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CABI Annual Report Europe UK



CABI improves people’s lives worldwide by providing information and applying scientific expertise to solve problems in agriculture and the environment © CAB International 2012. CAB International trading as CABI and recognized in the UK as an International Organization as defined by the UK International Organizations Act 1968 and formalized by Statutory Instrument 1982 No. 1071. CABI Head Office, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8DE, United Kingdom. This annual report was prepared by the staff of CABI Europe UK and covers activities in 2011. Images are attributed to the photographers as far as is known and are by CABI staff unless specified. Front cover photo – Dr Eric Boa showing farmers symptoms of cocoa diseases at a Plantwise plant clinic in Beni, North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo (photo: Julien Lamontagne-Godwin) Inside front cover photo – Assessing contamination levels in fuels using filtration and dilution methods (photo: Georgina Godwin-Keene) Citation details: CABI (2012) CABI Annual Report. Europe UK 2011. CABI, Egham, UK. For copies of this report, please contact CABI, Bakeham Lane, Egham, Surrey, TW20 9TY, UK (, or visit the CABI website


CABI annual Report

contents preface 4

knowledge for development

highlights 5

Plantwise clinics

project highlights


Bioservices highlights


student highlights


partnerships and meetings


invasive species biological control of Japanese knotweed biological control of Himalayan balsam in the UK


Plantwise clinics: developing plant health systems in Latin America


Plantwise clinics: new and emerging plant diseases

40 41

the Good Seed Initiative


10 11

knowledge management


assessment of the rust Puccinia lantanae for the control of Lantana camara in Australia, New Zealand and South Africa


preliminary assessment of the rust Phakopsora jatrophicola as a potential biocontrol agent for Jatropha gossypiifolia 15 biological control of kahili ginger, Hedychium gardnerianum 16 assessment of the rusts Ravenelia acaciae-arabicae and R. evansii for biological control of Acacia nilotica in Australia


searching for specific pathogens to control Canada thistle, Cirsium arvense, in the USA

18 19 20

biological control of water fern, Azolla filiculoides, using the North American weevil Stenopelmus rufinasus 21 lenient grazing of agricultural grassland: promoting in-field structural heterogeneity, invertebrates and bird foraging


Plantwise clinics: developing plant health systems in Asia


biological control of Crassula helmsii in the UK

evaluation of Chondrostereum purpureum as a cut-stump treatment to control re-sprouting of Rhododendron ponticum in the UK


Plantwise clinics: developing plant health systems in Africa

agrodealers in Uganda

biological control of floating pennywort, Hydrocotyle ranunculoides 12

biological control of hygrophila in Florida’s waterways with natural enemies from India




compilation of folders for CTA’s Knowledge for Development bilingual website


systematic review on ‘What is the evidence of the impact of agricultural trade liberalization on food security in developing countries?’


biological control review


training in new plant diseases for Natural England


BioNET 49 BioNET Global Secretariat 2010


Bioservices 50 the Microbial Identification Service


the Genetic Resources Collection


GRC: low temperature mycoinsecticides from Antarctic fungi


GRC: European Consortium of Microbial Resources Centres – EMbaRC


the Global Biological Resource Centre Network – GBRCN demonstration project


Environmental and Industrial Biology


Molecular Biology


commodities 23

publications, theses, reports & presentations


helping to protect oil palm production in South-east Asia and the Pacific 24

CABI staff Europe UK


about CABI


join the debate: CABI Biofuels Information Exchange


continuing the fight to protect oil palm production in Southeast Asia


assessing the impact of diseases on the biofuel crop Jatropha curcas 27

acronyms 66

control of stored product pests using the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana 28 registration and distribution of biological control agents in Ghana


pesticides and Indonesian cocoa


rehabilitating cocoa for improving livelihoods in the South Pacific


coffee green scales in Papua New Guinea: highland arabica coffee and yield loss


incursion prevention and management of coffee berry borer in Papua New Guinea and Indonesia’s South Sulawesi and Papua provinces


adapting to climate change




preface Much has been happening at CABI’s centre at Egham with exciting developments and expansion of businesses on several fronts in 2011. These events are also pleasing because they embed and build on CABI’s core skills in plant health and genetic resources and thereby make a significant contribution to food security and conservation of environmental resources across the globe. But a caveat is in order, to emphasise a point I made in previous reports: a lot of what is reported here involves the synergistic operation of CABI centres and other businesses, so 2011 project activities and outputs in this report in several cases reflect a much wider CABI effort and contribution. Also, in this context, I would like to thank up-front, on behalf of all staff based at Egham, all our partners and clients, national and international, for all their hard work and contributions, and the continuing financial support by a wide group of funding agencies. CABI’s Plantwise, now a tremendous global programme, has the ambitious target of scaling up plant clinic operations across many countries by 2016. Staff at the Egham centre with their extensive experience in plant clinic work, headed by Eric Boa and Rob Reader, made key contributions to the training of other CABI staff and also backstopping existing plant clinics in advance of the clinic expansion in 2012 and onwards. A single diagnostic unit has now been established at Egham (under Paul Bridge, Director Bioservices, and Mike Rutherford) for clinic activities and to streamline identifications coming in from countries lacking the capacity to do them locally. This year also saw the final stage of the highly successful SDC-funded Good Seed Initiative project, led by Steve Edgington (who took over from Sam Page on her retirement), which has been building capacity for landless and marginal farmers in Bangladesh and other countries to gain access to better-quality seed to improve harvests. Important progress was made in several projects under CABI’s Commodities theme. A new project, led by Alex Brook, was started with the Coffee Industry Corporation of Papua New Guinea, funded by ACIAR, to understand the impact that the invasive coffee green scales (Coccus spp.) have on the industry; while in the cocoa sector Mike Rutherford completed a study on the supply and use of pesticides in cocoa production and trade for Indonesia as there is growing interest in the extent and manner to which pesticides are used in agriculture and the implications for products and public health. Mitigating the effects of climate change is becoming very important with consultancy work by Peter Baker for the coffee industry increasing. Peter also gave the Max Havelaar 2011 Lecture in October in Rotterdam in the Netherlands, where he spoke about the effects of climate change on coffee and smallholder farmers. Issues surrounding non-native invasive species and the need for effective prevention and management are topics that an increasing number of countries are facing, especially as advice or even policy on pesticide use is changing across the globe. In the UK, CABI took on a large project from Defra, led by Dick Shaw, to scale up CABI’s work looking at the potential for biological control of riparian weeds. This is in response to the tightening of regulations in the European Union on the use of herbicides in these systems. Trail blazing this project is CABI’s ongoing work on the biological control of Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica) and in 2011, releases of the biological control agent, the psyllid Aphalara itadori, were expanded. Research has also been making significant progress on the biological control of grain storage pests using entomopathogenic fungi; here, the CABI team led by Bryony Taylor is working with a consortium of partners. CABI is continuing with its work in support of invasive species management in other regions with a new project, led by Norbert Maczey and funded by Defra, on the impacts and potential for biological control of invasive plant species for the South Atlantic UK Overseas Territories. Besides this, our research on the biological control of invasive kahili ginger (Hedychium gardnerianum) for Hawaii and New Zealand, headed by Djami Djeddour, has entered into a new phase of funding with promising results for potential biological agents from surveys in the native range of ginger in the Himalayas. Bioservices has seen a number of significant developments including being a partner in developing and establishing genetic resource centre networks; for example its role in the development of the Microbial Resources Research Infrastructure within the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures. Also, in support of the Microbial Identification Service, work has commenced with the Molecular Biology facility to convert validated microbial DNA sequences into a functional database. Unfortunately, we have had to say ‘goodbye’ to BioNET, at least here at the CABI centre at Egham. Changes in funding policy have led to a rethink on how BioNET should move forward. But the network and LOOPs will operate under a new framework with support from CABI in South-east Asia. Finally, staff from the centre at Egham have been contributing to many conferences and meetings around the world and scientific papers to a wide range of journals. All of these activities, further highlights, and much more, is in following pages. I hope you enjoy reading it. Sean T. Murphy, Regional Director


CABI annual Report

Plantwise plans for expansion The Plantwise initiative has set itself the ambitious target of reaching five million farming households by 2016. To achieve this goal will take a significant expansion in the number of countries and clinics involved, as well as a strong funding base. By the end of 2011 Plantwise had been able to secure US$30 million in committed funding through grants from the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) and the UK’s Department for International Development (DFID), as well as contributions from Australia, China, the Netherlands and the European Union (EU). In 2012 the Plantwise programme will be rolled out across all of CABI’s centres, bringing together expertise from across the organization. Throughout 2011 many planning workshops were held to develop and finalize the plans necessary for this expansion. One of the highlights was a training event held in Kenya to introduce staff to the modules used in the plant doctor training. This was a unique event that brought together staff from all of the CABI centres. The training not only offered an opportunity to learn more about the Plantwise materials but also helped to foster the linkages and teamwork needed to deliver the wider Plantwise programme.

invasives in the South Atlantic UKOTs In February a Defra (Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, UK) contract with a value of UK£75,000 over two years was won which will enable the Invasive Species team to look at the impact of non-native species in the South Atlantic UK Overseas Territories (UKOTs) and to assess the feasibility of biological control. This project follows on from a larger EU project led by the RSPB (Royal Society of the Protection of Birds) to assess the status of invasive species in that region. Within the framework of the Defra project, invasive alien species were prioritized for biological control and stakeholder meetings will be held in spring 2012 to discuss the findings.

coffee berry borer in Sulawesi and New Guinea The global pest coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; CBB) is present in Indonesia’s South Sulawesi and Papua provinces, and threatens Papua New Guinea (PNG). Most coffee in these regions is produced by smallholders and CBB is a particular threat to their livelihoods. CABI is participating in a project funded by ACIAR (Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research) to address the problem of CBB throughout the island of New Guinea and in Sulawesi. Identifying pathways of invasion and spread is a critical step in invasive species management. In 2011 CABI completed a report critically analysing possible pathways of entry and spread of CBB in PNG and discussing implementation of surveillance in the country. The findings of the report, which were presented at the mid-term review meeting for the project in Sulawesi, identified a need for national staff training in CBB identification to strengthen the local capacity to respond to potential incursions. This will be an element of the next stage of the project.


project highlights

managing grazing to enhance insect prey for farmland birds Agricultural intensification has led to worrying declines in farmland birds in the UK, particularly in western areas. A two-year extension to successful a one-year project funded by Defra is allowing CABI to explore how the use of simple grazing management techniques could enhance invertebrate prey availability for farmland birds on grazed grassland, and thus boost their populations. As well as assessing the biodiversity benefits and agronomic costs of various grazing regimes, the aim is to recommend options suitable for inclusion in Natural England’s Entry Level or Higher Level agrienvironment schemes. In 2011 work on the extended project started with surveys in south Devon.

boost for wild ginger biocontrol Kahili ginger (Hedychium gardnerianum), the most invasive of three wild gingers, is an aggressive invader in many countries including New Zealand and Hawaii. The ginger biological control project had a very successful year with US$20,000 secured from The Nature Conservancy of Hawaii (TNCH) for the US- and New Zealand-supported ginger consortium in April. In July a rewarding survey was conducted in India, in terms of both discovering a number of interesting agents with potential for biological control in the plant’s natural range and obtaining export permits from the Indian authorities allowing transfer of the live material for further studies to CABI’s UK quarantine facilities at Egham.



Water Framework Directive projects In August the contract for a number of projects falling under the EU Water Framework Directive initiative was signed with Defra, securing funding of £1.3 million over four years. The official green light allowed work to progress on all involved projects. A first survey for natural enemies on Crassula helmsii was conducted in Tasmania and Victoria in Australia in November/December, which revealed a number of potential agents not previously reported from the plant. For the Hydrocotyle project, options to conduct survey work in Brazil were explored and a first visit was undertaken in October/November to discuss collaboration with the relevant in-country organizations. A further highlight was a late addition to the Water Framework Directive project portfolio for continuation of work on the Mycosphaerella leaf spot of Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica), which will receive funding of £131,000 for 2012 and 2013.

widespread releases of the Japanese knotweed psyllid The startling impacts of Japanese knotweed in the UK led to it becoming a pioneer target for classical weed biocontrol in Europe. This year saw the scaling up of releases of the psyllid Aphalara itadori, which in 2010 became the first sanctioned release of a weed biocontrol agent in the UK following approval by Defra. In 2011, mass rearing undertaken at our facilities in Egham in spring/early summer allowed releases all over England. The extensive monitoring project continued to deliver valuable pre-impact data, and field trials were carried out on behalf of British Columbia, Canada.

Acacia nilotica proves a difficult target in Australia Prickly acacia (Acacia nilotica) is one of Australia’s worst weeds, infesting millions of hectares of arid and semi-arid land, and set to spread further. It has long been a target of classical biological control, and recent identification of the Australian population as the Indian subspecies A. nilotica ssp. indica raised hopes that India might provide useful biocontrol agents. Indeed, two distinct rust species were found, but when CABI tested them against Australian Acacia species, both were shown to attack one Queensland native species. Owing to the risk they would thus pose to one of the flagship genera of the Australian flora, any further evaluation has had to be abandoned. Nevertheless, although the results of this project led to the potential agents being rejected, our Australian sponsors were extremely satisfied with the work conducted, which was undertaken within a tight timeframe and with a limited budget, and CABI was complimented on its scientific capabilities.

pesticide use in the cocoa sector in Indonesia CABI completed a study on the supply and use of pesticides in cocoa production and trade for Indonesia. The country is Asia’s largest cocoa producer and production has risen in recent years despite pest and disease constraints. Although these can be managed with pesticides as part of a broader management approach, there is growing interest in the extent and manner to which pesticides are used in agriculture and the implications for products and public health. For the study, CABI worked in partnership with the Indonesian cocoa industry, conducting a survey and one-to-one consultations with cocoa farmers and traders, pesticide retailers and other key stakeholders involved in the supply chain across seven major cocoa producing provinces. The study’s findings, which show the extent to which responsible agrochemical practice is implemented and suggest areas where improvements can be made, can be used to improve agrochemical practice and help to ensure that national and international quality standards are met.

pilot-scale trials demonstrate Beauveria’s efficacy in storage pest control Increasing restrictions on pesticide use against storage pests in Europe together with insecticide resistance have made insect pest control in UK farm and commercial grain stores a challenge. A consortium including CABI has been developing a strain of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana as part of an integrated pest management (IPM) system. Pilot-scale trials conducted in 2011 showed its efficacy against a range of common grainstore pests.

azolla business grows Azolla filiculoides is a weed of New World origin that is now considered one of the UK’s most invasive aquatic plants. Over the last ten years, CABI has developed a business based on the host-specific North American weevil Stenopelmus rufinasus as a biological control agent. This weevil was introduced and used successfully in South Africa, but was already present in the UK probably following an accidental ‘hitch-hiker’ introduction on azolla. The weevil is mass produced by CABI and supplied on demand to private individuals and water managers within the UK, controlling azolla at all scales; from small ponds to lakes and canals. CABI’s azolla business continues to grow and in 2011 over 30,000 weevils were shipped to satisfied customers across the country.


CABI annual Report

Bioservices highlights genetic resource centre networks Building on CABI’s role as a partner in developing and establishing genetic resource centre networks, our involvement in the establishment of the Microbial Resources Research Infrastructure (MIRRI) within the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) continued with the European Commission (EC) funding a preparatory phase project. We believe that MIRRI will play a vital role in helping genetic resource collections meet the high-quality operational standards required today, and provide a template for replication on a regional basis around the world. Work has also started in CABI member countries to help them establish microbial domain Biological Resource Centres (BRCs), specifically in Brunei, Chile and Kenya.

database of microbial DNA sequences To support CABI’s Microbial Identification Service (MIS), work began with the Molecular Biology facility to convert validated microbial DNA sequences into a functional database. The database will be ready for use by the identification service in 2012.

training courses This year we ran a first and well-received molecular identifications course, in addition to a training course for 16 participants in culture collection management and operation.

Fungal Sampling Kit During 2011 the demand for the Environmental and Industrial Biology isolation and identification Fungal Sampling Kit (FSK) increased, proving very popular with environmental consultants. Using the kit, the customer can carry out several methods of sampling fungal contamination, and then return the kit to CABI for analysis.

student highlights Rob Tanner For the Invasive Species team, a highlight of 2011 was Rob Tanner’s successful defence of his PhD thesis ‘An ecological assessment of Impatiens glandulifera in its introduced and native range and the potential for its biological control’ just before Christmas (20 December).

partnerships and meetings climate change and coffee Peter Baker gave the Max Havelaar 2011 Lecture on 27 October in Rotterdam in the Netherlands, where he spoke about ‘Climate change effects on coffee and farmers’. The theme of his lecture was the impact of climate change for small producers in developing countries. His presentation focused on the need to move beyond a gradualist and market-based approach towards strong leadership from within the coffee industry in order to tackle urgent issues. Earlier in the year, Peter gave a presentation at the ISEAL Alliance conference, on 8 June in Zurich, Switzerland, entitled ‘Had we but world enough, and time…’. The ISEAL Alliance is an association of standards setters and the presentation concentrated on the inadequacy of standards in their present form to tackle the problem of accelerating climate change. Using the case of coffee production, Peter’s examples of deficiencies included the spread of coffee wilt disease, increased landslide risks, over-extraction of groundwater and prolonged drought.

invasives in print and in person Members of the Invasive Species team, either as first authors or co-authors, have published or submitted a number of papers and book chapters during 2011 covering the target weeds Japanese knotweed and Ambrosia, biocontrol of weeds in general, the safety and regulation of microbial control of weeds, molecular techniques in biocontrol, and the impact of invasive species on invertebrate herbivores. Oral and poster presentations were given at the XIII International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds (ISBCW) and the preceding bioherbicide workshop in Hawaii in September, where the Invasive Species group was strongly represented. Invasive Species team members were invited speakers at the Latin American Mycology Congress in Costa Rica, and the Linnean Society in London, as well as being filmed and presented on BBC Country File for our work on Himalayan balsam (Impatiens glandulifera).



oil palm meetings In May, Julie Flood attended the Bah Lias Annual Research Review in Indonesia to provide strategic direction for the Pathology Section at the research station for 2011. Later in the year, Julie attended the International Palm Oil Congress (PIPOC) ‘Agriculture, Biotechnology and Sustainability’, which was organized by the Malaysian Palm Oil Board and held on 15–18 November in Kuala Lumpur. She presented two papers with Bah Lias counterpart staff.

safe use of pesticides in cocoa Mike Rutherford gave a keynote paper at the International Workshop on Safe Use of Pesticides in Cocoa and Harmonized Legislation for Food Safety, which was held on 25–27 January in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. On the previous day, Mike participated in the International Confectionery Association (ICA) Pesticide Coordination Task Force meeting in Kuala Lumpur. He also gave a presentation on NCA (National Confectioner’s Association, USA) cocoa pesticide research at the Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute in Jember on 15 October.

red palm mite A paper by Bryony Taylor and Sean Murphy, written in collaboration with P. M. Rahman and V. V. Sudheendrakumar of Kerala Forest Research Institute in India, and entitled ‘Within-season dynamics of red palm mite (Raoiella indica) and phytoseiid predators on two host palm species in south-west India’, has been accepted for publication in a special issue of Experimental and Applied Acarology, ‘Biology and Control of the Red Palm Mite, Raoiella indica’. The issue, which will be published in 2012 and is available online, collates current global research on red palm mite

invasives stall at Royal Holloway Science Open Day The Invasive Species team was invited by Royal Holloway, University of London to contribute a stall on invasive species during their Science Open Day held in March 2011. The group put a diverse exhibition together with displays of the various target species CABI works on, including a number of invasive weeds relevant to the UK, i.e. Japanese knotweed and Himalayan balsam. During the whole day the stall was extremely well visited and all members of the group enjoyed the interest shown by visiting adults and children alike.


CABI annual Report

Managing invasive weed and pest species has been at the heart of CABI’s mission since its inception 100 years ago, and continues to be a mainstay of the service the organization provides. The Invasive Species team continues to deliver a high-quality service to many customers through its growing number of committed staff and long-standing and extensive network of collaborators around the world. Our increasing project portfolio in 2011 has enabled the Invasive Species group to employ an additional three young scientists to help us achieve our outputs. Our European biocontrol initiative continues to be an important focus of our work. It was set up to deliver solutions for invasive weeds in Europe; in particular those that threaten EU member states’ abilities to meet their Water Framework Directive obligations. The current financial crisis has affected uptake in mainland Europe but the Dutch water boards confirmed their wish to work with us on Azolla filiculoides in 2011. This followed their observation of the growth and success of our azolla weevil supply activities in the UK. Further releases of the Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica) biological control agent Aphalara itadori (a sap-sucking psyllid) were undertaken at an increased number of sites, and using much larger numbers of the bug, in the UK in 2011. We are now monitoring eight release sites and eight control sites throughout the year for establishment and impact. This project continues to provide valuable ecological data on the impact of Japanese knotweed, as well as a framework for other countries invaded by the weed who are interested in releasing the psyllid. For example, we carried out some caged and open field studies to look at the behaviour of the psyllid outside the constraints of the laboratory for Canada. We are very pleased to have signed a contract with Defra for four years of funding to continue our studies on the biological control potential of three Water Framework Directive target weeds: Himalayan balsam (Impatiens glandulifera), floating pennywort (Hydrocotoyle ranunculoides) and Australian swamp stonecrop (Crassula helmsii). A damaging rust pathogen belonging to the genus Puccinia, which commonly infects Himalayan balsam in the Indian Himalayan native range of the plant, is showing great promise. The complicated life cycle of this rust was elucidated in 2011 and intensive host-specificity testing carried out. Surveys of floating pennywort in Argentina and Brazil in 2011, followed by studies in Argentina, demonstrated that a weevil and a fly as well as a rust fungus have excellent biocontrol potential for this weed in the UK. Surveys for natural enemies of Australian swamp stonecrop conducted in Australia suggest that weevils and flies are also primary natural enemies of this water weed, together with a number of damaging leaf-spot pathogens. These agents are now being studied under quarantine in the UK. In addition, Defra are funding a two-year project looking at the potential for weed biological control in the UKOTs of the South Atlantic. This project, which began in 2011, will provide a means of prioritizing target invasive species. Investigations have continued, in collaboration with the Ministry of Agriculture (MoA) – CABI Joint Laboratory of Bio-safety in China, on a US Department of Agriculture- (USDA-) funded project investigating fungal biocontrol agents for Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) in the USA. Seed funding has also been secured from USDA to look at the potential for biocontrol of yellow Himalayan raspberry (Rubus ellipticus var. obcordatus). Furthermore, focusing on Florida, the team has been investigating natural enemies of hygrophila (Hygrophila polysperma), a water plant native to north-east India. CABI continues to provide third-country quarantine studies, and our Australian sponsors were impressed with the high-quality research delivered on the evaluation of two rust pathogens from India for biocontrol of prickly acacia (Acacia nilotica ssp. indica). Unfortunately the work revealed that an Australian endemic Acacia species is a host for both rusts. Work on the rust fungus Puccinia lantanae for the control of lantana weed (Lantana camara) in New Zealand was completed in 2011. A petition has been submitted to the New Zealand authorities to release this rust together with another rust (Prospodium tuberculatum) that has been previously released in Australia. Work has again increased pace on kahili ginger (Hedychium gardnerianum), invasive in both New Zealand and Hawaii, and we organized a workshop at the XIII ISBCW in Hawaii. A team of four scientists from the UK attended this high profile conference, held every four years, to promote CABI’s activities in both the scientific and publishing fields.

invasive species


This year the Invasive Species team has been very active in publicizing its activities in various media. Our invasive species blog ( is also building a good following and the use of social media is being explored. Dick Shaw (Regional Coordinator) and Carol Ellison/Marion Seier (Theme Coordinators), Invasive Species



biological control of Japanese knotweed Japanese knotweed, Fallopia japonica, is able to push through tarmac and drains as well as displace native species, reducing overall floral and faunal diversity. Since 2003, a consortium of sponsors has supported a research programme to develop biological control of this species in the UK and North America.

Examining field test plants for eggs (photo: R. Shaw)

The Japanese psyllid Aphalara itadori was released as a biological control agent against Japanese knotweed at isolated sites in the UK in 2010. Adults were observed in early 2011 at some of the release sites, indicating that they had successfully survived the winter. Since larger numbers of released adults are more likely to result in establishment, larger releases were made at an additional five sites in England and Wales in spring 2011. The monitoring programme, which is aimed at detecting any impacts of the biocontrol agent on the target plants as well as any adverse effects on the receiving environment, continued with four sampling rounds undertaken. The intensive sampling provided detailed information about the dynamics of the knotweed and the native vegetation and invertebrate community. So far no impact of the psyllid, which still occurs in very low numbers, has been recorded. There is continuing interest from North America in the psyllid as a potential biological control agent, and the rare opportunity to carry out open field host-range tests in the UK was exploited in 2011. Open field and field cage experiments were conducted over the summer, focusing on the development of psyllids on potted plants of Japanese knotweed and three non-target test plants from North America. The development of the psyllid was compared under multiple-choice conditions in three settings: inside a Japanese knotweed stand, outside the stand and inside mesh cages. While the true field tests produced low numbers of eggs with poor survival, the large-cage studies were effective and confirmed the very narrow realized host range of the psyllid and low risk to nontarget species owing to much lower oviposition and survival rates. It is anticipated that a continuation of the study will take place in 2012 to look specifically at adult oviposition behaviour by setting up a study more representative of possible field conditions in Canada. Large-scale releases of the psyllid are again planned for 2012 and it is hoped that it will become more widely established, populations will grow and its impact on Japanese knotweed will soon become apparent. It is also anticipated that research into the Mycosphaerella leaf spot can be restarted in 2012, as this fungal pathogen showed good promise but was not taken forward alongside the psyllid.

CABI: R. Shaw (, A. Brook (, G. Cortat (, K. Jones (, R. Eschen (, C. Pratt ( and S. Wood (, in collaboration with G. Clewley ( Funded by Defra, the Welsh Assembly Government, the Environment Agency, Network Rail, the South West Regional Development Agency and British Waterways, coordinated by Cornwall Council, in the UK, and the Ministry of Forests, Lands and Natural Resource Operations, British Columbia, in Canada.

Adult psyllids showing overwintering coloration in autumn 2011 (photo: R. Shaw)


CABI annual Report

biological control of Himalayan balsam in the UK Impatiens glandulifera, commonly known as Himalayan balsam, is a highly invasive riparian plant species which has rapidly colonized river-banks throughout the UK. Dense monocultures of the species outcompete native plant species for limited resources and recent research shows that the presence of I. glandulifera can lead to the displacement of invertebrate functional groups. Due to the plant’s impact on native biodiversity, I. glandulifera has been the target of a classical biological control programme since 2006; nine surveys have been conducted throughout the plant’s native range and numerous natural enemies (both arthropods and plant pathogens) have been identified. Current research is focused on the complex life cycle and host range of Puccinia komarovii, an autoecious rust fungus (i.e. it completes its life cycle on a single host), which was first observed infecting I. glandulifera in the native range (the Indian region of the Himalayas) in 2008. The teliospores (the overwintering spore stage) germinate in the spring, triggered by a rise in ambient temperature, and produce basidiospores, which infect the newly emerging seedlings to express as aeciospores on the new shoots some four to five weeks later. The aeciospores subsequently infect the leaves of I. glandulifera which results in the formation of the urediniospores, which become air-borne and infect the wider population. The cycle of infection and expression of urediniospores continues throughout the summer until a change in chemical composition of the ageing plants induces the formation of teliospores in the autumn months. The combination of stem and leaf infection severely weakens the structure of the plant and results in reduced fecundity and in some cases mortality of infected individuals.

Impatiens glandulifera seedlings germinating at Harmondsworth Moor, Middlesex, UK (photo: R.A. Tanner)

In June 2010, the rust pathogen was imported into the UK from India on live I. glandulifera plant material and UK biotypes were successful infected in our quarantine facilities. A series of inoculation tests resulted in the formation of urediniospores on the underside of the leaves which were viable for re-infecting the host. In addition, infecting mature plants with urediniospores resulted in the formation of teliospores. Both teliospores and basidiospores have been successfully germinated under controlled conditions, triggered by priming the spores at 4°C for a two-month period. The last link in the experimental confirmation of the life cycle, the infection of Himalayan balsam seedlings by basidiospores, is yet to be confirmed and experiments are ongoing. Research into evaluating the host range has progressed in 2011; to date 60% of the species on the test plant list have been tested and so far no non-target symptoms have been observed.

CABI: R.A. Tanner (, C.A. Ellison (, S. Varia (, R. Shaw (, H.C. Evans, Emeritus Fellow (, S. Wood (, L. Hill ( and L. Saini (, in collaboration with the National Bureau for Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR – an institute of ICAR), New Delhi, in India, and the Plant Protection Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, in Hungary. Funded by Defra.

Microscope image of developing urediniospores on Impatiens glandulifera (×200 magnification) (photo: R.A. Tanner)

Teliospore germination with the formation of the basidiospores (photo: R.A. Tanner)

The proposed life cycle of Puccinia komarovii on Impatiens glandulifera in the Himalayas (designed by S. Wood)



biological control of floating pennywort, Hydrocotyle ranunculoides Floating pennywort, Hydrocotyle ranunculoides, is arguably one of Europe’s most problematic aquatic weeds. Considered native to Central and South America, it was introduced to Europe in the 1980s through the aquatic nursery trade (often wrongly labelled as the European native H. vulgaris). It has subsequently spread to become a serious invader in waterbodies in a number of European countries including Belgium, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and the UK where it forms dense, rapidly growing vegetative mats in still or slow-flowing waterbodies. The mats can alter whole ecosystems and degrade important wetland habitats through deoxygenation of water and exclusion of native vegetation and associated fauna, as well as impacting on recreational and commercial users of watercourses and increasing flood risk by blocking sluices. Dick Shaw sampling for Hydrocotyle ranunculoides natural enemies in Brazil (photo: K. Jones)

Floating pennywort has already cost millions of euros to control in Europe, and increasingly frequent flooding is transporting the plant to new systems. Annual costs to the UK economy in terms of management, disposal and its effect on tourism have been estimated at £25,467,000. These invasions will severely limit the chance of waterbodies reaching good ecological status as defined by the EU’s Water Framework Directive. EU withdrawal of chemicals licensed near water and ineffective mechanical control means the invasion has gone beyond any containment and eradication stage and longer-term solutions, such as biological control, are being investigated in the UK. In 2011, Defra agreed funding for a four-year project to investigate the potential for biological control of weeds impacting Water Framework Directive targets, which include H. ranunculoides. The project aims to build on some of our previous research which highlighted the potential of many insect and pathogen species from the native range in Argentina and to prioritize them further for hostrange testing. A scoping survey to Brazil late in 2011 identified a similar suite of damaging insects associated with the weed and the research now aims to build on collaborations and test insect and pathogens, including a Puccinia rust, the ubiquitous and highly damaging Listronotus weevil and shoot-mining flies, against an agreed test plant list for the UK. The potential to include other European stakeholders from the Netherlands and the UK was also investigated and will continue into 2012 and throughout the life of the project.

Puccinia rust on Hydrocotyle ranunculoides in Argentina (photo: R. Shaw)

CABI: D. Djeddour (d., R. Shaw (, M. Seier (m.seier@, K. Jones ( and G. Cortat (, in collaboration with USDA-SABCL (South American Biological Control Laboratory) in Argentina, and EMBRAPA (Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária) and UNESP (Universidade Estadual Paulista) in Brazil. Funded by Defra.

Floating pennywort mats on the River Soar in Leicestershire, UK (photo: the Environment Agency, UK)


CABI annual Report

biological control of Crassula helmsii in the UK Crassula helmsii is known as Australian swamp stonecrop or New Zealand pigmyweed owing to its area of origin. Originally introduced to the UK by the horticultural industry in 1911, this aquatic plant can dominate still and slow-moving waterbodies, often in areas of conservation importance. Crassula can tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions and has the ability to regrow from tiny fragments. This and limits on herbicide use near waterbodies mean that control options are restricted. Late in 2009, CABI was commissioned to investigate the potential for biological control. This included a survey in Australia and New Zealand where damaging natural enemies were consistently observed in the field, confirming Crassula as a good target. It was decided that future surveys would be concentrated in Australia as molecular work suggested that Australia is the origin of C. helmsii in the UK. A stem-mining weevil was prioritized for further study and was imported from Tasmania to CABI’s quarantine facility in 2011. The weevil was established in culture in quarantine and the life cycle was studied. Host-range investigations were conducted with a range of plants in the family Crassulaceae and other aquatic plants which share the same habitat in the UK as C. helmsii. The weevil’s suitability as a biocontrol agent is currently being considered by analysing the results of these tests.

Crassula helmsii invading a natural waterbody in the UK (photo: S. Varia)

In 2011, additional funds were secured to continue this research as part of a group of biocontrol projects that contribute to achieving the targets of the EU’s Water Framework Directive. In December 2011 our staff travelled to Australia where they conducted exhaustive surveys for natural enemies in Victoria and Tasmania. Further previously unrecorded insects were observed feeding on C. helmsii and the presence of plant pathogenic activity was noted. The organisms collected have now been exported to CABI’s quarantine facilities in the UK for identification. In 2012 we will establish them in culture, and carry out host-range and life-cycle studies. Further survey work will also be taking place in 2012 to cover areas not previously surveyed throughout the growing season.

CABI: S. Varia (, R. Shaw (, S. Wood (, M. Seier (, L. Hill ( and C. Pratt (, in collaboration with DPI (Department of Primary Industries), Victoria, and the University of Tasmania, Australia. Funded by Defra and the Environment Agency, UK.

Stem-boring weevil (photo: R. Shaw)

Diseased Crassula helmsii in its native range in Australia (photo: S. Varia)

Surveying for natural enemies in Tasmania, Australia (photo: S. Varia)



assessment of the rust Puccinia lantanae for the control of Lantana camara in Australia, New Zealand and South Africa

Lantana camara flowers (photo: G. Cortat)

Lantana camara, or lantana weed, is a woody, thicket-forming shrub native to tropical and subtropical America. It was spread around the world as an ornamental plant in many genetically different forms, bred by man. It has become a major invasive pantropical weed, predominantly of pastures, plantation crops and natural ecosystems. In Australia lantana is considered a serious weed along a wide coastal strip from Cairns in Queensland to Sydney in New South Wales. In New Zealand it has been established in the wild since 1890, but has only become an aggressive invader in the upper Northland region on the North Island since the 1980s. In South Africa it is distributed from the northern provinces, through the coastal provinces around to the Western Cape. Twentynine forms of the species are invasive in Australia, two in New Zealand and at least 18 in South Africa. Biological control methods that utilize natural enemies from the native range of L. camara have been implemented in 29 countries since 1902. Around 40 species of natural enemies have been released to date. However, the biocontrol agents that have become established have been limited in their impact, mainly because they have a more restricted climatic tolerance than lantana. In addition, each agent can usually infect only a few of the lantana forms. In order to achieve effective control over its entire weedy range, more agents are being considered for release. A leaf rust pathogen, Puccinia lantanae, is widely found infecting lantana in its native range. However, a specific isolate found in Peru causes significantly more damage than previously observed isolates. As well as infecting the leaves, it damages the petioles and stems and causes systemic infections that lead to whole shoots dying. This Peruvian strain of the rust is being considered for introduction into Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. Screening work was completed for Australia in 2010, and the dossier that was prepared has been undergoing evaluation in 2011. The main issue causing concern is that the rust was found to cause mild infection symptoms on the purported Australian native species Verbena officinalis.

Puccinia lantanae leaf infection (photo: S.E. Thomas)

In 2011, host-range screening of non-target plants for New Zealand was completed and, as anticipated, none of the test species was susceptible to infection by P. lantanae. An application to release the rust in New Zealand has now been submitted to the Environmental Protection Authority. This application also included a second rust pathogen, Prospodium tuberculatum, which was previously screened by CABI and released in Australia in 2001. Research suggests that the two rusts will complement each other as Puccinia lantanae may prefer the warmer and wetter areas of the north of New Zealand, whereas Prospodium tuberculatum is subtropical and will depend less on high humidity and rainfall. The outcome is currently pending a public consultation process but it is hoped that both rusts will be released in New Zealand in 2012. As there are no native members of the Verbenaceae in New Zealand, release of these biocontrol agents should cause no controversy. Screening of the same isolate of Puccinia lantanae is in the final stages for South Africa. Fourteen closely related species of Lippia and Lantana will be tested but results to date indicate that the rust is specific to the orange and light pink forms of Lantana camara. CABI: S.E. Thomas (, C.A. Ellison (, G. Cortat (g.cortat@ and L. Hill ( Funded by DEEDI (Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation), Queensland, Australia, Landcare Research, New Zealand, and ARCPPRI (Agricultural Research Council – Plant Protection Research Institute), South Africa.

Puccinia lantanae and Prospodium tuberculatum infection on the same leaf of Lantana camara (photo: S.E. Thomas) 14

CABI annual Report

preliminary assessment of the rust Phakopsora jatrophicola as a potential biocontrol agent for Jatropha gossypiifolia Jatropha gossypiifolia, commonly called bellyache bush, is a perennial shrub belonging to the family Eurphorbiaceae. Native to the Caribbean rim and islands, this species was introduced into Australia in the late 19th century for medicinal and ornamental purposes. The plant has now become a serious and expanding invader in northern Australia’s rangeland. Forming dense thickets, bellyache bush poses a major threat to native biodiversity and the productivity of invaded land. Furthermore, all parts of the plant, and in particular the seeds, are toxic to livestock and humans. Jatropha gossypiifolia is a declared noxious weed in many parts of Australia and since 1996 has been the target of a biological control programme that has focused on insect agents. Following a decision in 2008 by DEEDI, Queensland, to include the evaluation of fungal pathogens as potential biocontrol agents in the ongoing control programme, CABI commenced research into the biology, pathogenicity and host specificity of the rust fungus Phakopsora jatrophicola, which is associated with the invasive shrub as well as other Jatropha species in its native range.

Jatropha gossypiifolia infected with Phakopsora jatrophicola in the quarantine greenhouse (photo: M. Seier)

Initial preliminary screening under quarantine greenhouse conditions using a P. jatrophicola strain ex J. gossypiifolia collected from Veracruz, Mexico, showed this rust strain to be specific to the genus Jatropha. Limited sporulation was observed on selected non-target Jatropha species, but strain specialization was apparent and the respective Jatropha species cannot be considered as fully susceptible hosts of the tested strain. However, as the biofuel crop species Jatropha curcas, itself a recorded host of the rust, was among the partially susceptible non-targets, the decision was taken to assess additional P. jatrophicola strains ex J. gossypiifolia from Brazil, Trinidad and the Pacific region of Mexico for their infectivity and virulence towards the target J. gossypiifolia and the non-target J. curcas. The P. jatrophicola strain ex Trinidad was selected for full host-range testing as experimental results indicated that it causes reliable infection and high virulence on all major Australian biotypes of J. gossypiifolia but only restricted sporulation on J. curcas. Basic biological parameters, i.e. temperature and dew requirements for spore germination and infection, were established for the selected P. jatrophicola strain as part of research for an MSc thesis. Full host-range testing of the Trinidadian strain commenced in spring 2011 with 41 non-target species to be assessed. The evaluation of the selected P. jatrophicola strain is progressing well and macroscopic as well as microscopic assessments of plant–pathogen interactions show the rust strain to be specific to the genus Jatropha. Host-range testing is on course for completion in 2012. CABI: M. Seier (, G. Cortat (, K. Jones (k.jones@cabi. org), K. Pollard ( and L. Hill (, in collaboration with the CSIRO Mexican Field Station and DEEDI, Queensland, Australia. Funded by Queensland Government (Land Protection Funds; Blueprint for the Bush – Reclaim the Bush – a pest offensive) and Meat and Livestock Australia.

Resistant test plant species Breynia oblongifolia expressing a plant defence reaction in the form of necrotic spotting as a result of an incompatible plant–pathogen interaction (photo: M. Seier)

Kate Pollard assessing non-target species inoculated with Phakopsora jatrophicola in the quarantine greenhouse (photo: M. Seier)

Bellyache bush (Jatropha gossypiifolia) infestation in northern Queensland, Australia (photo: K. Dhileepan, DEEDI) EUROPE UK Centre


biological control of kahili ginger, Hedychium gardnerianum With the approval of natural enemy export from India in 2010 and repeated surveys highlighting the impact and potential of several insect and pathogen species, the project against kahili ginger, Hedychium gardnerianum, entered into its fourth phase in 2011 with continued support from a US and New Zealand consortium. Kahili ginger is the most invasive of three invasive Hedychium species (or wild gingers) and has become an aggressive colonizer of indigenous and intact forest habitats in many countries, including Hawaii and New Zealand, smothering unique and delicate ecosystems and threatening specialized communities.

Surveying in Sikkim (photo: C. Pratt)

A survey was carried out in July in the Indian state of Sikkim, facilitated once again by collaborators in New Delhi at NBPGR and by the Sikkim Department of Forests, Environment and Wildlife Management. Prioritized natural enemies including the stem-mining chloropid, Merochlorops dimorphus, the striking leaf- and shoot-feeding weevil Tetratopus sp. and leaf-folding lepidopteran larvae were exported to the UK for rearing studies and the initiation of host-range testing. A test plant list for New Zealand was approved consisting of 11 species, and communications with Hawaii to approve a test plant list for the USA have begun. A presentation and dedicated workshop at the XIII ISBCW in Waikaloa, Hawaii, provided an opportunity to engage other stakeholders and provide a summary of the research progress so far. Hedychium gardnerianum continues to threaten forest ecosystems in South Africa, the Macaronesian archipelago and La RĂŠunion as well as New Zealand and Hawaii, and project development discussions with existing sponsors and other interested parties will hopefully lead to further support in 2012 to enable comprehensive rearing studies and host-range testing.

CABI: D. Djeddour (, C. Pratt ( and L. Saini (l.saini@cabi. org), in collaboration with NBPGR, New Delhi. Funded by Landcare Research, New Zealand, and TNCH, USA.

Camadena sp. lepidopteran larva on Hedychium gardnerianum (photo: D. Djeddour)

Tetratopus sp. weevils on Hedychium (photo: C. Pratt) 16

CABI annual Report

assessment of the rusts Ravenelia acaciaearabicae and R. evansii for biological control of Acacia nilotica in Australia Prickly acacia (Acacia nilotica), in the family Mimosaceae, was introduced as a shade and fodder tree into Australia during the early 20th century. The plant currently invades around six million hectares of arid and semi-arid land in Queensland, impacting greatly on the environment as well as the economy, particularly the livestock industry. Prickly acacia has the potential to spread throughout the arid regions of the whole of northern Australia and is therefore widely considered as one of Australia’s worst weeds and classed as a ‘Weed of National Significance’. Acacia nilotica has been the target of a biological control programme since the early 1980s with survey work for natural enemies conducted in parts of Africa and Pakistan. More recently the Australian populations of this Afro-Asian tree have been identified as A. nilotica ssp. indica and the focus for survey work has shifted to India, from where this subspecies originates. Taxonomic studies revealed that two distinct rust fungi are associated with the species in India: Ravenelia acaciae-arabicae and R. evansii. Both rusts were considered to have potential as biological control agents due to the impact they inflict on their host and their apparent field host specificity.

Uredinial sporulation of Ravenelia acaciae-arabicae on Acacia nilotica ssp. indica in CABI’s quarantine greenhouse (photo: M. Seier)

Evaluation of R. acaciae-arabicae commenced in June 2010 with studies into its infection biology and preliminary host-range testing using its uredinial stage against 17 selected Acacia species under quarantine conditions at CABI’s facilities in the UK. Non-target Acacia species showed a range of susceptibility towards the urediniospores of the rust, from expressing no visible macroscopic symptoms to extensive necrotic leaf spotting following rust inoculation. Critical, however, was the ability of R. acaciae-arabicae to sporulate on Acacia sutherlandii, a species native to Queensland growing sympatrically with A. nilotica ssp. indica in the field in Australia. Although uredinial sporulation was restricted and accompanied by severe plant defence reactions, the overall risk to the Australian native flora was deemed too high to consider this pathogen any further. Therefore, the focus shifted to the second rust, R. evansii. Urediniospores of this pathogen were assessed solely for their infectivity and virulence towards A. sutherlandii as a key non-target species. Ravenelia evansii was equally able to sporulate on this non-target Acacia species and consequently its further evaluation will also not be pursued. Thus neither of the two pathogens can be considered as suitable biocontrol agents for A. nilotica ssp. indica in Australia, despite their apparent field host specificity in India. In order to solve a remaining taxonomic and life-cycle question of whether rust aecia observed to cause galling on A. nilotica ssp. indica in India are part of the life cycle of either R. acaciae-arabicae or R. evansii, inoculation studies will be undertaken under quarantine conditions in the UK in 2012 using fresh aeciospore material shipped from India. CABI: M. Seier (, R.A. Tanner (, K. Pollard (k.pollard@cabi. org) and L. Hill (, in collaboration with DEEDI, Queensland, Australia, and Dr A. Balu, Institute for Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding (IFGTB), Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. Funded by Queensland Government (Land Protection Fund; Blueprint for the Bush – Reclaim the Bush – a pest offensive) and Meat and Livestock Australia.

Uredinial sporulation of Ravenelia evansii on Acacia nilotica ssp. indica in CABI’s quarantine greenhouse (photo: M. Seier)

Sporulation of Ravenelia acaciaearabicae on the Queensland native species Acacia sutherlandii in CABI’s quarantine greenhouse (photo: M. Seier)

Prickly acacia in northern Queensland (photo: K. Dhileepan, DEEDI) EUROPE UK Centre


searching for specific pathogens to control Canada thistle, Cirsium arvense, in the USA Cirsium arvense or creeping thistle is a widespread perennial weed of arable crops and grasslands in the temperate zones of both the northern and southern hemispheres. It is a particularly troublesome and noxious weed in North America and therefore the regional common name Canada thistle most frequently appears in the international weed literature. To date, five biological control agents have been studied and released against this weed in North America and several other natural enemies have been introduced accidentally. Thus far, however, none appears to have been able to halt the spread or to reduce the impact of Canada thistle. Coevolved or biotrophic fungal pathogens can be more host specific than insects at the plant species level. Since host specificity is the main hurdle to introducing additional agents of C. arvense into North America, we are now focusing on the potential of pathogens. China was selected as the survey area because a large number of Cirsium species are recorded from there, and some areas show a good eco-climatic match with infested areas in North America. Surveys were organized by the MoA–CABI Joint Laboratory of Bio-safety (hosted by the Institute of Plant Protection of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences [IPP-CAAS]). A number of different pathogens were collected on C. arvense during surveys in previous years, including the systemic rust Puccinia cf. punctiformis, the white blister ‘rust’ Pustula (Albugo) tragopogonis, and a number of leaf-attacking fungal pathogens, i.e. powdery mildews (probably two species), Septoria cf. cirsii, Phoma cf. cirsii and Alternaria sp. The white blister ‘rust’ was identified as the most promising pathogen. Varieties and physiological races of this fungus have been reported in the literature. Field observations suggest that it could be highly specific and damaging to C. arvense. From early August to mid-October 2011, six field surveys were conducted at five selected sites in Xinjiang and Gansu provinces in north-western China. Samples of the white blister ‘rust’ were collected and taken back to the laboratory in Beijing for study. Unfortunately, Pustula tragopogonis is proving to be a very difficult pathogen to work with and consequently Harry Evans visited China in October 2011 to provide technical training. Studies are ongoing to determine the conditions for successful germination of the sporangia (to release their zoospores) and oospores (the overwintering sexual stage of this pathogen, formed in the stem tissue). Wan Huanhuan will be visiting the UK in April 2012 for training and will investigate the germination of Pustula species, under the guidance of CABI pathologists. CABI: H.C. Evans, Emeritus Fellow ( with C.A. Ellison, H.L. Hinz (, Wan H.H. (, Li H.M. ( and Zhang F. ( Funded by USDA-APHIS (Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service) CPHST (Center for Plant Health Science and Technology) and the MoA–CABI Joint Laboratory for Bio-safety.

Cirsium arvense field site in China, with inset showing white blister ‘rust’ (photos: Wan H.H.) 18

CABI annual Report

biological control of hygrophila in Florida’s waterways with natural enemies from India Hygrophila polysperma, commonly known as hygrophila or Indian swamp-weed, is an aquatic plant native to India, but invasive in waterways of south Florida in the USA. It can grow as both an emergent and submerged plant in shallow freshwater habitats and boggy areas. In its native range, it is attacked by a suite of coevolved insect and disease natural enemies, which helps prevent it from dominating its habitat. The plant was originally introduced into the USA in the 1940s for growing in aquariums. However, it soon found its way into the wild, where it established and now, without its natural enemies, is dominant over the native flora in many areas. It is highly competitive and able to tolerate a variety of climatic conditions, including temperatures below zero. It clogs irrigation and flood control systems and is a problem for rice farmers. Conventional control methods for hygrophila are ineffective; herbicides provide only marginal control, and mechanical harvesting tends to spread the problem, since the plant is able to propagate from even tiny sections. The authorities are therefore keen to find an effective, affordable control method and, hence, a project to investigate the potential of biological control is being undertaken by the University of Florida. Both insects and plant pathogens are being considered for introduction into Florida from the weed’s centre of origin in India. CABI has been contracted to help the team from the University of Florida to search for natural enemies, harnessing logistical support from CABI’s office in India and collaborators at Assam Agricultural University (AAU).

Hygrophila polysperma in flower (photo: C.A. Ellison)

In the first phase of the project (2008–10), surveys to search for natural enemies were undertaken in West Bengal and Assam. Three key agents were identified for further study: a leaf-mining beetle (Trachys sp.), a leaf-feeding caterpillar (Nodaria sp.) and a systemic rust pathogen for which only the pycnial and aecial spore stages have been observed in the field. A Memorandum of Understanding was established between CABI and AAU, and under this agreement, an investigation of the life cycle of these agents was undertaken at AAU in 2011. This research included field observations and shade house and laboratory studies. The main aim in 2011 was to establish if the pycnia and aecia of the rust pathogen are spore stages from a heteroecious rust (for which two host plant species are needed to complete the life cycle) or an autoecious rust (where all spore stages occur on one host plant species). Inoculations have been undertaken but the results are still pending. The next phase of the project is to export the agents to CABI’s quarantine facilities in the UK for hostspecificity testing. The process of obtaining an export permit from the Indian Ministry of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Research and Education (DARE) is underway, led by our staff based in India. CABI: C.A. Ellison (, K. Pollard ( and L. Saini (l.saini@, in collaboration with the University of Florida, USA, and AAU, India. Funded by Osceola County, Florida..

Rust aecial cups (yellow aeciospores) and pycnia (black spots) infecting leaves of Hygrophila polysperma (photo: C.A. Ellison)

Setting up experiments at Assam Agricultural University to investigate the life cycle of the aecial rust infecting Hygrophila polysperma (photo: C.A. Ellison) EUROPE UK Centre


evaluation of Chondrostereum purpureum as a cut-stump treatment to control resprouting of Rhododendron ponticum in the UK

The experimental field site in southwest England (photo: M. Seier)

Rhododendron stump at the experimental field site treated with Chondrostereum purpureum and glyphosate (photo: M. Seier)

Introduced to the British Isles from the Iberian Peninsula in the late 18th century, Rhododendron ponticum has spread invasively through most of the western parts of the UK and Ireland. Not only is this species threatening native biodiversity and impacting on commercial forestry operations, it also hosts the damaging introduced plant pathogens Phytophthora kernoviae and P. ramorum. Both Phytophthora species can seriously affect a range of tree and shrub species by causing foliage dieback and sap-seeping lesions known as ‘bleeding cankers’ on the trunks. Rhododendron ponticum can harbour these pathogens without being killed, thus acting as a prolific source of spore inoculum. It has, therefore, become crucial to manage R. ponticum populations, not only for their invasive properties, but even more so from a plant health perspective. The current project, entitled ‘Determining best methods for the clearance and disposal of key host plants, especially invasive Rhododendron, for the control of the quarantine plant pathogens Phytophthora ramorum and Phytophthora kernoviae’, commenced in April 2010 as part of a five-year disease management programme funded by Defra. Led by Forest Research in collaboration with CABI, one remit of this project is to assess the efficacy of specified chemical, biological and physical treatments to cut stumps of R. ponticum to find improved methods for preventing resprouting, and killing stump and root material, to reduce infection and spore levels of the two Phytophthora species. As part of this research, CABI is evaluating the potential of a UK-native strain of the wood-rotting basidiomycete fungus, Chondrostereum purpureum, as a cut-stump bioherbicide. This fungus has already been successfully used in parts of Europe and North America to control resprouting in various hardwood species, but as yet has neither been trialled against Rhododendron species nor tested in the UK. Following initial laboratory studies and mass production of the selected C. purpureum strain, field trials were established at an experimental site in south-west England in 2010. Different treatments using the fungus, either as the sole agent or in combination with the herbicide glyphosate, were applied to freshly cut R. ponticum stumps to assess the impact on resprouting. During 2011 visits were paid to the site in spring and autumn, to assess the treated stumps for signs of C. purpureum fruiting bodies indicating successful infection. Full assessments of the trials will be made in 2012 by recording the number of resprouted shoots, and their height and diameter in relation to the treatments applied. The impact of different treatments on levels of P. ramorum and P. kernoviae spores in the litter and soil will also be measured to relate treatments to efficacy in disease control. CABI: M. Seier (, S. Thomas (, S. Varia ( and L. Hill (, in collaboration with Forest Research, UK. Funded by Defra.

Sonal Varia recording experimental results for the selected Chondrostereum purpureum strain (photo: M. Seier)

Rhododendron ponticum invading natural woodland (photo: N. Maczey)


CABI annual Report

biological control of water fern, Azolla filiculoides, using the North American weevil Stenopelmus rufinasus Water fern, Azolla filiculoides, is an aquatic plant with delicate fern-like foliage. It originates in the New World, but was introduced into the UK in around 1840 as an ornamental aquatic. The plant soon escaped the confines of ponds and is now considered one of the UK’s most invasive aquatic plants. In mainland UK, A. filiculoides is commonly found in static or slow-moving waterbodies throughout the lowland regions of southern England and the midlands, with sporadic occurrences in low-lying areas of the north. The plant is generally absent from high-elevation sites (over 450 metres above mean sea level). Azolla filiculoides is able to rapidly colonize the water’s surface through vegetative reproduction, each frond elongating and fragmenting to form new plants. The mats that form on the water’s surface can be 20 cm thick and during hot weather can double in size every 7–10 days. The plant also reproduces sexually and in autumn millions of sporocarps are released, each capable of growing into a new plant in succeeding years. Infestations reduce the light level beneath the water’s surface causing submerged plants to die back. This can lead to serious deoxygenation problems resulting in the death of fish and a reduction in the invertebrate fauna. The mats can also impede water-based recreation, such as boating and angling, and can be drawn into water intakes, blocking pumps and filters. Dense infestations, which completely cover the water’s surface, are a danger to children, pets and livestock who may mistake the weed-covered water for land.

Close-up of adult Stenopelmus rufinasus on Azolla (photo: C. Pratt)

Despite warnings about Azolla’s ‘weedy’ tendencies and a Royal Horticultural Society ban on the plant at its flower shows, it continues to be sold directly by some garden and aquatic centres or acquired indirectly as a contaminant. Fragmentation of the fronds makes control by mechanical means virtually impossible. Chemical control is limited to herbicides containing the active ingredient glyphosate, which is not practical in areas of conservation interest owing to its non-selective action. In 2002 CABI began investigating the possibility of using the host-specific North American weevil Stenopelmus rufinasus as a biological control agent. The weevil had proven very successful in South Africa where, following extensive host-range testing, it was deliberately released. Stenopelmus rufinasus is already present in the UK (probably through ‘hitching a ride’ on imported Azolla plants) and is considered by Defra to be ordinarily resident. The weevil was collected from several sites in the south of England for further investigations into its biology and life history. Through field observations and laboratory experimentation it soon became apparent that it was very efficient at controlling UK populations of weed. There is an increasing demand for effective, alternative strategies for managing environmental weeds and after reviewing the current management options the decision was taken to commercialize the sale of S. rufinasus as a biocontrol agent. The weevil is currently mass produced and supplied on demand to private individuals and water managers within the UK, controlling Azolla at all scales; from small ponds to lakes and canals.

A mating pair of adult Stenopelmus rufinasus on Azolla (photo: C. Pratt)

CABI further increased weevil production capabilities in 2011 to meet customer demand and shipped over 30,000 weevils during the summer months. The Azolla Control website can be accessed at: CABI: C. Pratt (, L. Hill (, S. Wood (, K. Jones (, K. Pollard ( and S. Varia (



lenient grazing of agricultural grassland: promoting in-field structural heterogeneity, invertebrates and bird foraging

Suzy Wood and Norbert Maczey conducting vegetation structure measurements in south Devon (photo: A. Brook)

Farmland birds such as skylarks and buntings have experienced population declines on pastoral landscapes particularly in the western UK. Factors contributing to their decline include reductions in the availability of seed and invertebrate prey due to intensification. This project was developed as a direct result of a previous Defra-funded project and is building on the use of simple management techniques to enhance invertebrate prey availability for farmland birds on grazed grassland. Specific objectives were: (i) to assess the biodiversity benefits and agronomic costs of continuous and intermittent lenient cattle grazing of agricultural grassland, and (ii) to recommend lenient grazing options suitable for inclusion in Natural England’s Entry Level or Higher Level agri-environment schemes. The project was initially for one year starting in 2010, but has been extended to 2013. Different combinations of grazing treatments were established on plots across 18 semi-improved grass fields in south Devon. Sites were selected that were known to support populations of priority farmland birds (buntings, finches and skylarks). Different combinations of management measures are being tested: (i) continuous reduced intensity grazing or ‘continuous lenient’: livestock density is manipulated to maintain a constant sward height of 9–12 cm throughout the grazing season; and (ii) intermittent reduced intensity grazing or ‘intermittent lenient’: grazing proceeds until the sward height reaches 8–9 cm and then the sward is rested (no grazing) until its height reaches 12–13 cm when grazing resumes. These are being compared with the control plots, grazed to a sward height of 6–8 cm throughout the season. The aims of both lenient grazing treatments are to generate fine-scale structural heterogeneity, to enhance invertebrate abundance throughout the avian breeding season and to provide access for foraging birds. Both lenient grazing regimes are associated with increased invertebrate abundance, including large invertebrates (> 5 mm long) that are important in bird diets. These two management regimes also increase the number of potential bird foraging positions (a measure of fine-scale structural heterogeneity). The project field work continues in 2012, with the final report to be submitted in 2013.

Norbert Maczey conducting a vegetation survey with assistance from a steer in south Devon (photo: A. Brook)

CABI: A. Brook (, N. Maczey (, S. Wood (s.wood@cabi. org) and R. Eschen (, in collaboration with the RSPB and ADAS, UK. Funded by Defra (BD5206 and BD5207).

The meadow grasshopper Chorthippus parallelus in south Devon (photo: A. Brook)

Treatment effects (lenient continuous and lenient intermediate) on the number of invertebrates of all sizes classed as potential bird food prey. Black and grey bars indicate June and July samples and error bars indicate one standard error. All numbers are means per 0.19m2 with samples taken using the Vortis suction sampler (Berkard Manufacturing, Rickmansworth, UK). Significant differences between treatments were found in both years


CABI annual Report

The goal for the Commodities theme is to enable smallholder commodity producers (especially for our focus crops of cocoa, coffee, cotton, HVH [high-value horticulture], bananas and oil palm) to be better able to compete in global markets and improve their livelihoods. Specifically, we aim to: 1. Promote sustainable production methods, especially to raise productivity of our focus crops. 2. Improve postharvest processing and market access for producers to earn better incomes. 3. Improve capacity building through knowledge dissemination. Projects across our theme fit within these three priority areas, with much of the work conducted at Egham being done in conjunction with CABI colleagues worldwide. Under priority area 1, staff based here are working with other CABI colleagues to reduce pest/disease constraints in coffee, e.g. CBB (Hypothenemus hampei) in Sulawesi, Indonesia, so aiding sustainable production as well. In addition to helping manage the pest, they are also supporting efforts to try to prevent CBB’s incursion into PNG and produced a report in 2011 on the predicted pathways of entry and spread of CBB in PNG as well as a surveillance strategy. The coffee portfolio at Egham was increased in 2011 by our success in winning a Phase 2 ACIAR-funded project on coffee green scales (Coccus spp.; CGS) in the highlands of PNG. This project focuses on quantifying the impact of these pests in terms of yield loss, trying to estimate the potential economic consequences of CGS and estimating the overall loss due to the pest in highland smallholder coffee production. A further project being implemented by staff based in Egham is part of a public–private partnership with German Government funding and international coffee partners to develop practical tools and techniques to help coffee farmers (especially smallholders) adapt to climate change. We work on basal stem rot (Ganoderma boninense; BSR) of oil palm in Indonesia, which is a significant constraint to the crop, as well as providing third-country quarantine for oil palm seeds being transported from West Africa to Southeast Asia; this continued in 2011. In addition, studies continued in 2011 on the impact of diseases on crop establishment and fruit production in Jatropha curcas under our collaborative EU-funded project which examines the impacts of growing this biofuel crop on rural livelihoods and ecosystem services. Guidelines are being developed to help farmers manage the increasing negative impact of pests and diseases. Under priority area 2, we have continued working with UK-based partners to improve the control of cereal storage pests in the UK thorough the use of biocontrol agents such as Beauveria bassiana and, together with CABI staff based in South-east Asia, conducted an investigation of pesticide usage in the cocoa supply chains in Indonesia. For improving capacity building through knowledge dissemination (priority area 3), the Biofuel Information Exchange (BIE), which was launched in 2009, is an initiative based on a CABI member countries’ request for independent information on biofuels. Throughout 2011, BIE member numbers increased and the site continued to provide scientifically based information, independent of vested commercial/political interests, as well as being a discussion forum for biofuel experts worldwide. New working papers by several CABI authors were uploaded onto the site in 2011. Our capacity building activities in cocoa were expanded in the Pacific when we were successful in obtaining ACIAR funding to help rehabilitate cocoa production in Vanuatu.



Julie Flood, Global Director, Commodities



helping to protect oil palm production in South-east Asia and the Pacific Oil palm production is a multi-billion dollar industry in Malaysia, Indonesia and PNG. Oil palm is grown not only in large plantations but also by smallholder farmers for whom this is a major source of cash income. Worldwide, palm oil is used extensively in the manufacture of soaps and detergents as well as in the food and cosmetic industries. For many decades, oil palm breeders have sought to improve productivity from each individual palm and to breed for various agronomic characteristics, such as a dwarf growth habit to make harvesting easier and more efficient. Improving oil yield from the fruit bunches increases palm oil production and more can be produced from existing plantings. Aerial view of an oil palm plantation in Costa Rica (photo: B.J. Ritchie)

To support this aim, oil palm germplasm, in the form of seeds, has been collected from wild sources and palm gardens in West Africa and South and Central America for breeding programmes in Southeast Asia. A wilt disease caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. elaeidis is present in West Africa and some parts of South America and can cause considerable yield loss if not managed. This disease is not present in South-east Asia and the Pacific and, if introduced, could cause considerable losses to the industry. CABI in the UK has been a centre for intermediate quarantine for oil palm for organizations in Southeast Asia for more than three decades and continues to act as a conduit to minimize the risk of infected seeds entering South-east Asian oil palm production systems. CABI: B.J. Ritchie (, J. Lamontagne-Godwin (, S.E. Thomas ( and E. Thompson (

Germinating oil palm seeds (photo: B.J. Ritchie)

Oil palm nursery (photo: B.J. Ritchie)


CABI annual Report

join the debate: CABI Biofuels Information Exchange Biofuels are increasing in prominence as the need to replace our reliance on fossil fuels to supply future energy needs becomes more critical. Many problems are emerging as countries try to accelerate the development of viable alternatives to meet government targets: these are not just technological but political, social and environmental. Government policies need to be sciencebased and encourage investments in research and development that will lead to the introduction of sustainable biofuel technologies. In April 2009, CABI launched the BIE (http://biofuelexperts.ning. com/) in response to requests from CABI’s member countries. The BIE provides scientifically based information, independent of vested commercial/political interests. The aim is to objectively inform policymakers, researchers and producers in both the developed and developing world, and provide a forum where experts in this field can discuss their research, experiences and findings. Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) continued to be the main focus of the forum in 2011, but with more emphasis on the widespread failure of this plant as a biofuel crop. The site is free to join and provides 35,000 research records pertinent to biofuels from the CAB Abstracts database, as well as links to third-party biofuels reports and books. With CABI Development Fund support, CABI has commissioned review papers on issues in biofuels which are posted on the website, and the latest biofuels news is fed to the site by Google every hour. By the end of 2011, the site had 540 members from research institutes, extension staff, private entrepreneurs and investors in the biofuels industry; this continues to increase daily. During 2011 there were close to 20,000 pageviews on the BIE. CABI regularly posts summaries on the BIE home page focusing on a particular aspect of publications in biofuels, which in 2011 included a review of the functionality of biofuel life-cycle assessments, a look at the ethical questions surrounding the biofuel industry, and an update on the ever popular, but increasingly discredited role of jatropha as a biofuel worldwide. This year also saw the first publication in the CABI Expert White Paper series, with a paper by Arne Witt entitled ‘Biofuels as invasive species’ investigating the potential of biofuel feedstock species to become invasive weeds. The paper provides a series of case studies demonstrating that the very traits that are desirable in biofuel feedstock species make many of this group of plants inherently weedy and potentially invasive. CABI: C.A. Ellison (, C. Pratt (, P. Baker (, T. Holmes (, J. Flood ( and J. Vos ( Funded by the CABI Development Fund.

The CABI Biofuels Information Exchange homepage



continuing the fight to protect oil palm production in South-east Asia

Basal stem rot symptoms on a mature palm (photo: J. Flood)

The incidence of basal stem rot (BSR) caused by the basidiomycete white rot fungal pathogen Ganoderma boninense continues to increase in oil palm plantings in South-east Asia, and this is to be expected given such large-scale monoculture as seen there. BSR involves decay of the lower stem and sometimes the root system, leading to severe symptoms such as flattening of the crown and unopened spear leaves. High incidence of Ganoderma infection has been reported in Indonesian oil palm estates. In one estate where CABI is working with Indonesian partners, the latest census conducted using GPS recorded the percentage of Ganoderma infection on palms less than six years old to be as low as 0–1.5% but percentage infection increased dramatically in palms more than 16 years old, with 13–87% infected palms or missing points recorded. When the number of standing palms drops below 100 palms per hectare then yields decline dramatically. One strategy to minimize Ganoderma infection is the adoption of good sanitation practices at replanting, thus reducing the amount of Ganoderma inoculum in the soil. Long-term field trials at Bah Lias Research Station in north Sumatra have indicated that shredding oil palm biomass (into slices about 10 cm thick) at replanting time is effective in reducing Ganoderma infection in the subsequent replanting. Research on methods to augment palm waste compost using the fungus Trichoderma is also underway. Trichoderma strains are well documented as antagonists to Ganoderma and augmented compost applied to planting holes would help to limit or delay seedling root infection. In addition, fallowing for one year has been shown to have a significant effect on reducing infection in the subsequent planting and further fallowing trials are planned to verify these results on different estates and to determine the optimum fallow period. Shredding and fallowing as combined treatments are also being tested. These practices will be combined with other estate practices such as augmentation with Trichoderma to produce an integrated management package of measures for this disease. CABI: J. Flood ( and B.J. Ritchie (, in collaboration with I. Virdiana and P.A. Ginting, Bah Lias Research Station, north Sumatra, Indonesia.

Ganoderma fruit bodies on the stem base of an oil palm (photo: B.J. Ritchie)


CABI annual Report

assessing the impact of diseases on the biofuel crop Jatropha curcas Jatropha curcas (jatropha) has received a great deal of media attention for its potential as a biofuel crop. It is a perennial shrub or small tree from the Euphorbiaceae and produces oil-rich seeds from which the oil can be easily extracted and requires minimal processing to produce biodiesel. Since jatropha can survive in arid regions or on marginal land, resource-poor farmers have been encouraged by their governments to plant this crop. Unfortunately, yields have not been as high as anticipated, and now concerns are being raised globally on the impacts of growing jatropha. For example, in some places it has been planted instead of food crops, and has indirect land-use change impacts on biodiversity. CABI is the lead partner in an EU-funded project entitled ‘Impacts of tropical land use conversion to jatropha and oil palm on rural livelihoods and ecosystem services in India and Mexico’, working with project partners from Mexico, India, Spain, Mali and Belgium.

Jatropha seedling farm in Chiapas, Mexico (photo: S.E. Thomas))

CABI staff based in the UK are specifically looking at the impacts of pathogens on plant growth and fruit production of J. curcas, with a view to developing management plans to control the key diseases. CABI staff based in Switzerland are undertaking a similar study of the pests. Mexico is the purported centre of diversity of the genus Jatropha and hence a diverse and extensive range of pathogens is found there, with many coevolved species. The pathogens found on jatropha in India and Mali tend to be generalists, having mainly ‘jumped’ on to jatropha from related plant species. However, there is an increasing number of reports of a serious decline of jatropha in Mali, with symptoms similar to the decline of this crop in parts of India, as discussed in the CABI Annual Report, Europe UK, 2010. In July 2011 a survey was undertaken in Mexico. This was the second survey in the country and the pathogens recorded were very similar to those found in November 2009. However, disease incidence was considerably lower on this visit, probably because it was the dry season. Two bacterial leaf spots (possibly Xanthomonas spp.), several different fungal leaf spots (Cercospora spp. and Colletotrichum spp.) and a stem rot pathogen (Botryodiplodia sp.) were observed. In addition, the common and damaging rust fungus, which has been identified by CABI mycologists as Phakopsora arthuriana, was found together with its hyperparasite Endarluca caricis. While in Mexico, we also held discussions to undertake a series of experiments at INIFAP (Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales y Agrícolas y Pecuarias) in Veracruz, which will focus on the impact of key diseases on seedling establishment, plant growth and yield of jatropha.

Collecting diseased jatropha leaf samples (photo: S.E. Thomas)

CABI: C.A. Ellison (, S. Edgington (, S.E. Thomas (, K. Pollard (, S.T. Murphy (, M. Kenis (, T. Haye (, D. Fife ( and L. Norgrove (, in collaboration with INIFAP, Mexico; Utthan Centre for Sustainable Development and Poverty Alleviation (CSDPA), Allahabad, India; Centro Tecnológico Forestal de Catalunya (CTFC), Solsona, Spain; Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (KUL), Belgium; and Fondation Mali Biocarburant and Mali Folke Centre, Mali. CABI staff based in the UK and Switzerland receive funding from the Biotechnology and Biological Research Council (BBSRC), UK; staff in Switzerland are also funded by SDC. The project is under the EU European Research Area – Agricultural Research for Development (ERA-ARD Net) Seventh Framework Programme, ‘Bioenergy – an opportunity or threat to the rural poor’.

Phakopsora arthuriana (photo: S.E. Thomas)

Dr Noé Becerra observing jatropha seedlings at INIFAP, Mexico (photo: S.E. Thomas)



control of stored product pests using the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana Control options in UK grainstores have become increasingly restricted over recent years with the onset of insecticide resistance and the withdrawal of approval of use for certain insecticidal compounds at the EU level. In 2008, just under 29 million tonnes of cereals were stored in UK farm and commercial grain stores; to these approximately 7 tonnes of pesticides were applied as fabric treatments to control a complex of insect pests which infest the grain. The development of new control methods is vital to reduce the use of potentially harmful chemicals and to give options within IPM systems. Sitophilus granarius (photo: B. Taylor)

Entomopathogenic fungi such as Beauveria bassiana provide one option for use against these grainstore pests. Several strains of B. bassiana were isolated from pests within UK grainstores during previous projects, and one was selected for development as a potential control option. Building on the success of these previous projects, in October 2010 CABI received further funding as part of a larger consortium (Exosect Ltd, Fera [Food and Environment Research Agency], Sylvan Spawn Ltd and Check Services) to make additional improvements to the formulation and application of B. bassiana and to register a product suitable for use in the grainstore environment in the UK. In 2011, CABI scientists further investigated formulations of the fungus, the survival of the fungal propagules post-spraying, and appropriate application techniques. After laboratory-based work, successful pilot-scale trials were conducted testing efficacy against a range of common grainstore pests. CABI: B. Taylor (, D. Moore (, B. Luke (, E. Thompson ( and S. Edgington (, in collaboration with Exosect Ltd, Fera, Sylvan Spawn Ltd and Check Services. Sponsored by: TSB (Technical Strategy Board), UK.

Beauveria bassiana growing on agar (photo: B. Taylor)

Experimental formulations containing Beauveria bassiana (photo: B. Taylor)

Grain infested with Sitophilus granarius (photo: B. Taylor) 28

CABI annual Report

registration and distribution of biological control agents in Ghana Ghanaian agricultural producers are dependent on pesticides as there are no biological control agents available for them to use. For the Ghanaian horticultural and cocoa industry to remain competitive in world markets, they have to adopt IPM and reduce pesticide usage. The objective of this project is to promote the registration process in Ghana by registering examples of different biocontrol products. Implementation of the project requires biological control agents to be exported from Kenya to Ghana. This has necessitated a re-examination of these products, as they will need to be endowed with properties that differ in some respects from those of the products presently being used locally in Kenya. To this end CABI is working with The Real IPM Company to enhance their shelf-life, which will allow them to be exported to and used successfully in Ghana. The project achieved the first registration of recognized biological control agents in Ghana at the Provisional Clearance Level. One fungus (Trichoderma asperellum) is for the control of Phytophthora spp. in pineapple and another fungus (Metarhzium anisopliae) for the control of mealybugs in papaya.

Pineapple is susceptible to Phytophthora attack, which can be controlled by Trichoderma-based biopesticides (photo: S.E. Thomas)

Following registration, biocontrol products will be available to farmers as dependable products. In addition the project will open the door, through promotion, for other biological control agents to be registered and sold in Ghana. CABI: D. Moore (, in collaboration with The Real IPM Company, Kenya. Funded by DFID, through the Research into Use, Best Bets Programme.

Papaya fruits (photo: S.E. Thomas)



pesticides and Indonesian cocoa Indonesia, the largest producer in Asia, provides more than 15% of the world’s cocoa and is an important supplier of beans and processed cocoa for use by cocoa industries in Asia, Europe and the Americas. Cocoa production has risen significantly in recent years to provide increased revenue for cocoa stakeholders and the country as a whole, but production and trade continue to be constrained by the impact of pests and diseases. These problems can be effectively controlled through treatment with pesticides, as one component of a broader approach to management. However, there is growing interest in the extent and manner to which pesticides are used in agriculture and the implications of use with regard to food produce and public health.

Damage to cocoa beans caused by cocoa pod borer (Conopomorpha cramerella) in Indonesia (photo: M. Rutherford)

During 2011 CABI worked in partnership with the cocoa industry to investigate the supply and use of pesticides for cocoa production and trade in Indonesia. This principally involved a survey of, and one-to-one consultations with, cocoa farmers and traders, pesticide retailers and other key stakeholders involved in the supply chain across seven major cocoa producing provinces in the country. Comprehensive information, acquired from 362 consultees, showed that most farmers applied agrochemicals. It revealed the use of a wide range of agrochemical products and substances, the purpose for which these were obtained, and the manner in which they were supplied, handled, prepared and applied. The extent to which information and training on proper chemical handling and use was provided was also determined, as was the extent to which this knowledge was being applied. The findings of the study have shown the extent to which responsible agrochemical practice is implemented for cocoa in Indonesia and have suggested specific areas where improvements in agrochemical practice can and should be made. As such, they will inform future initiatives and strategies intended to improve agrochemical practice and help to ensure that national and international quality standards stipulated for cocoa can be met. CABI: M. Rutherford ( and S.S. Sastroutomo (, in collaboration with the Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute, Jember, East Java. Funded by the cocoa industry and administered by the National Confectioners’ Association, USA.

Discussing the use of pesticides for cocoa production and storage with a farmer in Indonesia (photo: M. Rutherford)


CABI annual Report

rehabilitating cocoa for improving livelihoods in the South Pacific A decade of low world cocoa prices led smallholder farmers in South Pacific island nations to neglect their cocoa trees and this has resulted in a decline in cocoa production. However, with market prices forecast to rise during the next decade, the time is ripe for a significant rehabilitation effort in the South Pacific. In addition, the emergence of higher-value certified organic or single-origin cocoa markets provides an additional incentive for farmers to intensify management and improve production as they possess the fine-flavour varieties of cocoa and favourable climatic conditions for producing premium cocoa. Cocoa production in the South Pacific is currently constrained by pests and diseases. Black pod disease (Phytophthora palmivora) and damage caused by rats are two major problems. Through integrated pest and disease management (IPDM), cocoa production could be significantly increased, while cocoa bean quality could be enhanced through improved drying and fermentation processes.

Healthy cocoa pod (photo: S.E. Thomas)

In February, an initial assessment of the pest and disease levels was made on Malekula and Epi, two of the islands in Vanuatu, and the level of farmers’ awareness and understanding of cocoa pests and diseases was evaluated. In June, a 12-month farmer participatory trial was set up to assess the effectiveness of a range of different IPDM methods. Selected farmers will record their labour inputs for each of the methods over the trial period to determine which option(s) offer them the best returns on effort for their cocoa crop. CABI: S.E.Thomas ( and B.J. Ritchie (, led by the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC), Fiji. Funded by ACIAR and the CABI Development Fund.

Black pod disease of cocoa (photo: S.E. Thomas)

Assessing black pod disease, Epi, Vanuatu (photo: B.J. Ritchie)

Cocoa farmers’ discussion group, Epi, Vanuatu (photo: S.E. Thomas)



coffee green scales in Papua New Guinea: highland arabica coffee and yield loss PNG’s smallholders grow coffee as one of their cash crops, which accounts for approximately 88% of the country’s coffee production and the foreign exchange income from it is the second largest in the agricultural sector at approximately 5% of GDP. Currently CGS, a complex of two scale insect species (Coccus spp.), is described as the most serious pest. Although much is known about CGS in other countries and from studies in PNG, little is known about yield loss in the context of the highland smallholders of PNG. There is a need to understand the impact of CGS on smallholder yield and its economic consequences.

Smallholder picking coffee in Eastern Highlands Province (photo: A. Brook)

In a previous CABI project on CGS, it proved difficult to obtain estimates of production, and therefore yield loss due to infestations of CGS, from smallholders as they did not keep records. In this twoyear project we aim to capture information from multiple sources, i.e. smallholders, larger growers/ processors and experiments, to try and obtain estimates of both yield and yield loss due to CGS. The project will develop relations with smallholders, larger farm holders and processors, and establish research station field experiments. Ecological and socio-economic survey methods will be implemented at smallholder farms in Eastern Highlands Province. The impact of CGS on yield will be estimated as part of overall yield loss, and also by comparisons of smallholder farms both with and without CGS. Overall yield loss will be estimated by comparing smallholder farms with wellmanaged coffee systems (e.g. some large farms) and data from field experiments. The incidence of CGS will be surveyed in the other main coffee growing provinces of Western Highlands and Simbu to estimate the economic impact of CGS there. Estimates of overall yield loss will be compared with smallholder perceptions in order to provide information for the development of future management plans. The findings will facilitate efforts to improve decisions about sustainable coffee production for smallholders; it will assist in improving productivity through the identification of actual yield losses due to CGS infestations. In 2011 field visits were made throughout Eastern Highlands Province in order to: (i) discuss with the staff of the Coffee Industry Corporation (CIC) the objectives of the project and plans, (ii) establish links and meet with processors, some of whom have direct links with smallholders, (iii) ascertain the potential of field trials at the CIC research facility, (iv) initiate field surveys for ecological and socioeconomic studies, and (v) train staff and test field methods for estimating coffee yield in the field.

Coffee cherries picked by smallholders in PNG (photo: A. Brook)

CABI: A. Brook ( and S. Murphy (, in collaboration with CIC, PNG, and University of New South Wales, Australia. Funded by ACIAR (ASEM/2010/051).

Children playing in Asuro, a smallholder village in Eastern Highlands Province (photo: A. Brook)

Left: how yield data will be captured from the multiple sources and approaches (EHP = East Highlands Province; CGS = coffee green scale). Right: results from 2011; x-axis = actual yield, i.e. counts of the total cherries on a tree; y-axis = estimated total cherries. Red dots are observed data and the black line is the fitted model with 95% confidence intervals (grey lines). The R2 value = 0.8892 which was significant at F1,34 = 273.14; P < 0.001 32

CABI annual Report

incursion prevention and management of coffee berry borer in Papua New Guinea and Indonesia’s South Sulawesi and Papua provinces This project funded by ACIAR was set up to address the problem of CBB (Hypothenemus hampei) in Sulawesi and the island of New Guinea. CBB is a very serious pest of coffee worldwide, causing premature fruit-fall and reduced bean weight and quality. It is present in Indonesia’s South Sulawesi and Papua provinces where it is causing an annual production loss of 15–20% and it also threatens PNG because it has been confirmed at sites in Indonesia’s Papua Province close to the border with PNG. Most coffee in these regions is produced by smallholders, so CBB is a particular threat to the livelihoods of these farmers. The project is implementing awareness, surveillance, IPM and training to control CBB, and capacity building in quarantine, early detection and emergency responses. In 2011, our staff based in the UK travelled to Sulawesi in Indonesia to present at the project’s mid-term review meeting and discuss future plans for the project. They presented the findings of a report prepared to critically assess the possible pathways of entry and spread of CBB in PNG and to discuss implementation of surveillance in the country. This report, which was finalized in 2011, built on surveillance work and methodology testing carried out during previous trips to PNG where CABI staff and CIC research and extension officers worked together to extend the national surveillance strategy for CBB in PNG. At the mid-term review PNG representatives identified the need for training of CIC and NAQIA (National Agricultural Quarantine Inspection Authority) staff in CBB identification as this would strengthen the local capacity to respond to potential incursions. Indonesia requested an assessment of their surveillance strategy. These aspects will be followed up by our staff in the next stage of the project.

Coffee berry borer boreholes in the distal end of ripe coffee cherries (photo: B. Taylor)

As part of the mid-term review meeting, a trip was made to Tana Toraja in Sulawesi to attend two farmer field school graduation ceremonies and to look at showcase plots where various IPM methodologies to control CBB in Sulawesi have been tested. CABI: S.S. Sastroutomo (, project leader, S.T. Murphy (s.murphy@cabi. org), B. Taylor ( and G. Odour (, in collaboration with CIC and NAQIA in PNG and ICCRI (Indonesian Cocoa and Coffee Research Institute) and MOAI (Ministry of Agriculture Indonesia) in Indonesia. Funded by ACIAR.

Coffee berry borer damage to coffee parchment (photo: B. Taylor)

CABI staff running team-building activities at a farmer field school graduation (photo: B. Taylor)

CABI staff, project partners and farmers at a farmer field school graduation (photo: B. Taylor)



adapting to climate change The Coffee & Climate Project ( is a public–private partnership funded by the BMZ (Bundesministerium für wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklung, Germany) programme develoPPP and a number of European coffee companies including Tchibo, Lavazza and Paulig. CABI, along with Hanns R. Neumann Stiftung and GIZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit) are implementing the project. The objective is to help especially smallholder farmers adapt to climate change. CABI’s specific task for 2011 was to bring together a collection of candidate techniques that might help farmers to adapt. These various tools have been loosely grouped into farm-level and broader landscape categories. The emphasis of the project is on ‘no-regrets’ measures, i.e. techniques that farmers can use and benefit from even if the expected climate event (e.g. drought, excess temperature, storm) does not materialize in the short term. So far we have about 20 tools, categorized by state of readiness. Hence known techniques such as disease-resistant varieties or ground cover/mulch are categorized ‘green’ because they are already used by some/many farmers. Others, such as water-holding polymers or grafting onto droughtresistant root stock, are ‘yellow’ because research evidence for usefulness exists but with insufficient evidence of effectiveness in the field. A third category (orange) is for known technologies such as drip irrigation where considerably more research is needed to test in coffee field conditions and reduce costs for smallholders. We found that there are many gaps in knowledge: e.g. a simple and robust technique for assessing landslide risk (more than 300 coffee farmers have been killed in this way in the past two years) would be a very useful. Other knowledge is available but insufficiently used because of weak institutionality: e.g. warnings of drought in East Africa are available and have proven accurate but these are not being transmitted freely to farmers. Other technologies, e.g. shade trees for protection against high temperatures, turn out to be very site-specific; in some cases they are useful, in others not. This remains a major problem for all those wanting to help farmers adapt – where and when will climate extremes strike, and which extremes are the most likely to happen? Farmers cannot fully prepare for all eventualities, hence a risk-based approach is required. CABI: P. Baker (, in collaboration with Hanns R. Neumann Stiftung and GIZ. Funded by BMZ’s develoPPP programme and the following European coffee companies: Gustav Paulig Ltd, Joh. Johannson Kaffe AS, Löfbergs Lila AB, Neumann Gruppe GmbH, Tchibo GmbH and Fondazione Guiseppe e Pericle Lavazza.

Brazilian coffee farmers have to cope with more extreme weather patterns (photo: P. Baker)


CABI annual Report

In the past year UK staff have continued to contribute to the Knowledge for Development (KFD) theme through their support to the Plantwise initiative, working closely with CABIâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s country coordinators in Africa, Asia and Latin America. The plant health systems approach used by CABI, developed by its staff based in the UK, is conceptualized as an approach in which plant clinics play a pivotal role in providing crop advisory services to farmers and at the same time provide an entry point to stimulate change in the way different stakeholders interact. Clinics are seen as a way to link different advisory service providers as well as linking extension staff to technical expertise, input suppliers and regulatory bodies. The Plantwise knowledge bank facilitates management and sharing of information generated at the clinics. A first step in stimulating change is to understand current roles, behaviours and practices of stakeholders. In Uganda, CABI worked with an agrodealer representative group, UNADA (Uganda National Agro-lnput Dealers Association), to understand better how agrodealers operate. Work on the Good Seed Initiative was finalized in 2012 leaving behind many farmers trained in good practices in seed production. CABI staff in Africa will continue to build on experiences in the Good Seed Initiative (GSI) and are broadening out to work on new crops including African indigenous vegetables. CABI staff based in the UK continue to make key contributions to KFD activities and work closely with colleagues based in other regions. Dannie Romney, Global Director, Knowledge for Development


knowledge for development



Plantwise clinics This year was one of intensive planning in preparation for an expanded programme of Plantwise activities. To facilitate the process, CABI was awarded a bridging phase project funded by SDC’s Global Programme Food Security. This project was the basis for the joint development of a larger credit proposal by CABI and SDC for 2012 and 2013. A series of workshops was held in Switzerland in late spring to bring together Regional Directors and representatives from all of CABI’s centres for Plantwise discussions. The workshops helped to build ownership and to share the objectives of the Plantwise programme. The aim of the first workshop was to learn how past and present CABI centres and programmes have supported various stakeholders working in agricultural systems.

Lizz Johnson, Abdul Rehman and Duncan ChaCha discuss training materials during Plantwise training in Naivasha, Kenya (photo: R. Reeder)

The second workshop focused on plant clinic operation and quality assurance. A review of plant clinic schemes in various countries provided an effective introduction for staff entering the programme. The workshop concluded with agreements on (i) the responsibilities of country partners, at both national and local levels, (ii) a process for plant clinic data collection and sharing, (iii) minimum requirements for entry into plant doctor training and clinic operation, (iv) a plant doctor code of conduct, (v) evolving processes for validation of diagnoses and recommendations, (vi) an early concept for plant clinic accreditation processes, and (viii) ways in which the Plantwise knowledge bank could support plant clinics. The third and final workshop of the series reviewed the current content of the four training modules associated with plant clinics. A number of revisions were identified and agreements made on: (i) testing required for Modules 1 and 2, (ii) a plant doctor manual for new trainees, and (iii) a training programme for future data managers in countries where Plantwise operates. A fourth workshop was held in September at Naivasha in Kenya during which 24 staff from all CABI’s centres were introduced to the Plantwise programme, the plant health system concept and the plant clinic training modules. This meeting laid the foundations for the development of regional teams for implementation of Plantwise activities. Over the course of the year, a programme-level strategy document and accompanying logical framework (logframe) were developed for Plantwise. In October, the new Plantwise Programme Board met for the first time at Delémont in Switzerland to discuss the logframe and the types of activities that could be conducted in Plantwise countries in 2012.

Steve Edgington records suggestions for improving Plantwise training Modules 1–4 at a Delémont workshop (photo: P. Taylor)

CABI: E.R. Boa (, P. Taylor (, S. Edgington (s.edgington@, J. Lamontagne-Godwin (, R. Reeder (r.reeder@cabi. org) and W. Jenner ( with CABI Associates S. Danielsen, J.W. Bentley and R. Harling. Funded by the SDC Global Programme Food Security.

Participants at Plantwise staff training on Modules 1–4 in Naivasha, Kenya (photo: R. Reeder)


CABI annual Report

Plantwise clinics: developing plant health systems in Africa The Plantwise clinic programme continued to expand and consolidate its activities in Africa, bringing on board new staff and partner organizations to embed clinics within national systems. Support is provided through plant doctor training, diagnostic support and helping to foster links between partners. Plant clinics have been in regular operation in Uganda since 2006, and now more than 25 clinics are spread across 13 districts. Plantwise continues to engage with the Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries (MAAIF) and NGOs to implement clinics. MAAIF has taken the lead in training 40 agricultural inspectors in the set-up and operation of plant clinics. The National Agricultural Advisory Services (NAADS) has also expressed a strong interest in working with Plantwise to facilitate clinics across Uganda. In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo) Plantwise continues to collaborate with the Université Catholique du Graben (UCG), the international NGO Welthungerhilfe (WHH) and the private export company Esco Kivu sprl, which between them operate ten clinics. A new partner in 2011 was the NGO Centre d’Etudes et de Recherche Action pour le Développement (CERAD) based in the north-east of the country. CERAD has started to run weekly clinics teaming up with a local agronomy research institute, ISEAV (Institut Supérieur d’Etudes Agronomiques et Vétérinaires), Aru, which is interested in using plant clinics to develop its students’ skills in plant pathology.

Old and new technologies are combined to make a diagnosis at Mutituni clinic in Machakos, Kenya (photo: P. Karanja)

Kenyan clinics have rapidly become established in western and central regions. Five more clinics opened in 2011 brought the total to 25. Plantwise is providing training (Plantwise Modules 1 and 2) and diagnostic support. Plant doctors’ training supplements their existing knowledge and helps prepare them to run effective plant clinics. The Ministry of Agriculture has expressed strong interest in linking clinics with the existing government-run information desks, offering the potential for many more clinics across the country. In Rwanda Plantwise is working with the Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Resources (MAAR) and the newly established Rwanda Agricultural Board (RAB). Eight clinics were established in 2011 and MAAR has included the clinics within the national budget. There are plans to work with Plantwise to initiate more clinics and more training in 2012. At the start of the year, Sierra Leone had 12 teams operating plant clinics in each of the provincial districts. Through collaboration with the Italian NGO Cooperazione Internazionale (COOPI), Plantwise assisted the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Food Security (MAFFS) in establishing an additional 14 plant clinics, one in each chiefdom of Kono District. By the end of 2011, all of Sierra Leone’s 26 plant clinics were running in their assigned regions. Integration of the clinics with agricultural business centres (ABCs) is still under investigation as a means of expanding the clinic network.

Participants undertaking Module 1 training in Fort Portal, Uganda, discuss possible answers to disease symptoms displayed on photosheets (photo: R. Reeder)

In addition to further clinic establishment, next steps for 2012 will include development of systems to facilitate the use of clinic data and integration of the Plantwise knowledge bank as an information resource for agricultural advisors and planners within the plant health system. CABI: E.R. Boa (, P. Taylor (, J. Lamontagne-Godwin (, R. Reeder (, W. Jenner (, P. Karanja (, N. Phiri (, M. Kimani ( and Negussie, E. (, in collaboration with staff working for clinic organizations in DR Congo, Kenya, Rwanda, Sierra Leone and Uganda. Funded by the CABI Development Fund.

Farmers at Wangigi clinic, Kenya, voice concerns about severe leaf miner damage seen on spinach (photo: P. Karanja) EUROPE UK Centre


Plantwise clinics: developing plant health systems in Asia Plant clinics are now firmly established in many Asian countries and the challenge is to capitalize on these initial successes and begin to establish a true plant health system. In Cambodia, extension staff and university staff received Module 1 training at the Royal University of Agriculture (RUA), which is keen to develop plant clinics and to provide diagnostic laboratory support to assist them. Clinics run by RUA and the General Directive on Agriculture will begin in 2012.

Plant doctor training in Bamyan, Afghanistan (photo: A.H. Malik)

Vietnam continues to run clinics from the Southern Fruit Research Institute (SOFRI) and in other areas nearby where clinics are on a demand-led basis with the local communes requesting help from clinics as and when they require it. The agrochemical company HopTri supports plant clinics by printing fact sheets. Indian clinics have been run regularly by Bio-Control Research Laboratories (BCRL) in Karnataka for two years. Another private company, Pesticide Industries (PI), began running clinics in 2011. A proposal for a national project on improving diagnostic laboratories and linking them to plant clinics has been submitted to the Department of Biotechnology of the Ministry of Science and Technology (DBT); the project is expected to start in 2012 with backstopping from CABI staff based in India. In Afghanistan both the Aga Khan Foundation and the Department of Agriculture, Irrigation and Livestock (DAIL) are keen to run plant clinics and become involved in Plantwise. Further training is planned for 2012. Plantwise in Pakistan partnered with Caritas and the Sunggi Foundation, although clinics stopped running at the end of 2011. In Bangladesh three NGOs, the Rural Development Academy (RDA), the Agricultural Advisory Society (AAS) and Shushilan, run 27 clinics. Shushilan has over 1100 farmer groups and the hope is to utilize this network to further plant clinic expansion. Sri Lanka has made the most spectacular progress in developing its clinic programme. Our 2010 Annual Report indicated that 14 clinics were planned for 2011 whereas the number of active clinics is now up to 74! The Permanent Crop Clinic Committee programme has caught the eye of both ministers (provincial and central) and the President of Sri Lanka.

Post-training plant clinic in Cambodia (photo: M.-J. Sue)

The Nepalese plant clinic scheme is becoming progressively more integrated into government policy with the head of crop protection showing increasing interest in clinics and the role they can play in extension. Activities are jointly coordinated by SECARD (Society for Environment Conservation and Agricultural Research and Development), a small agriculture-based NGO in Kathmandu, and the Plant Protection Directorate of the Department of Agriculture. The support of local organizations, universities and the Nepalese government gives a strong basis for the development of a plant health system with Plantwise support. CABI: E.R. Boa (, R. Reeder (, J. Lamontagne-Godwin (, S. Edgington ( and P. Taylor (p.taylor@ with CABI Associates J.W. Bentley and R. Harling, in collaboration with staff working for clinic organizations in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Vietnam. Funded by: the CABI Development Fund.

Farmer receiving advice from a plant doctor at Tam Ngai village in Vietnam (photo: P. Taylor)


CABI annual Report

Plantwise clinics: developing plant health systems in Latin America Latin America has some of the most mature Plantwise clinic schemes. There are currently regular clinics in Nicaragua and Bolivia. The plant clinics in Nicaragua are supported by a Plant Health Network, formed by universities, government and crop protection institutions. This support is vital for the development of a plant health system. The plan for 2012 is to expand and consolidate existing schemes. There is also the possibility of initiating two new schemes, in Peru and Honduras; Plantwise will be engaging with the respective ministries of agriculture in this regard. In Bolivia, 21 plant health clinics are run by three key institutions in Santa Cruz: CIAT (Centre for Tropical Agricultural Research), DSA (Department of Agricultural and Food Safety) and SEDAG (Department of Agricultural and Livestock Service); and three key institutions in Cochabamba: PROINPA (Promotion and Research of Andean Products), SENASAG (National Service for Animal and Plant Health and Food Safety) and the research technology institute INIAF (National Institute for Agriculture and Forestry Innovation). There is considerable potential to expand the number of clinics within the country and discussions with SENASAG and INIAF are ongoing. Nicaragua has now been running clinics for eight years with a number of supporters from various sources. In total there are eight clinics in operation. The plant clinics are part of the Yearly Operational Plan of the National Plant Health Network, which is integrated with all the institutions working in agriculture in the country. Plantwise continues to oversee and help progress by gathering information/evidence from its partners FUNICA (Fundación para el Desarrollo Tecnológico, Agropecuario y Forestal de Nicaragua) and local agricultural organizations in Estelí, Jalapa, Jícaro and elsewhere in Nicaragua. PROMIPAC (Project for Integrated Pest Management in Central America), the Agricultural University in León (UNAN León), the Universidad Católica del Trópico Seco (UCATSE) and the Universidad Nacional Agraria (UNA), Managua, also support plant clinics. CABI: E.R. Boa ( and Y. Colmenárez (, with CABI Associates J.W. Bentley and S. Danielsen, in collaboration with staff working for clinic organizations in Bolivia and Nicaragua. Funded by the CABI Development Fund.



Plantwise clinics: new and emerging diseases Plantwise continues to lead in the international monitoring of the spread of diseases around the world. As an independent monitor with an ever-increasing network of clinics and contact with extension staff, Plantwise is well placed to detect new diseases or diseases emerging in new areas. Through the expertise of its staff, the threat that a new disease poses can be gauged and control/ containment measures suggested.

Witches’ broom on longan in South-east Asia. This disease is devastating production in Vietnam and Cambodia with close to 100% loss in many cases. CABI is working with SOFRI in Vietnam on the cause and control of the disease (photo: P. Taylor)

Plantwise helps with the detection of new diseases in three ways. The first is through the laboratory in Egham, which receives plant samples from all over the world and identifies the cause of the problem. This service is provided free of charge for developing countries where the problem is clearly linked to smallholder agriculture. The second is through using clinic data: if symptoms are described accurately on clinic data sheets and suggest a disease previously unknown in the area from which the report emanates, it triggers further investigation; a major challenge with regard to data coming from clinics is how to tell the wrongly identified from the newly discovered. Finally, Plantwise is investigating and cataloguing in-country capacity in various regions to monitor and record the spread of new diseases. The detection and publication of new disease records is a controversial topic, as in many cases the presence of a disease could lead to lucrative export deals being prevented or cancelled. Whereas it makes scientific sense to alert the world to a new pest or pathogen in your country, financially this may not always be the case and it may be in a country’s economic interests to keep the information quiet. This puts CABI in a difficult situation and working with governments who place trade interests ahead of scientific ones can result in interesting discussions. However, information on new diseases discovered through plant clinic operations will remain under the control of the national government of the affected country. Only if and when it gives permission for the information to be released will CABI make the clinic data available to a wider audience through publication in journals and on the Plantwise website. To show its commitment to the identification of new diseases, a member of staff has been specifically allocated as the coordinator of new diseases, and the management of CABI’s identification service (MIS) has been further integrated into the Plantwise arena.

The iodine test gives a rapid infield test for huanglongbing (citrus greening disease). These samples (infected on the left) had been sent to CABI for testing from a country previously thought to be free of the disease. They are currently undergoing molecular-based testing to confirm the preliminary iodine test results (photo: P. Taylor)


Many diseases are spreading through the developing world, possibly due to poor quarantine restrictions or newly formed trade routes, although it is not just developing countries that suffer from new diseases: two of the new diseases recently detected by Plantwise are in the UK and Switzerland. CABI: E.R. Boa (, R. Reeder (, J. Lamontagne-Godwin (, S. Edgington (, P. Taylor (p.taylor@cabi. org) and B.J. Ritchie (, in collaboration with staff working for clinic organizations around the world. Funded by the CABI Development Fund.

CABI annual Report

agrodealers in Uganda UNADA is a national organization that represents agro-input dealers in Uganda. The association has strong support with half of all Ugandan agrodealers being members. UNADA agreed to integrate a questionnaire into the UNADA training in order to understand key issues relating to the agrodealer industry and plant health systems. The questions covered topics such as: (i) key demographics, (ii) the level of training members have received in the past, and their future needs, (iii) the range of chemicals they sell, and their knowledge of the products, (iv) their knowledge of plant pests and diseases, (v) their relationships with farmers, the agrochemical industry and policy makers, and (vi) their concerns and involvement with the agrochemical industry. There was a good response to the questionnaire and the results gave interesting insights into the training, stocking and perceptions of agrodealers, in particular how and why farmers use the shops. The results indicate that farmers use input suppliers as a source of information as well as products. Just under half (46%) of all customers seen by agrodealers describe their problems, while 39% ask directly for a product by brand name. Plant samples were revealed as being an important means of getting advice, with 79% of customers regularly bringing in diseased plant samples. Over half (58%) of the respondents said that they spent between five and ten minutes with their customers and 61% of the agrodealers agreed that giving good advice was more important than selling farmers chemicals. Of concern, however, was that 15% of agrodealers reported that they had never received any training. This raises questions about the quality and safety of some of the advice given. Input dealers/importers in Uganda are required to undergo training before they are allowed to trade in agricultural inputs. The training is contracted to Makerere University and focuses on safe use and handling of agricultural chemicals with little on the recognition and diagnosis of pests and diseases. The most stocked products in agrodealer shops were seeds, insecticides and herbicides, while nematicides were the least important. The majority (90%) of agrodealers bought their products monthly, and sold them according to wholesalersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; retail prices; very rarely were governmentsuggested prices used. Counterfeit chemicals were a topical subject for almost all of the agrodealers and 84% expressed concern that they regularly bought counterfeit products. Input suppliers are a vital component of plant health systems and are already being used as a source of information for both diagnosis and control. UNADA has expressed an interest in collaborating with CABI and there is potential for projects that build and improve on the knowledge of input suppliers so that they can serve their farmers better. One possibility is using Plantwise information from the knowledge bank to provide locally targeted extension messages. The Plantwise programme is encouraging stronger linkages between extension services and agroinput suppliers. The linkage is facilitated through plant clinics and Plantwise is already encouraging agrodealers to direct farmers to clinics for an accurate diagnosis. UNADA has well over 1000 agrodealer members, and by working more closely together Plantwise has a means of extending its outreach and improving the diagnosis and advice given to Ugandan farmers. CABI: J. Lamontagne-Godwin ( Funded by the CABI Development Fund â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Impact Assessment.

Farmer demonstrating his agrochemical supplies in Uganda (photo: J. Lamontagne-Godwin)



the Good Seed Initiative Phase Two of the GSI ran from 2008 to 2011 and focused on improving the livelihoods of foodinsecure farming households in Bangladesh, Tanzania and Uganda through the production, selection and marketing of high-quality, farmer-saved seed. In each of these countries CABI worked with local partners to develop and implement strategies that addressed local needs in terms of improving access to the seed of key varieties of staple food crops, including rice, wheat and sorghum.

Learning to keep records at a seed marketing workshop, Hatsherpur char (photo S.L.J. Page)

The rice–wheat systems of Bangladesh are vulnerable to shifting rainfall patterns and a host of pests and diseases. There is a need to rapidly disseminate seed of new wheat varieties that are environmentally robust. In order to reach the poorest farmers with this seed, scientists from the Wheat Research Centre (WRC) trained facilitators from 13 government organizations and NGOs in wheat seed production in September 2008. These facilitators have since trained approximately 600 marginal (food-insecure) farming families per year in the production, selection and storage of highquality wheat seed, as well as providing them with a new drought-tolerant seed variety. Six hundred farmers that had received training (and seed) at the end of 2010 were due to harvest in April 2011. Extension workers from Bangladesh’s RDA worked to improve the livelihoods of ultra-poor families on the shifting island of Hatsherpur char, which is exposed to monsoon flooding by the Jamuna River. Sixty ultra-poor (often landless) farmers were selected for training in the production, selection and marketing of seed from traditional vegetable crops. Women farmers were the principal targets for training, although a ‘whole family training’ method was adopted in which wives or widows together with husbands and sons were invited to attend. The training had two key components: (i) ensuring that farmers understand the value of record keeping and the concept of ‘profit and loss’, and (ii) enabling farmers to reduce input costs, increase productivity and make choices concerning the most profitable crops to grow. Data collected from the record books of farmers indicate there has been a significant increase in the financial return on investment for chilli since receiving training. The majority of farmers had replaced part or all of their chemical fertilizer with home-made compost and many were doing their own labour instead of hiring it.

Good Seed Initiative-trained farmers in Bangladesh with their foundation seed plot (photo: S.L.J. Page)

Good Seed Initiative field day in a wheat-growing district in Bangladesh (photo: S. Edgington)


CABI annual Report

Rainfall in Tanzaniaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s central region has been erratic over recent years, making farmers more dependent on short-season sorghum varieties. Problems have been compounded by a marked increase in smut diseases and the parasitic weed Striga. Currently seed companies produce less than 5% of the total seed requirement for suitable short-season, disease-tolerant sorghum varieties. With the aim of increasing this supply, the GSI provided foundation seed to villages in the Kongwa District of Tanzania and gave training in the production, selection and storage of the seed. Unfortunately, the 2010 growing season in Kongwa was marked by low rainfall after planting, which led to almost complete crop failure. Households harvested little more than a few weeksâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; supply of grain and lost time and money on inputs; each household therefore needed to raise a considerable amount of money to cover its grain deficit until the next harvest. These low yields curtailed plans to sell excess grain to a brewery in Dar Es Salaam, although the link with the brewery remains in place. In October 2010 project staff visited the farmer groups again and once more distributed diseasetolerant varieties of sorghum. In an attempt to reduce the risk of another crop failure a new planting strategy was agreed among the farmer groups, with part of the seed planted in December 2010 and the rest in January/February 2011. Harvesting of the sorghum was scheduled for May/June 2011. There is a growing demand for rice in Ugandaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s urban areas, and GSI partners in the National Agricultural Research Organisation (NARO) were tasked with increasing the supply of New Rice for Africa (NERICA) seed by enabling farmers in Lira and Masindi districts to multiply and sell rice seed to other farmers and local seed companies. The farmers in Lira have been impoverished by several years of civil war, which left them dependent on food aid, while the farmers in Masindi regularly market surplus grain with the support of their district union.

A sorghum crop replanted with project seed following flood damage in Ibwaga village, Tanzania (photo: D. Karanja)

While the strategies that the GSI developed to deal with climate change, food insecurity and poverty alleviation worked relatively well in Bangladesh, the unreliable rainfall patterns in central Tanzania and northern Uganda proved to be serious constraints to seed and grain production in these countries. The Final Technical Report for this project was submitted to SDC in May 2011. CABI: S. Edgington (, D. Karanja ( and N. Phiri (, in collaboration with Md.E. Baksh, WRC (Bangladesh Agriculture Research Institute [BARI]) and A.K.M. Zakaria, RDA, Bangladesh, A. Mbwaga, Uyole Agricultural Research Institute, Tanzania, and G. Asea, NARO, Uganda. Funded by SDC.

Farmer training on NERICA-4 rice production given to farmers from Lira and Masindi districts, Uganda (photo: D. Karanja)

Farmers receiving training in the principles of seed production of open-pollinated varieties of sorghum in ten villages in Tanzania (photo: D. Karanja)



knowledge management 44

introduction CABIâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Knowledge Management (KM) theme improves access to reputable and verified information and supports the transformation of scientific and technical information into easily accessible formats for use by those who seek improvements in the natural environment, farming and the livelihoods of the poor. Knowledge management is growing in importance in research and development programmes as policy makers and researchers are increasingly asked for evidence that research has had an impact and has been used. Policy change can be more evidence-based if policy makers are helped to understand the science and use insights from research. Those who fund research also want to know that research is communicated more widely to improve greater understanding of the science and the issues addressed. Good communication improves the reach of funded research and broadens its potential application. In particular, approaches that facilitate research uptake and the scaling up of research outputs are key components of KM activities carried out by our staff based in the UK. Elizabeth Dodsworth, Global Director, Knowledge Management

CABI annual Report

compilation of folders for CTA’s Knowledge for Development bilingual website The ACP–EU Technical Centre for Agriculture and Rural Cooperation’s (CTA’s) Knowledge for Development website supports the policy dialogue on science and technology for agricultural and rural development in African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries. It enables the ACP scientific community – primarily agricultural research and development scientists and technologists, policy makers, farmers and other stakeholders and actors – to share and review results of national and regional efforts and collaborate to harness science and technology for the development of agriculture in their countries. CABI is developing dossiers for this website. In 2011, this involved commissioning scientists to write lead articles on topics such as phosphorus depletion, ethics, funding agricultural research and development, indigenous fruits and vegetables, measuring impacts of research and development, and science and technology policy dialogue. It involved the expertise of CABI and CTA in identifying key scientists, particularly with knowledge relevant to ACP countries. The articles may be written in French or in English. After review and editing, these are translated so that they are available in both languages to be of maximum use to the ACP community before posting on the website. In addition to commissioning the lead articles, the project involves the identification of key documents and links relevant to particular topics. In the second phase of this project, links and documents for phosphorus depletion, indigenous fruits and vegetables, and measuring impacts of R&D have been identified and made available with descriptions in French and English. The folders are available at: CABI is now commissioning papers for dossiers for the final year of the three-year project. CABI: D. Hemming (, J. Lamontagne-Godwin (j.lamontagne-godwin@cabi. org) and M. Parr (, in collaboration with J.A. Francis (CTA). Funded by CTA.



systematic review on â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;What is the evidence of the impact of agricultural trade liberalization on food security in developing countries?â&#x20AC;&#x2122; CABI is conducting a systematic review to examine the evidence of the impact of agricultural trade liberalization on food security in developing countries on behalf of DFID. The argument that openness to trade contributes to economic growth and is in turn beneficial for poverty reduction and food security is well grounded in conventional economic theory, and is supported by some studies. However, the apparent lack of success in stimulating development in many rural economies following economic and trade policy reform programmes has resulted in a wide-ranging debate that has recently broadened to consider the impact of not only domestic structural adjustment programmes, but also of globalization forces, including the global trade reform agenda. Systematic reviews involve using objective criteria to find the literature relevant to the question and then extracting the data from these papers to compare fairly studies of different sizes and that use different techniques. They were pioneered in the field of medicine but are increasingly being used in new fields such as agricultural economics. The study involves a team with search, socio-economics, statistics and systematic review skills from CABI, and an external collaborator who is an expert in the specific subject area of the investigation. The team has written a draft report, and the final report should be published in 2012. CABI: D. Hemming (, J. Osborn (, P. Roberts (, J. Lamontagne-Godwin ( and M. Parr (, in collaboration with S. McCorriston (University of Exeter, UK). Funded by DFID.


CABI annual Report

biological control review BIOCAT is a global database of classical biological control introductions of insects to control insects developed by the late Dr David Greathead. Since his death in 2006 it had not been maintained or updated and the 5558 records were being held in an outdated version of Microsoft Access. During this project, the whole database was firstly moved into a new template in Microsoft Excel. Each record was then individually reviewed to ensure that the information, e.g. in the ‘country’ field, was politically up to date, all abbreviations were expanded and, to fit the new template, some additional information was added. Published literature on releases worldwide since 2005 was also identified and reviewed, using CAB Abstracts as the main source. New records are being prepared where sufficient information is available. With the addition of these records, BIOCAT will be ready for integration into CABI’s Invasive Species Compendium. CABI: E. Thompson (, M.J.W. Cock ( and S.T. Murphy (, in collaboration with M.T.K. Kairo (Center for Biological Control, Florida A&M University, USA) and R. Murphy. Funded by the International Organization for Biological Control, the CABI Development Fund and CABI (UK-based work) and USDA-APHIS (US-based work).



training in new plant diseases for Natural England Natural England is the non-departmental public body of the UK Government responsible for ensuring that England’s natural environment is protected and improved. This includes large swathes of woodland all of which are prone to disease, and the arrival of sudden oak death (caused by Phytophthora ramorum) and similar diseases on our shores in the last few years has put England’s woodlands under threat as never before.

Phil Taylor training staff of Natural England on the new tree disease training course in Cambridge (photo: E.R. Boa)

Unlike previous tree epidemics sudden oak death is not restricted to a single host species, in fact the host range of the fungus is extremely large (and increasing) and this is one reason why it is such a threat to mixed stands of trees. The role of Rhododendron as an understorey plant is crucial to understanding the disease spread as it acts as a source of inoculum for trees in the main canopy, trees on which P. ramorum cannot sporulate. Without Rhododendron as a source of inoculum the fungus will not spread within a woodland setting. Natural England invited tenders for an external body to provide a series of lectures to ten of its regional centres. They wanted training for their site managers and supervisors so that they knew how to spot symptoms and the correct course of action if they were to see symptomatic trees. CABI won the competitive tender and Phil Taylor and Eric Boa set about writing and delivering the course, ‘A brief history of new diseases and their threat to trees in the UK’, to Natural England’s regional centres in the spring of 2011. The course put together by CABI consisted of detailed information about P. ramorum and related fungi along with a more general assessment of tree health. A mixture of classroom-based exercises and Microsoft PowerPoint presentations provided the trainees with the tools to identify the infected trees and then a guided discussion was used to direct them into a suggested sensible course of action. In order to participate fully in this they had to understand the biology of the organism, how it spread, and how it could lie dormant; this was explained at a level suitable for the audience. It soon became clear that the socio-economic aspects of the disease were almost as important as its biology and spread. These factors were soon incorporated into the training material when it became clear that the regulatory framework in place to control the spread of the disease was only partially effective. The teaching tour featured Worcester, Kendal, Newcastle and York in one tranche and then Nottingham and Cambridge as a pair, followed by Taunton and Guildford. The training sessions involved approximately 15 trainees at each venue and their educational background ranged from a sixth-form school leaver to a PhD in virology. CABI: P. Taylor ( and E.R. Boa ( Funded by Natural England.

Classroom session of Natural England managers training in new tree diseases in York (photo: P. Taylor)


CABI annual Report

Founded in 1993, BioNET-INTERNATIONAL (BioNET), the Global Network for Taxonomy is an international partnership network dedicated to promoting taxonomy in particular by facilitating capacity building in developing countries. BioNET promotes taxonomy – the discovery, identification, naming, classification and understanding of organisms – not for taxonomy’s own sake, but to allow these nations to improve agricultural productivity, access markets, conserve biodiversity and predict and manage climate change risk. In short, BioNET helps the developing world respond to key challenges: food security, poverty reduction, biodiversity conservation and climate change. CABI’s centre at Egham has been hosting the BioNET Global Secretariat. As a result of major changes in funding policy by traditional supporters of BioNET, 2011 saw, by August, the cessation of the BioNET Global Programme and Secretariat and plans and actions on a new strategy and operational structure to take the network into 2012 and beyond. Thus work of the Secretariat focused on completion of activities under the Global Programme and the implementation of a ‘transition phase’ to take BioNET forward. The Global Programme activities included several key outputs: • T  echnical support was provided by John Mauremootoo (consultant) to BioNET UVIMA (Taxonomy for Development in East Africa) project thematic teams to facilitate the completion and expert review of fact sheets and keys to invasive plants, major pollinators and selected pests of East Africa. The keys and fact sheets have been published as CDs and will be published online at the Lucid central website ( by the Centre for Biological Information Technology, University of Queensland, Australia, as an in-kind contribution to the project.


BioNET Global Secretariat 2011

• A  taxonomy indicator to monitor implementation of the CBD (Convention on Biological Diversity) Biodiversity Strategy, 2011–20, the development of which was undertaken by the BioNET Secretariat in collaboration with Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, Cambridge, was formally constituted at a CBD expert meeting on indicators in June. The proposal for the indicator was submitted to the CBD’s scientific and technical body for consideration. • C  ase studies on ‘Why taxonomy matters’, compiled and edited by the BioNET Secretariat, have published on the Internet as a PDF file ( The main activity of the transition phase was conceptualizing, organizing and reporting on a meeting ’Building BioNET’s Future’ held on 17–19 August in Malaysia. This meeting sought to define new global organization and governance structures for BioNET and agree a draft BioNET strategy 2012– 16 with focal themes including biodiversity and agriculture/food security. The 26 meeting participants included representatives from ten out of the 12 existing or planned LOOPs (Locally Owned and Operated Partnerships) as well as several CABI representatives. The draft strategy was agreed in principle and the meeting identified and constituted an interim BioNET Council to operate for one year to work with a new CABI International Secretariat. CABI: R. Smith ( and C. Blench (, in collaboration with partners worldwide through regional LOOPs. BioNET Global Secretariat 2007–11 funded by SDC, the Swedish International Biodiversity Programme, the EU, Defra, The Total Foundation, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) (CBD Secretariat/Government of Spain), the Natural History Museum, London, UK, and the Ministry of Environment, Japan.




introduction Bioservices is one of the four science themes in the CABI International Development (ID) strategy, and is based at CABIâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s centre at Egham. Bioservices provides microbiological expertise and resources in both service and research activities, with particular emphasis on agricultural and biotechnological applications. The present day Bioservices can trace its origins to the Imperial Bureau of Mycology that was founded in 1920, and in 2012 it continues to provide services in support of the identification and characterization of fungi and bacteria. Bioservices provides services in six areas: microbial identification, culture sales and deposit, environmental and industrial investigation, contract research, publications and training. The laboratory and training aspects are underpinned by two major resources, the Genetic Resources Collection (GRC) and the Molecular Biology facility. Bioservices works closely with CABI Publishing in the production of the Index of Fungi and the Bibliography of Systematic Mycology, and Bioservices taxonomists also produce the CABI Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria series and contribute to the CABI Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases. Bioservices scientists continue to produce significant numbers of peer-reviewed publications, together with invited book chapters and other journal articles. The laboratory-based services are used by a wide range of CABI ID projects and clients worldwide, and both our environmental and industrial testing and the Microbial Identification Service (MIS) operate under ISO 17025 quality systems. Bioservices provides an identification service facility to Plantwise through the activities of the Plantwise UK diagnostic unit and in conjunction with the Commodities team. Bioservices also works closely with Conidia Bioscience Ltd, with R&D and testing activities being directed through the Environmental and Industrial Biology (EIB) laboratory. The year 2011 saw a number of significant developments for Bioservices. A new commercial partnership was established with Enzagen who are utilizing materials from the CABI culture collection in a new screening product. Work with Conidia Bioscience Ltd to develop new testing capabilities continued with particular advances in the area of bacterial fuel contaminants. In the MIS, work has commenced with the Molecular Biology facility to convert validated microbial DNA sequences into a functional database, and this will start to be utilized in the identification service later in 2012. The involvement of CABI Bioservices in establishing and developing genetic resource centre networks grew further during 2011, and the establishment of MIRRI (Microbial Resources Research Infrastructure) within the ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures) roadmap in 2010 has led to a preparatory phase project being submitted in 2011. In the laboratories a new real-time PCR (polymerase chain reaction) facility has been established to enhance the diagnostic capabilities offered in the future. An overview of some Bioservices services and resources in 2011 is presented in this report. The stories given demonstrate some of the major directions of our current services and research, and while space limits reporting on all of our activities, I hope that they give an overall indication of the continuing developments in the Bioservices portfolio. Paul Bridge, Director, Bioservices


CABI annual Report

the Microbial Identification Service The MIS provides a worldwide service for the identification of filamentous fungi, yeasts and bacteria. Our clients come from a range of industries, mainly the pharmaceutical, food and manufacturing sector, as well as plant pathologists, plant health authorities and researchers working in agriculture, horticulture, forestry, quarantine, biodiversity assessment and biological control. We are committed to the use of good laboratory practice and operate in accordance with a formal quality system. In addition to identifications, the service provides DNA fingerprinting analysis. This enables detailed characterization to assess similarity of individual strains. It is also used both to validate reference organisms and to produce reference profiles of proprietary strains. The latter is often necessary in order to comply with the requirements of regulatory authorities for purposes such as strain release. For the commercial sector, accurate identifications are essential to support environmental monitoring programmes, for sterility testing of products, for validation of reference organisms and to establish the identity of microorganisms associated with the development of novel products. Identifications undertaken for commercial organizations account for around 80% of our business, with 20% provided to research establishments. In 2011, a total of 1003 identifications were provided to 50 organizations from 16 countries.

Culture of Penicillium purpurogenum (photo: G. Godwin-Keene)

Regulatory authorities recommend genotypic identifications as preferable to those based on phenotype. All bacteria and yeasts and the majority of fungi are now processed using this technology. For bacteria, the standard method used is to sequence part of the 16S rRNA (ribosomal RNA) gene subunit. Identifications of filamentous fungi and yeasts are carried out by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rRNA gene cluster. This locus encompasses ITS1-5.8S-ITS2, the region which is considered to be the de facto ‘DNA barcode’ for fungi. Results from each sample are matched against global databases of sequenced organisms, and the data interpreted by our team of taxonomic specialists, to establish the sample’s identity. In cases where determination to species level cannot be resolved using ITS sequencing, alternative loci are sequenced. An example is the genus Fusarium, which contains many significant plant pathogens. In this case, part of the translation elongation factor 1α (TEF) gene is sequenced to provide definitive identification. Specialized methods also include sequencing of part of the calmodulin gene to distinguish closely related species of Aspergillus, and sequencing of the beta-tubulin gene to establish the identity of Penicillium species. As part of CABI’s member country benefits, the MIS, in conjunction with Plantwise, provides a free service to member countries in bands 1–4. This service provides specifically for identification of bacteria and fungi of agricultural importance or origin, relating to food security or plant health, including quarantine organisms. Within each qualifying member country, the free service is available to national and regional agricultural research centres, government institutions responsible for agriculture, and university departments whose studies relate to agricultural research. Fourteen organizations from a total of six member countries benefited from this free service in 2011.

Daiva Kasulyte preparing samples in the Molecular Biology laboratory (photo: L. Tymo)

CABI: T. Caine, MIS Operations Manager ( and A. Buddie, Molecular Biology Operations Manager (

Lukasz Tymo assessing sequence results (photo: L. Tymo)



the Genetic Resources Collection The GRC holds over 28,000 living strains, making the collection one of the most significant in the world with respect to agriculture and the environment. The majority of our holdings are of filamentous fungi and yeasts but we also hold a significant collection of plant pathogenic bacteria. CABI scientists travel the world through their research work and add strains from remote locations to the collection, making it very diverse and therefore particularly interesting for novel product discovery. The unique properties and capabilities of microorganisms can be utilized for drug and active molecule discovery and as part of the research, testing and qualitycontrol programmes linked with production and manufacturing.

Preparation of GRC cultures for screening programmes (photo: CABI)

In addition to supplying active or freeze-dried cultures to scientists in CABI and the wider scientific community, we can also supply DNA and culture extracts for ease of use or where containment facilities for the living culture are more demanding. We supply authenticated reference, type and test strains to business. We maintain ISO 846, BS2011 Part II j and MIL810F test strains from the European, UK and US testing standards, and hold many other test and challenge strains. We hold production strains for enzymes, metabolites, active biomolecules and novel products. Information about our culture collection: • We have managed the UK National Collection of Fungus Cultures since 1947. • The collection also houses the National Collection of Wood Rotting Fungi (NCWRF), the British Antarctic Survey (BAS) Collection, and the Aquatic Phycomycetes Culture Collection (APCC). • The collection is a member of the United Kingdom National Culture Collection (UKNCC) and the European Culture Collections’ Organisation (ECCO), and is a World Federation for Culture Collections (WFCC) affiliated collection, a UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) Microbial Resource Centre (MIRCEN) and an International Depository Authority (IDA) within the Budapest Treaty (1977). • The collection is a partner in the Global Biological Resource Centre Network (GBRCN) demonstration project. Our culture collection operates: • To the WFCC guidelines for culture collections;

Storage of recalcitrant cultures under mineral oil (photo: CABI)

• To the UKNCC Quality Management System; • To the Common Access to Biotechnology Resources Information (CABRI) Guidelines; • W ithin the spirit of the CBD, ensuring our microbial resources are acquired and supplied according to this international convention with terms and conditions of supply being compatible with the ECCO material transfer agreement core text (see During 2011 the collection provided cultures and safe deposit services to external clients and collaborators. We ran a training course in culture collection management and operation which was attended by 16 participants, while providing tailored courses for individuals. We provided cultures and other preservation services for CABI’s ‘in-house’ activities including projects in ID and the operation of the CABI Bioservices business. Cryopreservation protocol development was conducted through the research packages of the EU-funded EMbaRC (European Consortium of Microbial Resources Centres) with encouraging results (see p.54 for further details). CABI: M. Ryan, Curator ( and A. Kermode (

Controlled rate freezing equipment for optimizing preservation methods (photo: CABI)


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GRC: low temperature mycoinsecticides from Antarctic fungi Bioservices is working in partnership with BAS and the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) in maintaining and developing the BAS collection of Antarctic microbes. This collection of fungi and bacteria has been collected by BAS scientists from sites in the Antarctic and is maintained by Bioservices in the GRC. The Antarctic is the most isolated continent on Earth, and it is the coldest, windiest and driest. The region ranges from the ice-covered inland continental areas to the milder, tussock grass-dominated sub-Antarctic islands. Most biological research in the region has taken place in the maritime Antarctic region of the continental coastline and the associated islands. Microbial diversity here is thought to be very restricted, but despite this the microbes are possibly the most diverse group of organisms in the region, with over 1000 fungal species reported. While many of the microbes in the Antarctic are likely to be present only as transient visitors, others have been shown to occupy specific niches in the local ecology. These include specific associations with the only two vascular plant species present, and with mosses and liverworts.

Chinstrap penguins, Signy Island, South Orkneys (photo: P. Bridge)

Scientists in Bioservices have been working with colleagues at BAS and other collaborators to screen the BAS cultures for potentially commercial properties related to their unique ecology and environmental capabilities. Physiological and chemical screening programmes during 2010â&#x20AC;&#x201C;11 identified a number of potential leads within the fungal cultures and these are now being developed and assessed in further research in Bioservices and at BAS, funded by the NERC Innovation Programme. CABI: M. Ryan (, L. Offord (l.offord@ and P. Bridge (p.bridge@cabi. org), in collaboration with K. Hughes (BAS). Funded by NERC.

Field transport, Adelaide Island (photo: P. Bridge)

Aerial view of sea-ice and coastline, northern Antarctic peninsula (photo: P. Bridge)

Biology laboratory, British Antarctic Survey, Rothera Research Station, Adelaide Island (photo: P. Bridge) EUROPE UK Centre


GRC: European Consortium of Microbial Resources Centres – EMbaRC EMbaRC is an EU Seventh Framework Programme, Research Infrastructures project. It is undertaking network activities, transnational access for study visits and research to improve, coordinate and validate microbial Biological Resource Centres (mBRCs) delivery to researchers. These mBRCs serve to store and supply samples for reference, production and screening for new compounds. Strengthening infrastructures to encompass those resources could further ensure authenticity, while accelerating efforts to generate knowledge, solutions and products. CABI’s GRC is playing a significant role in delivering these objectives. The contribution of BRCs to the discovery of new products and providing solutions has been demonstrated in a booklet Microbial Resources Success Stories (see image) downloadable from the EMbaRC website, The networking activities are focused on harmonization of quality management, coordinated approaches to regulatory compliance and long-term sustainability of mBRCs. The key outputs to date include a BRC operational standard based on OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) best practice guidelines as a working draft for an ISO Standard, a code of conduct for biosecurity and a strategy for increasing collection holdings with scientifically relevant resources. A quality-control validation exercise through inter-laboratory tests produced a validated cryopreservation protocol and established mechanisms for technology improvement and harmonization of methodologies. Outreach and training activities through transnational access to partner expertise and facilities ensured that not only the consortium benefitted but that all European collections could learn from activities to facilitate operation to the standards required by the user. The research activities covered prokaryotic strain authentication by MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight), common optimized methodology for the storage of DNA and a European DNA bank portal ( These outputs are available for all to utilize and provide an ideal toolkit to support CABI’s work helping establish BRCs globally. In collaboration with GBRCN and ECCO, MIRRI has been added to the 2010 ESFRI road map. MIRRI plans to establish clusters of expertise to address problems faced by microbiologists and facilitate access to reference material and research tools of relevance to many CABI activities. CABI: D. Smith, in collaboration with S. Lortal, Coordinator (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique [INRA], Rennes, France), C. Bizet, Coordinator, and C. Bouchier (Institut Pasteur, Paris, France), E. Stackebrandt and J. Overmann (Leibniz-Institut DSMZ [Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH], Braunschweig, Germany), D. Ruiz Arahal (Universitat de València-Estudi General, Coleccíon Española de Cultivos Tipo, Spain), P. Desmeth (Service Public Fédéral de Programmation Politique Scientifique [SPP-PS], Brussels, Belgium), N. Lima (Micoteca da Universidade do Minho, Braga, Portugal), J. Stalpers (Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie Van Wetenschappen, Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, Utrecht, the Netherlands), P. De Vos (Universiteit Gent, Laboratorium voor Microbiologie, Belgium) and S. Declerck (Mycothèque de l’Université Catholique de Louvain, Belgium). Funded by the EU Seventh Framework Programme.

European Consortium of Microbial Resources Centres

Microbial Resources Success Stories Microorganisms are everywhere, on the ocean floor, in our soil and buried deep in rocks. They are vital to human life and the environment we live in. Microorganisms are the source of many useful products and provide many solutions to healthcare, food security and industrial problems. Medicines such as penicillin and cyclosporin have saved millions of lives. We eat microorganisms and their by-products every day, just think about mushrooms, cheese, bread, beer and wines. Microorganisms often get a bad press because of the diseases they cause or the damage they do, but their vast variety of properties can be harnessed for good. There are over 1.7 million strains stored in World Data Centre for Microorganisms (WDCM) registered collections. These and many others stored in private researchers’ laboratories have been the source of marvellous discoveries. This brochure highlights some of these success stories and advocates the long-term preservation of microorganisms for future use and the benefit of humankind and our threatened planet.

Louis Pasteur by Albert Edelfelt, 1886. © Institut Pasteur

Alexander Fleming, is seen in his laboratory at St Mary’s Hospital, Paddington, London, in 1909. © ST MARY’S HOSPITAL MEDICAL SCHOOL/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY

Pasteur and Fleming looked to microorganisms for their discoveries. The continued discovery of new species in nature opens up the potential for so many beneficial discoveries.

Fleming’s penicillin production strain still available today from the CABI collection



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the Global Biological Resource Centre Network – GBRCN demonstration project The GBRCN encourages collections to meet the high-quality operational standards required today. It is intended that Biological Resource Centres (BRCs) adopt best practices to ensure that users get legitimate and safe access to high-quality biological materials and associated information. A global network is under development to improve efficiency by coordinating and driving activities to meet user needs ( The term BRC has been defined, a global network envisaged and a capacity building programme identified to ensure the functionality of the network and the transition of traditional culture collections to BRCs. CABI provided the project General Manager and supporting secretarial assistance for a Demonstration Project, which was funded by the Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF), the German Federal Ministry of Research and Education. A key output of the GBRCN demonstration project in terms of future sustainability was the collaboration with other European consortia (EMbaRC and ECCO) to place MIRRI onto the ESFRI road map. This will take up a large number of the GBRCN outputs and further work in areas such as establishment of rules for validation and information exchange, identification of gaps and providing solutions, e.g. on coverage of organisms and infrastructure establishment tools. Overall the GBRCN Demonstration Project has been extremely successful. This is exemplified in recognition by the ESFRI national delegates and the EC when establishing MIRRI on the ESFRI roadmap, and by the Biological and Toxic Weapons Convention’s Seventh Review Conference delegates who welcomed and endorsed a biosecurity code of conduct for BRCs jointly developed with EMbaRC. The project has made a major breakthrough in helping mBRCs demonstrate their value, and shows how their networking can lead to the better management of resources and improved delivery into research and development. CABI believes that the GBRCN will be delivered through the execution of MIRRI, its replication on a regional basis around the world and linkages to initiatives in the human-derived material domain. Only when the benefits in the microbial and human-derived BRC communities are demonstrated can the plant and animal domains be engaged. The global effort has already begun; in some cases the funding is there and is demonstrated through delivery in specific activities, for example in Brazil (see figure) and the Asian BRC Network in particular. At the outset, CABI wished to help develop a global network that facilitated sharing of expertise, data and biological resources with a vision to improve efficiency in operation and effectiveness in delivery. The efforts in knowledge generation, implementation of best practice, harmonization of approaches (for example, in biosecurity) and developing the tools for establishing GBRCN have helped achieve these goals. CABI: D. Smith (, in collaboration with Centro de Referência em Informação Ambiental (CRIA), Cicade Universitária – Barão Geraldo Campinas, Brazil; Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada; Agricultural Culture Collection of China (ACCC), Institute of Agricultural Resources and Planning of CAAS, Beijing; Technical Research Center of Finland (VTT) Culture Collection; DSMZ, Germany; NITE Biological Resource Center (NBRC), National Institute of Technology and Evaluation (NITE), Japan; World Data Centre of Microorganisms (WDCM), National Institute of Genetics, Japan; Universidade do Minho – Micoteca da Universidade do Minho (UMinho-MUM), Portugal; Collection de l’Institut Pasteur, France; Interlab Cell Line Collection, Department of Biotechnology, Instituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro, c/o Centro di Biotecnologie Avanzate, Italy; Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, the Netherlands; Colección Española de Cultivos Tipo, Universidad de Valencia, Edificio de Investigación, Spain; Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Makerere University, Uganda; and Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya. Funded by BMBF, Germany.

The audit team in Brazil with Coleção Brasileira de Microorganismos de Ambiente e Indústria (CBMAI) staff. From left to right: David Smith, Dagmar Fritze, Dunja Martin, Valéria Maia Oliveira (CPQBA [Centro Pluridisciplinar de Pesquisas Quimícas, Biologicas e Agricolas], Head of Microbial Resources Division), Fabiana Fantinatti-Garboggini (CBMAI, Quality Manager), Lara Sette (CBMAI, Curator) and Paulo Holanda (TECPAR [Instituto de Tecnologia do Paraná]) (photo: GBRCN) EUROPE UK Centre


Environmental and Industrial Biology The EIB laboratory at CABI has been UKAS accredited since 1984. This accreditation entails an annual assessment against the requirements of ISO/IEC 17025:2005 to demonstrate our competence, impartiality and performance capability. The management system requirements in this standard meet the principles of ISO 9001:2000. Our confidential services are available to both commercial and domestic customers from the UK and overseas with the scope of our accreditation covering: • Mould growth testing: we specialize in challenging items to mould growth against any recognized published standard or to a customer’s own specification. These tests give an indication of an item’s susceptibility to fungal growth and thus allow an evaluation of its performance in the environmental conditions under which it could be employed. Problems with mould can occur on any items in the home or workplace (G. Godwin-Keene)

• On-site sampling: we are the only UK laboratory accredited by UKAS for on-site mould contamination testing. We investigate fungal contamination problems found in a wide range of domestic and workplace environments. Our customers include insurance companies, building companies, hospital trusts, composters, food manufacturing plants, and archives and museums. • Fuel testing: based on the method produced by the Institute of Petroleum, this quantifies fungal and bacterial contamination of aviation and marine fuels. In this aspect of our work we have a close working relationship with Conidia Bioscience Ltd, based on-site at Egham. In addition, we offer an isolation and identification service to which customers submit contaminated samples for analysis. During 2011 the demand for our Fungal Sampling Kit (FSK) increased, proving very popular with environmental consultants. The FSK provides the customer with everything they need to carry out several methods of sampling fungal contamination, before returning the kit to CABI for analysis. CABI: S. Lawrence ( and G. Godwin-Keene (g.godwin-keene@

Mould growth tests assess the ability of any material to support fungi (G. Godwin-Keene)

Mould growth tests can highlight a potential fungal problem for manufacturers (G. Godwin-Keene)

Flood damage can cause severe mould problems to building structures (G. Godwin-Keene)


CABI annual Report

Molecular Biology The Bioservices Molecular Biology group is a cross-cutting department which underpins the three Bioservices business units. We provide a major input to the MIS (see p. 51); but also provide molecular identifications and bacteriology where needed by the EIB laboratory; and undertake quality-control checks for the GRC in order to validate the identity of cultures, where appropriate, and to assess genomic (in)stability. We also undertake contract research in a variety of areas, particularly involving strain characterization. Our collective experience in applied microbiology and molecular biology has meant that, in addition to our service activities, we have been able to undertake a wide range of activities linked to both our own and other CABI projects and consultancies, and for external clients. We have contributed significantly to the EU-funded EMbaRC project with colleagues in the GRC (see p. 52), concentrating on molecular method development and input to a large-scale phylogenetic reappraisal of the genus Candida. Our successful collaboration with insect pathology colleagues at CABI has continued, allowing us to discover a new species of bacteria derived from one of the entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) that we had studied previously, describing it in partnership with taxonomic experts at INRA, France.

PCR products being purified (photo: L. Tymo)

We continue to work closely with the GRC, EIB and Conidia Bioscience Ltd. This has allowed us to undertake some further interesting work on fuel microbiology including the maintenance â&#x20AC;&#x201C; and characterization â&#x20AC;&#x201C; of bacterial consortia involved in various sulphate-reducing environments. There is an ongoing eagerness to adopt new techniques in the laboratory. This was seen most notably with our characterization of an environmental marine biofilm which entailed us addressing appropriate total DNA extraction and assessment of the organisms involved by utilizing simple cloning technology. Our foray into the area of next-generation sequencing, via our collaboration with the BBSRCfunded Genome Analysis Centre (TGAC), has continued. Our candidate fungus (the type strain of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) has proceeded through the library construction and sequencing stages to preliminary annotation; this is no simple procedure and is likely to take several months, at least. This genome sequence should provide a valuable resource to plant pathologists, mycologists and molecular biologists through comparative and functional genomic analyses (see We ran our first molecular identifications course during the year and this was very well received. Finally, towards the end of the year we were able to enhance the capability of the Molecular Biology laboratory with the acquisition of a real-time PCR machine which has great potential in the detection and quantification of pathogens/indicator organisms, with likely benefits to consultancy work and Plantwise.

SEM image of Steinernema unicornum (one of three entomopathogenic nematode species described and characterized in collaboration with CABI colleagues) showing infective juvenile stage (photo: S. Edgington)

CABI Bioservices: A. Buddie, Molecular Biology Operations Manager (

Candida keroseneae: a new species of yeast isolated from aircraft fuel (photo: A. Buddie)

Microbial DNA samples being prepared for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (photo: L. Tymo



publications, theses, reports & presentations 58

publications Alston-Smith, S. and Cock, M.J.W. (2011) Mass-movement of Nicolaea besidia (Hewitson) (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae), a species not previously recorded from Trinidad, West Indies. Living World, Journal of the Trinidad and Tobago Field Naturalists’ Club 2011, 75–77. Bailey, B.A., Bae, H., Melnick, R. and Crozier, J. (2011) The endophytic Trichoderma hamatum isolate DIS 219b enhances seedling growth and delays the onset of drought stress in Theobroma cacao. In: Pirttila, A.M. and Frank, A.C. (eds) Endophytes of Forest Trees: Biology and Applications. Forestry Sciences, Volume 80. Springer, New York, pp. 157–172. Bentley, J. and Van Mele, P. (2011) Sharing ideas between cultures with videos. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability 9, 258–263. Bentley, J., Boa, E., Almendras, F., Franco, F., Antezana, O., Díaz, O., Franco, J. and Villarroel, J. (2011) How farmers benefit from plant clinics: an impact study in Bolivia. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability 9, 393–408. Boa, E. (2011) From Chipho to Msika: an introduction to mushrooms, trees and forests. In: Cunningham, A.B. and Yang, X. (eds) Mushrooms in Forests and Woodlands. Resource Management, Values and Local Livelihoods. Earthscan, London, pp. 1–20. Buddie, A., Bridge, P., Kelley, J. and Ryan, M.J. (2011) Candida keroseneae sp. nov., a novel contaminant of aviation kerosene. Letters in Applied Microbiology 52, 70–75. Cannon, P.F. (2011) Puccinia asphodeli, Puccinia barbeyi, Puccinia citricolor, Puccinia citrina, Puccinia ferruginea, Puccinia kalchbrenneriana, Puccinia kraussiana, Puccinia liliacearum, Puccinia lojkaiana, Puccinia ornithogali-thyrsoidis. IMI Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria Set 188, Sheets 1871–1880. CABI, Wallingford, UK. Carvalho, R.C., Fernandes, R.C., Carvalho, G.M., Barreto, R.W. and Evans, H.C. (2011) Cryptosexuality and the genetic diversity paradox in coffee rust, Hemileia vastatrix. PLoS ONE 6(11), 1–7 e26387. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0026387. Cock, M.J.W. (2011) Strategic entry points for funding taxonomic support to agriculture in developing countries. CABI Working Paper 3. CABI, Wallingford, UK, 32 pp. Cock, M.J.W. (2011) The skipper butterflies (Hesperiidae) of Trinidad. Part 18, Hesperiinae, Moncini: eight genera of relatively distinctive species: Callimormus, Eutocus, Artines, Flaccilla, Phanes, Monca, Vehilius and Parphorus. Living World, Journal of the Trinidad and Tobago Field Naturalists’ Club 2011, 14–36. Cock, M.J.W. and Bennett, F.D. (2011) John Golding Myers (1897–1942) an extraordinary exploratory entomologist. CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources 6(8), 18 pp. Cock, M.J.W. and Congdon, T.C.E. (2011) Observations on the biology of Afrotropical Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera) principally from Kenya. Part 2. Pyrginae: Tagiadini. Zootaxa 2893, 1–66. Cock, M.J.W. and Congdon, T.C.E. (2011) Observations on the biology of Afrotropical Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera) principally from Kenya. Part 3. Pyrginae: Celaenorrhinini. Zootaxa 3033, 1–67. Cock, M.J.W. and Lamas, G. (2011) Sematura Dalman, 1825 (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Sematuridae): proposed precedence over Mania Hübner, 1821. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 68, 184–189. Cock, M.J.W., Biesmeijer, J.C., Cannon, R.J.C., Gerard, P.J., Gillespie, D., Jiménez, J.J., Lavelle, P.M. and Raina, S.K. (2011) Climate change and invertebrate genetic resources for food and agriculture: state of knowledge, risks and opportunities. Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, Background Study Paper No. 54. FAO, Rome, 105 pp. Web: meeting/022/mb390e.pdf Cockel, C. and Tanner, R. (2011) Impatiens glandulifera Royle (Himalayan balsam). In: Francis, R.A. (ed.) A Handbook of Global Freshwater Invasive Species. Earthscan, London, pp. 67–77. Cooper, R.M., Flood, J. and Rees, R.W. (2011) Ganoderma boninense in oil palm plantations: current thinking on epidemiology, resistance and pathology. The Planter 87(1024), 515–526. Danielsen, S., Centeno, J., López, J., Lezama, L., Varela, G., Castillo, P., Narváez, C., Zeledón, I., Pavon, F. and Boa, E. (2011 online) Innovations in plant health services in Nicaragua: from grassroots experiment to a systems approach. Journal of International Development Early View, online 9 May 2011. DOI: 10.1002/jid.1786 Desmeth, P., Kurtböke, I. and Smith, D. (2011) Tools to implement the Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit Sharing in microbiology: ABS, an intrinsic preoccupation of the World Federation for Culture Collections (WFCC). Submission to First Meeting of the Open-Ended Ad Hoc Intergovernmental Committee for the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization, 5 pp. Web:

CABI annual Report

protocol/icnp-1/wfcc-en.pdf Djeddour, D. and Shaw, R. (2011) Reunited with the old enemy – could an insect put a stop to Japanese knotweed’s reign of terror? Pesticides News 91, 12–13. Edgington, S., Buddie, A.G., Moore, D., France, A., Merino, L. and Hunt, D.J. (2011) Heterorhabditis atacamensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae), a new entomopathogenic nematode from the Atacama Desert, Chile. Journal of Helminthology 85, 381–394. Ellison, C. and Day, M. (2011) Current status of releases of Puccinia spegazzinii for Mikania micrantha control. Biocontrol News and Information 32,1N–2N. Eschen, R. and Shaw, R.H. (2011) News from the biological control of Japanese knotweed in England and Wales. IOBC Global Newsletter 89, 6–7. Eschen, R. and Williams, F. (2011) The annual cost of invasive species to the British economy quantified. Aliens 31, 47–51. Evans, H.C. and Barreto, R.W. (2011) Embracing invasives: a view of compromise. Science E-Letters, Web: Evans, H.C., Elliot, S.L. and Hughes, D.P. (2011) Hidden diversity behind the zombie-ant fungus Ophiocordyceps unilateralis: four new species described from carpenter ants in Minas Gerais, Brazil. PLoS ONE 6(3), 1–9 e17024. DOI:10.1371/journal/pone.0017024. Evans, H.C., Elliot, S.L. and Hughes, D.P. (2011) Ophiocordyceps unilateralis: a keystone species for unravelling ecosystem functioning and biodiversity of fungi in tropical forests? Communicative & Integrative Biology 4, 598–602. Gaskin, J.F., Bon, M.-C., Cock, M.J.W., Cristofaro, M., De Biase, A., De Clerck-Floate, R., Ellison, C.A., Hinz, H.L., Hufbauer, R.A., Julien, M. and Sforza, R. (2011) Applying molecular-based approaches to classical biological control of weeds. Biological Control 58, 1–21. Gerber, E., Schaffner, U., Gassmann, A., Hinz, H.L., Seier, M. and Müller-Schärer, H. (2011) Prospects for biological control of Ambrosia artemisiifolia in Europe: learning from the past. Weed Research 51, 559–573. Ginting, P.A., Virdiana, I., Flood, J., Ritchie, B.J. and Nelson, S. (2011) Preliminary in vitro and nursery results to screen for Trichoderma isolates antagonistic to Ganoderma. Paper and poster presentation AP95. In: Proceedings of the International Palm Oil (PIPOC) Congress, Agriculture, Biotechnology and Sustainability, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 15–18 November 2011. Malaysian Palm Oil Board, Kuala Lumpur, pp. 424–427. Hibbett, D. S., Ohman, A., Glotzer, D., Nuhn, M., Kirk, P.M. and Nilsson, R.H. (2011) Progress in molecular and morphological taxon discovery in Fungi and options for formal classification of environmental sequences. Fungal Biology Reviews 25: 38–47. Hughes, K.A., Lee, J.E., Tsujimoto, M., Imura, S., Bergstrom, D.M., Ware, C., Lebouvier, M., Huiskes, A.H., Gremmen, N.J., Frenot, Y., Bridge, P.D. and Chown, S.L. (2011) Food for thought: risks of non-native species transfer to the Antarctic region with fresh produce. Biological Conservation 144, 1682–1689. Hunt, D.J. (2011) Life and work of Prof. Dr Lucien de Coninck, biologist, humanist and freemason. Nematology 13, 759. Kelly, P.L., Reeder, R., Kokoa, P., Arocha, Y., Nixon, T. and Fox, A. (2011) First report of a phytoplasma identified in coconut palms (Cocos nucifera) with lethal yellowing-like symptoms in Papua New Guinea. New Disease Reports 23, 9. Larsen, T.B. and Cock, M.J.W. (2011) A new species of Eretis (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) from Kenya, Uganda and Rwanda. Tropical Lepidoptera Research 21, 12–16. Peach, W.J., Dodd, S., Westbury, D.B., Mortimer, S.R., Lewis, P., Brook, A.J., Harris, S.J., KessockPhilip, R., Buckingham, D.J. and Chaney, K. (2011) Cereal-based wholecrop silages: a potential conservation measure for farmland birds in pastoral landscapes. Biological Conservation 144, 836–850. Perry, P., Cock, M.J.W. and Seales, T.L. (2011) Painful encounters with caterpillars of Megalopyge lanata (Stoll), (Lepidoptera, Megalopygidae) in Tobago, Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies. Living World, Journal of the Trinidad and Tobago Field Naturalists’ Club 2011, 1–5. Phiri, N., Baker, P., Rutherford, M., Flood, J., Musoli, P., Mbuyi, K., Kilambo, D., Adugna, G., Hakiza, G., Pinard, F. and Oduor, G. (2011) The regional coffee wilt programme: where do we go from here? In: Proceedings of 23rd International Conference on Coffee Science, Bali, Indonesia, 3–8 October 2010. Association for Science and Information in Coffee, Bussigny, Switzerland, and Curran Associates, New York, pp. 518–529.



Rees, R.W., Flood, J., Hasan, Y., Wills, M.A. and Cooper, R.M. (2011 online) Ganoderma boninense basidiospores in oil palm plantations: evaluation of their possible role in stem rots of Elaeis guineensis. Plant Pathology Early View, online 14 September 2011. DOI: 10.1111/j.13653059.2011.02533.x Ryan, M.J., Moore, D. and Smith D. (2011) Microbial Biopesticides: Management, Handling and Ethical Use. CABI, Wallingford, UK. Seier, M. (2011) X International Bioherbicide Group Workshop. Biocontrol News and Information 32(4), 32N–33N. Shaw, R.H., Tanner, R., Djeddour, D. and Cortat, G. (2011) Classical biological control of Fallopia japonica in the United Kingdom – lessons for Europe. Weed Research 51, 552–558. Smith, D. (2011) Abstract OTV004: Capacity building, transnational access and encouragement for the deposit of microbiological material – the EU project EMbaRC. German Microbiology Society (VAAM) Annual Meeting, Karlsruhe, Germany [BIOspectrum Tagungs zur VAAM-Jahrestagung 2011 Karlsruhe], 3–6 April 2011. ISSN 0947-0867. Smith, D. (2011) Biological resource research infrastructures to drive innovation in microbiology. Microbe 6(11), 482. Smith, K. and Edgington, S. (2011) Germination of similarly aged Metarhizium conidia harvested from ageing cultures. Journal of Stored Products Research 47, 157–160. Smith, R., Rassmann, K., Davies, H. and King, N. (eds) (2011) Why Taxonomy Matters. BioNET‐ INTERNATIONAL, Egham, UK. Taillez, P., Pagès, S., Edgington, S., Tymo, L.T. and Buddie, A.G. (2011 online) Description of Xenorhabdus magdalenensis sp. nov., the symbiotic bacterium associated with Steinernema australe. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, online 23 September 2011. DOI: 10.1099/ijs.0.034322-0 Taylor, B., Rahman, P.M., Murphy, S.T. and Sudheendrakumar, V.V. (2011) Exploring the host range of the red palm mite (Raoiella indica) in Kerala, India. In: de Moraes, G.J. and Proctor, H. (eds) Acarology XIII: Proceedings of the International Congress. Zoosymposia 6, 86–92. Taylor, B., Rahman, P.M., Murphy, S.T. and Sudheendrakumar, V.V. (2011 online) Within-season dynamics of red palm mite (Raoiella indica) and phytoseiid predators on two host palm species in south-west India. Experimental and Applied Acarology, online 14 September 2011. DOI: 10.1007/ s10493-011-9482-0 Taylor, P., Arocha-Rosete, Y. and Scott, J. (2011) First report of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma trifolii’ (group 16SrVI) infecting Sauropus androgynus. New Disease Reports 24, 23. van Lenteren, J.C., Cock, M.J.W., Brodeur, J., Barratt, B.I.P., Bigler, F., Bolckmans, K., Haas, F., Mason, P.G. and Parra, J.R.P. (2011) Will the Convention on Biological Diversity put an end to biological control? Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 55, 1–5. Virdiana, I., Flood, J., Baihaqi Sitepu, Hasan, Y., Aditya, R. and Nelson, S. (2011) Integrated disease management to reduce future Ganoderma infection during oil palm planting. Paper and poster presentation AP29. In: Proceedings of the International Palm Oil (PIPOC) Congress, Agriculture, Biotechnology and Sustainability, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 15–18 November 2011. Malaysian Palm Oil Board, Kuala Lumpur, pp.130–134. Waller, J.M. (2011) Imperial to international – CABI’s first 100 years. Agriculture for Development 12, 20–23. Westbury, D.B., Mortimer, S.R., Brook, A.J., Harris, S.J., Kessock-Philip, R., Edwards, A.R., Chaney, K., Lewis, P., Dodd, S., Buckingham, D.L. and Peach, W.J. (2011) Plant and invertebrate resources for farmland birds in pastoral landscapes. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 142, 266–274. Woodcock, B.A.W., Duncan B., Brook, A.J., Lawson, C.S., Edwards, A.R., Harris, S.J., Heard, M.S., Brown, V.K. and Mortimer, S.R. (2011 online) Effects of seed addition on beetle assemblages during the re-creation of species-rich lowland hay meadows. Insect Conservation and Diversity Early View, online 11 October 2011. DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-4598.2011.00132.x


CABI annual Report

theses Pollard, K.M. (2011) Studies on the rust Phakopsora jatrophicola L., a potential biocontrol agent for bellyache bush, Jatrohpa gossypiifolia Cummins, in Australia. MSc thesis, Imperial College London, 47 pp.

reports (unpublished CABI & collaborative reports) DEEDI (2011) Technical Highlights Research Projects 2010–2011. State of Queensland, Australia. Including contributions from Seier, M.: 8. Biological control of bellyache bush (Jatropha gossypiifolia), pp. 19–20, and 10. Biological control of prickly acacia (Acacia nilotica ssp. indica), pp. 24–26. Djeddour, D.H. and Shaw, R.H. (2011) The potential for the biological control of Hedychium gardnerianum. Annual report for Landcare/TNCH, 49 pp. Eschen, R., Brook, A.J., Pratt, C.F. and Shaw, R.H. (2011) Ecosystem effects of a specialist herbivore for the control of Japanese knotweed. 41st GfOe, Oldenburg, Germany, 5–9 September 2011. Peach, W., Buckingham, D., Brook, A.J., Eschen, R., Maczey, N. and Wheeler, K. (2011) Utility of lenient grazing of agricultural grassland to promote in-field structural heterogeneity, invertebrates and bird foraging. Defra project BD5206. Final Report, June 2011, by RSPB, CABI and ADAS. Defra, 43 pp. Rutherford, M.A. (2011) Assessment of agrochemical practice for cocoa in Indonesia. Report submitted for CABI Development Fund project CF60013, December 2011, 3 pp. Rutherford, M.A. (2011) Weed management for oil palm – grower case studies. Report submitted for CABI Development Fund project CP60001, June 2011, 3 pp. Rutherford, M.A., Flood, J. and Sastroutomo, S.S. (2011) Producer CASE studies: weed management in oil palm and measures to reduce the use of herbicides. Report submitted to the Roundtable for Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO), Kuala Lumpur, April 2011, 24 pp. Rutherford, M.A., Wiryadiputra, S. and Sastroutomo, S.S. (2011) Assessing and improving on pesticide practice for cocoa in Indonesia. Technical Report for the National Confectioners Association (NCA), Washington, DC, November 2011, 52 pp. Seier, M.K. and Tanner, R.A. (2011) Host specificity testing of the prickly acacia rust Ravenelia acaciae-arabicae Mundk. & Thrium. (previously reported as R. evansii Syd. & P. Syd.) Final report for DEEDI, Australia, 30 pp. Tanner, R.A., Varia, S., Djeddour, D. and Shaw, R. (2011) Biocontrol of Water Framework Directive weeds. Yearly progress report for Defra. September 2011. Webber, J., de Leij, F., Seier, M., Wall, M. and Willoughby, I. (2011) Determining best methods for the clearance and disposal of key host plants, especially invasive rhododendron, for the control of the quarantine plant pathogens Phytophthora ramorum and P. kernoviae. Project report: Year 1, April 2010 –March 2011, DEFRA Project CTX 0907, 13 pp.



poster presentations Ginting, P.A., Virdiana, I., Flood, J., Ritchie, B.J. and Nelson, S. (2011).Screening of Trichoderma isolates which are antagonistic to Ganoderma. Ganoderma Symposium and Workshop, Bogor, Indonesia, 2–3 November 2011. [Paper distributed to participants] Pratt, C.F. and Ellison, C.A. (2011) Biofuel crops with invasive potential: could biocontrol provide a safety net? 11th International Conference on the Ecology and Management of Alien Plant Invasions (EMAPi 2011), Szombathely, Hungary, 30 August – 3 September, 2011. Varia, S. and Shaw, R.H. (2011) Potential for the biological control of Crassula helmsii in the UK. XIII International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds (ISBCW 2011), Waikoloa, Hawaii, USA, 11–16 September, 2011.

oral presentations Djeddour, D. and Shaw, R.H. (2011) Can wild gingers ever be tamed? The search for natural enemies hots up. XIII International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds (ISBCW 2011), Waikoloa, Hawaii, USA, 11–16 September 2011. Evans, H.C., Seier, M.K. and Bailey, K.L. (2011) Tracking the origins of white tip disease on Cirsium arvense. X International Bioherbicide Working Group Meeting, Waikoloa, Hawaii, USA, 10 September 2011. Flood, J. (2011) CABI and its work on cotton. Invited presentation. 5th Asian Cotton Research Network (ACRN) Conference, Lahore, Pakistan, 21–23 February 2011. Flood, J. and Yeang, K.Y. (2011) Biosecurity planning and CCCVd in oil palm. Invited presentation. Malaysian Task Force on CCCVd, organized by the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 7–8 June 2011. Karanja, D., Musebe, R., Gitonga, W., Cossa, L., Mungai, A., Macharia, J., Mwai Gitunu, A., Gikandi, A., Muthoni. L., Flood, J. and Kimani, M. (2011) Comparative analysis of production practices and post-harvest handling of cotton by smallholder farmers in Kenya and Mozambique. 5th World Cotton Congress, Mumbai, India, 7–11 November 2011. Pratt, C.F. and Shaw, R. (2011) Inundative classical biological control: a new solution to an old problem. Association of Applied Bioligists (AAB) – Advances in Biological Control, Lincolnshire, UK, 30 November, 2011. Rutherford, M.A. (2011) Coffee wilt disease in Africa. CABI Centenary Day, Egham, UK, 6 January 2011. Rutherford, M.A. (2011) Assessing and addressing pesticide practice in cocoa producing countries to meet regulatory standards. International Workshop on Safe Use of Pesticides in Cocoa and Harmonized Legislation for Food Safety, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 25–27 January 2011. Rutherford, M.A. (2011) Assessing the supply and use of chemicals for cocoa in Indonesia. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute, Jember, Indonesia, 15 October 2011. Seier, M. (2011) Using ‘bad’ guys for a good purpose. Fungal pathogens for classical biocontrol of weeds in Latin America. VII Latin Amercian Congress of Mycology (CLAM – Congreso Latinoamericano de Micologia), San Pedro de Montes de Oca, San Jose, Costa Rica, 18–21 July 2011. Seier, M.K., Ellison, C.A., Cortat, G., Day, M. and Dhileepan, K. (2011) How specific is specific enough? Case studies of three rust species under evaluation for weed biological control in Australia. XIII International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds (ISBCW 2011), Waikoloa, Hawaii, USA, 11–16 September 2011. Virdiana, I., Flood, J., Baihaqi Sitepu, Hasan, Y., Aditya, R. and Nelson, S. (2011) Integrated disease management to reduce future Ganoderma infection during oil palm planting. Ganoderma Symposium and Workshop, Bogor, Indonesia, 2–3 November 2011. [Paper distributed to participants]

training materials & newsletters Rutherford, M.A., Hidalgo, E. and Rehman, A. (2011). Coffee wilt disease. No. 7 in: Bentley, J. (ed) Factsheets for Farmers, Kenya. CABI, Egham, UK. Seier, M., Varia, S. and Thomas, S. (2011) Evaluation of Chondrostereum purpureum (Pers.) Pouzar to control re-sprouting of cut stumps of Rhododendron ponticum in the UK. International Bioherbicide Group. IBG News, June 2011, pp. 3–5.


CABI annual Report

Murphy Sean, Regional Director Anderson Kath, PA to Regional Director

Invasive Species Ellison Carol, Theme Coordinator Invasive Species Brook Alex, Higher Scientific Officer – Ecologist Cortat Ghislaine, Scientific Officer (transferred to Swiss Centre April 2011) Djeddour Djami, Weed Biocontrol Scientist Edgington Steve, Insect Pathologist (& KFD) Eschen René, Higher Scientific Officer (transferred to Swiss Centre April 2011) Hill Lynn, Glasshouse/Laboratory Technician Jones Kate, Scientific Support, (from June 2011) Luke Belinda, Principal Scientist – Insect Pathologist (& Commodities) Maczey Norbert, Senior Ecologist/Entomologist Pollard Kate, Scientific Support (from October 2011) Pratt Corin, Project Scientist Seier Marion, Project Coordinator (Weed Pathology) Shaw Dick, Deputy Director (Development) and Regional Co-ordinator Invasive Species) Tanner Rob, Project Manager Taylor Bryony, Insect Pathologist (& Commodities) Varia Sonal, Project Scientist Wood Suzy, Scientific Support (from May 2011)

Commodities Moore Dave, Theme Coordinator Commodities Thomas Sarah, Plant Pathologist Thompson Emma, Project Scientist (& Centre Project Manager) Crozier Jayne, Plant Pathologist (seconded through the CABI centre in Trinidad to CATIE, Costa Rica) Ritchie Barbara, Plant Health Specialist (& KM) Rutherford Mike, Project Manager, Commodities

Knowledge for Development Boa Eric, Global Director, Plant Health Systems Development Reeder Rob, Plantwise Data Manager Kelly Paula, Plantwise Clinics Coordinator Taylor Philip, Plant Health Systems Coordinator

Knowledge Management Lamontagne-Godwin Julien, Project Scientist (& KFD)


CABI staff Europe UK


Smith Richard, Director, BioNET International Secretariat (until 31 August 2011) Blench Cindy, Office Manager (until 31 August 2011)





Bridge Paul, Director

Ragab Lesley, Librarian

Dorsett Allison, Group Administrator and Office Manager Buddie Alan, Molecular Biology Operations Manager

support staff

Caine Thelma, Identification Operations Manager

Cross Tony, Facilities Manager

Cannon Paul, Principal Mycologist

Fell Bill, Finance Manager, International Development

Clayton Teresa, Prep Room Manager

Hussain Saika, Finance Officer

Godwin-Keene, Georgina, Environmental and Industrial Microbiologist

Mays Steve, HR Operations Manager

Hudson Ken, Mycology Publications Coordinator

Muiruri Alice, Finance Officer (maternity cover from 14 November 2011)

Kasulyte Daiva, Molecular Microbiologist

Prickett Carol, Finance Officer

Kermode Anthony, Preservation Technician, Bioservices

Vine Les, Site Maintenance Officer

Kirk Paul, Mycology Consultant

Wall, Louise, Receptionist and Facilities Administrator

Lawrence Sharon, Senior Environmental and Industrial Microbiologist

Emeritus Research Fellows

Madden Esther, Database Administrator (from 26 September 2011)

Bridge John

Minter Dave, Mycology Consultant

Hunt David (from 21 May)

Offord Lisa, Yeast and Bacteria Specialist

Waller Jim

Ross Milena, Microbial Identification Service and GRC Sales Administrator

CABI Europe UK Associates

Ryan Matthew, Curator

Bentley Jeffery, Agricultural Anthropologist

San Shwe Phue, Screening Technician

Danielsen Solveig, Plant Health Systems Specialist

Shell Sandra, Technician (until 12 October 2011)

Harling Rob, Plantwise Country Coordinator

Smith David, Director, Biological Resources

Quinlan Megan, International Regulatory Expert

Stewart Helen, Scientific Support Tymo Lukasz, Molecular Microbiologist

other International Development staff based at Egham Baker Peter, Senior Scientist, Commodities and Climate Change Cock Matthew, Chief Scientist (from July 2011) Flood Julie, Senior Global Director, Commodities Kelley Joan, Executive Director, Global Operations Pearce Trinity, PA to Executive Director Global Operations White Gretel, Project Development Officer

CABI corporate staff based at Egham

Evans Harry C.

temporary staff Anderson Paul, Temporary Manual Labourer Kirkham Emily, Temporary Project Assistant Murphy Lydia, Temporary Receptionist Egham Rai Rajpreet, Project Scientist

student attachments Pollard Kate, Imperial College London, Silwood Park, MSc project Clewley Gary, Imperial College London, Silwood Park, PhD project Guerret Marine, Esipta Ecole dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Ingenieurs en Agriculture, France, MSc Project Kazaly Zainab, Royal Holloway, University of London, BSc undergraduate project

MacIntosh Neil, HR Director (based at Head Office from June 2011)


CABI annual Report

CABI is a not-for-profit, science-based development and information organization governed by 47 member countries from all parts of the world. We create, communicate, and apply knowledge in the fields of agriculture and the environment, working for and with universities, national research and extension institutions, development agencies, the private sector, governments, charities and foundations, farmers, and NGOs. CABI has over 400 staff operating from bases in 11 countries and working in more than 70. Our activities include:

publishing We produce key scientific publications including CAB Abstracts, the world-leading database covering agriculture and the environment, and Global Health, the definitive bibliographic database for public health information. We also publish multimedia compendia, books, e-books and full text electronic resources which support the practical application of the results of research.

development projects and research Our staff research and find solutions to agricultural and environmental problems. We use science, information and communication tools to help solve issues of global concern. Our work is arranged around four core themes: Commodities: we work to enable smallholder commodity farmers to compete in global markets. We diagnose and control plant pests and diseases, and help farmers get a better price for their crops. We work on crops such as coffee, cocoa, wheat, rice and cotton. Invasive Species: we are helping to reduce the spread and impact of invasive weeds such as Japanese knotweed and water hyacinth and insects such as coffee berry borer and cocoa pod borer. We also advise countries at a policy level about agriculture, trade and the environment.

about CABI

what does CABI do?

Knowledge for Development: we work with farmers, extension workers, researchers and governments to deliver agricultural knowledge and develop communication strategies and systems. We provide information and support for community-style telecentres, and facilitate the establishment of plant clinics around the world to help farmers identify pests and diseases affecting their crops. Knowledge Management: we use information and communication technologies to provide farmers, researchers and policy makers with the information they need to make informed decisions and to lift people out of poverty. We produce interactive databases and encyclopaedic compendia that give access to detailed and easy-to-search information on subjects like crop protection and animal health.

microbial services We manage one of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s largest genetic resource collections: the UKâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s National Collection of Fungus Cultures. We conduct microbiological identifications, provide cultures for sale, and offer preservation and consultancy services. We are also screening our collection, looking for natural products such as antibiotics, vitamins and enzymes. For more information about CABI please visit the website






Agricultural Advisory Society (Bangladesh)


Assam Agricultural University (India)


agricultural business centre


Agricultural Culture Collection of China (Institute of Agricultural Resources and Planning, CAAS)


Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research


African, Caribbean and Pacific (group of states)


Aquatic Phycomycetes Culture Collection


USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service


Agricultural Research Council – Plant Protection Research Institute (South Africa)


Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute


British Antarctic Survey


Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (UK)


Bio-Control Research Laboratories, Karnataka (India)


Biofuel Information Exchange (CABI)


BioNET-INTERNATIONAL, the Global Network for Taxonomy


Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung/Federal Ministry of Research and Education (Germany)


Bundesministerium für wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklung/Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (Germany)


Biological Resource Centre


British Standard


basal stem rot


Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences


Common Access to Biotechnology Resources Information


Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza/Tropical Agriculturakl Research and Higher Education Center (Costa Rica)


coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei


Convention on Biological Diversity


Coleção Brasileira de Microorganismos de Ambiente e Indústria (Brazil)


compact disc


Centre d’Etudes et de Recherche Action pour le Développement (DR Congo)


Coffee green scales (Coccus spp.)


Centro de Investigación Agrícola Tropical/Centre for Tropical Agricultural Research (Bolivia)


Coffee Industry Corporation (PNG)


Cooperazione Internazionale (Italy/Sierra Leone)


USDA-APHIS Center for Plant Health Science and Technology


Centro de Referência em Informação Ambiental, Cicade Universitária – Barão Geraldo Campinas (Brazil)

CABI annual Report


Utthan Centre for Sustainable Development and Poverty Alleviation, Allahabad (India)


Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (Australia)


Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation


Centro Tecnológico Forestal de Catalunya (Spain)


Department of Agriculture, Irrigation and Livestock (Afghanistan)


Department of Agricultural Research and Education, Ministry of Agriculture (India)


Department of Biotechnology, Ministry of Science and Technology (India)


Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation (Queensland, Australia)


Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (UK)


Department for International Development (UK)


deoxyribonucleic acid


Department of Primary Industries (Victoria, Australia)

DR Congo

Democratic Republic of the Congo


Dirección de Saneamiento Ambiental/Department of Agricultural and Food Safety (Bolivia)


Deutsche Sammlung von Mikro-organismen und Zellkulturen GmbH (Germany)


European Commission


European Culture Collections' Organisation


Environmental and Industrial Biology (CABI)


European Consortium of Microbial Resources Centres


Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária/Brazilian Enterprise for Agricultural Research (Brazil)


entomopathogenic nematodes


European Research Area - Agricultural Research for Development (EC)


European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures


European Union


Food and Environment Research Agency (UK)


Fungal Sampling Kit (CABI)


Fundación para el Desarrollo Tecnológico Agropecuario y Forestal de Nicaragua


Global Biological Resource Centre Network


Gross domestic product


Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (Germany)


global positioning system


Genetic Resources Collection (CABI)


Good Seed Initiative


high-value horticulture


International Confectionery Association


Indian Council of Agricultural Research





Indonesian Cocoa and Coffee Research Institute


CABI’s International Development Division


International Depository Authority within the Budapest Treaty (1977)


International Electrotechnical Commission


Institute for Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding, Coimbatore (Tamil Nadu, India)


Instituto Nacional de Innovación Agrícola y Forestal/National Institute for Agriculture and Forestry Innovation (Bolivia)


Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales y Agrícolas y Pecuarias, Veracruz (Mexico)


Institut National de Recherche Agronomique/National Institute for Agricultural Research (France)


integrated pest and disease management


integrated pest management


Institute of Plant Protection, CAAS (China)


Institut Supérieur d'Etudes Agronomiques et Vétérinaires, Aru (DR Congo)


International Organization for Standardization


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Knowledge for Development (CABI)


Knowledge Management (CABI)


Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium)


Locally Owned and Operated Partnership (BioNET)


Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industries and Fisheries (Uganda)


Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Resources (Rwanda)


Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Food Security (Sierra Leone)


matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight


microbial Biological Resource Centre


Microbial Resource Centre (UNESCO)




Microbial Identification Service (CABI)


Ministry of Agriculture (China)


Ministry of Agriculture Indonesia


National Agricultural Advisory Services (Uganda)


National Agricultural Quarantine Inspection Authority (PNG)


National Agricultural Research Organisation(Uganda)


National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, an institute of ICAR (India)


NITE Biological Resource Center (Japan)


National Confectioner's Association (USA)


National Collection of Wood Rotting Fungi (UK)


Natural Environment Research Council (UK)

CABI annual Report


New Rice for Africa


non-governmental organization


National Institute of Technology and Evaluation (Japan)


Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development


polymerase chain reaction


Pesticide Industries (India)


International Palm Oil Congress


Papua New Guinea


Promoción e Investigación de Productos Andinos/Promotion and Research of Andean Products (Bolivia)


Programa de Manejo Integrado de Plagas en América Central/Integrated Pest Management Program for Farmers in Central America


research and development


Rwanda Agricultural Board


Rural Development Academy (Bangladesh)


ribosomal ribonucleic acid


Royal Society for Protection of Birds (UK)


Royal University of Agriculture (Cambodia)


USDA South American Biological Control Laboratory


Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation


Society for Environment Conservation and Agricultural Research and Development (Nepal)


Servicio Departamental de Agricultura y Ganadería/Department of Agricultural and Livestock Service (Bolivia)


scanning electron microscope


Servicio Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria e Inocuidad Alimentaria/National Service for Animal and Plant Health and Food Safety (Bolivia)


Southern Fruit Research Institute (Vietnam)


Secretariat of the Pacific Community


Service Public Fédéral de Programmation Politique Scientifique (Belgium)


Instituto de Tecnologia do Paraná (Brazil)


translation elongation factor 1α


The Genome Analysis Centre (BBSRC)


The Nature Conservancy of Hawaii (USA)


Technical Strategy Board (UK)


Universidad Católica del Trópico Seco (Nicaragua)


Université Catholique du Graben (DR Congo)


United Kingdom Accreditation Service


United Kingdom National Culture Collection





United Kingdom Overseas Territory


Universidade do Minho – Micoteca da Universidade do Minho (Brazil)


Universidad Nacional Agraria (Managua, Nicaragua)


Uganda National Agro-input Dealers Association


Agricultural University (León, Nicaragua)


United Nations Environment Programme


United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization


Universidade Estadual Paulista (Brazil)


United States Department of Agriculture


Uchambuzi wa Viumbe Kwa Maendeleo/Taxonomy for Development in East Africa (BioNET)


Technical Research Center of Finland


World Data Centre of Microorganisms


World Federation for Culture Collections




Wheat Research Centre, BARI (Bangladesh)

CABI annual Report



contact CABI Africa Kenya CABI, ICRAF Complex United Nations Avenue, Gigiri PO Box 633-00621 Nairobi, Kenya T: +254 (0)20 7224450/62 E: Ghana CABI, CSIR Campus No.6 Agostino Neto Road Airport Residential Area PO Box CT 8630 Cantonments Accra, Ghana T: +233 302 797 202 E: Americas Brazil CABI, UNESP-Fazenda Experimental Lageado, FEPAF (Escritorio da CABI) Rua Dr. Jose Barbosa de Barros 1780, Fazenda Experimental Lageado CEP:18.610-307 Botucatu, San Paulo, Brazil T: +5514-38826300 E: Trinidad & Tobago CABI, Gordon Street, Curepe Trinidad and Tobago T: +1 868 6457628 E:

Asia China CABI, Beijing Representative Office Internal Post Box 56 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences 12 Zhongguancun Nandajie Beijing 100081, China T: +86 (0)10 82105692 E: India CABI, 2nd Floor, CG Block, NASC Complex, DP Shastri Marg Opp. Todapur Village, PUSA New Delhi – 110012, India T: +91 (0)11 25841906 E: Malaysia CABI, PO Box 210, 43400 UPM Serdang Selangor, Malaysia T: +60 (0)3 89432921 E:

Europe Switzerland CABI, Rue des Grillons 1 CH-2800 Delémont Switzerland T: +41 (0)32 4214870 E: UK CABI, Nosworthy Way Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8DE, UK T: +44 (0)1491 832111 E: CABI, Bakeham Lane Egham, Surrey TW20 9TY, UK T: +44 (0)1491 829080 E: E:

Pakistan CABI, Opposite 1-A, Data Gunj Baksh Road Satellite Town, PO Box 8 Rawalpindi-Pakistan T: +92 (0)51 9290132 E:

USA CABI, 875 Massachusetts Avenue 7th Floor, Cambridge MA 02139, USA T: +1 617 3954051 E:



CABI annual Report

CABI UK Centre report 2011  

CABI UK Centre report 2011

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