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Introduction to the Industrial Revolution

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The Industrial Revolution •  The industrial Revolution can be defined as: •  the application of power driven machinery to manufacturing

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From the Agrarian world to the Industrialized world •  Lord Townshend in England introduced crop rotation – land could now be used year-round; •  Enclosures forced people to move from the country to the towns •  More food produced = population increase (1700 there were about 100 million people in Europe, by 1800 the population had grown to 190 million) •  New technology development changed the way people worked Slide 3



Textile Industry Takes Off •  Domestic system (cottage industry) had dominated the early 1700s; merchants dropped off raw materials at people’s homes, picked up finished products later

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Textile Industry Takes Off •  Series of inventions modernize textile manufacturing, including: •  1733 - Flying Shuttle (John Kay) – Used to weave cloth The Spinning Jenny

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Textile Industry Takes Off •  1760 – Spinning Jenny (James Hargreaves) – Allowed for multiple threads to be woven together •  1769 – Water Frame (Richard Arkwright) – Used water to power the spinning frame

The Spinning Jenny

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Textile Industry Takes Off •  1785 – Water Loom (Edmund Cartwright) – First machine that could weave cloth •  1793 – Cotton Gin (Eli Whitney) – Machine that separated cotton seeds from the cotton Plans for the Cotton Gin

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Textile Industry Takes Off •  These advancements resulted in the movement of work from the home to the factory

Plans for the Cotton Gin

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Britain Industrializes First •  1715-1850 •  Natural resources available in Britain:large amounts of coal and iron •  Geographical advantages include a large river system for water power Slide 9



Britain Industrializes First •  Colonial empire provided raw materials and markets •  Spreads to continental Europe, United States of America, and Japan between 1850 and 1914

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Changes Brought by the Industrial Revolution •  Invention of the steam engine in 1763 by James Watt shifts labor from humans and animals to machines •  Inventions continue to make life, manufacturing, and farming easier and better •  Continuous reinvestment of profits fuel even greater growth •  Inventions in one area often led to inventions in others •  Transportation and communication systems are greatly enhanced Slide 11


Introduction to the Industrial Revolution  

A general introductory file to the Industrial Revolution

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