Studio Air Lam Gee Wai
ARCHITECTURE STUDIO - AIR LAM GEE WAI 372547
CONTENT A. EXPRESSION OF INTEREST WYNDHAM CITY GATEWAY PROJECT ARCHITECTURAL DISCOURSE INNOVATION OF COMPUTATION COMBINATION OF MATRIX REVERSED ENGINEERED CASE STUDY FABRICATING STUDY MODEL DESIGN CONCEPT REFINING CONCEPT
B. DESIGN PROPOSAL DESIGN DEVELOPMENT FABRICATING FINAL MODEL CONSTRUCTION
C. LEARNING OBJECTIVES AND OUTCOME OBJECTIVES FUTURE PLANS OF LEARNING
A. EXPRESSION OF INTEREST
Seeds of Change is a past installment comissioned by Wyndham City Council, which is a10 metre high structure designed to welcome home residents, and attract visitors, to the City of Wyndham. It is located at the eastern interchange (first turn-off to Werribee from Melbourne) on the Princes Highway. However, its static nature of the installation fails to draw peopleâ€™s attention. Also, the scale of the installation does not allow drivers to have enough experience time in high speed driving.
DAY AND NIGHT TIME VIEWING ENRICHES MUNICIPALITY
EXPERIENCE IN HIGH SPEED CAR MOVEMENT
VISUAL ART EXCITING
INDICATION OF METROPOLITAN MELBOURNE
SENSE OF PRIDE TO WYNDHAM
In recent years, Wyndham City has been addressing the issue of its image by undertaking significant works to upgrade the condition and aesthetics of its streetscapes, open spaces and parks. As part of this program, it has established this Gateway Project.
WYNDHAM CITY GATEWAY PROJECT
ARCHITECTURAL DISCOURSE CHURCH OF LIGHT, OSAKA b
Architect: Tadao Ando Completed: 1989
Tadao Ando often uses Zen philosophies when conceptualizing his structures. One theme he expresses in this work is the dual nature of existence as a discourse. The space of the chapel is defined by light, the strong contrast between light and solid. In the chapel light enters from behind the altar from a cross cut in the concrete wall that extends vertically from floor to ceiling and horizontally from wall to wall, aligning perfectly with the joints in the concrete. At this intersection of light and solid the occupant is meant to become aware of the deep division between the spiritual and the secular within himself or herself. One feature of the interior is its discourse of profound emptiness. Many who enter the church say they find it disturbing. The distinct void space and absolute quiet amounts to a sense of serenity. For Ando the idea of ‘emptiness’ means something different. It is meant to transfer someone into the realm of the spiritual. The emptiness is meant to invade the occupant so there is room for the ‘spiritual’ to fill them. Besides the interior, the architecture itself forms a huge contrast with its surrounding neighbourhood: a whole block of concrete conpared to the colourful adjacent residential dwellings. The Church of Light breaks the cultural norms that church has to be classic and grand. Instead, it shows that with raw finishing and simple boxy layout, the church can still brings out a sacred feeling as a discourse to people.
“In all my works, light is an important controlling factor” - Tadao Ando
The Church of Light gives an insight to me on the gateway project that the message conveyed by the architecture is more important than the details revealed by the structure. Also, the use of light in this church brings a dramatic effect to the whole building. I shall further investigate on lighting effect afterwards.
ARCHITECTURAL DISCOURSE KARTAL-PENDIK MASTERPLAN, ISTANBUL
Architect: Zaha Hadid b
Though parametricism has its roots in the digital animation techniques of the mid-1990s, it has only fully emerged in recent years with the development of advanced parametric design systems. Parametricism has become the dominant, single style for avant-garde practice today. It is particularly suited to large-scale urbanism as exemplified by a series of competition-winning master-plans by Zaha Hadid Architects, especially this KartalPendik Masterplan in Istanbul. The Kartal-Pendik Masterplan in Istanbul shows a discourse of inter-connectedness among all elements in the area. The result is an elegant, coherently differentiated city-scape that facilitates navigation through its lawful constitution and through the architectural accentuation of both global and local field properties. This project inspires me to a great extent that it shows the importance of the relationship between the building and its surroundings. Connections with the surroundings must be carefully considered to enhance the overall built environment.
â€œParametricism is the great new style after modernism. The new style claims relevance on all scales from architecture and interior design to large scale urban design.â€? - Zaha Hadid
â€œThe glazed canopy that makes all this possible is a fusion of state-of-the-art engineering and economy of form.â€?
INNOVATION OF COMPUTATION
- Norman Foster
BRITISH MUSEUM GREAT COURT
Architect: Norman Foster Complited: 2000
The court has a tessellated glass roof designed by Norman Foster, covering the entire court and surrounds the original circular British Museum Reading Room in the centre, now a museum. It is the largest covered square in Europe. The glass and steel roof is made up of 4,878 unique steel members connected at 1,566 unique nodes and 1,656 pairs of glass windowpanes making up 6,100m2 of glazing. However, each shape of the glass is unique because of the undulating nature of the roof. As a result, it is nearly impossible to design the glass roof by ordinary method. Instead, the roof is designed with the help of computation. The roof geometry is actually a series of maths functions and with the aid of computer programs, it can be resolved quickly as you will only have to input the data while the computer will do the math. Computation is particularly useful in making geometries in architecture, especially in large scale construction, like the Great Court. With computation, construction and design process becomes more time efficient. Also, there would be less mistakes in construction and thus more material and labour efficient. Inspired by the power of computation, I shall try to produce some unique geometry by computer programs on my gateway project. Also, this Great Court project shows how digital design can be materialized into a real structure and this provides an insight to my fabrification of model afterwards. b
INNOVATION OF COMPUTATION THE NONLIN/LIN PAVILION
Architect: Marc Fornes b Complited: 2011
French architect Marc Fornes of THEVERYMANY has completed a perforated aluminium pavilion that resembles a giant piece of coral. The NonLin/Lin Pavilion has a computer-generated form composed of tubes and donut shapes. Assembled from 27 components, the four metre-high structure can be taken apart and reassembled in different locations. Over 155,000 asterisk-shaped perforations of different sizes create a pattern on the surface of the pavilion. This pavilion is a prototype which engages in a series of architectural experiments referred to as text based morphologies. Beyond its visual perception of sculptural and formal qualities, the prototypes are built forms developed through custom computational protocols. The parameters of these protocols are based on form finding (surface relaxation), form description (composition of developable linear elements), information modeling (re-assembly data), generational hierarchy (distributed networks), and digital fabrication (logistic of production). This is a good example showing how computation can help to create difficult forms and patterns, especially the 155,000 asterisk-shaped perforations of different sizes create a pattern on the surface of the pavilion in this case, which hand craft of this is very time consuming and not as precise as the one did by computatuion. This inspires me in the gateway project that I can create some difficult curvy forms and irrugular patterns with the help of computation. b
â€œThis kind of prototype deviates from a strategy of singular protocols or codes. The emphasis is now focused on multiple ontologisms, which form a sum of many different steps, procedures, and codes, where each component focuses on its own specific fitness.â€? - Marc Fornes
FROM PRECEDENCES TO MY DESIGN
Tadao Andoâ€™s attention towards the balance and feeling of the whole design instead of focusing on details is delightful. I shall pay more attention to the overall balance of the design with the environment. Also, his design with lighting is another major thing I learned and I will carefully encorporate lighting in my design.
Zaha Hadid is one of my favourite architecture that her design always interrect with the landscape very well. I shall learn from her considerations on landscape factors, such as topography and shape of the site and consider these factors in my design.
the great court gives me an insight of the power of computer fabrifaction. Computer fabrication can do something that the ordinary approach cannot do and this give me a strong reason to adopt computer fabrication in my design to unlesh the potential of my design.
This pavilion is similar to my design intent that I want to build something dynamic and wavy. The use of material and the geometry of this pavilion gives me an indication of the expected outcome of my design. Also, the geometry is a strong example showing with computer scripting can do and I am strongly convinced by it.
COMBINATION OF MATRIX
Arbitrary Points Arbitrary points uses points and surface and the points on the surface will respond and create certain outcomes. As an input, it can produce different effects by using combinations of different associations and output.
Boolean Patterning Boolean pattering demonstrate how patterns can emerge out of the selection of points. It selects points based on the boolean patterning to create a diagonal gap throughout the pattern.
Curve Intersections Curve intersection extracts the existing information for points. From these points, they can by controled to interect together and create interesting geometries.
Surface Grids Surface grids simply divide a surface into grids of points. After divided into grids, different association and output can be connected to create different desirable outcomes.
COMBINATION OF MATRIX
Explict Grids: Square and Hexagonal Works similar to a surface divide, but square grids make more equal in both directions and the arrangements are in the x and y directions. However, hexagonal grids provide diagonal arrangements.
Overlapping Patterns Overlapping patterns create offsets to the orginal surface and produce a layer on top or above. Overlapping patterns can be used to connect with other associations and outputs to create a dynamic form of patterns.
Surface Normals Surface normals are surfaces that are free formed instead of flat. It is similar to a flat surface that different associations and output can be connected to produce different outcome. Instead, the outcome on a surface normal is more dynamic and interesting.
â€˜The Dior facade presents itself like an architectureal apparition; a ghost like volume articulated solely through the luminous effects of its carefully edited surfaceâ€™ - Kumiko Inui
REVERSED ENGINEERED CASE STUDY
Architect: Kumiko Inui b Complited: 2011 Dior Giza is designed by Kumiko Inui who draw inspiration from the cannage pattern of the signature Lady Dior handbag. The facade was developed as a double-layed skin comprised of two independent surface: an outer perforated layer seperated from an inner, printed layer which is fibre-optically illuminated. In the inner layer, the cannage pattern is scaled down 30%, which combined with the offset between the two layers to produce a hazy, moire effect.
The facade of this building is a good example showing the power of parametric design in creating virtual images by overlaying several screens at a certain distance in between them. In this reversed engerneered case study, we are trying the reproduce the same effect by using grasshopper. Process one: In the first step, we first create a surface and we use surface divide to make a grid of circle dots. Then we use an image of the dior cannage pattern in the image sampler to arrange the size of the dots according to the cannage pattern. This basically makes the outer layer, which resembles the outer facade of the Dior Ginza. Process two: After we create the outer layer, we move on to the inner layer. As mentioned, the inner layer consist of dots that are 30% smaller and are 34cm apart from the outer layer. We do this by overlap pattern in grasshopper. We make an offset of 34cm and reduce the radius of the dots by 30% and we successfully create the inner layer. The Dior Ginza facade, which uses overlapping pattern to create virtual images deeply inspires us and we have further developed this idea into our design.
3. 1. Polyproplene sheet with peforations created by image sampler 2. Offset layers 3. Looking from inside creates a different experience
FABRICATING STUDY MODEL PATTERN STUDY
After making design decision, we have to materialize the design to further explore the
possibility of the design. We fabricate two sheets of polyproplene sheet with grids of perforations associated with image sampler, with the perforations in the inner sheet 30% smaller than the other sheet. We successfully produce virtual images with a moire effect.
4. Perforations in the inner layer is 30% smaller, the scalar difference creates a moire effect
FABRICATING STUDY MODEL LIGHTING STUDY
After studying the pattern, we now take an investigation how lighting will affect the design. Polyproplene works on
very well with lighting as it is semi translucent and it glows with lighting behind. The perforations is illuminated with lighting behind, creating an interesting pattern. We also tried a colour gradient with different colour of light. The gradient is clearly reflected on the surface of the polyproplene.
1. 1. Polyproplene sheet glows with lighting behind 2. Perforations are illuminated with lighting behind 3. Colour gradient is clearly reflected on the surface of the material 4. Picture showing details of illumination of the double layers
DESIGN CONCEPT: WATER MOVEMENT
The site is located next to Princes High-
way in Wyndham city, which is in the boundary between metropolitan Melbourne and the rural areas. Furthermore, princes highway is the major connection of the rural areas in the south west to the Melbourne city. Therefore, the site serve a significant function of indicating the boundary. With the great significance of the site, we understand that the gateway design will become a landmark welcoming drivers from the south east to the city. Also, the gateway will act as a local landmark to promote the Wyndham city. As a result, We focus our design concept on Wyndham cityâ€™s rich water resources, such as rivers, wetland reserves and the largest water treatment plant in melbourne. With the concept of water, the gateway design will form a network with its surrounding local water resources. It will be able to represent wyndham city as it encorporates its important local feature - water. With the concept of water, the gateway design will also be able to arouse peopleâ€™s attention on the precious water resource in Wyndham city, especially the Graham wetland reserve and Cheetham wetland, which are important habitat to various indigenous animal and plant species.
DESIGN CONCEPT We have the concept of fluid motion in the design to indicate the importance of the adjacent wetland. We first draw the shape of a water droplet and try to produce a long and narrow design which flows dynamically beside the road.
Control Points Curve Makeing 2D shape
Option 1: Image Sampler Surface frame is used to divided the surface to produce grids of dots. The dots are arranged in different size by the image in the image sampler to produce a unique pattern. The outcome is satisfactory as the pattern is easily seen.
Control Points Curve Preparing to loft
Lofting Making 3D surface
Option 2: Pattern Overlay Inspired by the Dior Ginza facade, we found the overlaying pattern very interesting. We tried the pattern overlay with the association of image sampler and wish to produce virtual images. The result is satisfactory and we look forward to it.
Rebuild surface Modifying the surface Option 3: Data Driven Extrusion Extrusion is made on the dots on the grid. The extrusion follows the association of the image in the image sampler to produce a dynamic wave form.
Option 4: Data Driven Rotation The dots in the grid begins to rotate away from its original position following the association of the image in the image sampler. Some dots were rotated out of the surfac.
REFINING CONCEPT After expermenting with different asso ciation and output, we have decided to adopt the overlaying pattern associated with image sampler. However, we want to refine the design by playing with the lighting of the installation.
First Installation in site B After we have decided on the use of overlapping pattern and image sampler as association, we refine our design by exploring the lighting effect in the stallation. We use Data Driven Shading to produce two contrasting colour on the inner layer according to the pattern of the image in the image sampler. This contrast in colour produce a colour gradient to the installation and produce an more interesting virtual image through the overlapping pattern.
Second Installation in site A After we have decided on the use of overlapping pattern and image sampler as association, we developed our second installation to respond to our first installation. This second installation uses fluid motion as the core idea as well. To fit into the landscape of site A, it is longer in length and follows the shape of the site boundary to produce a landscaped installation. The second installation is located opposite to the first installation, responding to each other to enrich the streetscape.
- The reson for using Image Sampler as the patterning is not strong enough
- Need more detail research to justify that virtual images can be created by the offset layers - A tunnel version of the design may be interesting - Proper resoning is needed to justify the scale of the design - Research has to been done on how the drivers will experience the design in high speed car movement - The concept of water is too general - The study model produced is too simple, which is different from the design - Have to figure out the method of fabrication of the design - Have to be specific on the positioning of lights
B. PROJECT PROPOSAL DESIGN DEVELOPMENT
Forms We have developed the original concept of water into a more specific water form - waves. With the study model, we explore its potential by rolling and twisting it. Finally we have designed a canopy with a narrow end to a broad end, with up and downs resembling a wave form.
After the EOI, feedbacks were given by the tutor and we have taken their advice and modify our design concept in 4 ways:
Geometry We have used Image Sampler to produce a pattern before, however the result is not satisfactory as it lacks a proper resoning. This time we go back to basic and decide to use points attractor as the method to produce the pattern. The result looks satisfactory as the pattern is simple and elegant, with the size of the perforation differs in a definite way instead of a random way by the image sampler.
Moire effect We continue to adopt the idea of producing virtual images - a moire effect by using the offest layers. Each layers have the same geometry, with the size of the perforations on the inner layer 30% smaller than the outer layer. The scalar dissonance will create a moire effect to the drivers who look at it. The moire effects also relates to wave to a large extent because it is like looking through the water, blur and moire.
The 3 experiences The 3 experiences will be the core idea of the whole design. With the design concept of wave forms, we expect the drivers to have 3 different experiences depends on the road they have chosen. On one side of the canopy, drivers will experience a giant wave approaching. On the other side, the drivers will experience a wave receeding. In the middle, which is the road coverd by the canopy, the drivers will have a experience surrounded by water turbulance with many bubbles.
DESIGN DEVELOPMENT SITE ANALYSIS
T he canopy, with 300m long, 60m wide and 40m tall is located between West Road and Princes Freeway, covering part of Princes Highway. By putting in this location, the goal of giving drivers 3 different experiences can be achieved: the tunnel and the two sides of the canopy. Also, the shape of the canopy fits exactly into the landscape and interrect with the site well. This is due to the consideration of landscape factors, such as topograpy and shape during the design process. The length of the canopy, which is 300m is definitely enough for the drivers to gain enough experiences during high speed driving. Being located in the prominent location on the fringe of Metropolitan Melbourne area, the wave form design can successfully represent Wyndham in regards to its rich water resources in the area. Also, the canopy is eye catching enough to become a landmark and welcome drivers to the city.
DESIGN DEVELOPMENT DESIGN EVOLUTION Paneling Tools For such a large scale design, the curve surfaces are usually made of seperate flat panels packed together to create a curve surface. In order to achieve this, we use the paneling tools in rhino to make flat surface on the curve surface.
Water Droplet The design is inspired by water at first. Our design concept started with water droplet.
Lofting In order to create a free form, we decided to use the lofting function in Rhino because it is easier for us to explore different possibilites of the free form.
Free Transforming After we do the lofting, we do the free transform to make the design look more dynamic.
Canopy After we have received the comments from the first presentation, we have decided to try a tunnel version of the design. At the same time, we have focused our concept onto wave as water as a concept is too general. We free transform our previous design to make it look more wavy.
Build Surface After we used the paneling tools, the result may not be satisfactory. Therefore, we have to rebuild some surface to create the form we desire.
Grasshopper After we have created flat surface, we adopted grasshopper to make parametric geometry. We use points attractor to create different size perforations on the surface, making elegant patterns.
DESIGN DEVELOPMENT DESIGN EVOLUTION
North East Elevation
South West Elevation
FABRICATING FINAL MODEL U NFOLDING AND LASER CUTTING
After completing the design, we have to bild the model. As the curve surface has been made of many flat surfaces, it can be unfolded by the unfold command in rhino. After unfolding it, we laser cut it. Using paneling tools to create flat surface and then unfold it is an easy way to create curve forms by breaking the curve surface into pieces of flat surfaces. With this method, almost any freeforms can be easily materialized by materials such as card boards.
2. 1. The unfolded pieces being cut on 0.5 mm white card board by laser cutter 2. Building the model 3. Completion of the outer layer of the canopy
Cutting and Etching There are two techniques to use in laser cutting. By adjusting the power of the laser cutter, two effects can be produced: cut and etch. For this unfolded model, the boundary and the perforations are needed to be cut. However, the folding lines are to be etched for us to fold easily and to identify the lines.
FABRICATING FINAL MODEL D AY TIME
4. 1. The canopy design has considered landscape factor carefully that it fits well into the landscape perfectly 2. The shadow created by the perforations 3. The opening of the canopy, showing the offset layers 4. The other opening of the canopy, drivers drive their vehicles in from this entrance
FABRICATING FINAL MODEL NIGHT TIME
4. 1. At night, lights will be switch on from the inside, the surface of the canopy will glow 2. The perforations are illuminated by the light behind 3. The opening of the canopy, showing the offset layers 4. The canopy will become a landmark and enhance the streetscape with its amazing appearance at night
Drivers’ experience on Princes Freeway at night, experiencing a giant wave approaching
FABRICATING FINAL MODEL THE 3 EXPERIENCES
After the completion of the model, we took a series of photos similating the 3 different experiences drivers will have on 3 different roads: Princes Highway, Princes Freeway and Geelong Road Exit, and day and night time experiences. All photos are taken close to the groud, similating the drivers’ perspective.
1. Drivers’ experience on Geelong Road Exit at night 2. Drivers’ experience on Geelong Road Exit at day time 3. Drivers’ experience on Princes Highway at night 4. Drivers’ experience on Princes Highway at day time 5. Drivers’ experience on Princes Freeway at day time
C ONSTRUCTION DETAILS
Stainless steel frame Stainless steel frame is lightweight, strong and easy to be built, which is more suitable than timber for building such a large scale canopy Concrete pad footings It is the simpliest and cost effective way to support the large stainless steel truss frame above by transfering the point load safely to the ground
White Polycarbonate panel
Polycarbonate panel It is cost effective, light weight and available in any colour. It is also weather resistant, which is suitable for structures exposing to outside environment. Its semi translucent nature allows the canopy to glow in night and produce the desire outcome.
Stainless steel frame (outer layer) Concrete pad footings
Stainless steel frame (inner layer) Concrete pad footings
White Polycarbonate panel Bolt Steel plate Stainless steel frame Bolt
White Polycarbonate panel Sealant White Polycarbonate panel
Bolt Steel plate Stainless steel frame (outer layer)
Stainless steel frame (outer layer)
C. LEARNING OBJECTIVES AND OUTCOME OBJECTIVES
DESIGNING WITH COMPUTERS
Designing with computers I have learned to use computers to make design according to the design brief, and undergo refinment of the design after the crictics and finally use computer to fabricate the final outcome of the design.
COMMUNICATING VISUALLY Communication via photography and diagrams Throughout this semester, I have learned to use high quality photos and vector drawings to communicate visually. I had many chances to practice my visual presentation and I think I have improved on it. I also used study model to make visual exploration to my design process.
APPLYING TECHNICAL SKILLS Model making skills and computer fabrication
I had many chances to practice my model making skills this semester, from various study models to the final model. Also, This is my first time to use computer fabrication - the laser cutter. I find it very useful and it definitely release my design potential towards more complex freeforms. Precedences This is my first time to write the EOI and it definitely helps me a lot because I leardned to argue persuasively by citing examples from precedences. Also, I learned to investigate precedence and examine their resons behind, and this help me improve my critical thinking during the design process
FUTURE PLANS OF LEARNING
This is my first time to adopt parametric design and this has definitely change my perspectives in architectural studies. I found that parametric design has become a major stream in modern architecture. With parametrism, I can design things that is not possible with the normal approach. With the help of computer fabrication, I can even materialize my design easily. This course has definitely given me an insight on my future architectural studies. I will use more parametric design in the future to explore my potential in this field of design. Also, I will definitely use more computer fabrication in the future as it saves a lot more time. I am glad i have taken this course and I think It has changed my life.