The Danish Reformation in 1536, Jews along with Catholics were prohibited in Denmark.The first Jews settled in Antona in 1584, it was a Danish city until 1864, the first Jew Dr Jonah Charizi moved to Copenhagen,he died in 1626.The first Jewish community was founded in the newly established town of Fredericia in 1682.In 1684 Israel David and Meyer Goldshmidt received royal permission to have Minyanim in their homes.They were subject to social and economic discrimination and for brief period in 1782 they were forced to attend Lutheran services. But they were not required to live in ghettos and had a significant degree of self-governance. The growth of the community was quite slow, and by 1726 there were 65 Jewish families, with a total of 331 persons. In 1787 there were about 250 families,some 1,200 people. In 1813 there was an attempt to have anti Jewish laws established,but to no avail. On 1814 a royal decree was issued giving Jews equal rights. In 1833 the main Synagogue in Krystalgade was dedicated, it still in operation. Russo-Japenese War in 1904, and the series of Russian revolutions ,led to an influx of approximately 3,000 Jewish refugees into Denmark. Between 1933 and 1940 approximately 4,500 refugees passed through Denmark on their way to Israel. In 1940 Denmark was occupied but there were no anti Jewish activities until 1943.As the German army attempted to round up the Jews,95% they were rescued by the Danish people,who heroically mobilized and managed to move all to safety in Sweden besides,some 500 that were capture,about 450 Jews came back saved. In 1969 about 2000 Jews from Poland joined the community. Today there are about 7,000 Jews in Copenhagen and few hundred in Aarhus and others scattered around. The Jewish Community Center has 2,500 members, they continue their traditional culture and religion, in a country where there is freedom of religion.
Thera are two Synagogues, Krystalgade Synagogue is older and orthodox and Machsike Hadas is smaller. Chief Rabbi Bent Lexner, holds a services daily on Krystalgade Synagogue, and for the special service like ROSH HASHANA(the Jewish new year), SHAVOUT(pentecost), SUKKOT(feast of tabernacles), YOM KIPPUR(day of atonement). The days of calendar change every years.Jewish people go in the Synagogue twice a day. An Orthodox Synagogue is divide by men and women. The service during few hours, inside the Synagogue people have a lock to put the Bibble or TALLED(white shawl with bands) and sundry KIPPAH(hats)available,the women must wear a skirt. In the Synagogue the wedding it’s rear 3 or 4 in a year, because people prefer to get married in Israel, when they come back, the newlyweds are invited for one week to celebrate a wedding in different houses. There are few converted people, because takes long time to convert. There are around 40 funerals a year. JEWS SCHOOL Caroline school is a Jewish private school since 1805 with about 180 students for children up to 9th grade. Students are taught in public school general subjects, but they also have lessons of Jewish religion, culture and history as well as in Hebrew. The Jewish calendar has different holidays, the school is closed during national holidays and Jewish holidays, that means some Sunday it’s open because both schools have the same rules just with different holidays. Sunday for Jewish people it’s a work day. Saturday, SABBATH it’s seventh day, in Judaism it is defined with the cycle of the sun, the day begins and ends at sunset. It begins on Friday when the sun goes down, and ends Saturday night after it gets dark. The idea of Shabbat comes from the Bible’s story of creation. In that story God creates the universe and everything on earth in six days. On the seventh day, he stops work, in the same way, Jews work on the first six days of the week and rest on the seventh day, Sabbath.
Chabad is a movement in Orthodox Judaism, the organization is the largest Jewish organization in the world today. The movement has over 200,000 adherents and up to one million Jews attend Chabad services at least once a year. Chabad is adherent of Chabad traditions and prayer services based on Lurianic kabbalah.The Chabad in Copenhagen is since 1997, by Rabbi Yitzi Loewenthal and his wife Rochel organized of Chabad,their family is formed of eight children,two boys and six girls.It’s a institute for Jewish religion with on average of 50 students a week, also they organize after school, camping in summer and different activities. Every friday or day before a holiday,they prepare a food for few or more days, because in the holiday they can’t work and cook.Between 30-90 are invite to enjoy the holidays in Chabad with them. They have also the small Synagogue. The family prepares food for this special day,because on the Sabbath and on different holidays it is prohibited to use technology. Together with the family or in Chabad if they are in visit another country, women light on candle and men go in the Synagogue to pray,. Each meal begins with a blessing over wine. Next there is a blessing on bread “Challad”,but between these actions they wash their hands before eating without talking to anyone.
There are two bigger cemeteries in Copenhagen and one older cemetery in Frederica, one really smaller in the middle of the city of Aarhus and the another around Denmark. All cemetery jewish are separative of another cemeteries, it is traditional to bury the dead with the feet towards Jerusalem. The tombstones usually have inscriptions in Hebrew and the regional language. Instead of flowers people put little stones on top of the grave stone in order to show that someone visited the grave.
JEWS SHOP Kosher & Deli in Copenhagen since 1988,is open. Gil Zchout and Flory Thomsen from Israel sell products made Israel, from wine to meet. It’s like an alimentary shop. Jewish can’t eat meet of pork, rabbit, camel and horse. The costumers are not all Jewish people but every nationality.
The problem with anti-semitism began,during the Six-Day War in Israel. The Jewish community of Denmark documented 40 incidents in 2012, almost double the number from 2009. In 2009, when with an Israel began a campaign against Hamas in the Gaza Strip,the community reported 21 incidents, this is a substantial increase over the average of three incidents annually in the previous six years. In Denmark Jews are afraid in their places like schools and Synagogues which are protected with cameras and barbed wire,an attack,provocations public type. An the Synagogue there are security outside on every holiday services.
The Hannukkah menorah is a nine-branched candelabrum lit during the eight-day holiday of Hanukkah. The ninth holder, called the shamash is for a candle used to light all other candles.
The star of David is used as a symbol of the Jewish community, known in Hebrew as the Shield of David it was partly used in conjunction with the Seal of Solomon on Jewish flags.
Chief Rabbi Bent Lexner in the his office at Caroline School.
Sarah StĂ¸ttrup show me a MEZUZAH is a little piece of parchment handwritten, called Klaf is made in Israel. It contains a part of the Shema-prayer. ItÂ´s from the story of the exodus in Egypt, where God commanded the Jewish to put a sign on their doors.
The older sister teaches the smallest to kiss Mezuzah, which there are in every door.
Rabbi Ytizi and his wife prepare a meal for 30 people, before the 24 hours without touching any kind of tecnologicy, before Friday night.
Rochel Loewenthal with one of her daughters lights a candle and prays. ItÂ´s a ritual of every Friday night.
Special thank´s Chief Rabbi Bent Lexner Sarah Støttrup Rochel & Ytizi Loewenthal Gil Zchout & Flory Thomsen