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GOVERNO DO ESTADO DO

AMAZONAS

CURSO DE QUALIFICAÇÃO PROFISSIONAL

INGLÊS BÁSICO

ALUNO (A): -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------PROFESSOR (A): ------------------------------------------------------------------------------

CETAM

SEPLAN

Centro de Educação Tecnológica do Amazonas

Secretaria de Estado de Planejamento e Desenvolvimento Econômico

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CONTENTS •

UNIT 1..................................................................................................... 04 ¾ English, an international language

UNIT 2..................................................................................................... 05 ¾ Greetings ¾ Definite article ¾ Indefinite article ¾ Verb to be

UNIT 3..................................................................................................... 10 ¾ Object Pronouns ¾ Possessive Pronouns ¾ Possessive Adjectives

UNIT 4..................................................................................................... 17 ¾ Demonstrative Pronouns

UNIT 5..................................................................................................... 18 ¾ Interrogative Pronouns

UNIT 6..................................................................................................... 22 ¾ Simple Present Tense – Verb there to be ¾ Present Continuous Tense

UNIT 7..................................................................................................... 26 ¾ Simple Past Tense – To be ¾ Simple Past Tense – Verb There to be ¾ Past Continuous Tense

UNIT 8..................................................................................................... 35 ¾ Simple Present Tense ¾ Simple Past Tense (Regular Verbs/Irregular Verbs)

UNIT 9..................................................................................................... 41 ¾ Simple Future Tense ¾ Future with going to

• UNIT 10................................................................................................... 47 __________________________________________________________________ 2 Centro de Educação Tecnológica do Amazonas - CETAM


¾ Interrogative Pronouns ¾ How much/many? •

UNIT 11................................................................................................... 52 ¾ Present Perfect Tense ¾ Adverbs used with the Present Perfect Tense

UNIT 12................................................................................................... 56 ¾ Past Perfect Tense

UNIT 13................................................................................................... 58 ¾ Plural of Nouns ¾ Degrees of Adjectives

UNIT 14................................................................................................... 65 ¾ Prepositions

UNIT 15................................................................................................... 70 ¾ Reflexive Pronouns

REVIEW EXERCISES ............................................................................ 72

LISTS...................................................................................................... 91

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UNIT 1 INTRODUCTION

English, an international language Why learn English? Because English is the most important international language in the world. Some facts prove that: English is the international language of air and sea travels, of computing, of pop music, of politics, of science and medicine, sports, TV and films. The World today is a very small place. Communication and travel are very extremely quick: think of jets planes, satellite TV, telephones, telex and fax, for example. Because of this, we need a common language, and this language is English. English s the first language in: Australia; Bahamas; Canada; Ireland; Guyana; New Zealand; United States; United Kingdom. And it is the official second in many other countries like: India, Nigeria, South Africa, Israel. English is slowly becoming more than one language, because in every country it is spoken there are differences in some vocabulary words.

SPEAKING Now Interview two friends: Friend 1:__________________________ Friend 2:__________________________ 1. Are you interested in English? 2. Are you organized to learn English? 3. Are you a good English student? Friend 1 YES

NO

Friend 2 YES

NO

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UNIT 2 GREETINGS

Saudações e apresentações

Greetings and introductions

Oi.

Hi.

Tudo bem?

How are you?

Qual seu nome?

What is your name?

Oi, eu sou…

Hi, I am…

Prazer.

Nice to meet you.

Você conhece o João?

Do you know João?

Eu quero lhe apresentar ao…

I’d like you to meet...

Já ouvi falar muito de você.

I’ve heard a lot about you.

VOCABULARY EXPANSION - NOUNS

_______________ _______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________ _______________

_______________

_______________

bus nook bike cup of coffee television __________________________________________________________________ ucação Tecnológica do airplane Amazonas - CETAM carCentro de Edhamburger beaver

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DEFINITE ARTICLE

The (o, a, os, as) Is Joe the American boxer? That’s the magic! The Brazilian soccer players are the best.. Sue and Claire are the American students..

INDEFINITE ARTICLE

A / an (um, uma) A – usado antes de sons consonantais Sam is a lawyer. Bill is a mechanic. An –usado antes de sons vocálicos Jane is an actor.. The game is an hour along. A e an são usados somente no singular. He is a skier, but they are swimmers

EXERCISES 1. Complete with a or an. a) ___________ bus. b) ___________ airplane. c) ___________ book. d) ___________ bike. e) ___________ cup of coffee. f) ___________ beaver. g) ___________ television. h) ___________ car. i) ___________ decision. j) ___________ hamburger. __________________________________________________________________ Centro de Educação Tecnológica do Amazonas - CETAM

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VOCABULARY EXPANSION – JOBS

_____________

_______________

________________

_______________

fireman nurse

______________ _______________

______________ ______________

______________

_______________ ________________ ____________

policeman secretary

mechanic

teacher

student

waiter

actor butcher

painter postman

dentist carpenter

lawyer

VERB TO BE

Subject Pronouns

Verb to be – Simple Present Tense

I

am a fireman.

You

are a policeman.

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He

is a mechanic.

She

is a nurse.

It

is an office.

We

are divers.

You

are lawyers.

They

are students.

1. Verb to be a) Forma afirmativa: She is a nurse. Forma interrogativa: Is she a nurse? Forma negativa: She is not a nurse. b) Formas contratas: Afirmativa: I’m – You’re – He’s – She’s – It’s – We’re – You’re – They’re Negativa: I’m not – You’re not/You aren’t – He’s not/He isn’t – She’s not/She isn’t – It’s not/It isn’t – We’re not/We aren’t – You’re/You aren’t – They’re not/They aren’t

EXERCISES 1. Use the verb to be. a) I________________ a student. b) The world is _________________ a small place. c) We______________ important. d) Spanish ______________ our official language. e) Communication and travel _______________ extremely quick. f) You and I ____________ Brazilian. g) Bruno and Maria _____________ Brazilian. h) A jet plane ____________ very quick.

2. Add the verb to in the negative form. a) These languages ______________ difficult. b) Portuguese _________________ the official language in Europe. c) That _______________ a jet plane. __________________________________________________________________ Centro de Educação Tecnológica do Amazonas - CETAM

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d) I _______________ on vacation. e) The candies _______________ in the stove. 3. Change to question form. a) A telephone is different from a fax. …………………………………………………………………………………… b) This flat is small. …………………………………………………………………………………… c) You are from Fortaleza. …………………………………………………………………………………… d) These words are different in American English. …………………………………………………………………………………… e) This cab is old and slow. ……………………………………………………………………………………

4. Rewrite the sentences substituting the words in bold for subject pronouns. a) Are Ricardo, João and you skiers? Yes, Ricardo, João and I are skiers. …………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………. b) Is that sport radical? No, that sport is not radical. …………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………. c) Are Maria and Susan mountaineers? No, Maria and Susan are not mountaineers. Mary and Susan are swimmers. …………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………. d) Is Diana a driver? Yes, Diana is a driver. …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………….

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GROUP ACTIVITY ¾ Formem grupos e elaborem um dialogo usando os GREETINGS e algumas das profissões aprendidas.

UNIT 3 VOCABULARY EXPANSION – VERBS

Relacione as colunas: 1- To talk

( ) Trabalhar

2- To need

( ) Precisar

3- To help

( ) Ter

4- To work

( ) Perguntar

5- To love

( ) Conversar

6- To drink

( ) Beber

7- To have

( ) Amar

8- To ask

( ) Ajudar

OBJECT PRONOUNS

Subject Pronouns

I

You

He

She

It

We

You

They

Object Pronouns

me

you

him

her

it

us

you

them

Os object pronouns são usados como complementos verbais, vindo imediatamente após um verbo ou uma preposição. Call us tomorrow morning. Peter is so tired! Talk to him.

EXERCISES 1. Fill in the blanks with object pronouns. a) Look at me, Alex! I’m talking to ______________. b) Jeanne needs your help. Please, study with ______________. c) Your computer isn’t working well. Don’t leave ___________ on. __________________________________________________________________ Centro de Educação Tecnológica do Amazonas - CETAM

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d) Samuel loves orange juice. He drinks ___________ every morning. e) I have some books that Henry needs. So, I’m giving ______ to ______. f) We need to see Mary today. Ask _______ to call ________.

VOCABULARY EXPANSION - NOUNS

____________

____________

____________ ____________

____________

house

music

radio

dog

computer

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS

That hamburger is mine. Those sandwiches are yours.

I

Mine

You

Yours

He

His

She

Hers

We

Ours

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They

Theirs

Referem-se sempre ao possuidor.

Não são seguidos de substantivos. I am playing with my father and you are playing with yours.

EXERCISES 1. Complete with the appropriate possessive pronoun. a) ⎯ This isn’t our computer. Is it ____________? ⎯ Yes, it’s mine. b) ⎯ Is Roberto doing his homework? ⎯ Yes, he is. And his sister Jane? ⎯ Jane is doing ___________ too. c) ⎯ Is Carol and Magalia’s dog a Labrador? ⎯ No, __________ is a Cocker Spaniel. d) ⎯ Is Joel’s father well? ⎯ Yes, he is. And yours? ⎯ ____________ is well, too. e) ⎯ Is Susan’s book with Antonio? ⎯ No, ____________ is with Betty.

GENITIVE CASE: noun + ’s + noun

Jane’s video game is new. Carlos’s (Carlos’) VCR is old. The children’s radio is small. Today’s news on TV is positive. My parents’ TV set is big.

A forma possessiva é frequentemente usada com: •

Pessoas ou animais

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Tom’s full name is Thomas Wolf. •

Substantivos no plural não terminados em s The children’s nicknames are Billy and Timmy.

Nomes próprios terminados em s Dennis’s mother is Jane.

Expressões de tempo, medida, lugar e com alguns substantivos, tais como: sun, sea, moon, government. The sun’s rays are not always healthy.

Usa-se somente o apóstrofo com substantives no plural terminados em s The girls’ radios are new.

EXERCISES 1. Use the possessive form. a) The experience of my friend. ………………………………………………………………………………………... b) The house of those people. ………………………………………………………………………………………... c) The first party of Mary Lou. ………………………………………………………………………………………... d) The style of the teenagers. ………………………………………………………………………………………... e) The music of Chopin. ………………………………………………………………………………………... f) The meeting of the ecologists. ………………………………………………………………………………………... g) The protest of the youngsters. ………………………………………………………………………………………... h) The stories of the adults. ………………………………………………………………………………………...

2. Follow de example. a) One of Joe’s colleagues is here. A colleague of Joe’s is here. __________________________________________________________________ Centro de Educação Tecnológica do Amazonas - CETAM

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b) One of Albert’s brothers is living abroad. ………………………………………………………………………………………... c) One of my mother’s friends left for Italy. ………………………………………………………………………………………... d) I am one of Prince’s fans. ………………………………………………………………………………………... d) ”Tropicália” is one of Caetano’s songs. ………………………………………………………………………………………...

VOCABULARY EXPANSION – FAMILY

________________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_________________

_________________

_______________

_______________

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Grandfather

Father

Mother

Sisters

Son

Grandmother

Daughter

Brothers

POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES

My grandfather is shy. His sister is shy. Their mother is shy.

I

My

You

Your

He

His

She

Her

It

Its

We

our

They

their

• Referem-se sempre ao possuidor. • Vêm sempre acompanhados de substantivos. • Não são antecedidos de artigos. John is shy, but his cousin isn’t.

EXERCISES 1. Complete with possessive adjectives. a) William is my brother. ___________ nickname is Bill. b) Joan is living in a four bedroom house now. ________ house is very big. c) We are working in San Francisco, but _________ brothers are working in Los Angeles. d) Prince Charles is talking to ___________ mother. Queen Elizabeth. __________________________________________________________________ Centro de Educação Tecnológica do Amazonas - CETAM

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e) Tim and Tom are playing. They are playing with ___________ pet. f) I am drinking red wine, but __________ favorite drink is white wine. g) My dog is black and white, but ____________ mother is all black. h) Susan and I are eating ____________ pasta now. i) William’s father is prince Charles and ____________brother’s name is Harry. 2. Possessive adjective or possessive pronoun? a) Why don’t you read a poem of

yours

?

b) The T-shirt Sandra is wearing is not ___________. It belongs to _________ brother. c) My friend and I always do __________ lessons at the library. Where do you and ___________ friends do ___________? d) Teenagers usually express ___________ feelings. Do adults express ___________? e) Susan didn’t write ___________ name on that book. Is the book really ___________? f) We develop ___________ creativity. Some ideas of ___________ often become hits. g) Some people create ____________ own fashion style. h) Of course I think about ___________ problems. You have to think about __________ too. i) The magazine I’m reading is not ____________ It has no name on __________ cover. Is it yours? j) Clodovil is famous for _____________ clothes. A dress of __________ costs a lot.

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UNIT 4

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS

Singular: This (isto, este, esta), that (aquilo, aquele, aquela). •

This- refere-se à coisa, animal ou pessoa que está próxima de quem fala.

That- refere-se à coisa, animal ou pessoa que está distante de quem fala.

This e that- podem funcionar como adjetivos, antes do substantivo (this sandwich; that salad), ou como pronomes substantivos (this is for you; that is for me).

Exemplo: What’s this? – pergunta o que é uma coisa que está perto da pessoa que fala. What’s that? – pergunta o que é uma coisa que está longe da pessoa que fala.

Plural: these (estes; estas), those (aqueles; aquelas). •

These- refere-se à coisas, animais ou pessoas que estão próximos de quem fala.

Those- refere-se à coisas, animais ou pessoas que estão distantes de quem fala.

These e those- podem funcionar como adjetivos, antes do substantivo (these cookies; those pies), ou como pronomes substantivos (these are good; those are bad).

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Exemplo: What are these? - pergunta "o que são estas" coisas que estão perto da pessoa que fala. What are those? – pergunta "o que são aquelas" coisas que estão longe da pessoa que fala.

UNIT 5 INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS

Who - quem (usado como sujeito da oração). Whose – de quem. Exemplo: Who is he? He is Paul. Whose computer is this? It’s Ted’s computer.

Who is this man? …………………………….

Who is this woman? ……..……………………………

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EXECISES 1. Make up dialogs. Model: Radio / his / John Smith Whose radio is it? It’s his. Who is this man? He is John Smith. a) Dvd / hers / Joan Green. ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………

b) Computer/ theirs / Carol and Paul Wright. ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………

c) Radio / mine / Kate Miller. ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………

d) TV set / ours / Peter and Robert Watson. ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………

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VOCABULARY EXPANSION - VERS

_____________

_____________

_____________

_____________

_____________

_____________

to wait

to cough to eat

to sit

to sleep

to cry

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS

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Why – Por que? Exemplo: Why are you here? Because I want to see you.

Usos: •

Why – Usado em perguntas.

Because – Usado em respostas.

EXERCISES 1. Match questions and answers. a) Why is he happy? b) Why is he using your mobile phone? c) Why are they leaving? d) Why is Mary studying?

(

) Because he needs to talk to Peter now.

(

) Because he won a lot of money.

(

) Because she has a test.

(

) Because they must sleep early.

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UNIT 6 VOCABULARY EXPANSION – VERBS

______________ ______________

______________

______________

______________

______________

to wake up

to run to write

to sing

to swim

to look

SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE - VERB THERE TO BE

There is / There are – Simple present tense __________________________________________________________________ Centro de Educação Tecnológica do Amazonas - CETAM

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Affirmative

There is (there’s) a participant in radical sports in our group.

Form

There are participants in radical sports in our group.

Interrogative

Is there a participant in radical sports in our group?

Form

Are there participants in radical sports in our group?

Negative

There is not (there isn’t) a participant in radical sports in our

Form

group. There are not (there aren’t) participants in radical sports in our group.

There is – seguido de substantivos incontáveis ou no singular. There are – seguido de substantivos contáveis no plural.

EXERCISES

1. There is or there are?

a) ________________ international films on TV. b) ________________ different countries with different languages. c) ________________ a boy in the elevator. d) ________________ a subway in São Paulo. e) ________________ delicious candies for you on the stove.

2. Change to negative and, then, to interrogative form.

a) There are two correct answers for this questions. There are not (aren’t) two correct answers for this question. Are there two correct answers for this questions?

b) There is a telephone in the classroom. …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………... __________________________________________________________________ Centro de Educação Tecnológica do Amazonas - CETAM

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c) There are difficult words in the text. …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………...

d) There are different languages in Brazil. …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………...

VOCABULARY EXPANSION – VERBS

_____________________

______________________

______________________

_______________________

_______________________

________________________

to smoke

to paint

to think

to walk

to stand

to clean

PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE

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Present Continuous Tense Form: To be (present tense) + verb + ing Affirmative form

Interrogative form

Negative form

I am sleeping.

Am I sleeping?

I am not sleeping.

She is watching TV.

Is she watching TV?

She is not watching TV.

They are dancing.

Are they dancing?

They are not dancing.

1. “ing” a) regra geral: verbo + ing read – reading I am reading the newspaper now. b) verbos terminados em: • e – elimina-se o e e acrescenta-se ing: drive – driving We are driving south. • ie – troca-se o ie por y e acrescenta-se ing: die – dying It is dying. c) verbos monossílabos ou dissílabos oxítonos terminados em: consoante + vogal + consoante: dobra-se a última consoante e acrescenta-se ing run – running

swim – swimming

He is running in the park. We are swimming very well.

2. Usos: •

Enunciar ações que estejam ocorrendo no momento em que se fala: Look! They are talking to the skiers now.

Enunciar situções temporárias:

I am working in Brazil now. __________________________________________________________________ Centro de Educação Tecnológica do Amazonas - CETAM

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EXERCISES 1. Use the present continuous tense. a) (to become) English __________________ an international language. b) (to translate) I __________________ the text. c) (to communicate) We __________________ the fact. d) (to prepare) They __________________ a protest T-shirt.

2. Use the present continuous tense. a) (to sit) You __________________ on my new jeans. b) (to cut) Sue and Jeff __________________ the cake. c) (to put on) We __________________ our t-shirt. 3. Use the present continuous tense. a) (to begin) Democracy __________________. b) (to emit) That factory __________________ carbon dioxide. c) (to control) The policeman __________________ the traffic. d) (to arrest) The sheriff __________________ the bandits.

4. Use the present continuous tense. a) (to lie) They __________________! I want the truth. b) (to improve) You __________________ your English. c) (to lead) He __________________ the students. d) (to get dressed) Wait a minute! Mary __________________. e) (to come) The students __________________ first. f) (to begin) This place __________________ to become political. g) (to study) I __________________ about democracy and dictatorship in the world. h) (to die) Look! This flower __________________. i) (to wait) The band leader __________________ for you. j) (to take) You and I __________________ English lessons now. __________________________________________________________________ Centro de Educação Tecnológica do Amazonas - CETAM

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5. Change to negative form. a) You are thinking about politics. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. b) The boys are going to the beach now. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. c) She is sitting irreverently. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. d) I am writing a text at the moment. …………………………………………………………………………………………….

6. Change to question form. a) I am choosing the correct answer. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. b) That student is getting good marks. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. c) You are really learning the new words. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. d) Many animal species are dying. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. e) People are claiming for justice. …………………………………………………………………………………………….

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UNIT 7 VOCABULARY EXPANSION – VERBS

_____________________________

____________________________

____________________

__________________

_ _____________________________

to count to throw

______________________

to take a bath to catch

to fly to study

SIMPLE PAST TENSE – TO BE

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Affirmative form

Interrogative form

Negative form

I was here yesterday.

Was I here yesterday?

I was not here yesterday.

You were here

Were you here

You were not here

yesterday.

yesterday?

yesterday.

He was here

Was he here

He was not here

yesterday.

yesterday?

yesterday.

She was here

Was she here

She was not here

yesterday.

yesterday?

yesterday.

It was here yesterday.

Was it here yesterday?

It was not here yesterday.

We were here

Were we here

We were not here

yesterday.

yesterday?

yesterday.

You were here

Were you here

You were not here

yesterday.

yesterday?

yesterday.

They were here

Were they here

They were not here

yesterday.

yesterday?

yesterday.

EXERCISES

1. Complete the sentences with the simple past tense of the verb to be. a) Bob and Mary _____________ sad last night. b) _____________ Mr. Smith happy with his job last year? c) I’m sure Ralph _____________ an ambitious man. d) We didn’t understand the explanation last class. It _____________ really difficult. e) Betty and Marian _____________ ugly when they were young.

2. Use the past tense of the verb to be to complete the dialogs below: a) Where _____________ you two years ago? I _____________ in Washington. b) What _____________ the young man’s smile like? __________________________________________________________________ Centro de Educação Tecnológica do Amazonas - CETAM

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It _____________ very kind. c) Who _____________ your first boyfriend? His name _____________ Mark. He and I were thirteen years old. _____________ he your classmate? No, he _____________. He _____________ my cousin’s friend. d) When _____________ you in Canada? We _____________ there in 1998.

VOCABULARY EXPANSION - VERBS

___________

___________ ___________

___________

___________

___________

___________

to fight

to dance

to laugh

to bloom

to get married

to cook to climb

SIMPLE PAST TENSE - VERB THERE TO BE __________________________________________________________________ Centro de Educação Tecnológica do Amazonas - CETAM

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There was / There were – Simple Past Tense Affirmative form

There was a garden in the palace. There were roses in the garden.

Interrogative form

Was there a garden in the palace. Were there roses in the garden?

Negative form

There was not a garden in the palace. There were not roses in the garden.

EXERCISES 1. Change to the simple past tense. a) There are hamburgers in the bridge. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. b) It is a very large palace. There is even a room full of gold. …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………... c) That yellow rose is ugly and it has no smell. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. d) There are good books with games and mazes. …………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………

VOCABULARY EXPANSION – VERBS

________________________

__________________________

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________________________

__________________________

________________________

__________________________

to watch TV

to ride

to come

to go

to speak

to listen

PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE

Past Continuous Tense Form: To be (past tense) + verb + ing Affirmative form

Interrogative form

Negative form

She was writing a

Was she writing a story

She was not writing story

story last night.

last night?

last night.

You were reading

Were she reading tales

You were not reading

tales last night.

last night?

tales last night.

Usos: •

Expressa uma ação que estava acontecendo em determinado momento, no passado: Tom was sending e-mails in the morning.

Expressa uma ação que estava acontecendo em determinado momento, no passado, quando outra ação ocorreu: The prince was playing polo when the reporters arrived.

Com while, expressa duas ações contínuas e simultâneas no passado: While John was studying English, her boyfriend was studying Spanish.

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EXERCISES 1. Use the past continuous tense. a) (to do) Jerry _________________ his lessons at that time. b) (to shit) I _________________ down when he came back. c) (to have) They _________________ breakfast when we arrived. d) (to run) The athlete _________________ when he fell down. e) (to turn) She _________________ off the TV when she saw me. f) (to get) As the children _________________ hungry, we decided to stop for a snack. g) (to think) When you phoned, I _________________ about you. h) (to travel) When they _________________ abroad, they sent me a postcard.

2. Use the past continuous tense. a) (to sing/ to dance) While Eric Clapton _____________________, Madonna _____________________. b) (to daydream/ to clean) The girls _____________________ while their mother _____________________ the house. c) (to walk/ to watch) While she _____________________ in the forest, wolves _____________________ her. d) (to work/ to do) I _____________________ hard while you _____________________ nothing.

3. Change to negative form. a) He was listening to the radio when I turned it off. …………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………….... b) The man was protesting when the police arrived. …………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………….... c) The baby was crying while his mother was preparing some food.

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…………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………....

4. Change to interrogative form. a) The man was dying when they called a doctor. …………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………….... b) She was eating vanilla ice-cream when we met. …………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………….... c) It was raining when we came here. …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………....

5. Give long answers. a) Were you having dinner when your sweetheart phoned? …………………………………………………………………………………………… b) Was your boyfriend reading a tale during the class? ………………………………………………………………………………………….... c) Was your mother working while you were studying? ………………………………………………………………………………………….... d) Were the students feeling nervous when the test began? ………………………………………………………………………………………….... e) Was the bus leaving when saw it? …………………………………………………………………………………………....

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UNIT 8 VOCABULARY EXPANSION – VERBS

______________________

_____________________

______________________

_____________________

______________________

_____________________

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to cut

to hold

to open

to close

to jump

to wash

SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE Affirmative form

Interrogative form

Negative form

I work.

Do I work?

I do not work.

You work.

Do you work?

You do not work.

He works.

Does he work?

He does not work.

She works.

Does she work?

She does not work.

It works.

Does it work?

It does not work.

We work.

Do we work?

We do not work.

You work.

Do you work?

You do not work.

They work.

Do they work?

They do not work.

1. Formação da 3a pessoa do singular (forma afirmativa): a) Regra Geral: verbo + s (get) She gets home late every night. (use) He uses the computer in the afternoon. b) Verbos terminados em: • S, z, ch, sh, x, o: verbo + es (brush) She brushes her teeth three times a day. (go) It goes from north to south. •

Consoante + y: verbo + ies (study) Sally studies English on Tuesdays and Thursday. (cry) The baby cries every night.

Exceção: have – has She has lunch at a restaurant every Saturday.

2. Usos:

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Expressar ações habituais, geralmente indicadas por expressões adverbiais de tempo (every day, Monday, on Fridays…) ou advérbios de frequência (always, never, usually, often, sometimes, seldom…) I always get dressed before breakfast.

Exprimir fatos em geral I like to travel We live in Argentina

Enunciar verdade em geral: Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius.

EXERCISES 1. Use the simple present tense. a) (to work) Tom _________________ in a shopping center. b) (to buy) Teenagers _________________ special type of clothes. c) (to consider) I _________________ this point very significant. d) (to have) She _________________ a special way to say hello. e) (to break) That boy always _________________ school system rules. 2. Use the simple present tense. a) (to wash) She _________________her clothes on Mondays. b) (to teach) Sarah _________________ English. c) (to relax) Joe _________________after lunch. d) (to go) He _________________ to school in the morning. e) (to buzz) A bee _________________.

3. Use the Simple present tense. a) (to cry) She _________________ like a baby. b) (to study) Paul _________________ Spanish. c) (to fly) A jet plane _________________ long distances. d) (to play) He _________________ guitar very well.

4. Use the simple present tense. a) (to study) Mary _________________English twice a week. b) (to say) He seldom _________________ hello to me. __________________________________________________________________ Centro de Educação Tecnológica do Amazonas - CETAM

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c) (to have) That student _________________ to develop his creativity. d) (to protest) They always _________________ against corruption. e) (to live) They _________________ on little money. f) (to teach) He _________________ French to teenager. g) (to do) Henry _________________ his homework in the afternoon. h) (to meet) Sometimes they _________________ their friends at the club. i) (to buy) We _________________ our clothes in shopping center.

5. Change to negative form. a) Certain ideas become a fashion hit. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. b) He studies at home every day. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. c) The teacher explains every new word. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. d) They mobilize only the middle classes. …………………………………………………………………………………………….

e) My mother relaxes after lunch. …………………………………………………………………………………………….

6. Change to interrogative form. a) You have a rebellious trait in your personality. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. b) Youngsters take to the streets to protest. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. c) I develop my creativity. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. d) Mary claims for justice. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. e) Bob does all the work in the shop. …………………………………………………………………………………………….

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VOCABULARY EXPANSION – VERBS

_____________________

_______________________

_____________________

_______________________

_____________________

_______________________

to lose

to put on

to buy

to want

to win SIMPLE PAST TENSE

to spill

Simple Past Tense (Regular Verbs) Affirmative form

Interrogative form

Negative form

I worked yesterday.

Did I work yesterday?

I did not work.

You worked yesterday.

Did you work yesterday?

You did not work.

He worked yesterday.

Did he work yesterday?

He did not work.

She worked yesterday.

Did she work yesterday?

She did not work.

It worked yesterday.

Did it work yesterday?

It did not work.

We worked yesterday.

Did we work yesterday?

We did not work.

You worked yesterday.

Did you work yesterday?

You did not work.

They worked yesterday.

Did they work yesterday?

They did not work.

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a) Forma afirmativa: •

Regra Geral: verbo + ed The concert started at nine o’clock and finished at midnight.

Verbos Terminados em e: verbo + d They closed the store at nine last night.

Verbos terminados em y, precedido de consoante: y + ied The children studied for the test two days ago.

Verbos monossílabos tônicos e dissílabos oxítonos terminados em consoante + vogal + consoante: dobra-se a última consoante e acrescenta-se ed. The train stopped at this station at five o’clock.

b) Expressar uma ação completa no passado, geralmente indicada por advérbios ou expressões adverbiais de tempo (yesterday, a week ago, last month etc.). They opened that mark last month.

Simple past tense (irregular verbs) Affirmative form

Interrogative form

She saw the movie yesterday. They met Bob at a restaurant last night. Did she see the movie yesterday? Did they meet Bob at the restaurant last night? She didn’t see the movie yesterday.

Negative form

They didn’t meet Bob at a restaurant last night.

Há uma lista de verbos irregulares no final da apostila.

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UNIT 9 VOCABULARY EXPANSION – VERBS

_______________________

_____________________

_______________________

_____________________

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_______________________

to turn off to give

_____________________

to turn on to call

to share to throw away

SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE

Affirmative form

Interrogative form

Negative form

I will learn.

Will I learn?

I will not learn.

You will learn.

Will you learn?

You will not learn.

He will learn.

Will he learn?

He will not learn.

She will learn.

Will she learn?

She will not learn.

It will learn.

Will it learn?

It will not learn.

We will learn.

Will we learn?

We will not learn.

You will learn.

Will you learn?

You will not learn.

They will learn.

Will they learn?

They will not learn.

Usos: •

Expressa a provável realização de uma ação no futuro: They will probably keep a laboratory in space.

Exprime ações futures decididas no momento em que se fala: Okay! I’ll think about a solution to the problem.

Além de advérbios ou expressões adverbiais de tempo (tomorrow, next week, in two months etc.), este tempo verbal é geralmente usado com palavras que expressam dúvida, como I think, probably, I’m not sure…

EXERCISES 1. Use the simple future. a) (to study) All of us ________________ hard from now on. b) (to send) The Jetsons ________________ you a letter from Mexico. __________________________________________________________________ Centro de Educação Tecnológica do Amazonas - CETAM

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c) (to open) They ________________ some fashion shops next month. d) (to get) You ________________ strong muscles if you practice sports. e) (to play) Artur Moreira Lima ________________ Mozart in next concert. f) (to have) In a short time we ________________ the money to travel abroad. g) (there to be) Some day ________________ peace in the world.

2. Change to negative form. a) I’ll photograph only the beautiful scenes. ………………………………………………………………………………………….... b) They will come back at 9 o’clock. ………………………………………………………………………………………….... c) The tourist will visit all the churches in the city. ………………………………………………………………………………………….... ………………………………………………………………………………………….... d) We’ll travel to London by plane. ………………………………………………………………………………………….... e) Chess will make you lose weight. ………………………………………………………………………………………….... 3. Change to interrogative form. a) You will remember to bring me the car. ………………………………………………………………………………………….... b) He will love her forever. ………………………………………………………………………………………….... c) The wolf will eat the rabbit. ………………………………………………………………………………………….... d) There will be a good opportunity for us. …………………………………………………………………………………………....

4. First change to negative form and, then, complete. a) He will stay here. (to go back to Bahia) __________________________________________________________________ Centro de Educação Tecnológica do Amazonas - CETAM

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He won’t stay here, he will go back to Bahia. b) Next class we’ll study Spanish. (mathematics) ………………………………………………………………………………………….... ………………………………………………………………………………………….... c) She will be in Paris next month. (to come back to London) ………………………………………………………………………………………….... ………………………………………………………………………………………….... d) Tom Cruise will play guitar in his next film. (to sing) ………………………………………………………………………………………….... ………………………………………………………………………………………….... e) Frank will study to be a doctor. (an engineer) ………………………………………………………………………………………….... ………………………………………………………………………………………….... f) Tomorrow you will pay 5 dollars for a hamburger. (only 4 dollars) ………………………………………………………………………………………….... …………………………………………………………………………………………....

VOCABULARY EXPANSION – VERBS

________________________

_______________________

________________________

_______________________

V

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________________________

to color

to find to fix

to look for to break

FUTURE WITH GOING TO

Form: to be (present tense) + going to + verb Affirmative form

Interrogative form

Negative form

He is going to build a house at the beach. They are going to build a house at the beach. Is he going to build a house at the beach? Are they going to build a house at the beach? He is not going to build a house at the beach. They are not going to build a house at the beach.

Usos: •

Expressa ações que já decidimos ou pretendemos realizar no futuro: I am going to sell my apartment at the beach next year.

Expressa ações que achamos que irão acontecer devido a alguma situação no presente: She has the money now. She is going to pay the doctor tomorrow.

É geralmente indicado por advérbios ou expressões adverbiais de tempo, como: tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, next Sunday, next year, soon. We are going to join the group soon.

EXERCISES 1. Express the future with going to. __________________________________________________________________ Centro de Educação Tecnológica do Amazonas - CETAM

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a) (to rest) We are tired. We _______________________ for a while. b) (to keep) They _______________________ their daily routine. c) (to study) I _______________________ English this afternoon. d) (to overcome) She _______________________ her problems. e) (to go) Your group _______________________ to the museum tomorrow.

2. Change to interrogative form. a) They are going to meet us at school. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. b) We are going to play that game again. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. c) She is going to eat fast food tonight. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. d) The boys are going to prepare a surprise party. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. e) His family is going to travel Saturday night. …………………………………………………………………………………………….

3. First change to negative form and, then, complete. a) I’m going to the movies. (theatre) I’m not going to the movies. I’m going to the theatre. b) I am going to drink a orange juice. (milkshake) ……………………………………………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. c) We are going to visit Pará. (Amazonas) ……………………………………………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. d) You are going to buy a white T-shirt. (purple T-shirt) ……………………………………………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. e) Sam is going to sell his house. (his car) __________________________________________________________________ Centro de Educação Tecnológica do Amazonas - CETAM

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……………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………….

4. Give short answers. a) Is your dog going to take a bath today? ……………………………………………………………………………………………. b) Are those boys going to smoke in the classroom? ……………………………………………………………………………………………. c) Are you going to do this exercises? ……………………………………………………………………………………………. d) Are the students going to read these sentences? ……………………………………………………………………………………………. e) Is your colleague going to behave well at school? ……………………………………………………………………………………………. f) Is your mother going to prepare dinner? …………………………………………………………………………………………….

UNIT 10 INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS

What- qual, quais, o que Exemplo: What is your occupation? __________________________________________________________________ Centro de Educação Tecnológica do Amazonas - CETAM

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What is a electric circuit? What about- que tal Exemplo: What about going to the theater? What … like?- Expressão usada para perguntar, sobre aspectos geográficos, físicos ou psicológicos. Exemplo: What is Manaus like?

When- Quando Exemplo: When does that girl play volleyball? On Tuesdays and Fridays.

VOCABULARY EXPANSION – DAYS

WEEK

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EXERCISES Sunday

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Wake

Go to

Go to

Go to

Go to

Go to

up late

school

school

school

school

school

Have

work at

English

a snack

class

bar

Watch

Go to a

TV

disco

Saturday Work at a snack bar.

Have lunch at grandparents

Swim at a gym

Have English

Swim at a gym

class

Play soccer.

house Watch

Play

TV

soccer

Go to the

Play soccer

cinema

Go to the cinema.

1. Give complete answers about Ronald’s weekly activities. a) When does Ronald work at a snack bar? ……………………………………………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. b) When does Ronald swim at a gym? ……………………………………………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. c) When does he have lunch at his grandparents house? ……………………………………………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. d) When does he play soccer? ……………………………………………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. e) When does he go to the cinema? ……………………………………………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. f) When does he go to the disco? __________________________________________________________________ Centro de Educação Tecnológica do Amazonas - CETAM

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……………………………………………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. g) When does he go to school? ……………………………………………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. h) When does he wake up late? ……………………………………………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. i) What was Ronald doing on Monday? …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… j) What was Ronald doing on Tuesday? …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… l) What was the first thing that Ronald did on Saturday? …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… m) What was the last thing that Ronald did on Wednesday? …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… HOW MUCH / MANY ?

Quantifiers Much / a lot of __________________________________________________________________ Centro de Educação Tecnológica do Amazonas - CETAM

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Affirmative

There is much / a lot of sugar in the cup.

Negative

There isn’t much / a lot of salt in that steak.

Interrogative

Is there much / a lot of milk in the glass? Many / a lot of

Affirmative

There are many / a lot of apples in the basket.

Negative

There aren’t many / a lot of pears in the dish.

Interrogative

Are there many / a lot of oranges in the refrigerator?

Usos: •

Much é usado com substantivos incontáveis. Is there much cheese in the freezer?

Many é usado com substantivos contáveis. There are many watermelons on the table.

EXERCISES 1. Complete the sentences with many or much and the suggested word. a) (milk) I want to prepare pancakes, but there isn’t ______________________. Let’s buy some. b) (apple) There are ______________________ in the refrigerator. Let’s make a pie. c) (orange) I am going to make a fruit salad but there aren’t ________________ _____________ in the refrigerator. d) (rose) Your garden isn’t beautiful now because there aren’t ______________ ___________ in it. e) (sugar) We can’t prepare this pudding because you didn’t bring ___________ _____________. f) (lettuce) Children don’t like to eat ______________________, but they are very good for their health. g) (ham) There isn’t ______________________in the refrigerator, let’s buy some. __________________________________________________________________ Centro de Educação Tecnológica do Amazonas - CETAM

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INTERROGATIVE WORDS • How much cheese do you need for the pie? Uncountable noun • How many melons did you buy yesterday? Countable noun

EXERCISES 1. Make up questions using how many or how much. a)………………………………………………………………………………………… There are three bedrooms in my house. b) ………………………………………………………………………………………… Jane’s father bought a lot of pears yesterday. c) ………………………………………………………………………………………… I drink one cup of tea every day. d) ………………………………………………………………………………………… There were five thieves in the bank last night.

UNIT 11

PRESENT PERFECT TENSE

Present Perfect Tense Form: To have (present tense) + verb (past participle) Affirmative form

Interrogative form

Negative form

I have tried it.

Have I tried it?

I have not tried it.

He has tried it.

Has he tried it?

He has not tried it.

She has tried it.

Has she tried it?

She has not tried it.

It has tried it.

Has it tried it?

It has not tried it.

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We have tried it.

Have we tried it?

We have not tried it.

You have tried it.

Have you tried it?

You have not tried it.

They have tried it.

Have they tried it?

They have not tried it.

1. Formação (past participle) • Verbos regulares: verbo + ed / d / ied to start- started

to live- lived

to cry- cried

• Verbos irregulares: forma própria (Veja a lista de verbos irregulares no final da apostila). to give- given 2. Forma Contrata I have – I’ve You have not – You haven’t She has not – She Hasn’t 3. Usos: • Expressa ações ou situações que começaram no passado e continuam até o presente. We have been here for a long time. Nesse caso, o present perfect tense é bastante usado com: o for (durante, por, há), indicando a duração de algum acontecimento. I’ve have lived in Brazil for two years. o since (desde), indicando o início de um período de tempo. Ann has lived in Brazil since 2005. • O present perfect tense também é usado com os seguintes advérbios de tempo indefinido: lately (ultimamente), recently (recentemente), several times (diversas vezes), many times (muitas vezes). This problem has happened several times. • Expressa ações ou eventos passados completamente terminados, desde que tenham importância no presente. Sam is well now. He has been to a doctor.

EXERCISES __________________________________________________________________ Centro de Educação Tecnológica do Amazonas - CETAM

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1. Complete with the present perfect tense. a) (to try) I ___________________ a cash machine near here. b) (to live) Alex ___________________ in Ireland for many years. c) (to be) We ___________________ friends since childhood. d) (to buy) Your mother and father ___________________ some interesting books lately. e) (to eat) Carol ___________________ a lot of sugar. That’s not good for her because of the carbohydrates. f) (to make) My husband and I ___________________ up our minds, we are going to buy a small house in the country next October. g) (to work) Susan ___________________ well lately. h) (to have) You ___________________ a lot of time to study since last year. i) (to eat) They ___________________ different diets in the last month.

2. Write sentences using for: a) I am here (one hour) I’ve been here for one hour. b) Parents advises us to eat more vegetables. (sometimes) …………………………………………………………………………………………..... c) She does her best to help you. (a long time) …………………………………………………………………………………………..... d) Steven Spielberg is an excellent movie director. (many years) ………………………………………………………………………………………….....

3. Write sentences using since: a) Paul is very shy. (he was a little boy) …………………………………………………………………………………………..... b) Your girlfriend loves you. (she was 13 years old) …………………………………………………………………………………………..... …………………………………………………………………………………………..... __________________________________________________________________ Centro de Educação Tecnológica do Amazonas - CETAM

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c) Eric has some duties at home. (last years) ………………………………………………………………………………………….....

ADVERBS USED WITH THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE

Already: in affirmative and interrogative sentences. We have already lived in Scotland. Have you already lived in Scotland?

Always: in affirmative sentences We have always lived in Scotland.

Ever: in interrogative sentences Have you ever lived in Scotland?

Yet: in interrogative and negative sentences Have you lived in Scotland yet? We haven’t lived in Scotland yet.

Never: in affirmative sentences with negative idea We have never lived in Scotland.

EXERCISES 1. Answer the questions in full using already or never. a) Has she ever been to Houston? No,……………………………………………………………………………………...... b) Have they ever driven so fast? No,……………………………………………………………………………………...... c) Has she ever eaten pretzels? Yes,………………………………………………………………………………………. d) Have you ever read “O Principe”? Yes,………………………………………………………………………………………. __________________________________________________________________ Centro de Educação Tecnológica do Amazonas - CETAM

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2. Complete de dialogs using already, always, ever, never or yet. a) Have you _________________ studied for your English test? No, I haven’t studied for it _________________. b) Are you the author of this book? Yes, I am. It’s such a pleasure to meet you. I have _________________ wanted to talk to you. c) Has your friend _________________ been to Australia? Yes, he _________________ taught Portuguese there. He is a great teacher. What about you? Oh, I’ve _________________ been to Australia.

UNIT 12 PAST PERFECT TENSE

Past Perfect Tense Form: had + verb (in the past participle) Affirmative

Interrogative

I (you, he, she, it, we, you, they) had found a solution before he came up with a new idea. Had they found a solution before he came up with a new idea?

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They had not found a solution before he came up with a new

Negative

idea.

Usos: •

Expressa uma ação que ocorreu antes de uma outra, no passado. When my parents arrived home, I had already gone out.

EXERCISES 1. Complete the sentences with the past perfect tense of the verbs in parentheses. a) (come back) I ____________________ to school before the teachers arrived. b) (teach) Mr. Block ___________________ English in Japan before he went back to England c) (hear) The neighbors ___________________ never ___________________ of any problems with the nuclear power plant before the accident happened. d) (run away) When the police entered the houses, the criminals ___________________ already ___________________. e) (remind) Before I talked to the family, some friends ___________________ me of the problems I might face. f) (decide) Mary ___________________ to drop by her friend’s house before I called her. 2. Rewrite the sentences. a) First she studied, and then she played with her friends. After she had studied, she played with her friends. b) First we hung the menorahs in the windows, and then we went out. …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… c) First the children broke the mirror, and then they carried the pieces outdoors. …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… d) First she cleaned the house, and then she took a shower. __________________________________________________________________ Centro de Educação Tecnológica do Amazonas - CETAM

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…………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… e) First you agreed with the congressmen, and then you complained about their political plans. …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… f) First my cousin gave all his things to a poor family, and then he disappeared. …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… g) First they ate dinner at a restaurant, and then they left for a movie theater. …………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………

UNIT 13 PLURAL OF NOUNS

1. Regra Geral: Acrecenta-se S aos substantivos: Boy- boys

husband- husbands

2. Com Substantivos terminados em s, z, sh, ch, x, o, acrescenta-se es. Beach- beaches

potato- potatoes

Dish- dishes

match- matches

• Exceções: acrecenta-se apenas s aos substantivos: __________________________________________________________________ Centro de Educação Tecnológica do Amazonas - CETAM

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o Terminados em o, precedidos de vogal ou que forem de origem estrangeira: Radio- radios

photo-photos

Zoo- zoos

piano- pianos

o Terminados em ch com som de k: Monarch- monarchs

epoch- epochs

3. Com substantivos terminados em y antecedidos de consoante, elimina-se o y e acrescenta-se ies: Strawberry- strawberries

city- cities

4. Com substantivos terminados em f ou fe, elimina-se o f ou fe e acrescentase ves. Life- lives

wife-wives

knife-knives

Half-halves

leaf- leaves

thief- thieves

5. Alguns substantivos formam o plural de modo irregular: Child- children

person- people

Man- men

foot- feet

Woman- women

tooth- teeth

Ox- oxen

goose- geese

mouse- mice

EXERCISES 1. Change to plural form. a) policeman- _________________

g) tooth-_____________________

b) dishwasher-_________________

h) sandwich-__________________

c) thief-______________________

i) hand-______________________

d) grandchild-_________________

j) fox-________________________

e) piano- ____________________

l) strawberry-__________________

f) chief-______________________

m) tomato-____________________

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n) stomach-___________________

r) cowboy-____________________

o) pockets-___________________

s) housewife-__________________

p) process-____________________

t) boss-______________________

q) typist-______________________

u) mouse-____________________

2. Change to the singular form. a) The women are driving their children to school. ………………………………………………………………………………................... b) These babies have two teeth. ………………………………………………………………………………................... c) Those men are waiting for you. ………………………………………………………………………………................... d) There are people waiting to see her now. ………………………………………………………………………………..................

VOCABULARY EXPANSION - ADJECTIVES

__________________

_____________________

__________________

_____________________

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__________________ strong / weak

_____________________

beautiful / ugly

heavy / light

slow / fast

boring / funny big / small

DEGREES OF ADJECTIVES Degrees of Comparison – Simple Degree As + adjective + as Affirmative sentences

Joe is as rich as Mary Bob is as poor as Joe. Not + as/so + adjective + as

Negative sentences

Jane is not as young as Pamela. Susan is not so old as Carol.

Degrees of Comparison – Comparative degree Adjective + er + than One syllable

Helen is shorter than Julie. This bike is cheaper than that one. More + adjective + than

Two or more syllables

This appliance is more expensive than that one. This problem is more difficult than the other one.

1. Adjetivos monossílabos: •

Terminados em e acrescenta-se apenas r: Joan is nicer than Susy.

Terminados em consoante + vogal + consoante, dobram a consoante final e acrecenta-se er: Sally is fatter than Jim, so Jim is thinner than Sally.

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2. Adjetivos dissílabos: • Na sua memória, formam o grau comparativo usando more + adjetivo + than. Alguns adjetivos de duas sílabas, tais como stupid, gentle, polite, quiet, simple, common, clever, narrow e pleasant, admitem as duas formas: adjetivo + er + than ou more + adjetivo + than. Your son is more polite / politer than mine.

3. Adjetivos terminados em y precedidos de consoante, elimina-se o y e acrescenta-se ier: This exercises is easier than that one. The boys are uglier than the girls. • Exceção: shy- shyer

4. Formas irregulars: Life today is better than in the past. Good – better Bad – worse

EXERCISES

1. Make sentences. a) John / tall / Bob John isn’t as tall as Bob. So John is shorter than Bob. b) Mary / fat / Jane. …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… c) Cristina / fat / Jane …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… d) This problem / difficult / that problem

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…………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… e) This watch / bad / that watch …………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………

VOCABULARY EXPANSION – ADJECTIVES

___________________________

_____________________________

____________________________

_______________________________

____________________________

_______________________________

____________________________

__________________________

clean / dirty old / new

easy / hard wet / dry

empty / full close / far

high / low long / short

Superlative One syllable

The + adjective + est Tom is the tallest boy of his group The most + adjective

Two or more syllables

Helen is the most careful girl of her group. Jane is the most outgoing girl in the school.

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Obs.: o grau superlativo segue as mesmas regras de formação do grau comparativo. •

Formas irregulares: This game is the best of the year. Good – the best Bad – the worst

EXERCISES 1. Complete the sentences with the given adjectives in the superlative: a) (expensive) This is ________________________ computer of them all. b) (new) This is ________________________ book on the store. c) (small) This is ________________________ house on the street. d) (polite) Carol is ________________________ girl in the school. e) (sad) Herbert is ________________________ boy of them all. f) (smart) This is ________________________ dog on the street. g) (careful) My brothers is ________________________ boy I know.

2. Choose the correct alternative: a) Jack is _____________ friend I have. ( ) better than ( ) the best ( ) as good as b) This is _____________ math problem. ( ) the worst ( ) worse than ( ) as bad as c) My grandfather is _____________ my grandmother. ( ) as tall ( ) taller than ( ) the tallest d) This jacket is _____________ that one. ( ) as good __________________________________________________________________ Centro de Educação Tecnológica do Amazonas - CETAM

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( ) the best ( ) better man e) This refrigerator is _____________ that dishwasher. ( ) more expensive than ( ) the most expensive ( ) expensive as f) Helen is _____________ woman in my family. ( ) the older ( ) the oldest ( )older than g) My cat is _____________ your dog. ( ) uglier ( ) uglier than ( ) the ugliest h) The supermarket near your house is _____________ the supermarket near my house. ( ) as big ( ) the biggest ( ) bigger than i) Rio de Janeiro is one of _____________ cities in the world. ( ) the most beautiful ( ) more beautiful than ( ) as beautiful as

UNIT 14 PREPOSITIONS

Prepositions of Time •

At – Com horas, momentos, festividades

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I’ll be there at 2 o’clock. He’s working at this moment. •

On – com dias da semana, dias do mês. I play tennis on Sundays. He was born on may 23rd.

In – com anos, meses, estações de tempo, partes do dia. He graduated in 2003. She is going to México in the summer. He goes to school in the mornings.

During – com substantivos, para mostrar quanto dura uma ação. He slept during the film.

For – Com expressões adverbiais de tempo, para mostrar quanto dura uma ação. He has slept for 2 hours.

From – com um ponto de início quase sempre seguido de till, until ou to para mostrar por quanto tempo a situção continua. I studied German from 2002 till / untill / to 2004.

EXERCISES 1. Complete with the correct prepositions: a) Bob will meet his girlfriend __________________ 8 o’clock. b) I play football __________________ Saturdays. c) Carol will stay in London __________________ the summer. d) He slept __________________ the flight to Caracas. e) We worked in Teresina __________________ June __________________ October. f) Susy will go to Paris __________________ January 22nd. 2. Ask and answer the questions: a) you / 12 / 24 When were you born? I was born on December twenty-fourth. b) Douglas and Michael / 8 / 13 __________________________________________________________________ Centro de Educação Tecnológica do Amazonas - CETAM

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…………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… c) Richard / 9 / 5 / 1998 …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… d) your girlfriend / 11 / 28 /1989 …………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………

3. Ask and answer the questions? a) Jane / mornings When did Jane study English? Jane studied English during / in the mornings. b) Paul / January / July …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… c) the boys / April …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… d) John / Monday / Saturday …………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………

VOCABULARY EXPANSION – PREPOSITIONS

_________________

__________

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_____________________

_______________

_______________ ________________

_____________________________________________________

behind between

in front under

in on

by over

Prepositions of place and direction •

In – com cidades, estados, países. She works in Curitiba. He studies in Texas. He lives in the United States.

On – com endereços incompletes Betty lives on Madison Avenue.

At – com endereços completes. Betty lives at 456 Madison Avenue.

Across – do outro lado

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Sam is across the avenue. •

Next to, Beside – ao lado She lives next to Jane.

Out – para for a, sem complemento. Go out!

Out of – para fora, com complemento. Go out of the room.

In – Para dentro, sem complemento Come in.

Into – para dentro, com complemento Come into the room.

Inside – do lado de dentro. She is inside the car.

Outside – do lado de for a He is outside the car.

Through- através de. They are passing through the tunnel.

Towards- com sentido de direção They went towards the place of the accident.

To- com sentido de destino They went to the party.

Beyond - além de, do outro lado The farm is beyond the city.

Above- You can see a helicopter above the mountains. You can see a helicopter above the mountains.

Bellow – abaixo de, mais baixo do que The antique vase is bellow that big picture.

EXERCISES

1. Make up sentence with the given words. Put the verbs in the correct verb tenses: a) Bill / be / Manaus / now __________________________________________________________________ Centro de Educação Tecnológica do Amazonas - CETAM

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……………………………………………………………………………………………. b) I / buy a house / Regent Street / last year ……………………………………………………………………………………………. c) The movie theater / be / the avenue / the drugstore ……………………………………………………………………………………………. d) The bus / go / Floripa / now ……………………………………………………………………………………………. e) Sally / live / 30 Oxford Street ……………………………………………………………………………………………. f) The train / Rio de Janeiro / leave / afternoon. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. g) Tom / be / the street. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. h) Marcelo’s car / be / the fence. …………………………………………………………………………………………….

UNIT 15 REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS

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I

Myself

You

Yourselves

He

Himself

She

Herself

It

Itself

We

Ourselves

They

Themselves

Usos: •

Como pronomes reflexivos, em que pratica e sofre a ação: Stay away from the fire. You are going to burn yourself.

Como pronome enfático, significando “mesmo(a)”, “próprio(a)”. Nesse caso, pode ser usado logo após o sujeito ou logo após o complemento verbal: John himself repaired the TV. John repaired the TV himself.

Antecedido pela preposição by, significa sozinho(a): She did the math exercises by herself.

EXERCISES 1. Complete the sentences with reflexive pronouns: a) I think she was angry with ___________________ because she was getting fatter. b) We usually enjoy ___________________ when we go to the beach. c) Julie and Sarah are going to live by ___________________ in Rome. d) What’s the problem with you and Maggie? You are repeating ___________________. e) The movie ___________________ was very good, but the artist weren’t. f) She repaired the machine by ___________________. g) My son cut ___________________ when he was playing in the yard. __________________________________________________________________ Centro de Educação Tecnológica do Amazonas - CETAM

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2. Complete the dialogs using reflexive pronouns: a) A: Who cleaned the office? B: I cleaned it ___________________. A: What about Betsy? B: She ___________________ asked me to do that. b) A: I think those man are going to talk to the president __________________. B: The secretary ___________________ told Mr. Todd to talk to them. A: Look, Mr. Todd ___________________ is calling them to go into his office. c) A: Shirley doesn’t have much tome to buy the things for the party. B: Yes, she ___________________ said she will be on vacation. A: Who will buy the things for the party? B: We will buy the things ___________________.

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Choose the correct answer. 1. Can you tell me how to get to ___ bank from here? a) a

b) an

c) the

d) (Nothing)

2. ___ city museum is closed today. a) a

b) an

c) the

d) (Nothing)

3. He is one of ___ smartest people I know. a) a

b) an

c) the

d) (Nothing)

4. I recommend you eat ___ apple pie at this restaurant. a) a

b) an

c) the

d) (Nothing)

5. ___ milk is good for you. a) a

b) an

c) the

d) (Nothing)

6. Would you like to see ___ movie? a) a

b) an

c) the

d) (Nothing)

7. ___ apple a day keeps ___ doctor away. a) a

b) an

c) the

d) (Nothing)

8. I can't believe I failed ___ yesterday's test! a) a

b) an

c) the

d) (Nothing)

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9. Do you have ___ dictionary that I can borrow? a) a

b) an

c) the

d) (Nothing)

10. Is there ___ public telephone near here? a) a

b) an

c) the

d) (Nothing)

11. Please speak ___ little louder. a) a

b) an

c) the

d) (Nothing)

12. He has ___ my car today. a) a

b) an

c) the

d) (Nothing)

13. May I have your ___ phone number? a) a

b) an

c) the

d) (Nothing)

14. Please tell me your ___ address. a) a

b) an

c) the

d) (Nothing)

15. This is ___ easy question. a) a

b) an

c) the

d) (Nothing)

16. I have never seen ___ UFO. a) a

b) an

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c) the

d) (Nothing)

17. What is ___ name of the next station? a) a

b) an

c) the

d) (Nothing)

18. David is ___ best student in our class. a) a

b) an

c) the

d) (Nothing)

19. I went ___ sea during my summer vacation. a) a

b) an

c) the

d) (Nothing) OBJECT PRONOUNS

Choose the correct answer. 1. Is she writing to Leonardo di Caprio? a) her

b)him

c) his

d) it

2. John is making a lot of noise! a) him

b) it

c) its

d)her

3. Please tell Mrs. Smith to come in. Sorry, I don't know ___. a) her

b) him

c) she

d) he

4. I can't find my glasses! You are wearing ___! a) them

b) there

c) they

d) him

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5. Do you like bananas? I love ___ ! a) hers

b) its

c) them

d) they

6. Why is he always talking about Pamela Anderson? He obviously likes ___ ! a) her

b) him

c) she

d) he

7. Where is my book? Oh, dear! I've lost ___ ! a) him

b) it

c) its

d) he

8. Is that Mary's new boyfriend? Don't ask me, ask ___! a) her

b) his

c) it

d) its

9. What is the title of that song? I'm afraid I can't remember ___. a) him

b) it

c) them

d) they

10. Why is David so happy? His friends gave ___a guitar for his birthday! a) him

b) it

c) them

d) they

11. What are you going to do with those old papers? I'm going to recycle ___. a) their

b) them

c) they

d) him

12. Let's see the latest Spielberg movie! I have seen ___ already! a) him

b) it

c) there

d) they

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13. How are your parents? I haven't seen ___ for some time now! a) them

b) there

c) they

d) him

14. Have you met Tom and Lisa? No, I have never met ___ . a) its

b) the

c) them

d) they POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS

Choose the correct answer. 1. It belongs to me, it's ___ a) mine

b) hers

c) his

d) its

2. It belongs to my father, it's ___ a) his

b) mine

c) hers

d) its

3. It belongs to her, it's ___ a) theirs

b) ours

c) hers

d) his

4. It belongs to Mr. and Mrs. Smith, it's ___ a) theirs

b) ours

c) yours

d) its

5. It belongs to me and my wife, it's ___ a) yours

b) mine

c) thers

d) ours

6. It belongs to my mother, it's ___ . a) mine

b) hers

c) his

d) theirs

7. It belongs to him, it's ___ . a) his

b) hers

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c) theirs

d) mine

8. It belongs to you, it's ___ . a) mine

b) ours

c) yours

d) theirs

9. It belongs to the dog, it's ___ . a) its

b) yours

c) hers

d) mine

10. It belongs to them, it's ___ . a) mine

b) its

c) yours

d) theirs

POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES Choose the correct answer. 1. John Anderson forgot ___ book. a) my

b) his

c) her

d) your

2. Mary and Susan talk like ____ mother. a) my

b) your

c) our

d) their

3. Alex and I were late for ___ class . a) its

b) my

c) our

d) their

4. Princess Caroline is wearing ___ new Gucci gown. a) him

b) her

c) your

d) their

5. Where are ___ keys? I can't find them. MY a) my

b) his

c) her

d) ours

6. Where do you keep ___ money, in the bank? YOUR __________________________________________________________________ Centro de Educação Tecnológica do Amazonas - CETAM

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a) their

b) my

c) our

d) your

7. Everyone should bring ___ signed receipt. HIS/HER a) his

b) her

c) your

d) our

THERE IS/ARE Complete with is or are. 1. There _____ many animals in the zoo. 2. There _____ a snake in the window. 3. There _____ a zebra in the grass. 4. There _____ lions in the zoo, too. 5. There _____ many baby lions near their parents. 6. There _____ a bird next to the tree. 7. There _____ many monkeys in the trees. 8. There _____ an elephant in the zoo. 9. There _____ some water in the lake near the elephants. 10. There _____ birds in the zoo. 11. There _____many people visiting the animals today. 12. There _____many children, too. 13. There _____a gorilla in the tree. 14. There _____ some grass under the tree. 15. There _____bananas in the tree with the gorilla. 16. There _____ many birds near the gorilla. 17. There _____ a rock near the tree. 18. There _____ many sharks in the aquarium. 19. There _____ an eel in the aquarium, too. 20. There _____ lots of water for the fish. __________________________________________________________________ Centro de Educação Tecnológica do Amazonas - CETAM

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INFINITIVE OR PRESENT CONTINUOUS Choose the correct answer. 1. Karen is fond ___ chocolate. a) of eating

b) to eat

2. Dan objected to ___ sent home early a) Being

b) Be

3. Debbie succeeded ___ the tournament. a) to win

b) in winning

4. Helen is busy ___ Sunday dinner. a) to prepare

b) preparing

5. It is no use ___ after 9:00. a) Calling

b) to call

6. Clarence gave up ___ cigarettes but not cigars. a) Smoking

b) to smoke

7. I have the pleasure ___ the next guest. a) to introduce

b) of introducing

8. Not everyone enjoys ___ tennis. a) to play

b) playing

9. Bad weather prevented the team ___. a) to play

b) from playing

10. The new museum is worth ___. a) Visiting

b) to visit

11. Fumi is used to ___ natto for breakfast. a) Eat

b) Eating

12. There is no harm ___ the truth. a) in telling

b) to tell

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WAS / WERE Choose the correct answer. 1. A man ___ walking his dog. a) was

b) were

2. A lot of people ___ shopping. a) was

b) were

3. Tom and Sarah ___ watching television. a) was

b) were

4. Two teenage boys ___ fighting. a) was

b) were

5. Sally ___ jogging with her friend this morning. a) was

b) were

6. Another man ___ watching her. a) was

b) were

7. The students ___ using the computer lab. a) was

b) were

8. The young newly weds ___ sleeping. a) was

b) were

9. A baby ___ crying. a) was

b) were

10. A lot of people ___ working. a) was

b) were

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SIMPLE PAST OR PAST CONTINUOUS Complete with simple past or past continuous. 1. Complete the dialogue with simple past or past continuous. A: Hi, Mary. I ___ (see/neg.) you at school last Monday. B: Hello, Bob. I ___ (come/neg.) on Monday. I wasn't ___ (feel) well, so I ___ (decide) to go to the doctor. A: Oh! ___ (be) it serious? B: No, the doctor ___ (examine) me and ___ (tell) me I ___ (have) the flu. He ___ (prescribe) some medicine and ___ (tell) me to go home and rest. A: ___ you ___ (stay) home all day last Monday? B: No, only in the morning. I ___ (have) to work in the afternoon, and guess what? A: What? B: When a friend ___ (drive) me home, he ___ (crash) his car. He ___ (see/neg.) the red light. A: ___ anyone ___ (get) hurt? B: Thank God, nobody ___ (do). A: I'm happy to hear that. Well, Mary, I have to rush now. While I ___ (listen) to your story, I ___ (remember) that my wife ___ (ask) me to go to the mechanic to get our car. See you later. Take care. B: You too. Bye.

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SIMPLE PRESENT VERBS Choose the correct answer. 1. She ___ four languages. a) speak

b) speaks

2. Jane is a teacher. She ___ French. a) teach

b) teaches

3. When the kettle ___, will you make some tea? a) boil

b) boils

4. I always ___ the window at night because it is cold. a) close

b) closes

5. Those shoes ___ too much. a) cost

b) costs

6. The food in Japan is expensive. It ___ a lot to live there. a) cost

b) costs

7. His job is great because he ___ a lot of people. a) meet

b) meets

8. He always ___ his car on Sundays. a) wash

b) washes

9. My watch is broken and it ___ to be fixed again. a) need

b) needs

10. I ___ to watch movies. a) love

b) loves

11. I ___ to the cinema at least once a week. a) go

b) goes

12. They never ___ tea in the morning. a) drink

b) drinks

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13. We both ___ to the radio in the morning. a) listen

b) listens

14. He ___ a big wedding. a) want

b) wants

15. George ___ too much so he's getting fat. a) eat

b) eats

16. The earth ___ round the sun, doesn't it? a) go

b) goes

17. The shops in England ___ at 9:00 in the morning. a) open

b) opens

18. The post office ___ at 5:30 pm. a) close

b) closes

19. Jackie ___ two children now. a) has

b) have

20. Mr. Smith ___ too much. He always has a cigarette in his mouth. a) smoke

b) smokes

21. When the phone ___, please answer it. a) ring

b) rings

DO / DOES / DID Choose the correct answer. 1. I don't like ice-cream, but he ___. a. do b. does c. did 2. You don't need glasses, but I ___. a. do b. does c. did __________________________________________________________________ Centro de Educação Tecnológica do Amazonas - CETAM

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3. Sally didn't enjoy the movies, but everyone else ___. a. do b. does c. did 4. Dave doesn't want to go out tonight, but his girlfriend ___. a. do b. does c. did 5. My parents don't live in England, but I ___. a. do b. does c. did 6. She doesn't smoke, but he ___. a. do b. does c. did 7. I don't know her very well, but my friends ___. a. do b. does c. did 8. This car doesn't go as fast as my old one ___. a. do b. does c. did 9. I don't type very well, but my boyfriend ___. a. do b. does c. did 10. He said he would do it and he ___. a. do

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b. does c. did DON’T / DOESN’T / DIDN’T

Choose the correct answer. 1. Tom likes curry, but his family ___. a. don't b. doesn't c. didn't 2. My sister works in a bank, but I ___. a. don't b. doesn't c. didn't 3. John and Mary went to the movies last night, but I ___. a. don't b. doesn't c. didn't 4. Mr. Jones eats meat, but his wife ___. a. don't b. doesn't c. didn't 5. He wants to, but they ___. a. don't b. doesn't c. didn't 6. I went, but he ___. a. don't b. doesn't c. didn't 7. They bought it, but we ___. a. don't __________________________________________________________________ Centro de Educação Tecnológica do Amazonas - CETAM

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b. doesn't c. didn't 8. I want to go to Paris for my honeymoon, but she ___. a. don't b. doesn't c. didn't 9. He said he would ring, but I ___ think he will. a. don't b. doesn't c. didn't 10. My wife needs glasses now, but her mother still ___. a. don't b. doesn't c. didn't

GOING TO Choose the correct answer. 1. What ___ this weekend? a. you are going to do b. are you going to do c. your gonna do 2. I'm not sure. ___ anything special? a. Are you going to do b. You are going to do c. Is going to do 3. My friend Melissa and I ___ a party. Would you like to come? a. am going to b. are going to go to c. go to __________________________________________________________________ Centro de Educação Tecnológica do Amazonas - CETAM

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4. I'd love to! ___? a. What's it going to be b. Who's go to be c. Where's it going to be 5. It is ___ to be at Ruth's house. a. go b. going c. gonna 6. What time ___ start? a. is it going to b. it's going to c. it 7. At 10 P.M. ___ invite? a. Who are you going to b. What you're going to c. When you going to 8. I don't know. I think ___ anyone. a. I'm going invite b. I'm not go invite c. I'm not going to invite

PLURAL FORMS AND IRREGULAR NOUNS

1. How many__________ (person/people) study English as a second language? 2. Five__________(woman/women) opened a computer services company. 3. Even__________ (child/children) enjoy learning on the Internet. 4. Most basketball players are 6__________ (foot/feet) tall or more. 5. My__________ (tooth/teeth) are sensitive to the cold. __________________________________________________________________ Centro de Educação Tecnológica do Amazonas - CETAM

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6. At daylight savings time, we have to change our__________ (watch/watches). 7. There are 10__________ (man/men) in the Maintenance Department. 8. The__________ (wife/wives) keep their__________ (knife/knives) on the__________ (shelf/shelves).

WHAT / WHEN / WHERE Complete with What, where or when 1. ______ is the name of the President of the United States of America? 2. ______ month is the Chinese new year? 3. ______ is Christmas Day? 4. ______ did Neil Armstrong say when he first landed on the moon? 5. ______ did he first land? 6. ______ did the Americans drop the atomic bomb on Hiroshima? 7. ______ is New York city? 8. ______ is that called in English? 9. ______ are the Hawaiian islands? 10. ______ are you doing this afternoon?

HOW MUCH / HOW MANY Complete with how much or how many 1. How ___ apples did you buy? 2. How ___ do you weigh? 3. How ___ does it cost to fly to America? __________________________________________________________________ Centro de Educação Tecnológica do Amazonas - CETAM

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4. How ___ brothers and sisters do you have? 5. How ___times a day do you brush your teeth? 6. How ___ was your computer? 7. How ___ photos did you take? 8. How ___ water did he drink? 9. How ___ people did you invite? 10. How ___ mistakes did you make on the test?

SHORT ANSWERS Give the short answers 1. Are you busy? Yes, ____________. 2. Do you live in New York? No, ____________. 3. Can Sylvia ride a bike? Yes, ____________. 4. Does your father read the newspaper every day? Yes, ____________. 5. Do you and your friends play soccer on Saturday? No, ____________. 6. Is your sister a doctor? No, ____________. 7. Can Jack and Brian play the piano? Yes, ____________. 8. Is Paris big? Yes, ____________. __________________________________________________________________ Centro de Educação Tecnológica do Amazonas - CETAM

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9. Are you thirsty? No, ____________. 10. Does Robert like pepperoni pizza? No, ____________. 11. Are the students listening to music? No, ____________. 12. Is the supermarket next to the post office? No, ____________. 13. Is Leonardo di Caprio Vietnamese? No, ____________. 14. Is your mother sleeping? No, ____________. 15. Can you speak Portuguese? Yes, ____________.

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LISTS LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS Present Tense

Simple Past

Past Participle

Tradução

arise

arose

arisen

surgir; erguer-se

awake

awoke

awoken

despertar

be

was; were

been

ser; estar

bear

bore

borne

suportar; dar a luz

beat

beat

beaten

bater

become

became

become

tornar-se

begin

began

begun

começar

behold

beheld

beheld

contemplar

bend

bent

bent

curvar, entortar

bet

bet

bet

apostar

bid

bid

bid

oferecer, fazer uma oferta

bind

bound

bound

unir; encadernar

bite

bit

bitten

morder

bleed

bled

bled

sangrar

blow

blew

blown

soprar; explodir

break

broke

broken

quebrar

breed

bred

bred

procriar, reproduzir

bring

brought

brought

trazer

broadcast

broadcast

broadcast

build

built

built

irradiar, transmitir (via TV ou rádio) construir

buy

bought

bought

comprar

cast

cast

cast

arremessar, atirar

catch

caught

caught

pegar, apanhar

choose

chose

chosen

escolher

come

came

come

vir

cost

cost

cost

custar

creep

crept

crept

rastejar

cut

cut

cut

cortar

deal

dealt

dealt

negociar, tratar

dig

dug

dug

cavar

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do

did

done

fazer

draw

drew

drawn

desenhar

drink

drank

drunk

beber

drive

drove

driven

dirigir (veículo)

eat

ate

eaten

comer

fall

fell

fallen

cair

feed

fed

fed

alimentar

feel

felt

felt

sentir

fight

fought

fought

lutar

find

found

found

encontrar

flee

fled

fled

fugir, escapar

fly

flew

flown

voar; pilotar

forbid

forbade

forbidden

proibir

forget

forgot

forgotten

esquecer

forgive

forgave

forgiven

perdoar

freeze

froze

frozen

congelar

get

got

gotten

obter

give

gave

given

dar

go

went

gone

ir

grind

ground

ground

moer

grow

grew

grown

crescer; cultivar

have

had

had

ter

hear

heard

heard

ouvir

hide

hid

hidden

esconder

hit

hit

hit

bater, atingir

hold

held

held

segurar; abraçar

hurt

hurt

hurt

ferir, machucar; magoar

keep

kept

kept

manter

know

knew

known

saber; conhecer

lay

laid

laid

lead

led

led

pôr; botar ovos (Compare "LIE" com "LAY") liderar

leave

left

left

deixar, partir

lend

lent

lent

let

let

let

emprestar (Compare "LEND" com "BORROW") deixar

lie

lay

lain

lose

lost

lost

deitar (Compare "LIE" com "LAY") perder

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make

made

made

fazer, fabricar

mean

meant

meant

significar

meet

met

met

encontrar; conhecer

overcome

overcame

overcome

superar

overtake

overtook

overtaken

alcançar; conseguir

pay

paid

paid

pagar

put

put

put

pôr, colocar

quit

quit

quit

desistir, abandonar

read /riid/

read /réd/

read /réd/

ler

ride

rode

ridden

ring

rang

rung

cavalgar; andar (de bicicleta); passear tocar (campainha)

rise

rose

risen

run saw

ran sawed

run sawn

erguer-se (Compare "RISE" com "RAISE") correr; concorrer (em eleição) serrar

say

said

said

dizer

see

saw

seen

ver

seek

sought

sought

buscar; procurar

sell

sold

sold

vender

send

sent

sent

enviar

set

set

set

pôr, colocar; ajustar

shake

shook

shaken

tremer

shed

shed

shed

derramar

shine

shone

shone

brilhar, reluzir

shoot

shot

shot

atirar; filmar

show

showed

shown

mostar, exibir

shrink

shrank

shrunk

encolher

shut

shut

shut

fechar

sing

sang

sung

cantar

sink

sank

sunk

afundar

sit

sat

sat

sentar

slay

slew

slain

matar, assassinar

sleep

slept

slept

dormir

slide

slid

slid

deslizar, escorregar

speak

spoke

spoken

falar

spend

spent

spent

gastar

spin

spun

spun

fazer girar

spit

spit / spat

spit / spat

cuspir

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spread spring

spread sprang

spread sprung

espalhar; disseminar, difundir saltar

stand

stood

stood

ficar em pé; suportar

steal

stole

stolen

furtar

stick

stuck

stuck

fincar, enfiar

sting

stung

stung

picar, ferroar

stink

stank

stunk

feder

strike

struck

struck

golpear; atacar

strive

strove

striven

esforçar-se

swear

swore

sworn

jurar

sweep

swept

swept

varrer

swim

swam

swum

nadar

swing

swung

swung

balançar

take

took

taken

tomar

teach

taught

taught

ensinar; lecionar

tear

tore

torn

rasgar

tell

told

told

contar

think

thought

thought

pensar

throw

threw

thrown

jogar, atirar

undergo

underwent

undergone

submeter-se a

understand

understood

understood

entender

uphold

upheld

upheld

sustentar; apoiar

wear

wore

worn

vestir; usar (roupa)

win

won

won

vencer

write

wrote

written

escrever

LIST OF CARDINAL NUMBERS 11- eleven

30 – thirty

12 – twelve

31 – thirty-one…

13 – thirteen

40 – forty

14 – fouteen

50 – fifty

15 – fifteen

60 – sixty

16 – sixteen

70 – seventy

17 – seventeen

80 – eighty

18 – eighteen

90 – ninety

19 – nineteen

100 – one hundred

20 – twenty

200 – two hundred

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21 – twenty-one

1.000 – Thousand

22 – twenty-two

2.000 – Two thousand…

23 – Twenty three…

1.000.000 – one million

FALSES COGNATES Palavra em

significa em português…

e não…

Actually

na verdade ..., o fato é que ...

Atualmente

nowadays, today

Adept

especialista, conhecedor

Adepto

supporter

Amass

acumular, juntar

Amassar

crush

Anticipate

aguardar, ficar na expectativa

Antecipar

to bring forward

Application

inscrição, registro, uso

Aplicação

investment

Appointment

hora marcada

Apontamento

note

Appreciation

gratidão, reconhecimento

Apreciação

judgement

Argument

discussão, bate boca

Argumento

reasoning, point

Assist

ajudar, dar suporte

Assistir

to attend, to watch

Assume

presumir

Assumir

to take over

Attend

assistir, participar de

Atender

to help; to answer

Audience

platéia, público

Audiência

interview

Balcony

sacada

Balcão

counter

Baton

batuta (música), cacetete

Batom

lipstick

Beef

carne de gado

Bife

steak

Cafeteria

refeitório tipo universitário

Cafeteria

coffee shop

Camera

máquina fotográfica

Câmara

tube (de pneu)

Carton

caixa de papelão

Cartão

card

Cigar

charuto

Cigarro

cigarette

Collar

gola, colarinho, coleira

Colar

necklace

College

faculdade, ensino de 3º grau

Colégio

high school

Commodity

artigo, mercadoria

Comodidade

comfort

Competition

concorrência

Competição

contest

Comprehensive

abrangente, amplo, extenso

Compreensivo

understanding

Compromise

entrar em acordo

Compromisso

appointment; date

Contest

competição, concurso

Contexto

context

Convenient

prático

Conveniente

appropriate

Costume

fantasia (roupa)

Costume

custom, habit

Data

dados (informações)

Data

date

Deception

fraude, o ato de enganar

Decepção

disappointment

Design

projetar, criar; projeto, estilo

Designar

to appoint

Editor

redator

Editor

publisher

ingles…

que em ingles é…

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Educated

instruído

Educado

well-mannered

Emission

descarga (de gases, etc.)

Emissão

issuing

Enroll

inscrever-se

Enrolar

to roll; to curl

Eventually

finalmente, conseqüentemente

Eventualmente

occasionally

Exciting

empolgante

Excitante

thrilling

Exit

saída, sair

Êxito

success

Expert

especialista, perito

Esperto

smart, clever

Exquisite

belo, refinado

Esquisito

strange, odd

Fabric

tecido

Fábrica

plant, factory

Genial

afável, aprazível

Genial

brilliant

Grip

agarrar firme

Gripe

cold, flu, influenza

Hazard

risco, arriscar

Azar

bad luck

Idiom

expressão idiomática, linguajar

Idioma

language

Injury

ferimento

Injúria

insult

Intend

pretender, ter intenção

Entender

understand

Intoxication

embriaguez, efeito de drogas

Intoxicação

poisoning

Jar

pote

Jarra

pitcher

Journal

periódico, revista

Jornal

newspaper

Lamp

luminária

Lâmpada

light bulb

Legend

lenda

Legenda

subtitle

Library

biblioteca

Livraria

book shop

Location

localização

Locação

rental

Lunch

almoço

Lanche

snack

Magazine

revista

Magazine

department store

Mayor

prefeito

Maior

bigger

Medicine

remédio, medicina

Medicina

medicine

Moisture

umidade

Mistura

mix, mixture, blend

Motel

hotel de beira de estrada

Motel

hot-pillow joint

Notice

notar, aperceber-se

Notícia

news

Novel

romance

Novela

soap opera

Office

escritório

Oficial

official

Parents

pais

Parentes

relatives

Particular

específico, exato

Particular

personal, private

Pasta

massa (alimento)

Pasta

paste; folder.

Pretend

fingir

Procurar

to intend, to plan

Pull

puxar

Pular

to jump

Push

empurrar

Puxar

to pull

Range

variar, cobrir

Ranger

to creak, to grind

Realize

notar, perceber, dar-se conta

Realizar

to accomplish

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Recipient

recebedor, agraciado

Recipiente

container

Requirement

requisito

Requerimento

request, petition

Résumé

curriculum vitae, currículo

Resumo

summary

Stupid

burro

Estúpido

impolite, rude

Support

apoiar

Suportar

can stand

Tax

imposto

Taxa

rate; fee

Trainer

preparador físico

Treinador

coach

Turn

vez, volta, curva; virar, girar

Turno

shift; round

Vegetables

verduras, legumes

Vegetais

plants

Comparative & Superlative Adjective

Comparative

Superlative

Bad

Worse

the worst

Clever

Cleverer

the cleverest

Far (distance)

Farther / further

the farthest / the furthest

Far (more, additional)

Further

the furthest

Good

Better

the best

Hot

Hotter

the hottest

Little

Less

the least

Many

More

the most

Much

More

the most

Narrow

Narrower

the narrowest

Pretty

Prettier

the prettiest

Shy

shyer

the shyest

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