Page 1

Typefaces throughout

HISTORY

THINK REDESIGN


Table Of Contentss 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Avenir

6–15 pg

Bembo

16–23 pg

Bodoni

24–31 pg

Chaparral

32–41 pg

Cooper Black

42–49 pg

Filosofia

50–57 pg

Garamond

58–67 pg

Gotham

68–77 pg

Avant Garde

78–87 pg

Cheltenham

88–97 pg

Galliard

98–105 pg

Stone Sans

106–113 pg

Neutraface Slab

114–125 pg

Plantin

126–135 pg


Typography,

an introduction

What is typography? Why does it matter? How does it impact our lives? The Merriam-Webster definition of “typography” is: “the work of producing printed pages from written material” or “the style, arrangement, or appearance of printed letters on a page.” How those letters, words, and sentences are styled and arranged affects how they are perceived. Good typography clarifies content, establishes hierarchy, and presents information in a manner that makes it easier to read, and, therefore, to understand. Good typography is good communication: it can start a dialog or advance an idea or make a difference in the world. Typography is also intertwined with our daily lives—we encounter type in everything from the products we buy, the signage around us, the books we read, the news we consume, and the directions we follow. Typography can be beautiful, functional, persuasive, and inviting. It can also fail, especially when there is a disconnect between how the type looks and what the text says.

4 | Typefaces Throughout History

This book is a celebration of typography and typeface design. It is also a creative collaboration among students in Art 338: Typography II at California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, during winter quarter 2018. Each student in the class researched a different typeface and contributed the pages in this book that describe and showcase their assigned typeface. The final design reflects the many talents of the students who brought this project to life.

Charmaine Martinez Professor of Design at California Polytechnic State University and Type Enthusiast

5


AVENIR


Let’s go back in time ”Legibility and beauty stand close together.” 8 | Typefaces Throughout History

Adrian Frutiger designed Avenir in 1988, re-

leased by a company that is now a branch of the Monotype Corporation, Linotype GmbH. The typeface got its name from the word “future,” (Pau 33) being that Avenir is the French translation. The typeface was given its name to challenge Futura, which also means “the future” in Latin. It is a sans-serif geometric typeface, inspired by classics of the style such as Futura (1927) and Erbar (1922). In 1988, the original version of Avenir only had three weights. After it became more popular, three more weights were introduced, making it the six weight typeface we love today. It was brought to modern times in 2004 when Frutiger, along with type designer Akira Kobayashi, reworked the entire font to fix digital display problems; they called it Avenir Next. The type family of Avenir Next has 24 fonts. It is comprised of the six different weights that has a roman and italic version each, with two different widths of normal and condensed. Avenir has been used in headlines and for body text due to its high legibility. Specifically, the letter “a” is distinct when used in comparing unfamiliar names of people. The prototype of the typeface was drawn in a “light weight, later the typeface was produced in six fine gradations including light, book and regular, medium, heavy and black” (fontshop.com). With the type designer’s observation that geometric typefaces were becoming popular again, Frutiger wanted to design a new geometric type that was not merely meant for display purposes (like many of its contemporaries), but also for large bodies of text – Fruitiger said it had to be “an independent alphabet, one that belonged in the present.”

Who?

Adrian Frutiger was born in Unterseen, Canton of Bern, the son of a weaver. As a boy, he experimented with invented scripts and stylized handwriting in negative reaction to the formal, cursive penmanship then required by Swiss schools. His early interest in sculpture was discouraged by his father and by his secondary school teachers; they encouraged him to work in printing. Though in the world of print, he maintains the love of sculpture that has influenced his type forms. At the age of sixteen, he was apprenticed for four years, as a compositor, to the printer Otto Schaerffli in Interlaken; between 1949 and 1951 he studied under Walter Käch and Alfred Willimann in the Kunstgewerbeschule (school of applied arts) in Zürich, where students studied monumental inscriptions from Roman forum rubbings. At the Kunstgewerbeschule, Frutiger primarily concentrated on calligraphy — a craft favoring the nib and the brush, instead of drafting tools (The Complete Works).

9


The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog.

Let’s Look

CAP HEIGHT

Distinct characteristics of Avenir create the feel of straight forward, friendly, reliable, imaginative, and authentic. 10 | Typefaces Throughout History 10 | The Typeface of the Future

MIDLINE

ay? ay? BASELINE

Compared to Futura, the x-height and the aperture are bigger. Where V shapes (A, M, N, V, W, etc.) are pointed in Futura, they are squared off in Avenir. The j and y have curved rather than straight tails; the Q has a horizontal tail. Unlike Futura’s ball and stick a, the Avenir a is more conventional and more legible. A notable distinction of this typeface is that the “a” is double-story and the “g” is single story.

T does not extend fully to the ascender line e horizontally terminated o not a perfect circle p not a perfect circle

Q

In the lowercase “a” the curve is terminated diagonally. Also, the typeface has flat top vertices, and a pointed bottom vertex on the “M” that also lies on the baseline. Avenir has vertical strokes that are thicker than the horizontals, and the “o” is not a perfect circle. The stroke weight is slightly reduced on the top and bottom of the lowercase “o”.Avenir has shortened ascenders and a medium aperture of letters. Avenir is pretty legible because of its medium x-height. It is also important to note the tittle on the “i” is circular, compared to other typefaces that have a square tittle, like Gotham. The lowercase “t” has a non-calligraphic finial. In the uppercase “R” the diagonal leg is offset from the stem of the letter form. It is also important to note that in certain numbers, like “4” and “6” the diagonals are horizontally terminated.

a curve terminated diagonally, doublestory

Q tail that extends horizontally.

4

? hooked shaped

y curved to the left

4 horizontally terminated

Avenir in comparison with Futura


I think that Avenir works great when blown up large and used as display text. It has even been used as body text of Western magazines and newspapers (Pao 33). For example, Amsterdam adapted the use of Avenir and it was used in the design of the city of Amsterdam’s visual identity (Pao 19).

Avenir is used in countless logotypes for products like Method and Ditop.

Avenir used in the visual identity of the city of Amsterdam’s rebrand.

Frutiger intended Avenir to be a more organic interpretation of the geometric style,

Avenir in Use

hardest typeface I have worked on in my life. Working on it, I always had human nature in mind. And what’s crucial is that I developed the typeface alone, in peace and quiet – no drafting assistants, no-one was there. My personality is stamped upon it. I’m proud that more even in color and suitable for extendI was able to create Avenir.” (Lu). Visually, ed text, with details recalling more traditional compared to Futura, the x-height and the typefaces such as the two-story ‘a’ and ‘t’ aperture are bigger. The name Avenir (future) with a curl at the bottom, and letters such as gives us a clue as to Frutiger’s intentions, to the ‘o’ that are not exact, perfect circles but convey the idea of timelessness in the image optically corrected. Frutiger considers Avenir of his typeface. Suggestions for possible his finest work. ‘The quality of the draftsprojects that could use this typeface could manship – rather than the intellectual idea be anything that wants to convey a profesbehind it – is my masterpiece. (...) It was the sional, yet futuristic feel. 12 | Typefaces Throughout History

13


Avenir used in the Lokremise Signage, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art logo, Anzac Square signage in Brisbane, Australia, and the Spotify logo.

Avenir used in the Toyota logo, Cornell University logo, BBC 2W logo, and in the rebrand of Amsterdam’s visual identity.

14 | Typefaces Throughout History

15


BEMBO


HISTORY T

he first version of the typeface Bembo, arose to popular use after its creation and dissemination beginning in the year 1496. A famous publisher of the time, named Aldus Manutius was reprinting a published essay by a renowned Italian scholar and thinker Pietro Bembo (Friedlander). Manutius decided he needed a new typeface that would be used for the publishing of De Aetna, by Bembo. Manutius tasked Francesco Griffo, a typographic mold maker, to design a new font. Griffo took inspiration from ancient Greek and Roman calligraphy and lettering to create a “modernized typeface that would print well in a manuscript. This original version of the typeface was used throughout prints of the Renaissance, and became so iconic that even typefaces like Garamond and Times New Roman can be traced in certain elements back to Bembo.

Portrait of Pietro Bembo painted by Lucas Cranach the Younger.

The second version was created in 1929 by Stanley Morrison with the Monotype Corporation (Christensen). The goal was to adapt the typeface to the modern machinery of the time and make it usable. Morrison also consulted with The New York Times newspaper, and designed Times New Roman from Bembo Inspiration (Christensen). The font family of Bembo has been one of the most foundational typefaces in its class.

“Griffo has never received adequate recognition for his enormous contribution to type design” 18 | Typefaces Throughout History

Portrait of the type designer Stanley Morrison.

A

uthor Joseph Blumenthal stated, “Griffo has never received adequate recognition for his enormous contribution to type design” (Blumenthal). Often credit is given to those other than Griffo, such as Aldus Manutius. Aldus Manutius was an Italian innovator and entrepreneur, who invented all sorts of things, such as soft covers for several of his published pieces (Christensen).

Griffo, however was only the “punchcutter”, (Christensen) meaning that he really had most of the power over the actual lines and edges of the font family. Stanley Morrison recreated and revamped Bembo in 1929 to be used with modern publication. Morrison also consulted with The New York Times newspaper, and used Bembo as inspiration to design the iconic font family Times New Roman (Christensen). Morrison was an English type designer, living in London England, and worked as a consultant for several corporations, including Monotype. The Monotype Corporation is a company that specializes in digital typesetting and imaging.

19


VISUAL ANALYSIS

B

embo is a well known and classic typeface. The traditional metal cast version is usually held to be more true to the original face, while the digital version is sometimes criticized as being too light, or not leaving enough of an imprint. Bembo has a fairly low thick-to-thin contract, which helps make the face more legible on a screen. The lowercase letters also have decently spacious ascenders and descenders, again, increasing readability. The terminals on each serif seem to be more in the traditional style, even though it is derived from Roman and Greek characters. A few letters

Bembo is most often used in lowercase form, as in books or long bodies of text, so it is extremely important that the letter forms be distinguishable. This is also accomplished through more openletter forms in the “a” and “e”, as well as some sweeping accents such as in the lowercase “f”. Bembo has of course evolved from its original form, but still stays true to its heritage of Roman and Greek hand lettering. The terminals and brackets on the serif have just the right amount of character, giving yet another reason as to why Bembo has become one of the most used serif typefaces.

such as the “Q” have full tails, which can be very elegant. On a first glance, Bembo can seem spacious, but when using a lot of body text with the regular face, and especially any lowercase chunks of text, there must be at least a small amount of kerning. One definitely needs to consider what weight the point size of titles or large text are, because they some of the cross bars and thinner strokes could easily disappear with lighter weights. The x-height and other proportions are one some of the most important aspects that make the typeface as legible as it is.

3.

1. fairly low contrast 2. sharp bracket 3. angled terminals on stems 4. rounded bowl 5. very accented hook 6. thick stem 7. pointed finial 8. teardrop terminal 9. thin terminal 10. pointed apex 11. contrast in shoulder

The quick brown fox 5.

1.

E e r

4.

2.

6.

7.

20 | Typefaces Throughout History

8.

t A m 10.

11.

9.

21


GALLERY

B

embo, as a font family, is very versatile, very readable, and very classic. It can be used in a plethora of different instances, but none are more common than in book, or layout design, particularly more aged publishings. I think there is a lot of room to experiment with Bembo, as it obviously is a strong enough design that it has stood the test of time. The original designers

created it for something very specific, but breaking those rules to make the text a graphic element, or using a more current and experimental design can prove to be very successful. There are many obvious instances of the font being used correctly, but for the purposes of creativity, there is definitely some space to bend the rules and experiment.

Printed wine label from www.fontsinuse.com

Book cover and layout from www.fontsinuse.com

Print of typeset artwork from www.fontsinuse.com

22 | Typefaces Throughout History

23


BODONI


The History of

Bodoni

Bodoni is a serif typeface that is elegant and timeless. The designer of this typeface was Giambattisa Bodoni and he released it in 1798 (“Bodoni: The History” ,n.d.). Bodoni was known for being the “King of Printers” and Bodoni the typeface is known as a “transitional” font type (“Bodoni: The History”,n.d.). The design was influenced by John Baskerville and his typeface works, as Bodoni followed Baskerville’s ideas and Didot’s work as well (“Bodoni Illuminating,” n.d.). There were many styles of font that used Bodoni’s original Didone modern font, from the 1700s to ATF’s American Revival in the 1900’s into modern times (“Bodoni: The History” ,n.d.). Bodoni’s original design has bold contrasting strokes and the upper case is condensed (“Bodoni Illuminating,” n.d.). Bodoni is known for being a great logo type and is used by many fashion labels. Bodoni was created by Giambattisa Bodoni in 1798 (“Bodoni”, n.d.). Bodoni typefaces and typography can be hard to read and need to be set in large enough text for it to remain legible. To this day, Bodoni is regarded as the most structured and polished typeface printing has ever produced (“Bodoni Illuminating”, n.d.). Bodoni used his font for pamphlets, books, and royal announcements as a means of showing them as art rather than tools of communication (“Bodoni Illuminating”, n.d.). Bodoni had its first ever revival fonts created in 1910 by the American Type Founders company (“Bodoni Illuminating”, n.d.). The company director of typographic development at ATF, Morris Fuller Benton,

26 | Typefaces Throughout History

Giambattisa Bodoni

was the first to redesign the original Bodoni into a more modern version. The versions later followed a book, italic, bold and italic, and bold shaded version. The total modern variations came out to be fifteen (“Bodoni Illuminating”, n.d.). Although Bodoni can stand on its own, Bodoni was heavily influenced by John Baskerville and François Didot (“Bodoni Illuminating”, n.d.). The versions were italic and bold coming out in the years 1911 - 1930’s (“Bodoni”, n.d.). The versions tended to be copies or interpretations of Benton’s work. However, the “Bodoni Old Face” design created by G.G. Lange for Berthold in 1983 was the best representation of Bodoni’s original typefaces. In the 1980’s, Tom Carnase and Massimo Vignelli collaborated on WTC Our Bodoni for World Typeface Coporation creating a version of Bodoni with a curical difference. The typeface was designed with the sole purpose to complement the typeface Helvetica. This was a solution to Vignelli’s problem of not being able put together Helvetica and Bodoni because this version of Bodoni was made to pair well with Helvetica (“Bodoni”, n.d.).

The man responsible for the modern skeleton we use of Bodoni today is Morris Benton. Benton’s work was produced for ATF in 1910. When researching Bodoni he searched for the best qualities from various examples of books printed by Bodoni. Benton’s version of Bodoni is an interpretation of the Parma printer’s work. As a result, Benton’s Bodoni combined tradition and modern design making it a foundation for every new revision of Bodoni. The typeface, Roti Roti 1920-30’s created by Monotype, Brethold, Stempel, and Haas designs were interpretations or copies of Benton’s Bodoni (“Bodoni Illuminating”, n.d.).

Giambattisa Bodoni was a type designer, engraver, printer publisher, and most importantly a typographer. He was born in 1740 in Saluzzo, Piedmont, Italy and died at the age of seventy three. He started out working as a typesetter in the Duke of Parma’s prestigious printingoffice, the Vatican’s Propaganda Fide. Then in 1768 Bodoni began working in the Stamperia Reale. After working at Stamperia Real, Bodoni decided to pursue his own type foundry. Bodoni contributed to the book, Fregi e Majuscole. Notably, Bodoni published his book, Manuale Tipografico, encompassing fifty italics, hundred roman, and twenty eight Greek minuscule fonts. Bodoni then opened up his own printing facility, the Tipi Bodoni. After Bodoni passed, his wife published his remaining two volumes of Manuale Tipografico. The Manuale Tipografico contains Russian, Greek, Asian, and gothic fonts and lines, numbers, borders, symbols, and musical notation (“Giambattista Bodoni”, n.d.).

27


Visual Analysis of

Bodoni

AB CDEFG HI J KL M NOP Q RSTU VWXYZ abcdefghijklmno p qrst uv w x y z

a g 28 | Typefaces Throughout History

Q

Bodoni is a very elegant looking serif typeface. It has geometric and mathematical characters and its brackets are slightly ornamental and calligraphic like. Bodoni is difficult to read if not used properly, it does best in a large format. Bodoni has hairline serifs and its stroke weight is one extreme to another, with contrasting drastically. Bodoni’s characteristics are vertical stress, slight serif bracketing, top and bottom serifs on the C, vertical tail of the Q, the small upper bowl of the g, the uppercase J has a hook, large ball terminal of the c and more (“Bauer Bodoni”,n.d.). Bodoni has some unique characteristics like a double story “a” or its serif bracketing on the top of the “i”. Bodoni has a small x-height. The most obvious characteristic of Bodoni is that it is a romantic and recognizable typeface. Headlines and logos in Bodoni are always sophisticated. In addition, Bodoni is popular in magazine printing. Not only should Bodoni be set in large text to avoid the hairline serifs from disappearing but text character spacing should be even and open. Bodoni is typically used for headlines instead of body text and frequently used in fashion labels. Bodoni made it a point to reject the 18th century type and opt for a simple and modern type (“Bodoni: The History”,n.d.). When formatting Bodoni it should have extra line of spacing between its characters due to its hairline serifs to help balance the emphasis of Bodoni (“Bodoni: The History”,n.d.). Overall, Bodoni is the perfect typeface for a classical statement while still maintaining its simple elegance in a sea of sans serif fonts.

To conclude... Bodoni is a great typeface that is utilized to its full advantage in marketing for fashion labels and beauty. It is a romantic serif with bold contrasting weights that make it stand out while not being to bold. It has quite a few variations. The most notable brands that use Bodoni are Guerlain, Elizabeth Arden, Calvin Kliens, and Giorgio Armani (“Bodoni”, n.d.). Magazines that use Bodoni are Vogue, Harper’s Bazzar, Elle, and Metropolis (“Bodoni”, n.d.). Bodoni has been featured on some movie posters such as Mamma Mia and Black Dahlia. Lastly, I think a cool project that would use this typeface is a branding and marketing project on a product with the use of Bodoni.

The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog

29


Giorgio Armani ad

Harper’s Bazaar magazine

ABC’s book cover

Harper’s Bazaar Magazine

Designed by Amy Bloom

Mama Mia 2018 Poster

Bodoni Magazine Spread

Bodoni Bookcover by Soe Lin Post

Elizabeth Arden makeup

Designed by Paul Rand Lady Gaga album cover

30 | Typefaces Throughout History

31


CHAPARRAL


HISTORY Roman letter forms

have origins that date back to 15th century inscriptions of Roman letters etched into stone. The roman book typefaces used today are also based on calligraphic forms and handwriting (Tschichold, 24). These forms replaced those of calligraphy in a time when Gutenberg’s printer revolutionized the process of reproducing literary works. Roman book letters can be characterized by a variation in line weight through-out the stroke and braketed serifs. Emerging in the 19th century just shortly after the Industrial Revolution, slab serif typefaces filled the void between book lettering and

decorative, display type. There was a new demand for type that would be compatible with mass production. Slab serifs are typically chunky and geometric. These typefaces can be characterized by thick serifs whose weight almost matches that of the main strokes of the letter forms. The first slab serif printing typeface, Antique, was created in 1815 by the British type founder Vincent Figgins. In the late 20th century, this type style gained screen popularity because it combines aspects of both sans and serif letter forms (Typography. com). This allows them to function well in light and heavy weights, which is crucial for screen legibility.

In 1997, Carol Twombly created a hybrid of these two styles. She combined the thickness of slab serifs with the timelessness and rhythm of roman book lettering. Chaparral was created for Adobe and was released in 2000 from the inspiration of both slab serif letter forms and roman book lettering.

Chaparral is an accessible typeface that retains the integrity of a hefty slab serif, yet contemporarily refined. 35


THE DESIGNER Carol Twombly grew up

Upon receiv a Master’s Degree from Stanford, in New England loving the Twombly joined the Bigelow outdoors and followed her & Holmes studio and gained brother to the Rhode Island four years of design expeSchool of Design (RISD) to study architecture. She soon rience. In 1994 she was the realized a more practical field first woman to receive the in graphic design and shifted prestigious Charles Peignot her energy in studies toward award from the Association Typographique Internationale that. Two of her professors “for outstanding contribuat RISD introduced her to tions to type design” (Adobe. the industry of typography design. Soon after, she began com).Preceding this endeavexperimenting with type and our, she joined Adobe and began designing typefaces in was chosen to be a part of a 1988. Some notable typefacnewly developed digital typography program at Stanford es created by Twombly are Trajan, Myriad, and Adobe University. She graduated Caslon. Chaparral was the from RISD and spent the next two years obtaining her last typeface she created in Master’s in Sciences through 1997 before retiring in 1999. studies in type design and computer technology under Charles Bigelow.

36 | Typefaces Throughout History


In designing this type

for Adobe, Carol Twombly set out to combine the durability of a typical slab serif with the smooth-bodied proportions of 16th century roman book lettering (Lupton, 21). In general, the letter forms in this typeface are characterized as by low contrast in stroke weight. This makes the letter forms feel complete or whole. However, the tall x-height and varied weight in letter proportions give the typeface a softer appearance.

Carol Carol Carol Carol

1 The serifs are almost

4 The ear of the lowercase g

2 There is a gentle vertical

5 The terminal endings of

equal in weight to the main strokes.

stress.

3 Unilateral, unbracketed serifs can be found on top of the stems.

is virtually parallel to the baseline.

the lowercase f and r as well as the descenders on the j and y are abrupt.

3

4

abcdefghijklm ABCDEFGHIJKLM NOPQRSTUVWXYZ nopqrstuvwxyz 1

2

5

39


GALLERY 1

4

1 2

2

3 4

3

4

5

3 6 5

6

6

Designer uknown for Foursandsons.com. This web magazine applies Chaparral to their body text as the primary type treatment. Designer unknown for Kernelmag.com. In this instance, Chaparral is being used as detail text in italic. Designer unknown. This treatment is used on a traffic sign meant to be easily legible and visible to the public. Designed by Fray.com. This is Fray’s third issue of their web magazine, available online and for print. Chaparral is the primary type face. Designer unknown for admirhadzic.com. Here, the typeface is applied again to the body text. Designed by Reece Peltier. Student work for Rhode Island College. Spread composition for a typeface study of Chaparral.

41


COOPER BLACK


some history stuff Popular since it was designed in 1921, Cooper Black has inspired many imitations and variations. Although many type designers and manufacturers have tried to market similar designs due to its success, no one could match it. Cooper Black is a very heavy version of Cooper Oldstyle (also known simply as Cooper), an innovative typeface with rounded serifs and long ascenders designed in 1919 when Oswald Cooper was in school. The Cooper family was the work of Oswald Bruce Cooper, co owner of the Bertsch & Cooper design firm in Chicago. Cooper Black was first released by the Barnhart Brothers & Spindler foundry of Chicago in 1922. Cooper liked to say that the Black weight fit the needs of “far sighted printers with near-sighted customers.”After its popularity in the early twenties it was used for mostly

advertising and packaging until Oswald’s death. Many other type designers tried to release typefaces very similar to Cooper Black after his death but the patent got overturned because they were too similar. The main reason the typeface made a comeback after Oswald’s death in the forties was because in 1966, the Beach Boys used it as the main font on their album, Pet Sounds, launching it back into the cultural spotlight. It was used for mostly advertising and packaging until its continued revival of popularity extending into the 70s. The bold but warm typeface felt right for the freedom and love of the era and it made a resurgence from everything from records and music artwork to fast food advertising. Now, the typeface is still used in music and fashion and a tribute book was released in its honor in 2012. (Typedia)(HowDesign).

(Oswald Cooper, Designer of Cooper Black)

old guy, cool type Oswald Bruce Cooper, born in 1879 in Mount Gilead, was an American typographer, calligrapher, teacher, and graphic designer. He studied at Chicago’s Frank Holme School of Illustration, first as a correspondence student, then in person, with an interest in illustration. He struggled with illustration and decided to pursue design, and after taking a lettering class from Frederic Goudy, pursued a career in typography design. His typefaces were so innovative that he surpassed the skill of his professors and they made typefaces based off

his. With Fred Bertsch he formed the design firm of Bertch & Cooper after 1904, providing ad campaigns for such accounts as the Packard Motor Car Company and Anheuser-Busch Breweries, with Cooper providing distinctive hand lettering. He also did the copy writing as well. In 1914 the firm became a full-service type shop. Cooper’s anonymous handlettering for Packard ads formed the basis of the Packard font prepared at the direction of Morris Fuller Benton of American Type Founders (Typedia).


let’s talk anatomy It’s hard not to love Cooper Black; it gently asks for attention and welcomes you with a hug. Because of its popularity in the 1960s it definitely has earned the reputation of a classic and nostalgic typeface. The hard part about analyzing Cooper Black is really defining what the typeface means aesthetically. because it almost has an assumed aesthetic from all the different uses it has had over history.

a

Baseline

It’s unique but also entirely robust and commercial. It has a rather low thick to thin contrast, which makes it feel more casual and less formal than other ultra bold designs. It also has no definitive baseline and is rounded past where other typefaces normally have a definitive end. This is what makes it so adaptable for signage and merchandise because it doesn’t need a definitive baseline.

pinched counters

c

C

f

Some of the counters are pinched especially on the “c” and “f” which makes it very unique. The upper case characters and the lower case characters are almost on the same cap height which is what makes it versatile when designing. Cooper Black feels like it’s slouching. This is the result of its wider stance and the inflated serifs and it helps add to its casual quality. It makes the typeface more approachable and much easier to

f

buy an album or sell a chewy candy. It is a workhorse of a font, but still has its weaknesses. Due to the heaviness of the characters, you have to pay attention to the kerning; since these characters have a much heavier visual weight to them, they may get mushed. Overall, Cooper Black is a round and warm typeface that has been shown to work over time (Font Review Journal).

ABCDEFGHIJKLM NOPQRSTUVXYZ abcdefghijklmn opqrstuvwxvz 1234567890 The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog. Cooper Black on a shirt seen in Napolean Dynamite, 2004


oh boy! pictures! Pet Sounds by the Beach Boys is released in 1966

L.A. Woman by the Doors is released in 1971

Garfield is released as a comic in 1978

1921

1966

1970

1971

1971

1978

2010

A Tootsie Roll rebrand that uses Cooper Black debuts in 1971

Cooper Black is designed and released by Oswald Cooper in 1921

48 | Typefaces Throughout History

Brothers by the Black Keys is released in 2010 Burger King launches an advertising campaign featuring the typeface in 1970

49


FILOSOFIA


filosofia, a history

zuzana, a designer

Filosofia was designed both as a typeface and a font by Zuzana. After receiving an early Macintosh computer through her father’s connections, she began experimenting with type design and eventually produced two of her most famous fonts: Mrs. Eaves and Filosofia (Typewolf).

Zuzana Licko is one of two revolutionary designers that cofounded Émigré Magazine. She challenged the contemporary notions of design and won the approval of her colleagues by relentlessly trying things that had never been done before. However, before she achieved this status, she was a undergraduate student at the University of California studying architecture (Dooley).

Zuzana was a believer of Bodoni, a high contrast serif typeface that was designed in the 18th century. However, she knew that the typeface was difficult to read at smaller sizes and thus set out to design a just as elegant typeface that could be legible at body text size. She kept elements like the bulging round serif which was a homage to the letterpress technology that Giambattista Bodoni used back in the day. The result was a delicate and refined modern serif typeface that had a variety of applications (Typewolf).

52 | Typefaces Throughout History

She created two packages for the family: Filosofia Regular and Filosofia Grand. The Regular version was meant for only body text while the Grand version was slightly more refined so that it could be used at display sizes. The Grand package also included a Unicase version which doesn’t change the height of the letter forms depending on the case (Typewolf). Filosofia today remains an integral font in the Emigre Font Foundry. It is offered in multiple packages and options and remains an excellent typeface selection for today’s digital applications. With so many weights and versions in the family, the possibilities are endless (Filosofia).

Zuzana was born in Bratislava, Czechoslovakia. At age seven, she moved to California and eventually got accepted into the University of California in 1981 (Walker). She had initially studied architecture, but switched majors to Graphic Communications. Using a Macintosh computer that was handed down to

her from her father, she began working in earnest in type design (Walker). After co-founding Émigré with her partner Rudy VanderLans, she began designing fonts to be used in the magazine (Walker). She pushed these fonts in the issues of Émigré, but also began editing Adobe System fonts. In 1988, Émigré became a legitimate magazine and by 1989, Zuzana’s fonts had made enough of an impact that both Zuzana and Rudy were able to take their magazine to the next level. Their issues began to include works from the likes of Ed Fella, Rick Valicenti, and David Carson (Walker). Although the fonts and the magazine were not taken seriously by designers like Massimo Vignelli, by the 1990’s, their radical designs had become relatively assimilated in the field. However with time, Zuzana’s fonts gained the respect of some of the most prominent designers in the world. She had ascended in the ranks of a primarily male dominated field and she had done so by skipping the traditional training of a type designer. She had shown that all one needs to design a font is a computer and an inspirational idea (Walker).

53


The typeface has a balanced nature because the x-height sits right in the middle between the ascender line and descender line.

visual analysis

Black x6, phantom, white x6 looks like a panda

ascender line x-height baseline descender line

The distinct ball terminal designed as a homage to Bodoni.

Filosofia has a less harsh bracketed serif in comparison to Bodoni.

Filosofia

Bodoni has a more pointed terminal.

The distinct ball terminal designed as a homage to Bodoni.

Bodoni

54 | Typefaces Throughout History

In terms of a visual analysis of Filosofia, we’ll be taking a look at the Regular weight in the Filosofia Grand OT family. In terms of the raw structure, it is a serif font with a moderate contrast. The typeface has a vertical stress, bracketed and hairline serifs, and ball terminals. In fact the ball terminals of this typeface is one of it’s distinguishing features as it is a homage to the letterpress technology from the original Bodoni typeface. The fonts top and bottom edges extend past the cap-line and baseline making the font optically aligned. If you compare Filosofia with other similar typefaces, you will notice a few differences. Upon comparing it to the typeface that it was designed after,

you will notice a few similarities and differences. Right off the bat Filosofia has much less contrast in the stroke width and a smaller x-height. However, they both have similar terminals and bracket serifs. If you compare Filosofia to Mrs. Eaves, which is another typeface that Zuzana designed, you start to see less similarities and more differences. Mrs. Eaves has a much lower x-height and doesn’t have similar terminals. It is also not optically aligned so the typefaces sit on the baseline differently. Finally, compared to a typeface like Times New Roman, Filosofia has a shorter x-height and slightly more rigid edges. They are however, rather similar in stroke width and contrast.

55


gallery 56 | Typefaces Throughout History

57


GARAMOND


MADE FOR THE PAGE

16TH CENTURY ROOTS

Adobe Garamond is a French Old Style serif typeface designed by Robert Slimbach. Released in 1989, it is a revival of 16th century Garamond typefaces, specifically the roman types of Claude Garamond and the italic types of Robert Granjon. Adobe Garamond is praised for its elegance, balance, and high legibility (Slimbach 7). It was the first typeface that began to prove the merits of digital type to skeptical designers, proving that digital type could reach the quality of foundry type, and is now one of the most popular typefaces for the body text of books (Shaw 51).

Claude Garamond was the original 16th century designer of the roman Garamond family, and Robert Granjon was a type designer who produced beautiful italic forms. Slimbach based his roman forms for Adobe Garamond heavily on the Parangonne size of Garamond, from the 1952 specimen sheet from the Egenolff foundry. This size its is equal to about 18 points (Slimbach 8). Many different renditions of Garamond had already been made, but they were made from poor replicas from the 17th century, and Slimbach wanted his to be the most authentic (Kelly 56). Another thing Slimbach had to take into consideration was not making the typeface too thin; sixteenth century faces were often thinner so that ink would not be wasted, but Slimbach knew that in order to be durable and to translate into smaller sizes, his Adobe Garamond needed to be thickened (Kelly 58).

elegance balance legibility

He combined this roman Parangonne face with Granjon italics (many of the previous Garamonds were based on Granjon), which is now an accepted combination (Kelly 60-63). The Granjon italics have a sloped and dynamic form, which Slimbach saw as more practical than the original Garamond italics (Slimbach 7). Slimbach has been working on refining this typeface for 15 years. The Garamond type family was expanded in 2004 to include four optical sizes (caption, text, subhead, and display) with Adobe Garamond Premier Pro, an OpenType font. Adobe Garamond Premier Pro is now more popular than Adobe Garamond, but it differs from the original revival of Adobe Garamond in that each of its optical sizes are based on a different typeface by Garamont, making them less consistent (Shaw 51). Therefore, even though Adobe Garamond is not the most updated version of the typeface, it is considered by many to be better design.

61


THE BRAIN BEHIND THE TYPE Robert Slimbach was born in Evanston, Illinois. He became interested in type while working at a small screen print shop after college. This led Slimbach to pursue design, and he gained his first design experience by working in the type drawing department of Autologic in Newbury Park, California. He grew his knowledge of type design and calligraphy at Autologic for only two years before deciding to become self-employed. He designed ITC Slimbach and ITC Giovanni before joining Adobe Systems in 1987. (UpClosed) Slimbach now |designs typefaces for the Adobe Originals series, which are designed for use in both print and screen, and for use with today’s electronic design tools (Slimbach 5). He has had a successful career; he was awarded the prestigious Prix Charles Peignot from Association Typographique Internationale in 1991 (Macmillan 165), the SoTA Typography Award, and multiple TDC2 awards from the Type Directors Club (UpClosed).

“Type is what meaning looks like.” MAX PHILLIPS

62 | Typefaces Throughout History

63


STRESS RELIEF Adobe Garamond displays low to medium contrast and diagonal stress. It has a relatively high x-height as well as a large difference between cap height and ascender height, which make this typeface highly legible. Serifs slope downwards and are bracketed, with rounded ball terminals (Chokly). This face’s aperture size is fairly small, and closed off, which is especially visible in the small bowl of the a and the small eye of the e. Adobe Garamond’s strokes visually reference calligraphy strokes, especially in the uppercase Q, which is almost swash-like. This calligraphic influence also appears in the lowercase a.

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ

abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz

abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz 1234567890

Creativity takes courage.

h y 64 | Typefaces Throughout History

bracketed serifs slope downwards

rounded ball terminals

calligraphic influence

calligraphic influence

Q a

65


GALLERY 66 | Typefaces Throughout History

67


GOTHAM


T Y P E . S E T. M ATC H • 9 G OT H A M • 8

EMPIRE STATE OF MIND Port Authority Bus Terminal in New York City

C

“It’s not the kind of letter a type designer would make.” 70 | Typefaces Throughout History

ommissioned by GQ in 2000, Gotham was created by Tobias Frere-Jones to be a signature typeface for the magazine. Gotham was created by Frere-Jones while he was a part of the Hoefler & FrereJones Type Foundry (now Hoefler & Co.). Although its original use was intended for one specific publication, Gotham has proved to be a prominent typeface during its relatively short existence; its approachable yet precise letterforms are very adaptable. GQ’s request for a “humanist and geometric” typeface compelled Frere-Jones to look to the city he knew and grew up in for inspiration: New York. FrereJones would go on walks through New York City to snap photos of “anything extant and noteworthy” that he could base Gotham on. His

“personal agenda” with Gotham was to preserve the city of New York. Gotham is largely inspired by signage—the old, worn out, tangible, real signage of New York City (Siegl). Specifically, Frere-Jones was inspired by the lettering on the Port Authority Bus Terminal. “It’s not the kind of letter a type designer would make,” Frere-Jones said of this type, “it’s the kind of letter an engineer would make.” (Hustwit). The inspiration from the streets of New York City leads to something that is a distinctly American font. “It’s not German, it’s not French, it’s not Swiss. It’s very American.” Gotham has been used in many prominent places, including Obama’s 2008 presidential campaign (Romano).

71


find cool image of new york city. actuall illustrate new york city 8ujhn b

T

72 | Typefaces Throughout History

TOBIAS FREREJONES

obias Frere-Jones was born in New York in 1970. He graduated from the Rhode Island School of Design in 1992 and upon receiving his degree, began to work for Font Bureau. In 1996, while still working at Font Bureau, he began teaching a class in typeface design at Yale University. Eventually, in 1999, he left Font Bureau to work with Jonathan Hoefler in New York with their joint company, Hoefler & Frere-Jones (Riechers). The two publicly split, however, over a disagreement between who legally owned the company (Cohen). In 2013, Tobias earned the AIGA Medal for exceptional achievements in the field of design (Riechers). Frere-Jones designed the popular typeface, Interface. This is the typeface that is used by the United States Federal Highway Administration for interstate freeway signs. These typefaces, Interstate and Gotham, are just a few among many typefaces FrereJones has designed. With his typeface design, he has left a legacy and impacted typography and graphic design greatly.

73


The typeface we deserve 2

mean line

baseline

4

1

tall x-height

X-height is vertical distance between the baseline and the mean line 2

vertical stress

Stress is the orientation of the counters of letterforms. Stress can be angled or vertical

short ascenders and descenders 3

An ascender is a part of a letterform that extends above the mean line. A descender is a part of a letterform that extends below the baseline 4

large set width

Set width is the width of a character

74 | Typefaces Throughout History

Gotham is a sans-serif typeface that Hoefler & Co. calls “straightforward, highly legible, no-nonsense” with a “great personality” (“Gotham” Hoefler & Co.). Gotham’s tall x-height and large set width create a typeface that feels rotund, prominent, and bulky. There is very little thick-to-thin stroke contrast, but moments where the stroke weight does get thinner, around the bowl of the ‘a’ and for example, contribute to the handmade quality and personality of Gotham. The vertical stress of the letterforms and completely square terminals maintain Gotham’s geometric quality. The single-story ‘g’ and the double story ‘a’ are unique characteristics of the typeface. The crossbars on the lowercase ’t’ and ‘f’ are uneven, with a shorter crossbar on the left side of the stem, and more space on the right side of the crossbar.

square terminals

3 1 3

thinner stroke weight


2

Gotham was used in Obama’s 2008 presidential campaign. Obama’s campaign, in terms of design, was hailed as one of the most successful presidential campaigns. This is due to the fact that a singular typeface was used for almost all of his promotional materials.

1

1

3 The written history of New York City began with the first European explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano in 1524. European settlement began with the Dutch in 1609. The “Sons of Liberty” destroyed British authority in New York City, and the Stamp Act Congress of representatives from throughout the Thirteen Colonies met in the city in 1765 to organize resistance to British policies. The city’s strategic location and status as a major seaport made it the prime target for British seizure in 1776. General George Washington lost a series of battles from which he narrowly escaped (with the notable exception of the Battle of Harlem Heights, his first victory of the war), and the British Army controlled New York City and made it their base on the continent until late 1783, attracting Loyalist refugees. The city served as the national capital under the Articles of Confederation from 1785-1789, and briefly served as the new nation’s capital in 1789–90 under the United States Constitution that replaced it. Under the new government the city hosted the inauguration of George Wash-

ington as the first President of the United States, the drafting of the United States Bill of Rights, and the first Supreme Court of the United States. The opening of the Erie Canal gave excellent steamboat connections with upstate New York and the Great Lakes, along with coastal traffic to lower New England, making the city the preeminent port on the Atlantic Ocean. The arrival of rail connections to the north and west in the 1840s and 1850s strengthened its central role. Beginning in the mid-18th century, waves of new immigrants arrived from Europe dramatically changing the composition of the city and serving as workers in the expanding industries. Modern New York City traces its development to the consolidation of the five boroughs in 1898 and an economic and building boom following the Great Depression and World War II. Throughout its history, New York City has served as a main port of entry for many immigrants, and its cultural and economic influence has made it one of the most important urban areas in the United States and the world.

2

Gotham is used in Saturday Night Live’s logo as a large, blocky, display typeface. Even at this size and weight, however, Gotham remains friendly and approachable.

3

Although Gotham functions well at large sizes, it can also be used at small sizes and remain completely legible.

Gotham is a work horse typeface—one that is not only legible and clear, but also is capable of expressing a range of personalities. With so many weights and widths, Gotham can be used to create anything from blocky, bold, brash signage to delicate, elegant body text in a book. Though relatively newly created, Gotham has already taken the graphic design world by storm and proved itself as a typeface that will stand the test of time. Tobias Frere-Jones, a talented and prolific type designer, seemed to accomplish his goal to preserve the city he grew up with and perfectly capture the essence of New York City. 76 | Typefaces Throughout History

77


AVANT GARDE


The History of ITC Avant Garde “A prominent typeface of the 1970s that reflected the advertising world of its time,”

I

TC Avant Garde was a prominent typeface in the 1970s that reflected the advertising world of its time. As a geometric sans serif type, it was strongly influenced by the work from the 1920s German Bauhaus movement. It was created by Herb Lubalin and Tom Carnase in 1968 (PrePressure). Originally, Lubalin began the publication of his original magazine titled Eros through his private studio (History of Graphic Design). Eros was dedicated to the beauty of the rising sense of sexuality, experimentation, and was eventually discontinued. Afterward, Lubalin began the publication of the magazine Fact, which was soon censored and discontinued (PrePressure). Again, this led Lubalin to publish his third controversial magazine titled Avant Garde. The magazine was published from January, 1968, through July, 1971. It was filled with critique for American society and government, sexual themes, and was contraversial (Berry).

80 | Typefaces Throughout History

The original logo designed for Avant Garde would be the foundation for the ITC Avant Garde version. Avant Garde gained enough traction to gain a demand for the full set of type. As a result, Lubalin had ITC Avant Garde released as the first publication from his newly founded company, the International Typefact Corporation (History of Graphic Design). Historically, ITC Avant Garde has been used as a display font for headlines and other advertisement techniques. The font family has a variety of weights, ranging from extra light condensed to bold oblique. ITC Avant Garde was condesned by Ed Benguiat in 1974 and the oblique version was designed by Andre Gurtler, Erich Gschwind, and Christian Mengelt in 1977 (History of Graphic Design). The typeface had a recent revival due to the rise of demand for the “retro” look of the seventies.

81


Herb Lubalin: A Pioneer I

82 | Typefaces Throughout History

TC Avant Garde was created by Herb Lubal- for Avant Garde would eventually evolve into the full typeface known as ITC Avant Garde. in in 1968 (PrePressure). Lubalin was born Right before the creation of ITC Avant Garin 1918 in New York, USA and died in 1981 de, Lubalin founded the International Type (Linotype). Lubalin was known as a graphic Coporation (ITC) in New York designer, typographer, and type dein the 1970s with Aaron Burn. signer (AIGA). For his education, Aside from ITC Avant Garde, he studied at Cooper Union in New Lubalin is also credited with York and his early work included art designing ITC Serif Gothic with directing for multiple advertising Tony DiSpigna in 1974 (Linocompanies (Linotype). type). After his work on ITC At first, Lubalin began to pubAvant Garde, Lubalin went on to lish an original magazine titled Eros through his private studio until it was discon- teach at Cornell University and Cooper Union (History of Graphic Design). Other notable tinued for its contraversial nature (Berry). accomplishments from Lubalin include his Lubalin’s second magazine Fact would be discontinued as well. Afterwards, this led Lubalin receipt of the AIGA’s highest honor (AIGA). to publish his third controversial magazine called Avant Garde (Berry). The logo designed 83


All About Anatomy

The quick brown fox 3

1

4

2

I

TC Avant Garde is a geometric sans serITC Avant Garde has a variety of if typeface. It is a typeface that is traweights in its font family, ranging from ditionally used in advertising design due extra light condensed to bold oblique. to it’s boldness and quirks. It has a large x-height and is not ideal for large bodies of text. 1 Letters based off of perfect circles A notable feature of the typeface is its long list of alernative and ligatured 2 Short descender height characters. ITC Avant Garde is low-contrast line thickness and many of its let3 No contrast, Flat apex ters are based on perfect circles, such as lowercase a, c, and e. Its upperfcase Q is 4 Rounded shoulders distinctive for its curved tail. The typeface 5 Tall x-height also has rounded, flat hooks, apexs, and finials. There is consistent contrast in the 6 Baseline shoulder of the m’s and n’s.

84 | Typefaces Throughout History

ITC Avant Garde Extra Light

ITC Avant Garde Book

ITC Avant Garde Extra Light

ITC Avant Garde Medium

ITC Avant Garde Demi

ITC Avant Garde Bold

5

6

Uppercase

ABCDE FGHIJKL Lowercase

abcde f ghijkl

85


Avant Garde and the Test of Time 1

Avant Garde Magazine Cover

7

Promotional booklet cover

2

Avant Garde Magazine Cover

8

Judy Teen by Cockney Rebel, published in 1974

3

Book Title in ITC Avant Garde 3

2 4

Book Title in ITC Avant Garde

5

From Rousseau to Lenin Book Cover, published 1972

6

Das Neue Fischer Lexikon in Farbe, published in 1984

6

86 | Typefaces Throughout History

7

1

4

5

8

87


CHELTENHAM


HISTORY

BIO B

In 1902, Goodhue’s original type, “Cheltenham,” caught the eye of ATF (American Type Founders) and was sold to them. An influential designer at the time, Morris Fuller Benton, took Cheltenham and refined the typeface and developed a variety of different widths for it. Cheltenham became one of the very first typefaces to be released as a type ‘family.’ For that reason, this type gained a lot of momentum in the 1900s. With around 21 variations by

90 | Typefaces Throughout History

ertram Goodhue was the original designer of the typeface,Cheltenham. He was born in Pomfret, Connecticut on April 28, 1869 and passed away on April 23, 1924.

In the 1970s, Tony Stan was commissioned by the International Typeface Corporation, ITC, to revitalize the design. His goal was to improve the overall aesthetics of the type, he dramatically increased the x-height of the type. ITC called their version a

1915, Cheltenham became one of the most widely known typeface in the United States. It soon gained popularity aWmong newspapers and was adopted for the headline of The New York Times around 1906.

Tony Stan was the designer that ITC had hired to revive the Cheltenham type in the 1970s. He was born in 1917 and passed away in 1988. According to the brief bio on linotype.com, Tony Stan, “worked as a typeface designer for Photolettering Inc. and ITC” (“Font Designer - Tony Stan”).

“straightfor ward, no-nonsense typeface”

91


The lowercase “a” has a bowl. According to fonts.com, the ITC Cheltenham “design was based on legibility studies that showed readers often identified specific characters primarily through the top of the glyph” (“ITC Cheltenham”). The type from the earlier periods

were often thin and anemic in appearance. Cheltenham was created as a variation. The original Cheltenham was created with long ascenders and short descenders mostly because the designer felt that the upper half of the type was

G

more prominent in legibility. The type after revision in the 1970’s featured a taller x-height and an improved italics. The ITC version of the type combines heavier stroke weights with condensed proportions as well. According

g This type has a reletively tall x-height making it work a lot better when used in body paragraphs.

Visual Analysis The Apex on the uppercase “A” has a distinct form and goes past the cap height.

The serifs on the letters are typically more geometric looking rather than circular.

92 | Typefaces Throughout History

The terminals on some lowercase letters such as the “a” or “s” are more circular in form.

According to my research and visual analysis on ITC Cheltenham, I realized that it was mostly used in larger proportions. Due to its tall x-height, it was an optimal choice to be used in larger proportions. Therefore, ITC Cheltenham is more frequently used in logos and large headers.

ITC Cheltenham became the definitive headline font for The New York Times in 1906. The type was also used in the book publishing of the series,“...for Dummies” as body text. Some logo and ad usage include, L.L. Bean sporting goods, Florida Natural Orange Juice packaging and Orchard Supply Hardware main logo. This type was also used as the title for the movie,“Five Easy Pieces.”

93


Typography is

AWESOME DID YOU KNOW THAT

gradients

are back 94 | Typefaces Throughout History

&

?!

ITC

CHELTENHAM

quickly JUMPED HOPPED

95


GALLERY

CONCLUSION

“Five Easy Pieces,” used ITC Cheltenham in their movie poster. Store front of L.L. Bean Company. They use ITC Cheltenham in their primary logotype.

Florida’s Natural official logo.

96 | Typefaces Throughout History

ITC Cheltenham was a revival of the old style, Cheltenham designed by Bertram Goodhue. It became popular right away and right when it started losing it’s popularity, the ITC commissioned Tony Stan to redesign it. The ITC version featured a taller x-height and came in thicker strokes. This typeface should be used for headers and can also be used in a logo design. I think ITC Cheltenham could work really well in a booklet but it should be experimented with in very large sizes. It was very interesting characteristics and it would be interesting to see the details in them. This type can definitely be used for headers for projects that involve posters or flyers of some sort. It also works well for logos and maybe a book cover as well.

97


GALLIARD


HERE'S THE STORY

Matthew Carter is a type face designer born October 1st, 1937 in London England. Carter began his career in the early 1960s and bridged all major technologies used in type design: physical type, photo setting, digital font design and the design of custom lettering. His most used fonts are the classic web fonts Verdana and Georgia and the windows interface font Tahoma. (Linotype)

Matthew Carter’s design of Galliard is a contemporary adaptation and reinterpretation of Robert Granjon’s 16th century design (moma.org). Robert Granjon was a Parisianborn type designer who primarily worked in the 1560’s in Antwerp, Belgium where he made the punches and matrices for the beginnings of Galliard. In 1957, Mike Parker, the Director of Typographic Development at Mergenthaler Linotype, found the punches and matrices that Granjon left behind and wanted to make the letters available to the modern design community. However, Parker was not a type designer. Matthew Carter was also familiar with Granjon’s type, but did not have the means to create fonts of type as PostScript and type design software was not available yet. He joined Mergenthaler Linotype as a

typeface designer in 1965 and worked on fulfilling his and Parker’s dream to produce the best possible interpretations of Granjon’s work. Galliard was not released until 1978, but the typeface had almost instantaneous success. (Linotype). Aaron Burns, president and one of the founders of International Typeface Corporation (ITC) was one of the many people who loved the new Linotype typeface of Galliard and knew that it would be a valuable addition to the ITC typeface library. In 1981, Parker gave ITC exclusive rights to Galliard. Galliard was one of the few faces that never went through ITC’s Review Board process. Four centuries and change after Granjon’s original design ITC Galliard was announced in December of 1981 (Fonts.com).

International Typeface Corporation was a successful type foundry, founded by Aaron Burns, Herb Lubalin, and Edward Ronthaler in 1970 New York. ITC revolutionized the type business by bringing in the era of licensing. ITC licensed typefaces from designers and then licensed those designs to typesetting device manufacturers like, Linotype or Monotype. Until the digital age typesetters and designers did not directly license fonts from ITC. ITC is now a subsidiary of Monotype Imaging (Typophile).

WHo Is HE? 101


Kaxt The legs on the capital ‘K’ are not attached to the stem. Its long leg is also apparent on the capital ‘R’.

The lowercase ‘a’ is two stories with an angular counter.

There’s high thick to thin stroke contrast in the lowercase ‘x’.

Take A Quick Look ITC Galliard is an elegant, old style serif typeface. The family includes eight fonts in four weights with italics. The letter forms are smooth with angular serifs. The interesting cuts of the serifs and angles of the letters are mostly apparent in the lowercase letters. Galliard has a small x-height, short ascenders, long descenders, and large bodies. It has a solid stroke weight and is very compact (Re 16).

ITC Galliard Roman ITC Galliard Italic ITC Galliard Std Bold ITC Galliard Bold Italic ITC Galliard Std Black ITC Galliard Black Italic ITC Galliard Std Ultra ITC Galliard Ultra Italic

The cross bar on the lowercase ‘t’ is connected to the top of the stem.

cap height x height

baseline descender line

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz !?&:;,‘“”1234567890

103


Matthew Carter (John Madrid)

Mergenthaler Linotype Company (flickr.com) Punches and Matrices from Robert Granjon (typophile.com) Robert Granjon’s colophon with font that Galliard is based on (Sarah’s Books)

Columbia Sportswear logo (columbia.com) 105


STONE SANS


S Sumner Stone began his education in the graphic arts at Lloyd Reynolds at Reed College in Portland, Oregon, where he studied calligraphy. He also holds degrees in Sociology and Mathematics. Sumner Stone was the Director of Typography for Adobe Systems from 1984 to 1989. He created and implemented Adobe’s typographic program including the Adobe Originals (“Sumner...”). He founded the Stone Type Foundry Inc. in 1990 which has produced many prize-winning typefaces and custom type designs. The foundry is now located on Alphabet Farm in Rumsey, California. Here, Sumner Stone designs, manufactures, produces, and maintains the website and specimens. He has also developed over 180 typefaces (“Font Designer...”).

Sumner Stone According to the article, “ITC Stone Sans,” ITC Stone Sans is a humanist sans serif typeface that was designed by Sumner Stone in collaboration with Bob Ishi of Adobe in 1987. Ishi is coincidentally the Japanese word for stone, so it was easy to come up with a name for the font. The font consists of a serif, sans serif, and an informal style, each with a roman and italic version in three weights: medium, semibold, and bold.

108 | Typefaces Throughout History

Sumner Stone is also a teacher who teaches many calligraphy and typography classes at various institutions. In addition to being a teacher, Stone is also an author of books and articles related to typography and typeface design. Some of these titles include, The Art and Use of Typography on the Personal Computer, and Font: Sumner Stone, Calligraphy and Type Design in a Digital Age. In an interview with Stone, he states that he “fell in love with type design through calligraphy.” and was, “influenced by the work of Hermann Zapf and by working with him at Hallmark Cards”(“Font Designer...”). 109


E D C B A b p K J I H G F A Closer Look P O N M L V o hello T S R Q type Z e Y X tall ascenders

ITC Stone Serif is a humanist sans serif which is calligraphic in structure. The oval shapes and softly rounded edges within the type give it a graceful, human appearance. The aperture is very open which makes the letters o, e, and a more legible. There is double story on the a and g which makes it easier to distinguish between the two letters.

tall descenders

It also has a small x-height and tall ascenders and descenders which make letterforms like the lowercase b, d, h, and l appear taller. Although subtle, it has a higher stroke contrast than other sans serifs making it easy for long reading and small text in comparison to other sans serifs (Tslensin).

ascender line

small x-height

open aperture

ascender line

descender line

110 | Typefaces Throughout History

111


ITC Stone Sans has a large integrated family, which can be mixed successfully together in newsletters, books, and packaging. Due to the fact that its characteristics such as the cap heights, stem weights, and proportions, are similar, ITC Stone Sans is able to mix different styles of type on the same page.

It is a long established fact that a reader will be distracted by the readable content of a page when looking at its layout. The point of using Lorem Ipsum is that it has a more-or-less normal distribution of letters, as opposed to using ‘Content here, content here’, making it look like readable English. Many desktop publishing packages and web page editors now use Lorem Ipsum as their default model text, and a search for ‘lorem ipsum’ will uncover many web sites still in their infancy. Various versions have evolved over the years, sometimes by accident, sometimes on purpose (injected humour and the like).

Body Text

Type Examples It is not bold enough to be used as a display font. However, as a humanist sans serif typeface, it can be used well as a body text or in signage since it is more readable than other sans serif typefaces. ITC Stone Sans has gained international popularity and can be seen in the National Geographic logo as well as in signage in German airports. (“ITC Stone...”).

112 | Typefaces Throughout History

Headline

Songs were written then composed

113


NEUTRAFACE SLAB


HISTORY RICHARD NEUTRA

Portrait of famous architect, Richard Neutra. Source from Vienayyo.com.

Neutraface Slab was a project created in 2009 by House Industries in collaboration with type designers Christian Schwartz, Kai Bernau and Susana Carvalho. It is a less geometric typeface in comparison to the original Neutraface sans-serif family that was released in 2001. Neutraface was an “ambitious project to design the most typographically complete geometric sans serif family ever” (Christian Schwartz). This type family was based on the “geometric minimalist lettering that architect Richard J. Neutra (1892-1970) used on his commercial and residential buildings” (House Industries). Richard J. Neutra is one of modernism’s most important architects. His work was a “blend of art, landscape and practical comfort” and his work represented the idea of “biorealism” which is the inherent relationship between man and nature (Michelle Holder). While the typeface was based off of Neutra’s work, Christian Schwartz did not have many samples of the lettering used on his buildings to use as a reference, so much of the design was based on interpretation. In addition, there were no references for the lowercase, so the letters were drawn from scratch while referencing Futura, Nobel, and Tempo (Christian Schwartz). After a year of working and consulting with Neutra’s son, Dion Neutra and studying the archive photography of Julius Shulman, the typeface was created and became very popular (Michelle Holder).

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H

CHRISTIAN SCHWARTZ Born in 1977, Christian Schwartz is a type designer and typography consultant based in New York City. He is a partner in the type foundry, Commercial Type with London-based designer Paul Barnes. He has created many typefaces with different designers such as Orange Italic and Neutraface Family and has released fonts with Village, FontFont, and digital type pioneers Emigre. Many of his typefaces have been important designs for publications, including the US edition of Esquire, The New York Times, Roger Black’s redesign of the Houston Chronicle, and the extensive Guardian Egyptian family, with Paul Barnes, for The Guardian’s dramatic new look in 2005 (Christian Schwartz).

KAI BERNAU AND SUSANA CARVALHO

House Industries logo from the House Industries website.

House Industries worked with type designers Christian Schwartz, Kai Bernau and Susana Carvalho to create the modern typeface, Neutraface Slab.These designers come from different and unique backgrounds and pursued similar careers around the world. House Industries, the type foundry and design studio, was founded in 1993 in Wilmington, Delaware by Andy Cruz and Rich Roat. Their work is both hand drawn and digital as their approach is “rooted in drawing, painting, and lettering” which are “traditional techniques that give [their] work a warmth and soul” while creating digital fonts that additionally, boost communication in the world (House Industries).

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Kai Bernau was born in 1978 and studied graphic design at the University of Applied Sciences Schwäbisch Gmünd in Germany. He lives and works in The Hague, Netherlands, where he is a co-founder of Atelier Carvalho Bernau (Commercial Type). In 2005, he and his wife, Susana Carvalho formed Atelier Carvalho Bernau, which develops book and editorial design, typography, typeface design, web and interaction design (Atelier Carvalho Bernau). Susana Carvalho was born in 1979 and has a BA in Communication Design from the Faculty of Fine Arts, University of Lisbon. In addition to forming Atelier Carvalho Bernau with her husband Kai, she teaches graphic design at the Bachelor course at the Royal Academy of Arts ( KABK) in the Hague (Commercial Type).


Architecture 1

2

3

4

1 Large and open counters

2 Thin to thick contrast in the arm

The letterforms vary greatly throughout the family, as Neutraface has differing weights in which the thickness of the stroke drastically changes. However, most letterforms can be characterized as “open and unobtrusive” and there are both sharp angles and rounded curves mimicking the beauty of architecture and the modern work of Richard Neutra (House Industries). The original Neutraface was designed for distinctive titles and headlines,however, to create a more universal, highly legible typeface, a text version of Neutraface was later created. To increase legibility, this version has a larger x-height and an increase in stroke width. Neutraface Slab however, is better suited for longer headlines in limited spaces (House Industries). Neutraface Slab can be characterized as lacking thick to thin contrast. The line thickness remains constant creating bold, modern letterforms. The forms are simple and linear, bringing a sense of warmth to the viewer’s eye (House Industries). In analyzing particular letterforms, the “C” has a pointed terminal instead of a serif terminal. Additionally, the middle arm of the uppercase letterforms “F”and “E”, lack serifs as well. The counters and open counters are very spacious as the forms of the letters are precisely curved to create a warm, inviting letterform. In comparing Neutraface with Neturaface Slab, Neutraface has larger counters and the arm of the “E” and the crossbar on the “A” are lower down creating more open, white space. This is also seen in the bolder weights such as the display titles. Lastly, Neutraface has a display drafting typeface, whereas Neutraface slab has a stencil typeface. The drafting letters are very loose and expressive, whereas the stencil letterforms are uniform and geometric.

3 Large, open aperture

5

6

4 thin to thick contrast in the arc

5 Serif on top terminal, no serif on bottom terminal 6 Round proportions, shorter x-height compared to the ascenders and descenders

EA

Large counters, creates open white space

Serif Terminal

no serif

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Spread in Neutraface Slab Lookbook created by House Industries.

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ABCDEFGHIJKLM NOPQRSTUVWXYZ

“ I am an eyewitness to the ways in which people relate to themselves and to each other, and my work is a way of scooping and ladling that experience.” Richard Neutra

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E

Light Thin Book Medium Bold Demi Titling Stencil

125


PLANTIN


history monotype matrices in matrix

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In 1913, the English Monotype Corporation’s manager Frank Hinman Pierpont directed the Plantin revival. Based on 16th century specimens from the PlantinMoretus Museum in Antwerp, specifically a type cut by Robert Granjon and a separate cursive Italic, the Plantin typeface was conceived. Plantin was drawn for use in mechanical typesetting on the international publishing markets (Mosley). Plantin, and the historical models that inspired it, are old-style typefaces in the French manner, but with x-height that are larger than those found in Claude Garamond’s work. Plantin would go on to influence another Monotype design, Times New Roman. Stanley Morison and Victor Parent used Plantin as a reference during that typeface’s cutting (Morison). In 1912 Frank Hinman Pierpont of English Monotype visited the Plantin-Moretus Museum in Antwerp, returning home with “knowledge, hunters of photographs, and a stack of antique typeset specimens including a few examples of Robert Granjon’s.” Together with Fritz Stelzer of the Monotype Drawing Office, Pierpont took one of these over inked proofs take from worn type to use as the basis of a new text face for machine composition. Its history roots lend the message it sets a sense of gravity and authenticity. The family covers four text weight complete with italics, with four condensed headline styles and a caps-only titling cut (Lawson). Plantin was one of the first Monotype Corporation revivals that was not simply a copy of a typeface already popular in British printing; it has proved popular since its release and has been digitised. It can in retrospect be seen to have paved the way for many Monotype revivals of classic typefaces that followed the 1920s and 30s. The Plantin family includes regular, light and bold weights, along with corresponding italics (Mosley). 129


Frank Hinman Pierpont was an America engineer and typeface designer. He worked primarily in England for the Monotype Corporation of Britain. After training as a mechanic in Hartford, Connecticut, Pierpont began employment in 1886 with a patent office where he worked on a typesetting machine. From 1899 to 1936, Pierpont helped to establish and then act as factory manager of the British branch of Lanston Monotype in Salfords, Surrey, England. While working for Monotype

Frank Hinman Pierpont he supervised the reproduction of revivals of classic type designs such as Planting and new designs such asTimes New Roman.The Lanston Monotype Machine Company was founded by Tolbert Lanston in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1887 (Morison). Lanston had a patented mechanical method of punching out metal types from cold strips of metal which were set into a matrix for the printing press. Monotype’s role in design history is not merely due to their supply of printing equipment but due to their commissioning of many of the most important typefaces of the twentieth century (Lawson). 130 | Typefaces Throughout History

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ligature

fine

ascender x-height

baseline descender

visual analysis

Plantin is an exceptionally legible typeface and makes a classic, elegant, impression. It is a remarkably accommodating type face. The firm modeling of the strokes and the serifs in the letters make the mass appearance stronger than usual; the absence of thin elements ensures a good result on coated papers; and the compact structure of the letters, without the loss of size, makes Plantin one of the economical faces in use. In short, it is essentially an all-purpose face, excellent for periodical or jobbing work, and very effective in many sorts of book and magazine publishing. Plantin’s Bold weight was especially optimized to provide ample contrast: bulkiness was avoided by introducing a slight sharpening to the serifs’ forms (Schuster). The design for Plantin preserved the large x-height of Granjon’s designs, but shortened the ascenders and descenders and enlarged the counters of the lowercase ‘a’ and ‘e’ (Mosley). Plantin Headline was especially drawn for display setting, and a full suite of small caps, ligatures and old style figures have been drawn for the text designs (Mosley). Broad proportions are a common characteristic of typeface designs based off of Plantin (Lawson). The lowercase letters in the Plantin typeface family are considered to have a relatively generous x-height. Body text set in Plantin produces a dark, rich texture that’s suited for editorial and book work, thought it also performs its tasks on screen with ease (Lawson).

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ABCDEFGHIJKLM NOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijklm nopqrstuvwxyz 01234567890

133


Clockwise from top left: Corrections by GĂźnter Gerhard Lange on Berthold Plantin normal, 1973; Treasures from the Plantin-Moretus Museum; Original pencil drawing of Plantin on heavy paper with coarse surface, 35x35 cm in dimension; Set type from Plantin-Moretus Museum.

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Contributors

Typefaces Throughout History

AVENIR Aliza Ackerman

BEMBO Samuel Baber

AVANT GARDE Leslie Garcia

BODONI Lauren Beck

CHELTENHAM Subash Giri

CHAPARRAL Taylor Becknell

GALLIARD Elizabeth Gordon

COOPER BLACK Riley Chapman

STONE SANS Briana Jackson

GARAMOND Natalie De Golia

FILOSOFIA Takuto Doshiro

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GOTHAM Molly Eichten

NEUTRAFACE SLAB Talya Ratusnik

PLANTIN Hana Shiozaki

137


AVENIR

Works Cited

COOPER BLACK Heck, Bethany. “Cooper – Designed by Cooper Oswald.” Font Review Journal, 9 Nov. 2017, fontreviewjournal. com/cooper/. Accessed 27 February 2018. Patrick, Megan Lane. “The Story of Cooper Black.” How Design, 22 Aug. 2012, www.howde sign.com/howdesign-blog/the-story-of-cooper-black/. Accessed 27 February 2018.

Lu, Yingjing. “Avenir Research – Communication Design Fundamentals – Medium.” Medium, Communication Design Fundamentals, 17 Sept. 2016, medium.com/communication-design-fundamentals/avenir-research2c623eaedde9. Accessed 22 February 2018.

Typedia. “Cooper Black.” Typedia, 20 Nov. 2009, typedia.com/explore/typeface/cooper-black/. Accessed 27 February 2018.

Osterer, Heidrun, and Philipp Stamm. Adrian Frutiger - Schriften : The Complete Works, edited by Stiftung, Schweizerische Schweizerische, Walter de Gruyter GmbH, 2014. ProQuest Ebook Central, https:// ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/calpoly/detail.action?docID=1480475.

FILOSOFIA

Pao, Imin, and Joshua Berger. 30 Essential Typefaces for a Lifetime, edited by Pro and Berger. Pao & Paws and Long Sea International Book Co., 2006. Ulrich, Ferdinand. “A Short History of the Geometric Sans.” Font Shop. https://www.fontshop.com/contentshortintro-to-geometric-sans. Accessed 22 February 2018.

BEMBO Blumenthal, Joseph. Art of the Printed Book 1455-1955: Masterpieces of the Typography through Five Centuries from the Collections of the Pierpont Morgan Library New York. Pierpont Morgan Library, 1984. Carter, Rob, et al. Typographic Design Form and Communication. John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated, 2017.

Dooley, Michael. “Zuzana Licko and Rudy VanderLans.” AIGA | the professional association for design, www. aiga.org/Medalist-zuzanalickoandrudyvanderlans. “Filosofia Font Combinations & Free Alternatives · Typewolf.” Typewolf, www.typewolf.com site-of-the-day/fonts/filosofia.Filosofia, www.emigre.com/Fonts/Filosofia. Walker, Alexandria. “Zuzana Licko’s Filosofia.” ODU Graphic Design Theory, Wordpress, 3 Apr. 2011, odudesigntheorywordpress.com/2011/04/03/zuzanalicko%E2%80%99s-filosofia/.

GARAMOND UpClosed, “About Robert Slimbach, Type Designer, United States of America.” upclosed.com/people/robertslimbach. Accessed 22 Feb. 2018.

Christensen, Thomas. “Bembo.” Typeface: Bembo, www.rightreading.com/typehead/bembo.htm.Accessed 22 February, 2018.

Chokly, Kit. “What Makes Garamond Unique.” Ontario College of Art and Design Blog, 24 Oct. 2011, blog. ocad.ca/wordpress/thegoldenage/2011/10/main-characteristics-of-adobe-garamond-pro. Accessed 22 Feb. 2018.

Friedlander, Joel, et al. “Typefaces as History: Aldus Manutius and The Noble Bembo.” The Book Designer, 24 Sept. 2015, www.thebookdesigner.com/2010/10/typefaces-as-history-aldus-manutius-and-the-noble-bembo/.Accessed 22 February, 2018.

Kelly, Jerry. “Adobe Garamond: A New Adaptation of a Sixteenth-Century Type.” Texts on Type: Critical Writings on Typography, edited by Steven Heller and Philip B. Meggs, New York, Allworth, 2001, pp. 56-63.

BODONI

Shaw, Paul, and Jonathan Hoefler. Revival Type: Digital Typefaces Inspired by the Past. Yale University Press, 2017, pp. 52-58.

“Bodoni.” fonts.com, https://www.fonts.com/font/linotype/bodoni/story. Accessed 21 Feb. 2018. “Bodoni.” Illuminating Letters, cdncms.fonts.net/documents/38e31e135dec4230/ILBodoni.pdf. Accessed 21 Feb. 2018. “Bodoni: The History of Being Awesome.” ifoundmedinosaurs, https://ifoundmedinosaurs.wordpress. com/2011/11/25/bodoni-the-history-of/. Accessed 25 Nov. 2011. Christensen, Thomas. “Bauer Bodoni.” The Typehead Chronicles , edited by Thomas Christensen, www .rightreading.com/typehead/bodoni.htm. Accessed 21 Feb. 2018. “Font Designer – Giambattista Bodoni.” Linotype, https://www.linotype.com/683/giambattista-bodoni.html. Accessed 21 Feb. 2018.

CHAPARRAL Adobe. Carol Twombly | Font Type Designer on Adobe. www.adobe.com/products/type/font-designers/caroltwombly.html. Accessed February 21, 2018. “Carol Twombly.” Luc Devroye. McGill University Montreal, Canada, luc.devroye.org/fonts-26216.html. Accessed February 21, 2018. “Families of Type.” Graphicdesign.spokanefalls.edu. graphicdesign.spokanefalls.edu/tutorials/process/type_basics/slab_serif.htm. Accessed February 22, 2018. Lupton, Ellen. “01 Fonts on Screen.” Type on Screen: A Critical Guide for Designers, Writers, Developers, and Students, Princeton Architectural Press, 2014, pp. 20–25. Web. Accessed February 20, 2018.

Macmillan, Neil. “Robert Slimbach.” An A-Z of Type Designers. Yale University Press, 2006, p. 165.

Slimbach, Robert, and Fred Brady. “An Adobe Original: Adobe Garamond Pro.” Adobe Systems Incorporated, edited by Ellen Wixted, pp. 5-9. https://wwwimages2.adobe.com/content/dam/acom/en/products/type/ pdfs/AdobeGaramondPro.pdf. Accessed 22 Feb. 2018.

GOTHAM Cohen, Noam. “Typography Partners Part Ways in Money Fight.” The New York Times, 17 Jan. 2014, www. nytimes.com/2014/01/18/business/media/in-dispute-typography-partners-part-ways.html?_r=0. Accessed February 26, 2018 “Gotham.” Fonts by Hoefler & Co., Hoefler & Co., www.typography.com/fonts/gotham/overview/ Accessed February 26, 2018 Hustwit, Gary, director. Helvetica. New Video, 2007. Riechers, Angela March 01, 2013. “2013 AIGA Medalist: Jonathan Hoefler and Tobias Frere-Jones.” AIGA | the Professional Association for Design, www.aiga.org/medalists-jonathan-hoefler-and-tobias-frere-jones. Accessed February 26, 2018 Romano, Andrew (27 February 2008). “Expertinent: Why the Obama “Brand” Is Working”. Newsweek. Archived from the original on 4 February 2009. Accessed February 26, 2018 Siegel, Dmitri. “Is Gotham the New Interstate?” The Morning News, themorningnews.org/article/is-gotham-thenew-interstate. Accessed February 26, 2018

Tschichold, Jan. Treasury of Alphabets and Lettering. W. W. Norton & Company, 1995. Google Scholar, pp. 2026, Web. Accessed February 20, 2018. Typography. Sentinel Fonts: History. Hoefler & Co.www.typography. com/fonts/sentinel/history/. Accessed February 19, 2018.

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ITC AVANT GARDE

ITC STONE SANS

“Avant Garde.” PrePressure, www.prepressure.com/fonts/interesting/avant-garde

“About Sumner Stone.” Stone Type Foundry. http://www.stonetypefoundry.com/. Computers and Typography 2, edited by Rosemary Sassoon, Intellect Books Ltd, 2002. ProQuest Ebook Central, https://ebookcentral. proquest.com/lib/calpoly/detail. action?docID=282982.

Berry, John D. “Dot-font: Avant Garde, Then and Now.” CreativePro, https://creativepro.com/dot-font-avantgarde-then-and-now/ “Herb Lubalin.” Historygraphicdesign, http://www.historygraphicdesign.com/the-age-of-information/the-newyork-school/681-herb-lubalin “Font Designer—Herb Lubalin.” Linotype, www.linotype.com/483/herb-lubalin.html Brown, David R. “Herb Lubalin.” AIGA, https://www.aiga.org/medalist-herblubalin

ITC CHELTENHAM Craig, Robert L. “Through Printers’ Eyes: From the Arts and Crafts Movement to Modernism.” Visual Communication Quarterly, vol. 15, no. 1-2, 2008, pp. 31–43. Accessed 22 Feb. 2018 Liscombe, R. “Bertram Goodhue: His Life and Residential Architecture.” Choice, vol. 45, no. 1, 2007, pp. 88–89. Accessed 22 Feb. 2018

“Font Designer – Sumner Stone.” LinoType. Accessed February 21, 2018. www.linotype.com/562/sumner-stone. html. “Font Designer – Sumner Stone.” LinoType. Accessed February 21, 2018. www.linotype.com/562-3421interview. html. “ITC Stone Sans.” My Fonts. A Monotype Company. Accessed February 22, 2018 www.myfonts.com/fonts adobe/itc-stone-sans/. “Sumner Stone.” MyFonts, A Monotype Company. Accessed February 22, 2018 www.myfonts.com/person/ Sumner_Stone/. Tselentis, Jason, et al. Typography, Referenced : A Comprehensive Visual Guide to the Language, History, and Practice of Typography, Rockport Publishers, 2012. ProQuest Ebook Central, https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/calpoly/detail.action?docID=3399565.

Challand, Skylar. “Know Your Type: Clarendon.” Idsgn, a Design Blog. Idsgn, 21 Aug. 2009. Web. http://idsgn. org/posts/know-your-type-clarendon/. Accessed 22 Feb. 2018

NEUTRAFACE SLAB

“ITC Cheltenham.” Fonts.com. N.p., 2017. Web. https://www.fonts.com/font/itc/itc-cheltenham/story. Accessed 22 Feb. 2018

“About.” Schwartzco Inc., www.christianschwartz.com/bio.shtml.Accessed 21 February 2018.

“Bertram Goodhue.” The Cultural Landscape Foundation. Tclf, 2016. Web. https://tclf.org/pioneer/bertramgoodhue. Accessed 22 Feb. 2018

“Kai Bernau.” Commercial Type, commercialtype.com/about/kai_bernau. Accessed February 21 2018. Michelle Holder. “Neutraface | Font of the Week.” pixelinkstudios, January 21, 2012, pixelink-studios.com/ studio/?p=665. Accessed 21 February 2018.

“Font Designer - Tony Stan.” LinoType. N.p., 2018. Web. https://www.linotype.com/555/tony-stan.html. Accessed 22 Feb. 2018

“Neutraface.” House Industries, houseind.com/hi/neutraface_slab.Accessed 20 February 2018.

“ITC Cheltenham®.” Adobe. N.p., 3 Dec. 2007. Web. https://www.myfonts.com/fonts/adobe/itc-cheltenham/. Accessed 22 Feb. 2018

“Neutraface Slab Project.” House Industries, houseind.com/hi/neutrafaceslabproject. Accessed 21 February 2018. “Neutraface Slab.” Schwartzco Inc., www.christianschwartz.com/neutraslab.shtml. Accessed 21 February 2018.

ITC GALLIARD

“Neutraface.” Schwartzco Inc., www.christianschwartz.com/neutra.shtml. Accessed 21 February 2018.

Carter, Matthew. “Matthew Carter. ITC Galliard. 1978 | MoMA.” The Museum of Modern Art, 2011, www.moma. org/collection/works/139306. February 27, 2018. ITC. “ITC Galliard® Font Family Typeface Story.” Fonts.com, www.fonts.com/font/itc/itc-galliard/story. February 27, 2018. Linotype. GmbH, info@linotype.com Monotype. “Font Designer – Matthew Carter.” Matthew Carter - Font Designer of Snell Roundhand, Shelley Script, New Baskerville ..., www.linotype.com/346/matthew-carter. html. February 27, 2018. Re, Margaret, et al. Typographically Speaking: the Art of Matthew Carter. Princeton Architectural, 2003. Typedia. “ITC Galliard.” Typedia, typedia.com/explore/typeface/itc-galliard/. February 27, 2018.

“Neutraface Slab.” House Industries, houseind.com/hi/neutraface_slab.Accessed 21 February 2018.

“Susana Carvalho.” Commercial Type, commercialtype.com/about/susana_carvalho. Accessed 21 February 2018.

PLANTIN “Mosley, James” (2003); Re, Margaret; Drucker, Johanna; Carter, Matthew. Typographically Speaking: The Art of Matthew Carter. Princeton Architectural Press. pp. 31–34. ISBN 9781568984278. “Morison, Stanley” (7 June 1973). A Tally of Types. CUP Archive. pp. 22–24. ISBN 978-0-521-09786-4. “Lawson, Alexander S.” “Anatomy of a Typeface.” Google Books, 2AD, http://typefoundry.blogspot. co.uk/2006/01/materials-of-typefounding.html “Mosley, James.” “The materials of typefounding”. Type Foundry. Retrieved 14 August 2015.

Typophile. “International Typeface Corporation.” International Typeface Corporation | www.typophile.com/ node/13399. February 27, 2018.

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Typefaces throughout

HISTORY

letters don’t get their true “ The delight, when done in haste &

discomfort, nor merely done with diligence & pain, but first when they are created with love and passion. - Giambattista Bodoni

Typefaces Throughout History  

Art 338: Typography II, 2018 / Book design by: Lauren Beck

Typefaces Throughout History  

Art 338: Typography II, 2018 / Book design by: Lauren Beck

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