thai stilts game

investigating on how sheet material can be conceal and reveal interior space with simple mechanisms

combine solar shading and rain shielding in the same movable piece testings were done to figure out the best mechanism

[ DESIGN DEVELOPMENT (CON’T) ]


RAIN CATCHER catches rain droplets and guides water downwards for collection

SOLAR/RAIN SCREEN multi-functional transformable piece to shield of sunlight and rain

BAMBOO SHADING adjustable to turn towards the sun

[interior]

[interior]

THAI STILTS remove from frame to walk through floodwater

TRANSFORMABLE SEAT slide up to become screen, slide down to become a chair

SWINGING SEAT bouncy chair made with recycled rubber tyres

STILT SHELVES for displays and exhibitions

[ FINAL OUTCOME ] The structure is entirely made with bamboo with two types of dimensions - one with diameter of 60mm and smaller ones with diameter of 40mm. The large bamboo sticks are used for the main structure and the small ones are used for different architectural features. The outcome is a combination of architectural elements which we think a functional facade should contain - solar shading, rain screening, ventilation to protect users from nature, but also functions such as rain collection, views provision and seatings to bring nature towards its users. The idea is that this structure is just a prototype - which can be modified and adjusted to fit into different climates and geographical locations. Recycled materials are applied to promote the idea of being environmentally friendly.


solar/rain screen swinging seat transformable seat

structure swinging seat stilt shelves

structure solar/rain screen transformable seat

swinging seat transformable seat

structure swinging seat

solar/rain screen transformable seat

structure rain catchers bamboo shading

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structure layer 1 bamboo shading interior installation

mechanisms

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bamboo frame

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swinging seat

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linking in & out

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installation

1-1 testing

bamboo frame

tra nsf orm abl

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DAY 4

at

DAY 5 [ WORK SCHEDULE ] The workshop was rather intensive. We decided on the design after the first day, and refine the details along the way during construction. It was important to have a good division of labour in order to finish the construction on time, therefore to start with, half of the team worked on setting up the primary structure while the rest of the team works on refining the design and makes decisions on dimensions and materials. Afterwards, the “design� team then work on individual pieces such as the solar/rain screen and the rubber seatings. In the end, the whole team helped to install the pieces onto the main structure and also work out the mechanisms behind these dynamic features.

DAY 3

1 Y A D


{ BAMBOO } The bamboo used in the construction are supplied by FACMU for free. We have chosen 2 types of bamboo with differnt diameters - 60mm ones for the main structure nad 40mm ones for non-structural elements.

{R EC Bo YC th LE m r ch ain ate & R D B dir ose scr ria ICE UB e n ee ls S B to ct su for n p are ACK LE W s re n its an us } RA P sh olar flect ligh tran el. B ed o elf sc t a sl ub n s t t . Th ree ro nd uc bl he e m n is ng s rice ency e wr sol wi ate in t unli sac to ap i ar/ th ria he gh k i diff s sti ls a fo t w s c us tch re rm he ho e ed sew of n t sen ed n a li he ge to gh s. g e t th er

S}

d rce es u so stor lso E e a r B g UB res a irin and . Its R s n y a ED er t rep seat cree boo L b b cle he n s m so YC EC d ru bicy on t /rai g ba it al cult R e { us rby lied solar tyin , yet diffi e s e. ea p e for er ts e Th m n re ap or th eat geth sea lienc fro ch a ts f is gr ly to r the resi i in y g g o wh n jo ticit ron ng f tron t o las s s avi e s e ick we th st kes e to ma du E YR

in E } ra n e LIN n th t rai H c i AS sed olle N W re u to c f e LO NY s w oo s. { ä˝  ring the r plet st on dro lon or Ny llect co

In to bam jo b cu dam in m oo c { RO us ttin ag ate onst PE g i e } sti d in slo ng i rials ruct ck th ts. t b to ion s t e Th y d ge , i og str er ri th t i eth uc ef llin er s b er tur ore g h wit ett to e t , ro ol ho er for o t pe es ut m igh is or str t b hig on am hl g j bo y oin o ts.

RT

[ MATERIALS ]


Layer 1 (interior)

Layer 2 (exterior)

Layer 3 (exterior)

a

c

c

b d

3 layers combined to form a stable structure

The interior layer is built without damaging the existing building structure. It is in form of a grid with 6 vertical posts and 3 horizontal beams.

a

b

c

d

Length of vertical posts are cut precisely to anchor to ceiling when erected

As the vertical posts would have the tendency to fall (curved arrow), extra support is added to avoid the structure from collapsing

The interior layer is connected to outer layers through the openable windows

A pair of bamboos are used at the bottom beam for installation of the stilt shelves

[ STRUCTURE: LAYER 1 (INTERIOR) ] Even though the proposal is to build a replacement for glass walls in tropical climate, due to practical reasons, the existing window wall can not be removed and the design has to be built on top. The structure is designed to transfer all the loadings into the ground through the exterior layers, therefore there is no foundation for the interior layer and it is attached to the exterior layer through openable window for structural stability.


Layer 1 (interior)

Layer 2 (exterior)

a

Layer 3 (exterior)

b

c

d

a

b

The vertical posts aer hold in place with the specially designed bamboo clips onto the window frame

c

Double bamboo system is used to allow sliding of dynamic pieces

Horizontal beam for connection among all 3 layers

d

1

2

3

4

1. Digging trench for foundation to sit in; 2. Tying vertical posts to horizontal beam which will be buried afterwards; 3. Tying the second vertical post to the horizontal beam; 4. Backfilling the trench and stamping on topsoil

[ STRUCTURE: LAYER 2 (EXTERIOR) ] Structural layer 2 is built around 100mm away from the existing window wall, with 4 vertical posts and 2 horizontal beams. The loads are transferred downwards to the ground foundation.


Layer 1 (interior)

Layer 2 (exterior)

Layer 3 (exterior)

a

b c e d

a

b

The vertical posts are again constructed in pairs to slot in dynamic pieces. They are shorter than those in layer 2 to create a slanted surface for attaching the rain catcher

c

Diagonals are added to hold the openable window and connect all 3 layers together

d

1

2

3

4

1. One end of the diagonal touches the top of window ; 2. tying the diagonal to the verical post; 3. The other end held by timber angle exerting loads into ground ; 4. The foundation is held by a horizontal bamboo piece and later covered with soil

900mm gap with layer 2 and 3 held together with horizontal beams 1

e

Diagonals pointing to opposite directions are added to the two sides of the entire structure

2

3, 4

[ STRUCTURE: LAYER 3 (EXTERIOR) ] Layer 3 is 1000mm shorter and 900mm away from layer 2 with similar grid pattern. Its foundation is constructed in the same way as layer 2. Layer 3 will hold the solar/rain screen and the rubber seatings. The depth in between layers will become a garden.


solar/rain screen

a

frame 1

c b frame 2

d

a

e

The corner of the frame is held together using recycled rubber strips.

b

c

d

e

A timber bolt is used to lock the degree of openess for the solar screen.

Rubber ring is used to hold the handle for rolling the sheet material on the solar screen.

bamboo A stick i bamboo B

frame 1

frame 2

stick ii Bamboo A and B are joined together by tying sticks that go through the bamboo with rope.

Hinge joint between the two bamboo frames is made with a timber stick going through the extended bamboo sticks from the frames.

[ FEATURE: SOLAR/RAIN SCREEN ]


NORMAL

SUNNY

RAINY

SUNNY

light shelf push inwards

RAINY

translucent

roll

Another handle for adjusting the sheet material is located in the interior for users inside the building.

[ FEATURE: SOLAR/RAIN SCREEN ] The solar/rain screen is designed to have two uses, responding to the tropical climate in Chiang Mai. When it is sunny, the screen will be set up in a L-shaped (corner pointing inwards) position to shield off excess solar heat and block the high elevation summer sun. When it is rainy, the screen will be flipped to have the corner pointing outwards, providing a flat surface above head to shield off rainwater. The degree of openness can be adjuste, and a timber bolt is used to hold the screen in position. During fine weather, users can adjust the sheet material on the screen by rolling the handle according to their demand for privacy or visibility of the exterior.

opaque


transformable seat

a

b

c

d

e

f

a

b

c

d

e

f

[ FEATURE: TRANSFORMABLE SEAT ] During rainy days, the seat can be pulled to form a screen to avoid rainwater from entering the interioir. It can also be used when building users require privacy inside the building. During fine weather, the seat can be pulled down for use. The design would attract users to get near to the building and enhance interactions. The extensive use of recycled rubber weaving allows the seat to be playful and relaxing to sit on.


swinging seat

a

c b

a d

e

Seat hung to the diagonal stick of the main structure with a rubber to create the “bouncy� effect when sat on.

b

c

d

e

A slot was made on the frame of the hanging seat for the rubber to set in position.

The rubber strips are twisted during weaving to give better resilient to the seat.

Bamboo strips are inserted through the weaving seat for better comfort when sat on.

The frame is held together with rubber joints similar to that applied in the solar/rain screen.

[ FEATURE: SWINGING SEAT ] A swinging seat is designed on the exterior side of the facade for users to sit on during fine weather. Again recycled rubber weaving is extensively applied in the design of the seat.


bamboo shading

rain catcher

rain catcher

Rain droplets is collected with nylon lines and drained through halved bamboo strips for storage.

bamboo shading

Traditional bamboo sieves are used as shades. They can be adjusted to turn according to orientation of the sun.

[ FEATURE: ROOF ELEMENTS ]


stilt shelves

stilt shelves

Conceptual model

thai stilts

thai stilts

The stilts are locked in position with timber sticks

The stilts can be taken out for use during flooding

[ FEATURE: INTERIORS ] The interior side of the passive bamboo facade is an exhibition space to display the working models produced in this workshop.


[ FINAL PHOTOS ]


[ FINAL PHOTOS ]


[ FINAL PHOTOS ]


[ FINAL PHOTOS ]


year 5 interim submission - part 2: future natural