Issuu on Google+

Bundesmt für Kultur BAK Office fédéral de la culture OFC Ufficio federale della cultura UFC Uffizi federal da cultura UFC

Language Policy in Switzerland Study visit on language learning and teaching methods in a multilingual country Berne/ HdK, 02.04.2013 1


Bundesmt für Kultur BAK Office fédéral de la culture OFC Ufficio federale della cultura UFC Uffizi federal da cultura UFC

Overview  Facts and figures  Constitutional framework  Languages Act

2


Bundesmt für Kultur BAK Office fédéral de la culture OFC Ufficio federale della cultura UFC Uffizi federal da cultura UFC

Swiss multilingualism The four linguistic regions in Switzerland

3


Bundesmt für Kultur BAK Office fédéral de la culture OFC Ufficio federale della cultura UFC Uffizi federal da cultura UFC

Swiss multilingualism Resident population according to main languages (2010) 70

65.6

60 50 40 30 22.8 19.9

20 8.4

10

0.6 0 German

French

Italian

Romansh

Other languages

4


Bundesmt für Kultur BAK Office fédéral de la culture OFC Ufficio federale della cultura UFC Uffizi federal da cultura UFC

Swiss multilingualism Resident population with non-national languages (2010) 5.0 4.5

4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0

5


Bundesmt für Kultur BAK Office fédéral de la culture OFC Ufficio federale della cultura UFC Uffizi federal da cultura UFC

Constitutional and administrative structure The 26 Cantons

6


Bundesmt für Kultur BAK Office fédéral de la culture OFC Ufficio federale della cultura UFC Uffizi federal da cultura UFC

Multilingualism in the Canton of Grisons The languages in the Canton of Grisons (2000)

7


Bundesmt für Kultur BAK Office fédéral de la culture OFC Ufficio federale della cultura UFC Uffizi federal da cultura UFC

Overview  Facts and figures  Constitutional framework  Languages Act

8


Bundesmt für Kultur BAK Office fédéral de la culture OFC Ufficio federale della cultura UFC Uffizi federal da cultura UFC

Historical development  5th/6th century: gradual colonization by Alemanni (north),    

Burgundians (east), Lombards (south) 15th century: Confederation of the thirteen cantons 1798-1803: Helvetic Republic 1803: Act of Mediation 1848: Confederation

9


Bundesmt für Kultur BAK Office fédéral de la culture OFC Ufficio federale della cultura UFC Uffizi federal da cultura UFC

Historical development  Constitution of 1848 (revised 1874): “The three main languages of Switzerland, German, French, and Italian, are the national languages of Switzerland” (Article 109, respectively Article 116)  Amendment of Article 116 by referendum in 1938: “1. German, French, Italian, and Romansh are the national languages of Switzerland.” “2. German, French, and Italian are the official languages of the Confederation.”

10


Bundesmt für Kultur BAK Office fédéral de la culture OFC Ufficio federale della cultura UFC Uffizi federal da cultura UFC

Historical development

National Exhibition 1939: "Schlassamaing cunter minchün chi'ns attacha! – With all strength and power against all assailants“

11


Bundesmt für Kultur BAK Office fédéral de la culture OFC Ufficio federale della cultura UFC Uffizi federal da cultura UFC

Historical development  1985: parliamentary motion Bundi « safeguard of Romansh »  Amendment of Article 116 by referendum in 1996: “1. German, French, Italian, and Romansh are the national languages of Switzerland.” “2. The Confederation and the cantons shall encourage under-standing and exchange between the language communities.” “3. The Confederation shall support the measures taken by the cantons of Grisons and Ticino to safeguard and promote the Romansh and Italian languages.” “4. German, French, and Italian are the official languages of the Confederation. Romansh shall be an official language for Confederal relations with Romansh speakers.” 12


Bundesmt für Kultur BAK Office fédéral de la culture OFC Ufficio federale della cultura UFC Uffizi federal da cultura UFC

Completely revised Constitution of 1999  Art. 4 National languages The National Languages are German, French, Italian, and Romansh.  Art. 18 Freedom to use any language The freedom to use any language is guaranteed.

13


Bundesmt für Kultur BAK Office fédéral de la culture OFC Ufficio federale della cultura UFC Uffizi federal da cultura UFC

Completely revised Constitution of 1999  Art. 70 Languages 1

2

The official languages of the Confederation shall be German, French and Italian. Romansh shall also be an official language of the Confederation when communicating with persons who speak Romansh. The Cantons shall decide on their official languages. In order to preserve harmony between linguistic communities, the Cantons shall respect the traditional territorial distribution of languages and take account of indigenous linguistic minorities.

14


Bundesmt für Kultur BAK Office fédéral de la culture OFC Ufficio federale della cultura UFC Uffizi federal da cultura UFC

Completely revised Constitution of 1999  Art. 70 Languages 3

4

5

The Confederation and the Cantons shall encourage understanding and exchange between the linguistic communities. The Confederation shall support the plurilingual Cantons in the fulfillment of their special duties. The Confederation shall support measures by the Cantons of Graubünden and Ticino to preserve and promote the Romansh and the Italian languages.

15


Bundesmt für Kultur BAK Office fédéral de la culture OFC Ufficio federale della cultura UFC Uffizi federal da cultura UFC

Completely revised Constitution of 1999 Territoriality principle vs. freedom of languages? Judgment of the Federal Court (138 I 123 of April 26, 2012)

16


Bundesmt für Kultur BAK Office fédéral de la culture OFC Ufficio federale della cultura UFC Uffizi federal da cultura UFC

International legal instruments  European Charter for Regional or Minority

Languages  Promotion of minority languages  Framework Convention for the Protection of

National Minorities  Promotion of national minorities

17


Bundesmt für Kultur BAK Office fédéral de la culture OFC Ufficio federale della cultura UFC Uffizi federal da cultura UFC

Overview  Facts and figures  Constitutional framework  Languages Act

18


Bundesmt für Kultur BAK Office fédéral de la culture OFC Ufficio federale della cultura UFC Uffizi federal da cultura UFC

Genesis of the Language Act 1996 – 2003: Preparations 

1996 – 2001: Preparatory work starts, close collaboration between Confederation and cantons, creation of a « groupe de travail paritaire de la Confédération et des cantons pour la préparation de la loi sur les langues » (PAS) 2001-2003: Consultation of cantons, political parties, comunes, federal commissions, civil society 2003: Finalisation of the draft on the basis of the results of the consultation

19


Bundesmt für Kultur BAK Office fédéral de la culture OFC Ufficio federale della cultura UFC Uffizi federal da cultura UFC

Genesis of the Language Act 2004: A decisive year 

April 28: The governement rejects the draft legislation with the followings reasons:  

Confederation has already at its disposal the means to achieve the goals Instructions received from the Parliament to make financial savings

May 7: Parliamentary initiative Levrat 04.429: « Loi fédérale sur les langues nationales » Novembre: The two competent commission accept the parliamentary initiative Levrat

20


Bundesmt für Kultur BAK Office fédéral de la culture OFC Ufficio federale della cultura UFC Uffizi federal da cultura UFC

Genesis of the Language Act 2005 – 2006: Continuation on parliamentary level   

Draft legislation by the competent commissions Transmission to the federal government for statement Rejection by the federal government

2007: Conclusion of the procedure  

June to September: Parliamentary debate 5 Octobre 2007: Adoption of the Federal Act on National Languages and Understanding between the Language Communities

21


Bundesmt für Kultur BAK Office fédéral de la culture OFC Ufficio federale della cultura UFC Uffizi federal da cultura UFC

Language Legislation Federal Constitution Articles 4, 18 and 70

Languages Act

Implementing Order

22


Bundesmt für Kultur BAK Office fédéral de la culture OFC Ufficio federale della cultura UFC Uffizi federal da cultura UFC

Languages Act and implementing order LLC et OLang Champs d’application

Langues officielles de la Confédération

Compréhension et échanges

Cantons plurilingues

Tessin et Grisons

23


Bundesmt für Kultur BAK Office fédéral de la culture OFC Ufficio federale della cultura UFC Uffizi federal da cultura UFC

Example: Use of the official languages

Langues officielles de la Confédération

Représentation linguistique 70% D 22% F 7% It 1% Romanche

Utilisation du romanche comme langue semi-officielle

Délégué au plurilinguisme

Traduction, langues de travail et compétences linguistiques


Bundesmt für Kultur BAK Office fédéral de la culture OFC Ufficio federale della cultura UFC Uffizi federal da cultura UFC

Example: Competence centre for plurilingualism Centre de compétence scientifique de promotion du plurilinguisme

Centre de documentation sur le plurilinguisme

Réseau d’institutions scientifiques de toutes les régions linguistiques du pays

Recherche scientifique sur le plurilinguisme

Plurilinguisme individuel

Plurilinguisme institutionnel et sociétal

Évaluation des compétences linguistiques


Bundesmt für Kultur BAK Office fédéral de la culture OFC Ufficio federale della cultura UFC Uffizi federal da cultura UFC

Budget 2012 Support for the Canton of Grisons for safeguarding and promoting the Romansh and Italian languages and cultures

4.7 million CHF (3.9 million EUR)

Support for the Canton of Ticino for safeguarding and promoting the Italian language and culture

2.3 million CHF (1.9 million EUR)

Support for multilingual cantons

1.5 million CHF (1.2 million EUR)

Support for measure promoting understanding

4.1 million CHF (3.4 million EUR) - 1.5 million CHF - 1.1 million CHF - 0.7 million CHF - 0.6 million CHF - 0.2 million CHF

- Centre of competence for plurilingualism - Exchanges - Language tuition in school - Organisations - News agencies

26


Bundesmt für Kultur BAK Office fédéral de la culture OFC Ufficio federale della cultura UFC Uffizi federal da cultura UFC

Conclusion The Language Act provides a legal framework for ensuring the equality of the national languages and balanced representation within the federal authorities. It also makes improvements in exchanges and understanding, a key element of national cohesion.

Main current challenges:  Representation of linguistic communities within federal authorities and government  Teaching of national languages in school 27


Language Policy in Switzerland. D. Vitali