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Air Studio ABPL30048 2013 Semester 1 Tutor: Michael & Zak Tenghui Liu 531860


CONTENTS PART A. EOI I: CASE FOR INNOVATION A.0. Introduction A.1. Architecture as a Discourse A.2. Computational Architecture A.3. Parametric Modelling A.4. Algorithmic Explorations A.5. Conclusion A.6. Learning outcomes


A.0. Introduction

Hi, I’m Tenghui Liu. I’m in Group 16. This is my third year in university. I am an international student from China. I had never thought about to be an architect before I went to Melbuni. After I took some architecture courses in university, I found that I am interested in design very cool architecture. I think it is not too late to catch up.

Past experience To be honest, I had only two years experience on architecure area after I went to university. There are a lots of skills I need improve. On Virtual Environment studio in my first uni year, I known Rhino. That is a very tough experince, because I have never ever used design software before. I was so struggling to learn it and be familiar with it. Finaly, I did it, but Rhino is still not handy for me. This is my project for virtual environment. Its inspiration is the process of bloom. I call it Midnight Bracer. This is my first project designed by Rhino. Although it is simple and not beautiful, I’m still happy with it. At least, the first step in designing.


A.1. Architecture as a discourse Architecture is not only a landmark in a city, but also the carrier of the spirit of the city. Each time we enter a new era, different spaces and trends emerge with changing societies and times. The architecure of the previous era becomes history and the architecture of the new ear comes to represent the city planning and architectural space of a new age. It is obvious that functions of architecture between ancient and nowadays are totally different. In ancient times, architectures just acts as shelters. Now we put soul into architectures. “Architecture needs to be thought of less as a set of special materials products and rather more as range of social and professional practice that sometimes”, architects give architecture more significances. The history of architectures is likely the history of human history. Architecture fuses lots of inspirations from many fields, such as topography, climate, materials, culture, circumstance, humanistic background and religion. Therefore, we could read out many information from an architecture. It just like a discourse between us and architecture.

Olympic Stadiums- Bird’s Nest and Water Cube Bird’s Nest Bird’s Nest was design by Herzog, De Meuron and their Architectural office, finishing in 2006. The profile is pure and full of power. Elevations and structiure integrate in perfect. Exposed structure is the skin of Bird’s Nest as well which could bring grand visual shocking impact to people. Spatial effects lead to an unprecendented originality, succinct, natural and elegant are so appropriate to describe it. Components of structure support mutually and form a mesh framework, it just looks like bird’s nest that weaved by branches. Lots of architects describe it as a cradle which breeds and cares lifes and places human hopes to future. It is also the design concept for Bird’s Nest which try to echo with spirit of Olympics. Nowadays, Bird’s Nest also hold important sport events, regular events and place which provides sports activities for citizens. However, this beautiful parametric stadium is not easy to construct comparing with conventional architecture. It took 5 years to finish it.


A.1. Architecture as a discourse Water Cube In the 29th Olympic Games, another significant architecture is the National Aquatics Centre-Water Cube. It was design by PTW, ARUP companies and finished in 2008, in Olympic Games acting as the main venue of swimming competition. Design scheme is project “H203” which produced by global design competition. Water Cube and Bird’s Nest were set into two sides of central axis in Beijing. The most attractive part is its “skin” ETFE membrane which looks like bubbles. Because of its cell-arrangement and soap-bubble forms, these forms were never ever appeared before in architectural construction. National Aquatics Centre will be the biggest water park in Beijing after Olympic Games, so designers try to explore out all entertainments about water for all ages. They call the design concept as “Water Cube”, hence designers deepen concept of water which not only use water as decoration, but also take its specific micro-structure. Membrane structure is the most significant and fir new architectural form. Interdisciplinary technologies were use such as architectonics, structural mechanics, fine chemical engineering, materials science and computational technology. It is quite a challenge for design and construction in worldwide about the membrane structure. Olympic Games Stadium is not only the most important stadium, but also a significant one to witness Olympic Game in host contury. The most advanced technology, materials, design scheme and concept will be used. Therefore, Bird’s Nest and Water Cube could be models for research and study in future. Green Olympics, Scientic Olympics and Humanistic Olympics were the catchwords of 29th Olympic Games, Bird’s Nest and Water Cube strictly follow these conpects in facts of materials, functions and so on. In Chinese traditional concept, Earth was square and Heaven was round. This ancient concept promotes out the round Bird’s Nest and squared Water Cube.

Concept of bubbles, inspiratin from water substructure

ETFE membran structure

steel skeleton prototype


A.1. Architecture as a discourse

Future Urban Space-Galaxy SOHO The most significant characteristic of the information age is increasingly intimate human communication. The ting need most is the spirit of unity and cooperation, the ability to consultation and interact. The city space in the information age is the ultimate integration of the material and the spiritual, it is multi-faceted, open-minded and blended. Similarly the architecture of this ear is multi-dimensional, free and parametric. These kinds of structure permit the complete extension of human communication, unlike the rigid relationships, straight lines and flattened way of thinking encouraged by the architecture of the past. This new architecture induces a complete change in our way of life. This type of gathering and interchange produces a fiery collision of wisdon generating an accumulation of societal advencement and intimately fusing the material with spiritail. Galaxy SOHO created by Zaha Hadid and architectural firm, finished in 2009. This is an obviously parametric project. One of the design concepts of the project is to create an internal world reflecting the theme of the Chinese courtyard. At the same time, the project is very much a design of the 21st century - no longer working with rigid blocks and the spaces bewteen these blocks, but working with soft and malleable volumes which coalesce, fuse, pull apart and connect with multiple stretched bridges in order to create a world of synchronized adaptation and fluid movement within. Its profile is soft but also full of power, four monomers integrate into a grant entirety. Another inspiration of design comes from Chinese traditional terraces. Parametric design itself refines natural form by modern digital technology, then fuses modern civilization. In this project, floors are full of transformations and spreading, they group with each space very dynamically, just as terraces in mountain. The architectural approach for this project is to create an ensemble of individual volumes that blend together to create a more monumental whole. The separate volumes each has its own atrium and cores, but merge together at various levels, providing shaded outdoor plateaus and internal spaces with dramatic views. The shifting and moving plateaus, multiple levels shift into each other’s view forming a deep sense of envelopment and immersion with an environment of stimulation.


A.1. Architecture as a discourse The architecture unfolds below, above, and into layers in all directions with a logic of continuity and multi-level curvi-lineraity. It is a 360-degree architectural world which has no corners, no disrupted transitions, but in which everything evolves- very much inspired by nature. The project is comprised of deep vistas that are formulated by hundreds of meter of interests in all direction. The strategy here is to creat a space of easy flow and easy orientation. One discovers an interplay of light and shadow, of closed and open space while moving within the volumes. Nowadays, Galaxy SOHO is an advanced huge complex which including commerce and offices. As an iconic architecture in Beijing urban center, Galaxy SOHO absolutely will bring big impact to the skyline of Beijing. The large pattern of urban is a challenging problem, because an individual is not quite in tune with vast Beijing. Four tower-shaped monomers connect each other dynamically could display a kind of meaning, that is interchange and communication with each other.


A.2. Computational Architecture What 3D technology challenges is not just special effects, but an innovation of cinema viewing and feeling. James Cameron’s remarks are not groundless. As early as 1995, he had completed the idea of Avatar. Since special effects technology was weak then, he started shooting until 2005, and eventually finished a 60% special effects scenes of the new visual experience. We are quite familiar with the tremendous impacts which software brought for film making, and it seems this is already a software ubiquitous era. Almost ten years ago, rapid development and popularity of computer technology makes Auto CAD join in architectural filed successfully. Computer Aided Design was one of the best invention ever during the development of computer. Because of computational design, the quality of design raise greatly, manner of work simplify greatly, working environment and information carrier have changed totally. Since 2D digital design software was approved, 3D design software not only enriches the design software family but also it is subversive. Nowadays, we can see computer as a medium, it integrates and connects gaps between each stages during design. As personal opinion, parametric is the tool to build a connection in architecture, hence it makes a more continuous process. Almost things could be quantization, things which cannot be quantization is not easy to evaluate. In theory, it will be continuous as you can quantify it. Of course, there are a lot of things you can not quantify in architecture filed. Parametric will not instead of traditional design, it is supplement, which try to quantify better and more continuous. This is absolutely an architectural design evolution, as a very cutting-edge technology, parametric design not only brings innovate technology, but also untraditional creation manner and the way of thinking. Therefore, it brings so many kinds of potential possibility for design of architecture.

CCTV Headquarter To be honest, this is a strange profile. Chinese call it Big Underpants. However, it still was enrolled in 2007 World Architecture miracle Top Ten. CCTV Headquarter was designed by Rem koolhaas, Ole Scheeren and their OMA, then finished in 2009. This is a shape-peculiar and novelty construction building. A lot of high and new technology are used on this architecture. Total steel amount hit to 125 hundred thousand tons, there is no same one steel member in them. It is the unique in the world. If architect did not use any computational technology, it is impossible to be achieved. All of strcuture components and stresses members were got very precise calculation and optimal design. Nowadays, functions of the CCTV building are mainly composed two parts, five-star hotels and television cultural center. Construction of CCTV built by many different irregular rhombus, fishing net-shape metal scaffolds. These scaffolds were accorded precise calculation and as main body structure, they were exposed outside. As Ole said, this kind of integrate structure could lead pressure flow through system and then find out a best way to transmit to underground. The connection of two towers of the main building just take experience from bridge technology. Well, if the connection part could be seen as bridge, this is quite a huge bridge. Part of connection is 11 floor high and has a 75 meters long cantilever. This design scheme never ever appeared before, so that Beijing council specially set up a group to consider. Because this kind of cyclotron structure did have no construction regulation to follow in world-wide architecture. Therefore, people always take it as a typical representative when they call Beijing is Oriental Goldfileds and experimental filed for foreign architectures since this project. A judge of CCTV Headquarter design competition deems that this scheme could represent a kind of spirit, which displayed from China since new period.


A.2. Computational Architecture


A.2. Computational Architecture

Guangzhou Opera House Guangzhou Opera House was deign by architect Zaha Hadidand her architectural office, then finished in 2010. It is located in Haixinsha Square, a brand new stretch of south China’s ever-expanding trading city. Opera house looks like two enormous pebbles that might have been washed up on the shore of the Pearl river. This project shoots across the urban landscape which like bolts of lighting. Inspiration of design scheme comes from delicate classical Chinese garden. As her thought, Chinese style architecture and nature are one integrated mass. She wanted Guangzhou Opera be same as nature and traditional architectures which full of harmonious. The bigger “pebble” uses as the main auditorium while the smaller encloses a multipurpose performance space. The exposed frame which likes a giant spider web protruding in several unlikely directions. Shapes of structures and spaces within them quite likes a river. Two enormous pebbles are not geometry design as well, the roof and curtain wall grouped into a integrated structure. Comparing “block” buildings surrounding it, Guangzhou Opera looks more graceful and modern. Profile are very dynamic and coherent which profits from parametric design. As Zaha’s inspiration, computational design provides more choices for her to modify her project and optimal her project.


A.2. Computational Architecture


A.3. Parametric modeling Parametric is a “set of equations that express a set of quantities as explicit functions of a number of independent variables, known as “parameters”. Therefore Parametric modeling is the model of parameters (variable). It is not the model which set and analyze by mathematic, and changing some parametric values simply in modeling to build a new one. Parameters could be geometrical parameter and some attribute parameter such like temperature and materials as well. Nowadays, the application of parametric modeling is in wide range more and more. Although the developing time is so short, the speed is so breathtaking. Boldly to say, it is time to change design. This is the evolution of design which base on the technical restoration. Present design environment under the current society condition is very complex, fickle and rapid. Parametric modeling quite suits it and this is the demand of this age and technical characteristics. Therefore, parametric modeling is the certain result which could optimize society resources and increase production efficiency. (defining relationship+willingness of the design= an integral part of the broader design process.) Parametric modeling could apply complex and organic forms commodiously, this is no easy without any parametric design. Moreover, it could create plenty of selections efficiently. Because if designers have designed out parametric modeling, the time that create 10 projects selections mostly equals to the time that create 100 project selections. Architects do not need to waste time to care about if the project is as one likes, the only thing they need to care is the parametric relation between input and output. However, parametric modeling still is immature and not widespread. Not all of designers could be skilled. Parametric design is an emerging concept of design process in which the parameters are interconnceted as a system. One parameter’s change will affect the whole network and cause global influence. It creates systematic, adaptive variation, continous different (rather than mere variety), and dynamic fuguration from the scale of urbanism to scale ot architecture, interior and furniture.

Walt Disney Concert Walt Disney Concert Hall is located in Los Angels and it is the fourth architecture in LA music center. Designer is Frank Owen Gehry who is the owner of Pritzker Prize. Main Hall could contain 2265 seats, Roy Disney theatre could contain 266 seats and a small theatre could contain hundreds seats. Nowadays, this ultra-modern architecture has been the new home for LA Phiharmonic. Meanwhile, Walt Disney Concert Hall has been the new landmark of LA because of its unique profile, it is also a palace of art for music lovers and tourists. Actually, the focus of its profile has already exceed the concert. In his internal designing, Gehry thought that enjoying the music is a kind perfect experience not just limits to sound effect. Hence, he paid more attention on the visual effect, internal temperature and comfort of seats. Gehry applied abundant wave lines to design ceilings which try to create a luxuriant circular music palace. From images, it is clear to see that Gehry uses cracked geometry to break traditional blocked shapes. It is not an integrate construction any more, in further, it is so surreal and abstract so that this is impossible to work out without parametric design. During controling parametres, the shapes of buildings could be changed to what designer wants to get. Music is a kind of invisible art and art is the resource for Gethry’ inspiration. Therefore, if people say that Walt Disney Concert itself is art, that is apt. This is an echo between architecture and art. However, this architecture is not incompatible with LA metropolis and LA’s cultural features. National popular pattern is broke rudely by it. Nevertheless, Gehry creates out an unique style and starts a new page about architectural forms. Of course, under the help of parametric design which means the new pages was created by parametric design.


A.3. Parametric modeling


A.3. Parametric modeling Yas Hotel Yas Hotel was design by Asymptote Architecture which located in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Parametric models were used during designing, it is easy to be identified from the curvilinear geometry. Form and detailings to be control to resulting in tight tolerances and the design of a universal joint conncetion under parametric design. Sci-fi, futuristic are very appropriate to describe it. Yas Hotel was grouped by two 12 levels towers, a neon light curved surfaces cover two elliptic towers. The team at Asympopte Architecture designed the exterior steel-and-glass latticework, which it calls a gridshell, to mirror and capture the speed, streamlined form, and dynamic energy of Formula One racing. Nowadays, the first impression of UAB in people’s mind might be oil, luxury, supercar, rich man......Indeed, exaggerate is the word for UAB. Yas hotel should follow this idea absolutely, on the neon light covers, there are more than 5000 LED on it. Although LED is the favourate energy saving lamp tight now, it is not clever to use them to cover the whole architecture. Because it just becomes an over-wasting landmarking lighthouse. However, one thing must be admit that, according the parametric modelings, the building’s design is a perfect union and harmonious interplay between elegence and spectacel. The search here was inspired by what one could call the “art” and poetocs of motor racing...coupled with the making of a place that celebrates Abu Dhabi as a cultural and technological tour de force.


A.3. Parametric modeling


A.4. Algorithmic Explorations

This part is my personal explorations of algorithmic work in Rhino grasshopper. There are some simple curves and surfaces which I created.

Water Cube is my most interesting architecture, I love water, it is pure and mystery. From LMS, I find a vedio which could similarly create the basic shape of Water Cube. Method to create Water Cube should be the extend of bubble structure concept. When I try to go further, I just stuck, because I still cannot be skilled to grasshopper. However, it This is a NURBS surface, in grassshould base on Voronoi of Mesh. hopper we can use grid controlling to create it, and find “evaluate� order to evaluate all of points such as amount of points. It is a common form in normal life, just likes a tunnel shape. For major assignment gateway, I want to work with it and try to get some nice prototypes.


A.5. Conclusion The architecture of the information age is multidimensional and parametric. It consists of multi-faceted, open-minded and blended spaces pregnant with the entirely new future era. While prople, in our day in age, are pushed into unprecedented rapid unheaval, this upheaval is not a sign of the end of civilization. On the contrary this upheaval is conducive to the release of “inner human potential”, and reveals “human destiny and outstanding talent” in its full and universal sense. If architecture is art, it should be appreciative that parametric design. Progress and prosperous of a city cannot separate the promotion of landmark architecture. The settlement of an architecture is just the beginning of the landmark architecture. It is more important that giving this architecture humanistic spirit and cultrual value, and then tring to identify them and sublime them. Therefore, landmark architecture should not be only an architecture pattern, moreover it is a kind of culture and awareness. Simple architecture will vanish, but art and culture will not. When an architecture is full of connotation of culture and art, it is not only a physical form anymore, but a spiritual symbol. Finally, because of its existence and typical, the city could be famous in worldwide. In the future study, I will fuse the deep meaning to my project such as culture or tradition of the specific area. Soft lines and curves could bring sense of beauty visually, such as Galaxy SOHO and Yas Hotel. Sci-fi and futuristic profile are more popular and easier to accept right now. I will also pay more attention on it. Lighting project is another interesting thing to try which could let project be dreamlike at night.

A.6. Learning outcomes Foundation of parametric design is to use new technology to extend human’s thought. Actually, it is very interesting and still very difficult. Architectural design involves aspect of aesthetics, aesthetics involves tradition and personal subjective feelings, it is not easy to be “parametric”. However, the final goal of parametric design is that all elements and components should be parametric, that is impossible right now. In future, it is hard to say. To be honest, learning Grasshopper will take more time than AutoCAD and Photoshop, grasshopper is more flaxible to design and could form a lot of complex combinations. AutoCAD and Photoshop just belong to parametric assisting design, we could use them to increase work efficency and decrease faults during design. They are not real parametric desing. Obviously grasshopper is in a higher level comparing to them. In my feeling, parametric design transfers architectural design case into the logical inference case, it just replaces subjective imagine to rational thinking. This is my strongest feeling since beginning of semester.


References: Richard Williams, ‘Architecture and Visual Culture’, in Exploring Visual Culture : Definitions, Concepts, Contexts, ed. by Matthew Rampley (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2005), pp. 102 - 116 Yehuda E. Kalay, Architecture’s New Media : Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2004), pp. 5 - 25 Kolarevic, Branko, Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (New York; London: Spon Press, 2003), pp. 3-20, 30-49 Woodbury, Robert (2010). Elements of Parametric Design (London: Routledge) pp. 15-23 Lecture 1&2&3


Case for Innovation