Page 1

A T H E M E PA R K S T U D Y

r e i m a g i n i n g kuwait’s g r e e n i s l a n d L u l w a

A b d u l l a h

A l

H a b a s h i


Graduation Thesis Project Fall Semester 2013 | 2014 Kuwait University College of Architecture Department of Architecture Instructors Dr. Asseel Al Ragam Architect Sara Al Fraih 1


TABLE OF CONTENTS List of Figures Thesis Statement Abstract

05 08 09

LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction Evolution of theme parks Growth of the theme park industry Impact of theme parks Disneyization of society Success factors of theme parks Global trends

10 10-12 13 14-15 15-16 17-19 20-25

CASE STUDIES Entertainment City Gardens By the Bay Ferrari World Magic Kingdom Animal Kingdom Comparison

28-37 38-51 52-59 60-65 66-73 74-77

SITE ANALYSIS Kuwait Waterfront Green Island

2

80-87 88-103


PROVISIONAL PROGRAM Zoning User sequence Case studies analysis Attraction descriptions Spatial analysis Space distribution Performance data sheet Existing land distribution Proposed land distribution

106 107 108 109-111 113 114-117 118-121 122 123

SCHEMATIC DESIGN Existing park Proposed park Public commercial zone Private commercial zone Cultural zone Attractions zone Site sections

126 127 128 129 130 131 132-135

End Notes Bibliography

136-137 138-139

3


4


All Figures by Author Except:

Figure I: Source: lluminate.sony.com.sg/wp-content/uploads/garden-city-by-nicky-bay.jpg Figure II: Source: http://www.singaporevr.com/vrs/gardensbythebay/ Figure III: http://www.singaporevr.com/vrs/gardensbythebay/

LIST OF FIGURES//

CASE STUDIES

Figure IX: http://www.singaporevr.com/vrs/gardensbythebay/ Figure X: http://www.singaporevr.com/vrs/gardensbythebay/ Figure XI http://landarchs.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/23b.jpg Figure XII http://landarchs.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/23b.jpg Figure XIII http://static.panoramio.com/photos/ SITE ANALYSIS Figure I: Source: Brian , Taylor. “Kuwait City Waterfront Development.” MIMAR. : 14-20. Figure II: Source: Brian , Taylor. “Kuwait City Waterfront Development.” MIMAR. : 14-20. Figure III: Source: Brian , Taylor. “Kuwait City Waterfront Development.” MIMAR. : 14-20.

5


7


LITERATURE REVIEW// thesis statement

THESIS STATEMENT

“The research aims to focus on the vital

role that theme parks play in the evolution of contemporary societies. Through this research, an alternative model will be introduced for Kuwait that would activate its role as an international tourist destination all the while providing a new form of

�

leisure for the locals.

8


LITERATURE REVIEW// abstract

ABSTRACT

The tourism sector is one that is often neglected in Kuwait’s entertainment industry. The project aims to develop a theme park that will not only act as a space for both entertainment and leisure, but also as an example in the shaping of Kuwait’s society and an alternative to the shopping mall. This project will introduce a new model of recreation and leisure, hosting values of successful parks such as quality, security, functionality, uniqueness and escape. It will aim to renovate and revitalize a crucial element in the Kuwaiti urban fabric, Green Island, and convert it into a theme park. The research conducted will focus on the vital role theme parks play in the evolution of contemporary societies, and how introducing a new form of theme park in Kuwait would activate its role as an international tourist destination as well as providing a new form of leisure for the locals.

9


LITERATURE REVIEW// introduction

Introduction In the past 60 years, the theme park industry has secured its place as one of the main contributors to the leisure and tourist sector. To try and understand this global phenomenon, we will need to look back and understand how, what had once begun as an open fairground catering to an audience consisting of pilgrims and peasants, has now transformed itself into an international industry catering to the evolving 1 middle class. “A Theme Park is an area planned as a leisure attraction, in which all the displays, buildings, activities, etc., are 2 based on or relate to one particular subject”

Evolution of Theme Parks The origin of the amusement park is the fairground, which was established as a result of merchants, entertainers, and food vendors, who had gathered to utilize the flow of people to entertain and sell goods to large crowds. As time went by, the concept of the park developed further into a space of leisure that was used by aristocrats and European kings. Later, during the 17th century, the concept of “pleasure parks” arose in France, eventually spreading 1 across Europe. These pleasure parks provided the first notion of a permanent site, open to the public, which hosted entertainment facilities. An admission price was not required, however users had to pay for each individual facility.

10

In the 18th century the parks were later on opened to the public and in 1853, the first international 1 exposition took place in the New York City. This proposed a new idea of outdoor entertainment, which involved both technology and transportation. The idea of outdoor entertainment was championed during 3 the 1893 Chicago World Fair, where the exhibition was designed to mimic a city, hosting 400 buildings 1 constructed of temporal materials. The Chicago Exhibition brought with it a new wave of entertainment and theming, as not only was the architecture and landscape part of a unified theme, but the costumes and entertainment all catered to a centralized theme as well. “The exposition did not represent an escape from


LITERATURE REVIEW// evolution of theme parks

the city but, fundamentally, like theme parks today, an 1 idealization and amplification of it.” During the 20th century the working class had received a reduction in their working hours, which therefore resulted in more free time. Coney Island, 1 New York, opened its gates to the public in 1895 presenting a new form of leisure for the new middle class; making it one of the main contributors to the leisure industry at the time. The island, pioneered by George Tilyou, introduced first signs of a competitive environment for the amusement industry. It consisted of 4 parks [Sea Lion Park, Steeplechase Park, Luna 1 Land and Dreamland]. Shortly after, new amusement parks started to develop throughout the 1930s, but the demand had declined after the second world war; this was due to natural disasters, vandalism, as well as “unchanged 3 aging attractions”. During the late 20th century, parks began to incorporate the use of cinema. This was first done, contrary to popular belief, by Universal Studios in 1 1915. They understood that the elements that make up the cinema production company itself could be used as the object of interest in parks. Walt Disney, however, capitalized on America’s fascination with film and transformed the cinema into a fair format, rejuvenating the fair for modern audiences. “People are looking for illusions: they don’t want the world’s realities. And, I asked, where do I find the world 1 of illusion?...Only one place-the movies.” Walt Disney wanted to create a park that appealed to both parents and children alike, the ratio of adults to 7 children at parks during that time was 4:1.

11


12

LITERATURE REVIEW// evolution of theme parks


According to the International Association of Amusement Parks and Attractions (IAAPA), Europe currently hosts 300 amusement parks; the largest being Disneyland Paris which (which brought in 10.9 million visitors in 2012), and he second being Europa 5 Park in Germany (bringing in only 4.5 million visitors). In keeping with these numbers, it is clear that the industry has grown in popularity (especially in the 3 last three decades) which is associated with the with a rise in car ownership as well as an increase in free time. However, the growth of the industry has been criticized by locals because of the “cultural imperialism 3 in an increasingly Americanized World”.

LITERATURE REVIEW// growth of the theme park industry

Growth of the Theme Park Industry

North America is the leading amusement park and traditional attractions host in the world, housing 4 more than 400 parks. The largest contenders in the industry are Walt Disney Attractions, Six Flags Theme Parks, Universal Studios Recreation, and Blackstone Ground [recently purchased Anheuser Busch theme parks]. The business has grown substantially in estimated attendance numbers since 1990, the US alone hosted an estimated 253 million visitors in 1990 which expanded by hosting almost 100 million 3 more visitors by the year 2007. “According to IAAPA executives, many decision makers in the theme park and attraction industry believe that people want to escape the pressures of everyday life and that amusement and theme parks provide the ideal escape 3 for a quality time with friends and families” . The US theme park industry’s most attracting locations are: California and Florida which both host Disney Parks, Magic Kingdom and Disneyland brought in 17.1 and 5 16.1 million visitors in 2012 respectively. We cannot neglect the fact that Kuwait’s society is driven by one main source of leisure [shopping malls] this alone drives the force of wanting to branch out into the leisure industry, and provide the community with a new source.

13


LITERATURE REVIEW// impact of theme parks

Impact of Theme Parks “Theme parks can contribute to the sustainability of a destination by providing an opportunity for employment for all segments of the 1 labor market.� Theme parks and attractions significantly improve the image of a destination; this will result in an increase in tourism and result in economic benefits for the locals. By adding a theme park, a new opportunity for employment for different segments of the labor 9 market is provided. Parks can be categorized into 3 genres: Destination parks (e.g Walt Disney World, Universal Studios), Regional parks (e.g. Six Flags, Sea World) and Urban Parks (e.g. Isla Magical in Europe Elitch 1 Gardens in the USA) Destination Parks are parks designed to cater to large audiences, accommodation close to the park is generally required due to the fact that the visitor 1 spends one night at the very leat at said destination. Regional Parks are those that cater to residents living around 100-200km away and plan to host visitors for a few hours per day. Urban Parks are parks which mainly cater to 1 the immediate residents of the area. Destination parks are more susceptible to economic 3 instability. 2 Examples will be given to furthermore understand the impact posed by the theme park industry. SeaWorld, San diego. Sea World in San Diego has been the main force in converting the city into a touristic destination of the first degree. The location of the park had been planned during the 1960s, and is one of the first theme parks ever to create recognition for a new city image. Sea World had provided the city with an identifiable landmark and is now one of the top 3 sources of income 14


Disneyland, Paris. Disneyland Paris, formerly known as EuroDisney, is an example of city planning used to catalyze a sector of a city. Before construction began, the area, Marne-la-Vallee, had consisted of wheat fields; it was later sought out to create a new sector for the city which includes a business park, housing and commercial centers. Disneyland Paris is now the leading theme park in Europe attracting around 10 million people by the year 2012.

LITERATURE REVIEW// disneyization of society

generated by the city including the manufacturing industry and the armed forces.

Disneyization of Society Disneyization: “The process by which the principles of the Disney theme parks are coming to dominate more and more sectors of American society as well as the rest of the 7 world.” Disneyization of society is concerned with how the Disney parks have been taken to represent a whole new approach to urban planning. Three factors that contribute to this theory are: 1- The social order which everything is controlled by an organization 2- ”Through the visual removal of all hint of production and the blanketing of consumption with layers of fantasy so that residents are blinkered from seeing the actual labor processes that condition and define their 7 lives” 3- The most important factor of the residents and visitors is their power to consume The Disney Universe is the term given to the universality of the Walt Disney company and its products, also focusing on the fact that they have created a contained universe which presents the world with a brand with consistently recognizable values, this is achieved by recurring characters and familiar repetitive themes. Theming is the most evident representation of the effect of Disney on society. In recent developments such as shopping malls, cafes, and even cruise ships, 15


LITERATURE REVIEW// disneyization of society

they are all incorporating themed areas. One of the prime examples is the Hard Rock Cafe and Planet Hollywood. A local example is the Avenues Mall in Al Rai area, the two latest additions to the mall are both themed: Soku & The Souk. Soku is influenced by New York City’s internationally recognizable Soho District, and The Souk is modeled to mirror Kuwait’s traditional market place known as the souk. In both cases, attention to detail is vital. Another form of Disneyization of society is the evolution of merchandising. In this section, merchandising is referred to as the promotion of goods bearing images or logos. During Walt Disney’s early days as a cartoonist, before developing Mickey Mouse, there had been another iconic character Disney had developed known as Oswald the Lucky Rabbit, however Universal Studios had the complete copyrights to Oswald. After Disney had parted ways with Universal Studios, he went on to develop Mickey Mouse. After a couple of years from the first appearance of Mickey, it was evident that the company was not making much profit off the cartoons, they were making a large sum of money off merchandising. Sales from merchandise are a leading factor to profits generated from parks; parks themselves are designed to maximize the opportunity for guests to purchase their goods. For example at every exit of a Disneyland ride or show, the user is lead into the store of that particular ride, in order for the user to exit they must pass through the store. This is one of the main reasons that push people towards purchasing items from the parks. Box Office films have also been guilty of making more money from merchandising than 7 the feature film itself.

16


Theme parks have grown increasingly popular in the past decades with the fulfillment of new leisure and tourism trends, the theme park experience offers more quality for less. Success Factors of theme parks were rated from managers in the industry (the interviews were conducted by B.Pikkemaat & M.Schuckert). They had rated the factors from 10 being the of the utmost importance to 1 which was rated as unimportant. Quality, Safety & Security were rated as the most imporant factors along with Range of Attractions and Functionality. Enviromental Integration was given the lowest score of 6.2 declaring it the least imporant factor. [The rating of all success factors is illustrated in Figure II]

LITERATURE REVIEW// success factors of theme parks

Success Factors of Theme Parks

One of the most successful factors of Walt Disney parks is the notion of control. People come into disney searching for an ideal form of society which is unavailable in the real “out of control” world. It is a realm of apparent freedom “in which there is a computer that 8 is making sure everyone is in permissible place.”

17


18

LITERATURE REVIEW// success factors of theme parks


19

LITERATURE REVIEW// success factors of theme parks


LITERATURE REVIEW// global trends

“What’s happening in the Middle East, especially Dubai and Abu Dhabi, reflects the overall, worldwide return to a positive outlook in attractions markets.” -John Robinett, Senior Vice President, Economics

5.2 % Increase in park attendance from 2011 to 2012

“A lot of that [park attendance] growth was, as expected, driven by reinvestment — the eternal necessity to drive additional attendance.” -Brian Sands, Vice President, Economics, Americas

70 / 30 proportion of tourits to residents at Hong Kong Disney in 2012

20

Information from Theme Index: The Global Attractions Attendance Report 2012


2012park attendance [millions]

[1] WALT DISNEY ATTRACTIONS 126,479,000 M [2] MERLIN ENTERTAINMENT GROUP 54,000,000 M

LITERATURE REVIEW// top 10 theme park groups

GROUP NAME

[3] UNIVERSAL STUDIOS RECREATION GROUP 34,515,000 M [4] PARQUES REUNIDOS 27,130,000 M [5] SIX FLAGS INC. 25,750,000 M [6] SEAWORLD PARKS & ENTERTAINMENT 24,310,000 M [7] CEDAR FAIR ENTERTAINMENT COMPANY 23,600,000 M [8] OCT PARKS CHINA 23,359,000 M [9] HAICHANG GROUP 9,400,000 M [10] COMPAGNIE DES ALPES 9,300,000 M Information from Theme Index: The Global Attractions Attendance Report 2012

21


NORTH AMERICA [1] MAGIC KINGDOM

LITERATURE REVIEW// global trends

[Walt Disney World, Lake Buena Vista, FL, U.S.A]

17,536,000 M

[2] DISNEYLAND

[Anaheim, CA, U.S.A.]

15,963,000 M [3] EPCOT

[Walt Disney World, Lake Buena Vista, FL. U.S.A]

11,063,000 M

[4] DISNEY’S ANIMAL KINGDOM

[Walt Disney World, Lake Buena Vista, FL, U.S.A]

131.5 MILLION

top 20 theme / amusement park attendance [2012]

9,998,000 M

[5] DISNEY’S HOLLYWOOD STUDIOS [Anaheim, CA, U.S.A.]

9,912,000 M

[6] UNIVERSAL’S ISLANDS OF ADVENTURE [Universal Orlando, FL. U.S.A]

7,981,000 M

[7] DISNEY’S CALIFORNIAN ADVENTURE [Anaheim, CA. U.S.A]

7,775,000 M

[8] UNIVERSAL STUDIOS FLORIDA [Universal Orlando, FL. U.S.A]

6,195,000 M

[9] UNIVERSAL STUDIOS HOLLYWOOD [Universal City, CA, U.S.A.]

5,912,000 M

[10] SEAWORLD FLORIDA [Orlando, FL. U.S.A]

5,358,000 M

22

Information from Theme Index: The Global Attractions Attendance Report 2012


SOUTH AMERICA [1] SIX FLAGS MEXICO LITERATURE REVIEW// global trends

[Mexico City, Mexico]

2,310,000 M

[2] HOPI HARI

[Sao Paulo, Brazil]

1,628,000 M

[3] LA FERIA D CHAPULTEPEC [Mexico City, Mexico]

1,537,000 M

[4] BETO CARRERO WORLD [Santa Catarina, Brazil]

1,500,000 M

[5] PLAZA PLAZA SESAMO [Monterrey, Mexico]

1,197,000 M

13.2 MILLION

top 20 theme / amusement park attendance [2012]

[6] PARQUE DE LA COSTA [Tigre, Argentina]

1,091,000 M

[7] FANTASIALANDIA [Santiago, Chile]

1,070,000 M

[8] PARQUE MUNDO AVENTURA [Bogota, Colombia]

1,065,000 M

[9] EL SALITRE MAGICO [Bagota, Colombia]

958,000 M

[10] BEACH PARK [Fortaleza, Brazil]

843,000 M

Information from Theme Index: The Global Attractions Attendance Report 2012

23


ASIA - PACIFIC [1] TOKYO DISNEYLAND

LITERATURE REVIEW// global trends

[Tokyo, Japan]

14,847,000 M [2] TOKYO DISNEY SEA [Tokyo, Japan]

12,656,000 M [3] UNIVERSAL STUDIOS JAPAN [Osaka, Japan]

9,700,000 M

[4] OCEAN PARK [Hong Kong SAR]

108.7 MILLION

top 20 theme / amusement park attendance [2012]

7,436,000 M

[5] EVERLAND

[Gyeonggi-Do, South Korea]

6,853,000 M

[6] HONG KONG DISNEYLAND [Hong Kong SAR]

6,700,000 M

[7] LOTTE WORLD

[Seoul, South Korea]

6,383,000 M

[8] NAGASHIMA SPA LAND [Kuwana, Japan]

5,850,000 M

[9] OCT EAST

[Shenzhen, China]

4,196,000 M

[10] YOKOHAMA HAKKEIJIMA SEA PARADISE [Yokohama, Japan]

4,050,000 M

24

Information from Theme Index: The Global Attractions Attendance Report 2012


EUROPE

LITERATURE REVIEW// global trends

[1] DISNEYLAND PARK AT DISNEYLAND PARIS [Marne-La-Vallée, France]

11,200,000 M

[2] WALT DISNEY STUDIOS PARK AT DISNEYLAND PARIS [Marne-La-Vallée, France]

4,80,000 M

[3] EUROPA PARK [Rust, Germany]

4,600,000 M

[4] DE EFTELING

[Kaatsheuvel, Netherlands]

4,200,000 M

[5] TIVOLI GARDENS

58 MILLION

top 20 theme / amusement park attendance [2012]

[Copenhagen, Denmark]

4,033,000 M

[6] PORT AVENTURA [Salou, Spain]

3,540,000 M

[7] LISEBERG

[Gothenburg, Sweden]

2,800,000 M

[8] GARDALAND

[Castelnuovo del Garda, Italy]

2,700,000 M

[9] ALTON TOWERS [Staffordshire, U.K.]

2,400,000 M

[10] LEGOLAND WINDSOR [Windsor, U.K.]

2,000,000 M

Information from Theme Index: The Global Attractions Attendance Report 2012

25


ENTERTAINMENT CITY// overview 28

The current state of the Entertainment city park does not represent what the park once stood for. The park was initiated and pioneered by the late Sheikh Jaber Al Ahmed Al Sabah, he wanted to create an escape for the people of Kuwait and for foreign visitors. Sheikh Jaber carefully selected the doha location due to the amount of large unpopulated lands at the time as well as having a sea-front view. During the year 1989, Sheikh Zayed of Abu Dhabi purchased the land adjacent to the park, in hopes of expanding it. The project never carried through due to the invasion that happened the year after. The area, however, still belongs to Sheikh Zayed and is, to this day, referred to as “Montazah Zayed�.


ENTERTAINMENT CITY// overview

The park was destroyed during the 1990 Iraqi invasion according to a senior tourist enterprises employee.It was later on restored and new features were added such as the grand entry-way. The park reopened in 1993. The park initially started out with a free admission fee, visitors would pay at each individual ride (each ride cost approximately 250 fils). Nowadays, the park adopted the feature of a single admission price that is a requirement for present day themeparks. The current state of the park is far less than ideal. The park originally started off having a Bulgarian maintenance crew supervised by Kuwaitis; the park nowadays still maintains a degree of cleanliness, but over attractions have been inoperable for more than a couple of years.

Project Name Entertainment City “AlMadina AlTarfeehiya� Project Theme International & Future Size 1,000,000 sq. m Cost 2 Billion USD Client Kuwait Tourist Enterprises Company Year of Opening 1984 Price of Ticket (excluding promotional packages): 3.5 Kuwaiti Dinar Type of Park Urban

29


ENTERTAINMENT CITY// attractions list

Pedestrian Pathways

Arab World • • • • • • • • • •

Tagada Ride Sinbad The Sailor Challenge Corner Arcade Games Arabian Carasoul Lake Arabian Gulf Ride Failaka Island Red Baron Arabian Train Station

Future World • • • • • 30

Grand Pri Dragon Train Atom Smasher Space Needle Rocket Flight

Water Elements

• • • • • • • •

Attractions

Ride Pabillion Space Cars Helicopter Ride Flying Elephant Flying Gold Rake Tornado Dream Machine Whirly Bird

International World • • • • • •

Arcade Games African Boat Ride Antique Autos Cowboy Carousel Stage Coach Round Wild West Shooting Gallery • American Train Station • Australian Log Ride

Vegetation


public pathways | water elements

ENTERTAINMENT CITY// Pedestrian Pathways

Water Elements

Attractions

Vegetation

Pedestrian Pathways

Water Elements

Attractions

Vegetation

31


ENTERTAINMENT CITY// vegetation | mass vs void

Pedestrian Pathways

32

Water Elements

Attractions

Vegetation


themed worlds

ENTERTAINMENT CITY//

b

a

c

Legend: a- Arab World b- Future World c- International World

33


ENTERTAINMENT CITY// elements within the park

Image showcases disruption of theme that can be experienced by the user when walking around Entertainment City. Unused and faulty equipment are thrown out into user exposed areas.

Another Form of disruption of theme is in the kiosks that are part of a specific land, the exterior of the kiosk is designed to represent that land however, the merchandise does not.

34


ENTERTAINMENT CITY// elements within the park A major success factor of popular theme parks is that visitors do not see what happens behind closed doors, this is not apparent in Entertainment City. The maintenence crew washes away dirt off the pavement during working hours.

The only form of transportation around the park is a ride on the carriage shown in the figure above, the park only hosts only ONE carriage.

35


b

a

36

ENTERTAINMENT CITY// views within the park


View A

View B

37

ENTERTAINMENT CITY// views within the park


GARDENS BY THE BAY// overview 38

Gardens by the Bay brings forward the idea of creating a city within a garden. The concept of the park is the principles of environmental sustainability. The park is entered free of admission. However, at the conservatories guests must pay an entrance fee in order to enter and experience the plants grown inside the conservatories. Over 160,000 plants were imported for the project. Another unique element in the park are the Supertrees. The trees are man-made structures that are embedded with energy-conserving, photovoltaic cells; this will be discussed in detail later on. The project is not considered as a theme park due to the fact that it does not host any attractions


GARDENS BY THE BAY// overview

or games guests can use; but it is a theme park in the sense that the entire park is centralized around a single, unified concept that is evident throughout the whole park.

Figure I [Gardens By the Bay]

Project Name Gardens By the Bay Project Theme Landscape, Public Realm & Sustainability Designers Wilkinson Eyre. Architects, Grant Associates, Atelier One, Atelier Ten, and Land Design Studios. Size 1,010,000 sq. m Cost 718,000,000 USD Client National Parks Board Singapore Year of Opening 2011 Price of Ticket (excluding promotional packages): Free Admission Type of Park Regional 39


GARDENS BY THE BAY// attractions

Pedestrian Pathways

• • • • • • • •

40

Water Elements

Flower Dome Cloud Forest Supertree Grove Heritage Gardens The World of Plants Dragonfly Lake Kingfisher Lake Bay East Garden

Attractions

Vegetation


GARDENS BY THE BAY// pedestrian pathways Pedestrian Pathways

Water Elements

Attractions

Vegetation

41


GARDENS BY THE BAY// water elements

Pedestrian Pathways

42

Water Elements

Attractions

Vegetation


GARDENS BY THE BAY// vegetation Pedestrian Pathways

Water Elements

Attractions

Vegetation

43


GARDENS BY THE BAY// the flower dome

h

g

a

f

b d e

c

Legend: a- The Baobabs b- Flower Field c- Australian Garden d- South American Garden e- South African Garden f- Mediterranean Garden g- Olive Grove h- Californian Garden

The dome replicates the climate of Mediterranean regions (e.g. California, South Africa, parts of Spain and Italy)1 The dome is the world’s largest, column-less green house. The structure of the dome consists of a steel grid which acts as an eggshell. The surface area of the dome is 16,000m2 consisting of 3,332 glass panels varying in shapes and sizes.1 The dome has a capability to host 1,400 people1 in the 38m1high structure, retaining a temperature of 23-25degrees Celsius1with a 60-80%1 level of maintained humidity.

44


GARDENS BY THE BAY// the flower dome Figure II [The Flower Dome Interior]

Figure III [The Flower Dome Interior]

45


a

b

GARDENS BY THE BAY// cloud forest

c d f g

e h

Legend: a- Lost World b- Cloud Walk c- The Cavern d- Crystal Mountain e- Treetop Walk f- Earth Check g- +5 Degrees h- Secret Garden

The Cloud Forest is the second domed attraction at Gardens by the Bay, this conservatory differs from the Flower Dome entirely. The Cloud Forest hosts plants from tropical montane regions which grow mainly 1000-3500m1 above sea level. The 12000sq. m1 surface area of the 58m1 high dome is constructed of 25771 glass panel that vary in shapes and sizes. The dome is home to the tallest man made waterfall which sits on a 35 meter1 man made mountain [The Cloud Mountain]. The dome maintains a temperature of 23-251 and a humidity level of 80-90%1 in order to keep these foreign plants alive.

46


GARDENS BY THE BAY// cloud forest Figure IX [Cloud Forest Interior]

Figure X [Cloud Forest Interior]

47


GARDENS BY THE BAY// supertree groves

Figure XI

Supertree Groves This section provides 11 artificial trees that are the first of their kind. Each tree is embedded with photovoltaic cells that harvest solar energy to allow the trees to light up at night. The Figure shows the layers that make up the tree; the concrete core is the structural element that stabilizes the tree. The steel frame acts as the tree’s trunk. The planting panels are installed on the steel frame to allow the growth and planting of the “living skin” which is comprised of 200 difference species that will grow on the tree. The canopy is shaped like a inverted umbrella to provide shade for the walkways underneath.

48


GARDENS BY THE BAY// world of plants | bay east garden Figure XII

World of Plants This section of the park is an interactive learning sector; each division of the world of plants tells a story of the history and details of each plant. The area is outdoor so it hosts plants that can survive in Singapore’s tropical temperatures. There is a section for designated trees that tells the story of how trees grow, as well as challenges of trees in order to survive in tropical countries. The sections available are: World of Palms, Fruits and Flowers, Web of Life and Discovery. Each of the sections have information boards of the species they host.

Bay East Garden The bay east garden hosts a 2km waterfront walkway that frames one of Singapore’s most important landmarks; Marina Bay financial district. This section does not host any attractions, it was developed as an area for visitors to go and take a break as well as take photos of Singapore’s landmarks.

49


GARDENS BY THE BAY// heritage gardens

Heritage Gardens The Heritage Gardens take the users back in history to the 3 main ethnic groups that form the singaporean history: The Indians, Chinese and Malaysians. Each garden uses the history of that particular community to create a garden to resemble those that shaped Singapore’s formation.

50


b

GARDENS BY THE BAY// lakes

a

Legend: a- Dragonfly Lake b- Kingfisher Lake

Dragonfly & Kingfisher Lake The 2 lakes were the first to open at the gardens by the bay, they hosted the 2010 youth olympic games for rowing and canoeing. The lakes are home to aquatic life that consist of both fish and plants. the plants act as a natural eco-filter that is used to cleanse the water coming in from the connecting marina reservoir. these plants maintain the right amount of nutrients in the lake by absorbing excess nitrogen and phosphorous. 51


FERRARI WORLD// overview

Abu Dhabi was chosen to host the world’s first Ferrari theme park due to Abu Dhabi’s key role as one of the fastest growing tourist attractions, and was named by Frommers Guide and Lonely Planet as one 2 of the top ten places to visit in 2010.

52

Abu Dhabi lies at the crossroads between Asia, Europe and Africa which is another reason it 3 was chosen to host the park. Ferrari’s technical innovation, performance and excellence were paid tribute to in the park. Benoy Architects used the side curved profile of the Ferrari GT body as design inspi4 ration. The park is located in Yas Island which is set 3 to become a global tourist destination and is next to the Yas marina circuit which was constructed in 2009 3 to host the Formula 1 Races .


FERRARI WORLD// overview

Benoy Architects designed the park to be experienced by both the people driving by or flying over the island. The airport is around 5 - 10 mins away from the park which allows visitors to experience fewer travel distances to reach the park. The park is successful due to its ability to maintain a cool environment in a very hot and humid country. When the 4 user is inside the structure, the 48m high roof gives a feeling of being in an open and unconfined space. Due to personal experience, the park does not have the ability to captivate the user for more than 3 hours due to the lack of entertaining facilities, this is an unsuccessful factor when comparing it to a park such as Disneyland which provides the user with enough attractions to last 5-7 hours per visit.

Project Name Ferrari World Theme Park Project Theme Ferrari Cars Designers Benoy Architects Size 200,000 sq. m Cost 1 Billion USD Client Aldar Properties PJSC Year of Opening 2010 Price of Ticket (excluding promotional packages): 64 USD \ 18 Kuwaiti Dinar Type of Park Regional 53


FERRARI WORLD// attractions

Pedestrian Pathways

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 54

Attractions

Formula Rossa G-Force Fiorano GT Challenge Scuderia Challenge Speed of Magic Bell’Italia Tyre Twist Junior GT Junior GP Junior Training Camp Made in Maranello Fast Lane: The Interactive Game Show Paddock Cinema Maranello Driving with the Champion Galleria Ferrari The Racing Legends V12 Red Viaggio in Italia Motor Midway Games

Vegetation


Pedestrian Pathways Attractions Vegetation

55

FERRARI WORLD// pedestrian pathways | mass vs void


FERRARI WORLD// vegetation

Pedestrian Pathways

56

Attractions

Vegetation


FERRARI WORLD// In order to maintain a certain temperature within the enclosed park, Ac ducts are hidden within the building structures. These are used to cool down the air in order to create a more comfortable atmosphere for the users.

57


b

a

58

FERRARI WORLD// views within the park


View A

View B

59

FERRARI WORLD// views within the park


MAGIC KINGDOM// overview 60

Not only is Magic Kingdom the most successful Walt Disney Park, it is actually the most successful park in the world. Before speaking about Magic Kingdom, the original disney theme park must be discussed. Walt Disney wanted to create a park where both parents and their children can have fun, the idea started off as a 3 acre piece of land next to the disney california studio which went on to become a large scale theme park where Disney would be able to showcase his fictional characters. On the opening day of Disneyland California, many things had been miscalculated, such as the insufficient amount of disposable garbage bins. Another factor Disney did not approve of is that employees had to cross one land to get to another. According to Modern Marvels there had once been a Cowboy in Frontier land that tipped that scales and Disney vowed to create a new park that was bigger 5 and better than Disneyland. Enter Magic Kingdom, Florida had been


MAGIC KINGDOM// overview

chosen due to its year round good weather, and during the 1960s swamp lands were sold for $108 per acre (this was before the owners of the lands knew who was purchasing them) once the word got out that Walt Disney was purchasing swamp land, the price of land 5 shot up to $1000 per acre. Construction for Magic Kingdom resumed after Walt Disney had passed away, The Park hosts an underground system known as utilidoors that transport employees to wherever they need to be without having a clash of the worlds. The underground system also hosts a high speed garbage disposal system known as the AVAC system. All these 5 functions are hidden 14ft below the actual park. The central element of the Magic Kingdom is Cinderella’s castle, the Orlando government restricted the castles height to 200ft, in order for the designers to make it appear larger, they used optical illusions otherwise known as optical perspective which gives 5 the illusion that the structure is larger than it actually is. Project Name Magic Kingdom Project Theme Fantasy & TV Characters Designers Walt Disney Imagineering Size 430,000 sq. m Cost 400,000,000 USD Client The Walt Disney Company Year of Opening 1971 Price of Ticket (excluding promotional packages): 95 USD / 27 Kuwaiti Dinar Type of Park Destination

61


MAGIC KINGDOM// attractions

Pedestrian Pathways

Water Elements

Mainstreet USA • • • • • • •

Main Street Vehicles Walt Disney World Railroad Dream-Along with Mickey Town Square Theatre Harmony Barber Shop City Hall Main Street Chamber of Commerce

Adventureland

62

• • • • • • •

The Magic Carpets of Aladdin Walt Disney’s Enchanted Tiki Room Pirates of the Caribbean The Pirates League Jungle Cruise Swiss Family Treehouse Tinker Bell’s Magical Nook

Attractions

Vegetation


• • • • •

Splash Mountain Country Bear Jamboree Frontierland Shootin’ Arcade Tom Sawyer Island Big Thunder Mountain Railroad

Fantasy Land • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Cinderella Castle Prince Charming Regal Carrousel It’s a Small World Mad Tea Party The Many Adventures of Winnie the Pooh Mickey’s PhilharMagic Peter Pan’s Flight Brave “Play and Greet” (Fairytale Garden) Princess Fairytale Hall The adventures of the little mermaid Enchanted Tales with Belle Under the Sea: Journey of the Little Mermaid Ariel’s Grotto

MAGIC KINGDOM// attractions

Frontierland

Tomorrowland • • • • • • • •

Buzz Lightyear’s Space Ranger Spin Monsters, Inc. Laugh Floor Stitch’s Great Escape! Astro Orbiter Space Mountain Tomorrowland Speedway Tomorrowland Transit Authority Peoplemover Walt Disney’s Carousel of Progress

63


MAGIC KINGDOM// pedestrian pathways | mass vs void

Pedestrian Pathways

64

Water Elements

Attractions

Vegetation


MAGIC KINGDOM// water elements | themed worlds Pedestrian Pathways

Water Elements

Attractions

Vegetation

d

c

e b

Legend: a- Mainstreet USA

b- Adventure Land

c- Frontier Land

d- Fantasy Land

e- Future Land

65


ANIMAL KINGDOM// overview 66

The largest park in Walt Disney’s company this far is Animal Kingdom, sometimes referred to as a zoo which does not make the designers of the park happy. The park is centralized around the theme of “the innate 6 7 human love for animals” and “intrinsic value of nature” . The park not only celebrates animals, but also makes sure to educate the visitors about animals. Architecture in the Animal Kingdom is used to celebrate nature, Designer John Rodhe stated that they did not want architecture to be the dominant feature of the park; the dominant feature should be the animals who live in their natural habitat. The central element of the entire park is the 14 storey high Tree of life, the tree is not actually a living tree, it is composed of an oil rig structure at the base in order to support the vast load of the leaves


6

ANIMAL KINGDOM// overview

and branches that make up the tree. Expansion joints are connected to the artificial branches to give the illusion 6 of a smooth swaying movement that results from wind.

Figure XIII [The Animal Kingdom]

Project Name Disney’s Animal Kingdom Project Theme Animals & Nature Designers Walt Disney Imagineering Size 2,000,000 sq. m Cost 1 Billion USD Client The Walt Disney Company Year of Opening 1998 Price of Ticket (excluding promotional packages): 90 USD / 25.5 Kuwaiti Dinar Type of Park Destination 67


ANIMAL KINGDOM// attractions

Pedestrian Pathways

68

Water Elements

Attractions

Vegetation


• It’s Tough to be a Bug! • Discovery Island Trails • The Tree of Life Camp Minnie-Mickey • Festival of the Lion King • Character Greeting Trails Africa • • • •

ANIMAL KINGDOM// attractions

Discovery Island

Kilimanjaro Safaris Pangani Forest Exploration Trail Wild Africa Trek Harambe Village

Rafiki’s Planet Watch • • • •

Wildlife Express Train Habitat Habit! Affection Section Conservation Station

Asia • • • •

Expedition Everest Kali River Rapids Maharajah Jungle Trek Flights of Wonder

DinoLand USA • • • • • • • • •

Dinasour Finding Nemo-The Musical Cretaceous Trail Dino-Sue Fossil Fun Games Kids Discovery Clubs Primeval Whirl The Boneyard TriceraTop Spin

69


ANIMAL KINGDOM// pedestrian pathways

Pedestrian Pathways

70

Water Elements

Attractions

Vegetation


71

ANIMAL KINGDOM// mass vs void


ANIMAL KINGDOM// vegetation

Pedestrian Pathways

72

Water Elements

Attractions

Vegetation


ANIMAL KINGDOM// water elements Pedestrian Pathways

Water Elements

Attractions

Vegetation

73


COMPARISON// vegetation Animal Kingdom

Gardens by the Bay

74


COMPARISON// vegetation Magic Kingdom

Entertainment City

Ferrari World

75


COMPARISON// mass vs void

Animal Kingdom

76

Gardens by the Bay


COMPARISON// mass vs void Magic Kingdom

Entertainment City

Ferrari World

77


KUWAIT WATERFRONT// overview 80

The 1978 kuwait waterfront proposal designed by Sassaki associates a landscape firm from boston usa with Ghazi Sultan a kuwaiti architect working at KEO was a large shift from the once fishing an trading country which had developed into a large metropolitan area. The continuos 21km strip that spans all the way from the kuwait towers to the scientific center. The proposal brought forth a new approach by integrating both natural features such as plants and trees with the existing city structure. The Ghazi SultanSasaki associates proposal differed from previous proposals in the fact that it included recreational and cultural functions which had been lacking in previous proposals which mainly centered around housing or commerce.


KUWAIT WATERFRONT// overview

Since the establishment of the arabian gulf street, the city and its people have been cut off from the coastline so in a way the project aimed to “give the coastline beyond the highway back to the people.�.

Project Name Kuwait Waterfront Project Architects Ghazi Sultan & Saski Associates Size Spans 21 KM Client Sheikh Jaber Al Ahmed Al Sabah Year of Opening 1988

81


KUWAIT WATERFRONT// initial proposal In 1977 a field monitoring program had been established to provide criteria for design of improvements to the waterfront. This had recommended the use of artificial beaches as well as an artificial island (Green island). Tests were done in order to assure that the kuwait shoreline was able to accommodate recreational beaches due to low tide elevation levels.

82


KUWAIT WATERFRONT// current state Hotels

Restaurants

Commercial Areas

Gym

83


KUWAIT WATERFRONT// focal points 84

Scientific Center: 1

Scientific Center: 2

Public Walkway: 3

Fountain: 4

Restaurant Mall: 5

Public Walkway: 6


Public Walkway: 10

Seating Area: 13

Yacht Club: 8

Public Walkway: 9

Public Walkway: 11

Public Walkway: 12

KUWAIT WATERFRONT// focal points

Hardrock Cafe: 7

Shoreline: 14

85


86

KUWAIT WATERFRONT// artificial beaches | city bus stops


87

KUWAIT WATERFRONT// residents in surrounding areas


GREEN ISLAND// overview

The 400m radial man made island is joined to the mainland by a 820 ft walkway. Ghazi Sultan as well as Sasaki Associates wanted to create a “counterpoint” to the linear waterfront project. The project aims to create an area completely opposite to what kuwait has to offer, Kuwait lacks vegetation due to its desert base therefore Green Island provides an alternative by creating an island that was completely dedicated to hosting vegetation, the island plays host to the largest olive “zaitoon” tree accumulation in the country.It also hosts built structures such as a “castle|”, an amphitheater and a coil pavilion. Green island is fortressed all around by rocks imported from Al fujaira in the UAE as well as specially designed concrete blocks which mainly lie on the

88


GREEN ISLAND// overview

outskirts of the island. During the present time, the island has not changed at all since its completion in 1981. The majority of the structures remain the same . Additions were made such as a cover on the once exposed amphitheater, The whistling dome no longer whistles due to the growth of trees within the dome which limits the Western winds from passing through harmoniously. The centralized lake used to play host oxygen generators in order to allow water circulation for the fish that once lived there. However during the 1990 Iraqi invasion, they were destroyed and never fixed. This lead to a rise in bacteria levels due to lack of water circulation, the mud levels also rose by 40cm.

Project Name Green Island Architects Ghazi Sultan & Saski Associates Size Spans 21 KM Client Sheikh Jaber Al Ahmed Al Sabah Year of Opening 1989

89


90

GREEN ISLAND// sites & surroundings


GREEN ISLAND// street system Primary Streets

Secondary Streets

Tertiary Streets

91


92

GREEN ISLAND// open spaces


GREEN ISLAND// services Embassies

Services

Co-ops

Educational Facilities

Health Care

Mosques

Public Parking

93


94

GREEN ISLAND// water elements


95

GREEN ISLAND// mass vs void


96

GREEN ISLAND// main plan


97

GREEN ISLAND// pedestrian pathways


4

6

98 5

7 8

1 3

2

GREEN ISLAND// attractions


The Castle: 3

Restaurant: 4

Observation Tower: 5

Restaurant: 6

Roman Amphitheatre: 7

GREEN ISLAND// attractions

Soap Soccer Fields & Kids Play Area: 1 & 2

Coil Pavillion: 8

99


100

GREEN ISLAND// water element


101

GREEN ISLAND// vegetation


FIGURE I

GREEN ISLAND// past vs present

The Castle

[1980’s] The Whistling Dome

[2013] FIGURE II

[1980’s]

[2013]

The Roman Amphitheatre FIGURE III

[1980’s]

102

[2013]


1980’s: The castle had a functional waterfall, the water around the castle was maintained and clean. 2013: The present state of the castle remains exactly the same, however, the water around the castle now has pieces of trash in it and seating niches were built around the outskirts of the structure.

GREEN ISLAND// past vs present

The Castle A concrete structure that does not host any function, it has a series of stairs that leads the user to the roof.

The Whistling Dome: The dome was intended to act as a whistling dome which “played music” when hit with the midwestern wind. 1980’s: The dome hosted small shrubs as well as a central fountain area. 2013: The dome now hosts large trees which block the whistling holes, the fountain area is now covered by a large, wooden board and chairs are placed on it which allows present day users to use it as a seating area. The Roman Amphitheater: 1980’s: The amphitheater was exposed and was open to users to pass through and view the structure. 2013: The amphitheater has since then adopted a shading structure that consists of a steel structure and black cloth. The theater is closed all year round excluding public holidays.

103


106

PROGRAM// zoning


107

PROGRAM// user sequence


108

PROGRAM// case studies analysis


Dark rides are completely enclosed attractions. They are relatively small predictable rides that take all vehicles on the same single track that takes the user on a moving story ride or trail. They date back all the way to Coney Island’s tunnel of love. Today both Disney World and Universal Studios theme parks present the most popular dark rides. The illuminated scenes within the ride are usually lit by ultraviolet [black] light causing the scenes to appear a lot more vivid and dynamic than they actually are.

PROGRAM// attraction descriptions

DARK RIDES

Example: Haunted Mansion BOAT RIDES

These are usually located within a water element that hosts a track, which guides the boat through static animation or moving scenery. The majority of present day boat rides are outdoor; however, boat rides and dark rides may be combined to create an indoor boat ride if desired.

Example: Jungle Boat Cruise SIMULATORS

Simulators are fairly small attractions. The seats are laid out in a cinema like format and once that animation on the screen starts the motion based seats react according to the scene playing at the time. This sort of experience allows the user to feel like they are within short film.

Example: The Spider-Man Ride at Islands of Adventures DROP TOWER This attraction is an extremely popular thrill ride within parks. It elevates users high above the ground and then drops down causing them to experience initial free-fall and then slow deceleration towards the end. This sort of attraction is placed in parks to attract mainly teenagers who usually seek more thrilling rides.

Example: The Giant Drop at Dreamworld Australia

109


Name: Little Mermaid Ariel’s

PROGRAM// attraction specifications

Undersea Adventure Type: Dark Ride Area: 800 sq.m Spatial Requirments: [1] Waiting Area

[2] Electrical Room [3] Circulation [4] Costume Storage

Name: Maxi Motion Seat Type: Simulator Area: 200 sq.m Spatial Requirments: [1] Control Room

[2] Motion-Seat [2m diameter space needed]

Name: Drop Tower Type: Tower Thrill Ride Area: 300 sq.m Spatial Requirments: [1] Control Room [2] Waiting Area [3] Central Ride Spine

110


Name: Karting Track Area: 3075 sq.m Spatial Requirments: [1] Office

[2] Kart Parking [3] Waiting Area

PROGRAM// attraction specifications

Type: Go-Karting

Name: Omnimvor Boat Ride Type: Boat Ride Area: 5000 sq.m Spatial Requirments: [1] Waiting Area

[2] Control Room [3] Wave Generator [4] Breaks & Machinery

111


112

PROGRAM// spatial analysis


PROGRAM// spatial analysis Visual Connection Direct Connection 113


DISTRICT: Cultural

PROGRAM// space distribution

Walkthrough Museum Display Area

[160 sq.m]

Collection Storage

[82 sq.m]

Mechanical Room

[9 sq.m]

Control Room

[9 sq.m]

Waiting Area/Lobby

[40 sq.m]

Dark Ride

[1100 sq.m]

Total Area

1400 sq.m

Festival Ground Offices [2]

[8 sq.m]

Instrument Repair

[7.2 sq.m]

Room Rehearsal Room [2]

[70 sq.m]

Mechanical Room

[9 sq.m]

Stage

[30 sq.m]

Dressing Room

[60 sq.m]

Total Area

185 sq.m

Amphitheater [Existing] Offices [2]

[8 sq.m]

Dressing Room

[96 sq.m]

Rehearsal Room [2]

[70 sq.m]

Stage & Seating

[1236 sq.m]

Total Area

1410 sq.m

DISTRICT: Attractions Dark Ride

114

Track Area

[1020 sq.m]

Control Room

[32 sq.m]

Electrical Room

[30 sq.m]

Costume Storage

[20 sq.m]

Total Area

1102 sq.m


Control Room

[32 sq.m]

Seating Space

[160 sq.m]

Total Area

200 sq.m

Carousel Ride

Hosts 64 people

[95 sq.m]

Total Area

95 sq.m

Boat Ride

Control Room

[95 sq.m]

Track Circulation

[5000 sq.m]

Total Area

5095 sq.m

Carnival Games Strip Booth [10]

[62.5 sq.m]

Total Area

62.5 sq.m

Carting

Track

[3000sq.m]

Office Space

[16 sq.m]

GoCart Storage

[32 sq.m]

PROGRAM// space distribution

Simulator

[20 Carts] Waiting Area Total Area

[30 sq.m]

3078 sq.m

DISTRICT: Commercial Management

Meeting Room

[18.5 sq.m]

Kitchenette

[7.65 sq.m]

Archival Storage

[9 sq.m]

Restrooms [8]

[34 sq.m]

Offices [10]

[90 sq.m]

Cubicles [10]

[37.4sq.m]

Total Area

196.5 sq.m

115


DISTRICT: Commercial First Aid PROGRAM// space distribution

Consultation Room [2] [18 sq.m] Patient Room [2]

[26 sq.m]

Staff Room

[50 sq.m]

Nurse Area/

[50 sq.m]

Medicine Cabinate Waiting Area [9peopl e ] [13 sq.m] Total Area

Prayer Hall

Prayer Room [140

157 sq.m

[224 sq.m]

Males-140 Females] Ablution Area [2]

[57 sq.m]

Restroom [16 Stalls] [68 sq.m] Total Area

Retail

349 sq.m

Storage

[23 sq.m]

Office

[9 sq.m]

Sales Room

[60 sq.m]

Total Area

92 sq.m

Standard Restaurant

Kitchen [100 people] [150 sq.m] Seating Area

[56 sq.m]

[48 people]

[70 sq.m]

Waiting/ Entry

[9 sq.m]

Total Area

285 sq.m

Large Restaurant

Kitchen [200 people] [224 sq.m]

116

Seating Area

[230 sq.m]

[200 people]

[70 sq.m]

Waiting/ Entry

[20 sq.m]

Total Area

544 sq.m


Arcade

Game Room

[150 sq.m]

Food & Beverage

[15 sq.m]

Restroom [4 Stalls]

[17 sq.m]

Total Area

182 sq.m

Main Storage

Retail Storage

[100 sq.m]

Machine Storage

[150 sq.m]

PROGRAM// space distribution

Machines

[15 cleaning machines] [15 gardening machines] [15 transport carts]

Total Area

Employees

250 sq.m

Break Room [2]

[100 sq.m]

Locker Room

[18 sq.m]

[80 Lockers] Dressing Room

[96 sq.m]

Rest Room [16 Stalls]

[68 sq.m]

Total Area

282 sq.m

117


PROGRAM// performance data sheet

DISTRICT: Cultural Space: Museum District: Cultural Function: Art Display | Dark Ride Net Area: 1400 sq.m Activities: Public View of Art | Themed Experience Critical Factors: //Clear distinction between dark ride zone & walk-through museum when entering lobby

Sound Insulation Required Visual Connection Direct Connection 118


Space: Management District: Commercial Function: Workspace Net Area: 195.5 sq.m

PROGRAM// performance data sheet

DISTRICT: Commercial

Activities: Offices Critical Factors: //Visual Connection to Public & Private Commercial Districts

Sound Insulation Required Visual Connection Direct Connection 119


PROGRAM// performance data sheet

DISTRICT: Commercial Space: First Aid District: Commercial Function: Medical Care Net Area: 157 sq.m Activities: Visitor Care Critical Factors: //Easy access from all districts

Sound Insulation Required Visual Connection Direct Connection 120


Space: Festival Ground District: Cultural Function: Performance Arena Net Area: 185 sq.m

PROGRAM// performance data sheet

DISTRICT: Cultural

Activities: Concerts | Performances Critical Factors: //Loud Speakers Needed //Flexible Seating Space

Sound Insulation Required Visual Connection Direct Connection 121


PROGRAM// existing land distribution

17 %

Vegetation

25 %

Water Element

21.5 % Sand

0.94 %

Built Structures

35.5 %

Circulation

122


Vegetation

PROGRAM// proposed land distribution

25 %

21 %

Water Element

16.6 %

Grass

5.5 %

Built Structures

32 %

Circulation

123


126

SCHEMATIC DESIGN// existing park


127

SCHEMATIC DESIGN// proposed park


Management

128

Retail

Restaurants

SCHEMATIC DESIGN// public commercial zone


SCHEMATIC DESIGN// private commercial zone Management

Retail

Restaurants

Prayer Hall | Restrooms

Amusement Arcade

Ferris Wheel

Observatory

129


SCHEMATIC DESIGN// cultural zone

Coil Pavillion Museum

130

Festival Ground

Theatre

Bazaar | Plaza


SCHEMATIC DESIGN// attractions zone Boat Ride

Carousel

Drop Tower

Karting

Carnival Game Strip

Dark Ride

131


132

SCHEMATIC DESIGN// site section


133

SCHEMATIC DESIGN// site section


134

SCHEMATIC DESIGN// site section


135

SCHEMATIC DESIGN// site section


1-Clavé, Salvador Anton. The global theme park industry. Wallingford, UK: CABI, 2007.

ENDNOTES// literature review

2-http://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/ theme-park. 3-Ady, Milman. The global theme park industry. master\., University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida, USA, 2010. 4-http://www.iaapa.org/resources/by-park-type/ amusement-parks-and-attractions/industry-statistics. 5-http://www.travelandleisure.com/articles/worldsmost-visited-theme-parks/. 6-Schuckert, Markus, and Birgit Pikkemaat. “Success Factors of Theme Parks - An Exploratory Study.” Tourism 55, no. 2 (2007): 198-208 7- Bryman, Alan. “The Disneyization Of Society.” The Sociological Review 47, no. 1 (1999): 25-47. 8- “The Architecture of Reassurance: Designing the Disney Theme Park.” JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY OF ARCHITECTURAL HISTORIANS 57, no. 2 (1998): 204-207. http://www.jstor.org/stable/991381 . (accessed September 23, 2013). 9-Milman, Ady, Fevzi Okumus, and Duncan Dickson. “The Contribution Of Theme Parks And Attractions To The Social And Economic Sustainability Of Destinations.” Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes 2, no. 3 (2010): 338-345. 10-Judith, Rubin. “The Global Attractions Attendance Report 2012.” Theme Index. (2012).

136


2-“Ferrari World Abudhabi.” Accessed September 30, 2013. http://www.ferrariworldabudhabi.com. 3-”Ferrari.” Last modified 2013. Accessed September 30, 2013. http://www.ferrari.com/English/ about_ferrari/Theme-Park/Pages/101025_COR_ FerrariWorldAbuDhabi.aspx.

ENDNOTES// case studies

1-Gardens By the Bay, “Gardens By the Bay.” Last modified 2013. Accessed September 30, 2013. http://www.gardensbythebay.com.sg/en/the-gardens/ attractions/flower-dome.html.

4-“Autodesk.” Last modified 2011. Accessed September 28, 2013. http://images.autodesk.com/ adsk/files/benoy_architects_customer_story_enproxy.pdf. 5-”Modern Marvels-Walt Disney World.” Modern Marvels. The History Channel. Web, http://www. youtube.com/watch?v=4hNfevDe8WA. 6-Joe, Rodhe. “10th Anniversary Animal Kingdom” 2008. Web, http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=xR65SxY6Lq8.

137


Clavé, Salvador Anton. The global theme park industry. Wallingford, UK: CABI, 2007. http://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/themepark.

BIBLIOGRAPHY//

Ady, Milman. The global theme park industry. master\., University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida, USA, 2010. http://www.iaapa.org/resources/by-park-type/amusementparks-and-attractions/industry-statistics. http://www.travelandleisure.com/articles/worlds-mostvisited-theme-parks/. Schuckert, Markus, and Birgit Pikkemaat. “Success Factors of Theme Parks - An Exploratory Study.” Tourism 55, no. 2 (2007): 198-208 Bryman, Alan. “The Disneyization Of Society.” The Sociological Review 47, no. 1 (1999): 25-47. “The Architecture of Reassurance: Designing the Disney Theme Park.” JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY OF ARCHITECTURAL HISTORIANS 57, no. 2 (1998): 204207. http://www.jstor.org/stable/991381 . (accessed September 23, 2013). Milman, Ady, Fevzi Okumus, and Duncan Dickson. “The Contribution Of Theme Parks And Attractions To The Social And Economic Sustainability Of Destinations.” Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes 2, no. 3 (2010): 338-345. Ady , Milman. “Theme Park Tourism and Management Strategy.” Tourism Management. (2008): 218-230. Terence , Young, and Riley Robert . Theme Park Landscapes: Antecedents and Variations. Washingtom,D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 2002. Judith, Rubin. “The Global Attractions Attendance Report 2012.” Theme Index. (2012). Kelly, Kaak. Theme Park Development Costs: Initial Investment Cost Per First Year Attendee – A Historic Benchmarking Study. working paper., University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida, USA, .

138

Anne, Tucholka, and Weese Steffanie. Future Development of Theme Parks with the Help of a Comparison between SeaWorld, Orlando and Oceanpark, Hongkong. lecture., 2006. .


Walt Disney World Information.” Last modified 2013. Accessed September 28, 2013. http://www.wdwinfo.com/ wdwinfo/guides/animalkingdom/. Robert , Niles. “Theme Park History: A short history of Disne’ys Animal Kingdom.” Last modified 2013. Accessed September 28, 2013. http://www.themeparkinsider.com/ flume/201308/3621/.

BIBLIOGRAPHY//

Autodesk.” Last modified 2011. Accessed September 28, 2013. http://images.autodesk.com/adsk/files/benoy_ architects_customer_story_en-proxy.pdf.

“Walt Disney World Information.” Last modified 2013. Accessed September 28, 2013. http://www.wdwinfo.com/ wdwinfo/guides/animalkingdom/. Joe, Rodhe. “10th Anniversary Animal Kingdom” 2008. Web, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xR65SxY6Lq8. ”Modern Marvels-Walt Disney World.” Modern Marvels. The History Channel. Web, http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=4hNfevDe8WA. “Ferrari World Abudhabi.” Accessed September 30, 2013. http://www.ferrariworldabudhabi.com. ”Ferrari.” Last modified 2013. Accessed September 30, 2013. http://www.ferrari.com/English/about_ferrari/ThemePark/Pages/101025_COR_FerrariWorldAbuDhabi.aspx. Wilkonson Eyre Architects, Last modified 2013. Accessed September 30, 2013. http://www.wilkinsoneyre. com/projects/singapore-gardens-by-the-bay. aspx?category=sport-and-leisure. Gardens By the Bay, “Gardens By the Bay.” Last modified 2013. Accessed September 30, 2013. http://www. gardensbythebay.com.sg/en/the-gardens/attractions/ flower-dome.html. CNN, “Solar-powered ‘supertrees’ breathe life into Singapore’s urban oasis.” Last modified 2013. Accessed September 30, 2013. http://edition.cnn.com/2012/06/08/ world/asia/singapore-supertrees-gardens-bay/index.html. Timothy, Kana, Al Sarawi Mohammad , and Holland Michael . DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE OF ARTIFICIAL BEACHES FOR THE KUWAIT WATERFRONT PROJECT. 1986. 139

Profile for l.a.91

A Theme Park Study: reimagining kuwait's green island  

The thesis was conducted during my 5th year at Architecture school. The in-depth study was conducted to show the vital role theme parks play...

A Theme Park Study: reimagining kuwait's green island  

The thesis was conducted during my 5th year at Architecture school. The in-depth study was conducted to show the vital role theme parks play...

Profile for l.a.91
Advertisement