York Post yorkpost.ca
Canada intends to lift visa requirement on the United Arab Emirates
Why It's So Hard To Recover After Drinking As You Get Older
As you age, your body's ability to process alcohol changes.
Chances are hangovers feel worse and recovery after a long night gets to be a difficult process the more birthdays you have under your belt. It’s no surprise from a biological standpoint: When your body changes as you age, its ability to process alcohol also changes. “When you’re young, you have a lot of plasticity in how you respond to things that are toxic,” said George Koob, director of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. “You lose some of that as you get older.” As you age, a long night of imbibing can get riskier. In recent years, alcohol abuse and dependence have more than doubled among older people. Your body also just can’t keep up in the moment. “What used to be a normal amount of alcohol you could drink and not get overly
intoxicated now changes,” explained James Galligan, a professor of pharmacology and toxicology at Michigan State University. “Because your system doesn’t work as well [when you’re older], you’re likely to end up with higher blood alcohol levels than you would’ve when you were much younger.” So how exactly does your body respond to alcohol when you’re no longer in your 20s? Alcohol is neutralized in a two-step process that takes place in the liver, according to David Sack, the chief medical officer of Elements Behavioral Health. “Alcohol is converted to acetaldehyde, which is responsible for a lot of the negative effects of alcohol like headaches, flushing and dizziness,” he said. It’s then converted to acetic acid, which is excreted in urine. The system works well in younger people, Galligan said.
이 찬용 Chany Lee
“But just like anything else, when you get older, things don’t work like they used to,” he added. “As people begin to get into their 60s or 70s, the enzymes that metabolize alcohol don’t work as well.” “Some of that may be the result of the normal aging process, but part of it may be due to illness,” Sack said. “Moderate to heavy drinkers can cause injury to their liver. They have changes in the efficiency in which their liver processes alcohol.” A recent study found that both the brain and the liver are more sensitive to the toxicity of alcohol as you age, affecting your response to liquor. In turn, what you normally drank when you were younger will have a greater effect when you get older, Galligan noted. Your proportion of body fat as you get older is one factor in how your body processes alcohol, Sack said.
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Cooperation, His Highness Sheikh Abdullah bin Zayed Al Nahyan, that the Government is lifting the visa requirement for UAE citizens on June 5, 2018. This decision is based on a comprehensive
“Alcohol, unlike most other drugs, is only distributed in the water parts of the body. So if you have less water to body fat, more of the alcohol reaches the organ,” he said. Other illnesses can also contribute to the inefficient metabolism of alcohol. Hepatitis C, for instance, can affect the liver’s ability to clear alcohol and other drugs, Sack noted. Using more medications can also play an enormous role in how you process alcohol, according to Koob. “The elderly tend to take a lot of medications, and some can interact in a bad way with alcohol like Xanax or Valium, for instance,” he said. If you ever drank while underage, that may
also play a role in how you metabolize alcohol, Koob said. In fact, underage drinking is even associated with impairment of cognitive function. “Excess drinking can affect the frontal cortex, which is the slowest part of the brain to mature and why they advocate against underage drinking,” he added. And over time, heavy drinking itself can affect how you process alcohol in the future, Sack noted. “There are people who started drinking in their 20s and 30s and are now in their 60s that tend to have more emotional problems like depression, drink more continuously
and have more treatment for alcohol-related problems,” Sack said. “And there are those who start drinking when they’re older, as in their 50s and 60s, who tend to be healthier and have fewer consequences.” While the health benefits of drinking a glass of red wine or two have made headlines recently, the studies are mixed and moderation is ultimately key to your health, Sack said. And surprisingly, hangovers don’t always worsen with age, as one study found ― but it truly depends on your lifestyle. “The liver has a lot of excess capacity if you don’t keep injuring it,” Sack said. “It’s an amazing organ.”[Huffpost]
골프장 나이아가라 지역
봄에, 꼭 집을 팔아야 한다면... Google 이나 Youtube에서 “토론토 부동산 TV” 가장 공정하고 정확한 시장 정보를 드립니다
Canada"s Minister of Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship, Ahmed Hussen, announced today during a meeting with the United Arab Emirates (UAE) Minister of Foreign Affairs and International
and rigorous evaluation of the UAE against Canada"s visa policy criteria. The evaluation found that the UAE meets Canada"s criteria for a visa exemption. Emirati citizens will no longer need a visa as of 5:30 a.m. ET (1:30 p.m. Gulf Standard Time) on June 5, 2018, to travel to Canada for short stays (normally for up to six months) for business, to visit family and friends or for tourism. However, Emirati citizens, similar to other visa-exempt travellers, will need an Electronic Travel Authorization (eTA) to fly to, or transit through a Canadian airport. The eTA allows Canadian officials to screen travellers for admissibility before they board their flight to Canada. Emiratis will be able to apply online for an eTA after 5:30 a.m. ET (1:30 p.m. Gulf Standard Time) on June 5. In the meantime, they can continue to apply online for a visitor visa, or use the services of one of the visa application centres (VACs), including the VAC in Abu Dhabi or Dubai.
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Asking $650,000 18홀 6,446 yard 169 에이커 14,000 sqft Club House 인근 택지 개발 지역에서 500 미터 거리의 땅
Pavilla Condo Thornhill
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콘도 투자는 5년 앞을 내다보는 투자 입니다
Homelife/Bayview Realty Inc. Brokerage
505 Highway 7 E. #201 Thornhill, ON. L3T7T1
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Sale: $20,000/month Rent: $2,779(Incl HST) 3+5 Year Lease 7 day, 아침, 점심 장사 Close at 4pm
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파격적인 가격 =주차장 포함 from $645/sqft 1 Br: 616 sqft 2 Br: 810 sqft
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관리비 다른 콘도의 거의 절반 $0.39/sqft
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Airport Corporate Centre 직장인 상대, 3400 sqft의 Gym. 자기 체육관을 운영하고 싶은 헬스 트레이너에게 최적의 기회
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Malaysia Airlines Flight MH17 Was Downed By Russian Missile: Investigators
Morgan Freeman Accused Of Sexual Harassment any top that would show our breasts, not to wear anything that would show our bottoms, meaning not wearing clothes that [were] fitted," she said. Other inappropriate behaviour included staring at women"s breasts, massaging an intern"s shoulders, asking a woman how she felt about sexual harassment and asking women to twirl for him, according to CNN. TransLink, Vancouver"s major transportation company, said it would be suspending new voiceovers that featured Freeman as part of an ad campaign for Visa. In all, 16 people spoke to CNN about Freeman as part of this investigation, eight of whom said they were victims of what some called harassment and others called inappropriate behaviour by Freeman. Eight said they witnessed Freeman"s alleged conduct. In a statement, Freeman said he is not someone who would "intentionally offend." "Anyone who knows me or has worked with me knows I am not someone who would intentionally offend or knowingly make anyone feel uneasy," he said. "I apologize to anyone who felt uncomfortable or disrespected ― that was never my intent."[Huffpost]
Tjibbe Joustra, chairman of the Dutch Safety Board, presents the final report into the crash of July 2014 of Malaysia Airlines flight MH17 over Ukraine in Gilze Rijen, the Netherlands, October 13, 2015.Photo: Reuters
investigators have confirmed a Russian missile was responsible for the downing of Malaysia Airlines flight MH17 over eastern Ukraine in July 2014, killing all 298 people on board. The missile that brought down the plane was fired from a launcher that was part of Russia"s 53rd antiaircraft brigade, and was tracked entering Ukrainian territory from Russia before the atrocity and returning afterwards, they said. Wilbert Paulissen, head of the crime squad of the Netherlands" national police, said: "All the vehicles in a convoy carrying the missile were part of the Russian armed forces." Russia has denied involvement in the incident. In an interim update on their investigation, prosecutors said they
had trimmed their list of possible suspects from more than a hundred to several dozen. "We have a lot of proof and a lot of evidence, but we are not finished," said chief prosecutor Fred Westerbeke. "There is still a lot of work to do." He said investigators were not yet ready to identify individual suspects publicly or to issue indictments. The question of whether members of the 53rd Brigade were actively involved in the downing of the plane remains under investigation, he said. The findings of the Joint Investigation Team (JIT) confirm those of the open-source investigative website, Bellingcat, which also claims to have pinpointed the individuals responsible. The JIT has appealed to the public
for information on those involved and has offered witness protection to anyone who comes forward. The airliner was shot down with a Russian-made missile on July 17, 2014, with 298 people onboard, twothirds of them Dutch, over territory held by pro-Russian separatists. The Joint Investigation Team, comprising the authorities from Australia, Belgium, Malaysia, the Netherlands and Ukraine said it would give an update on its work but would not identify suspects. The Dutch Safety Board concluded in an October 2015 report that the Boeing 777 was hit by a Russian-made Buk missile, killing all passengers and crew, who came from 17 countries, including 38 Australians. Dutch prosecutors said in September 2016 that 100 people of
Multiple women have accused actor Morgan Freeman of inappropriate behaviour and harassment. The allegations surfaced Thursday in a report from CNN, with eight individuals telling the network that they were victims of harassment and inappropriate behaviour by Freeman. Sixteen people in total spoke to CNN about the actor"s alleged behaviour as part of the investigation. An unidentified woman told the network she was harassed by Freeman in 2015 while working as a production assistant for the comedy "Going in Style" starring the famed actor. The woman said Freeman often
interest had been identified in the investigation, while Australian and Malaysian officials expressed hope that suspects would be made public
touched her inappropriately and made comments about her body and clothing daily. Freeman "kept trying to lift up my skirt and asking if I was wearing underwear" at one point while they worked together, the woman alleged. Actor Alan Arkin "made a comment telling him to stop. Morgan got freaked out and didn"t know what to say." Another woman told CNN that while working on the 2012 movie "Now You See Me," Freeman sexually harassed her multiple times. "He did comment on our bodies," the second accuser told CNN. "We knew that if he was coming by ... not to wear
in 2017. Indictments have yet to be released and the suspects are likely to be tried in absentia in the Netherlands after
Russia used its veto to block a U.N. Security Council resolution seeking to create an international tribunal. [Huffpost]
대한민국 정부 초청 영어교사 모집 대한민국 교육부는 미래사회를 이끌어 갈 열정과 봉사정신이 강한 능력있는 영어권 젊은이를 초청하는 정부초청 영어교사 프로그램을 운영합 니다. 선발된 젊은이는 초/중/고등학교에서 영어를 가르치게 되며, 다음 프로그램 중 하나를 선택할 수 있습니다.
영어권 젊은이를 초청하여 한국의 농·산·어촌 초등학생에게 방과 후 수업에서 영어를 가르치는 봉사활동(주당 15시간 이내) 및 한국문화체험 기회를 통하여 미래 국제사회의 지도자로 양성하는 프로그램
한국 초·중·고등학교 정규수업에서 영어보조교사로서 영어를 가르치며 (주당 22시간 내) 한국문화를 체험 하는 프로그램
2018년 8월 1일~2019년 1월 31일 (6개월 계약)
2018년 가을학기부터 1년 계약
·장학금(봉사활동비) : 매월 150만원 ·입/출국 지원금 : 1회 130만원씩, 총 2회 지급 ·초기정착금 : 배치 직후 30만원 지급 ·숙소(주택, 아파트 또는 원룸), 의료보험, 휴가 등 ·주말 한국체험 프로그램(역사, 문화, 산업시설, 한국어 등) (자세한 사항은 www.talk.go.kr 참조)
·월 180만원~270만원(근무지역, 학력, 경력, 교사자격 여부에 따라 차등 지급) ·입/출국 지원금 : 1회 130만원씩, 총 2회 지급 ·초기정착금 : 배치 직후 30만원 지급 ·숙소(주택, 아파트 또는 원룸), 의료보험, 휴가, 퇴직금 등 ·계약기간 (1년) 만료 후 재계약 시 200만원 지급 (자세한 사항은 www.epik.go.kr 참조)
·영어권 국가의 시민권자 ·영어권 국가 대학에서 2년 이상 과정을 수료한 재학(졸업)생(전문대 포함) ※ 재외동포는 대학 1, 2학년 재학생도 지원 가능하며, 영주권자 및 영주권 미취득자도 지원가능 (단 초중고교육을 해당국에서 받고, 현지 체류 기간이 8년 이상인 자에 한함)
·영어권 국가의 시민권자 (재외동포는 영주권자도 가능) ·영어권 국가 대학에서 4년 이상 과정을 수료한 재학(졸업)생 ※ 재외동포는 최소 중학교 7학년부터 영어권국가에서 영어로 교육을 받고, 현지 체류 기간이 10년 이상인 자
·TaLK 홈페이지 (www.talk.go.kr) 에서 지원서 (자기소개서, 자기건강보고서) 작성 후 온라인제출 ※ 지원서 접수 후 인터뷰(면접) 실시 예정 ※ 기타 제출 서류는 면접 시 토론토총영사관 캐나다한국교육원에 제출
·EPIK 홈페이지 (www.epik.go.kr) 에서 지원서 양식을 다운로드 후, 작성한 지원서와 추천서 2부 스캔 사본을 firstname.lastname@example.org로 이메일 송부 ※ 나머지 서류는 추후 안내에 따라 제출
2018년 6월 22일 ※ 적격자 선착순 선발
연중모집 (문의: email@example.com 또는 82-2-3668-1400)
목적 활동 기간
주토론토총영사관 캐나다한국교육원 (www.cakec.com) ☎ 416-920-3809 ext. 242 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Kinder Morgan Pipeline Debate Is Dividing First Nations, B.C. Chief Says
Amazon"s Huge New Distribution Centre In Ottawa Will Mean 1,000 Jobs: Reports
Workers handle items for delivery at an Amazon distribution center near Berlin, Germany, Nov. 28, 2013. Amazon is planning to build a one million-square-foot distribution centre in Ottawa"s east end, according to news reports.
Chief Ryan Day of Bonaparte Indian Band says his community doesn"t have a position on the Kinder Morgan pipeline expansion project. He says the debate is harming relationships between Indigenous groups in Western Canada.
The debate over Kinder Morgan"s Trans Mountain pipeline expansion is breaking down relationships between Indigenous groups, according to the chief of one B.C. First Nation. "It"s another colonial machine that"s driving us apart from one another," Bonaparte Indian Band Chief Ryan Day told HuffPost Canada in an interview. While Kinder Morgan touts its 43 mutual benefit agreements with Indigenous groups in B.C. and Alberta, six First Nations fight the project"s approval in court. Day says he"s staying out of the debate. The pipeline won"t cross any of his reserve land. However, Bonaparte is one of 17 bands that make up the Secwepemc nation, and for 518 kilometres — or more than half of the project"s route — the new pipeline will go through Secwepemc"s traditional territory. "We are downstream from the pipeline, so it certainly will impact us ... However, we"ve kind of left it up to directly affected upstream folks to
engage more directly," Day said. He said he would have liked to engage with Kinder Morgan, but his band doesn"t have the capacity to do so. "That"s where we"re at and I think that"s where a lot of communities are at. The bottom line is that we"re dealing with poverty." For some First Nation leaders, Kinder Morgan"s project is seen as an opportunity to alleviate some of that poverty. Ernie Crey, chief of Cheam First Nation, has become one of the project"s most vocal supporters. His nation of 547 people has an unemployment rate of 14.3 per cent, nearly double the B.C. average. He said the pipeline will bring a laundry list of opportunities for his Stó:lō nation: Cash, which can be invested in future business projects The opportunity to work with nearby companies to bid on contracts during construction Work experience that members can bring with them to future jobs.
"The benefits and the money that will flow from that will put this community in good stead for generations to come," Crey said in an interview with HuffPost Canada. Crey is angry about the way some environmentalists and Indigenous associations have portrayed nations that signed agreements with Kinder Morgan. "If you were to believe some of these green groups and their allies, you would think that Ian Anderson, the head of Kinder Morgan Canada, drove out on to this reserve, found me, rolled down his car window, handed a cheque to me and said, "There you go, chief. Now I do enjoy your support for my pipeline, right chief?"" Crey said. In reality, he said, his council worked for over a year to negotiate a deal that would truly benefit its members. "The negotiations lasted a long time. They were exhaustive and exhausting and challenging for our young council here. But they went toe-to-toe with Ian Anderson"s negotiators and they came up with an agreement that"s going to mean a world of difference to this
Amazon is beginning work on a massive distribution centre in Ottawa that is expected to bring 1,000 jobs to the area, according to local news reports. Amazon is not officially confirming its plans for Ottawa, but two members of Parliament confirmed the plans to CBC Ottawa. "It will employ approximately 1,000 people, good middle class jobs, and it"s going to be a transportation hub," Orleans MP Andrew Leslie told CBC. "We have been working with Amazon
for a couple of months now and we are just thrilled that it"s all coming to maturation." According to CTV News in Ottawa, it will be the largest industrial building ever built in the city, with one million square feet of space sitting on a 96acre lot near Boundary Road and Highway 417 in the city"s east end. That location gives Amazon easy access not only to Ottawa but to the Montreal market, 180 kilometres to the east along Hwy. 417. Construction on the building hasn"t yet begun, but
community." While Crey says the project will be an economic game-changer, other chiefs worry it"ll be an environmental disaster. Coldwater Indian Band is one of the nations challenging the National Energy Board"s (NEB) approval of the project in court. If Coldwater"s challenge is successful, the pipeline"s approval will be set aside. Officials will then have to backtrack and re-do some consultations. The existing pipeline, built in the 1950s, runs right through Coldwater"s reserve. Kinder Morgan wants to build the new pipeline to the east of the reserve, through the nation"s traditional Nlaka"pamux territory, including areas
that Coldwater says hold spiritual and cultural significance. This route will also see pipeline built right over an aquifer which provides drinking water for nearly half of the nation"s 850 members, according to a memorandum of fact filed by Coldwater"s lawyers. "Trans Mountain failed to identify, and was unaware of, the Aquifer when it selected this route and accessed the environmental effects of the Project," the document states. "The New Pipeline represents a risk to the Aquifer from leakage and a drastic risk if there were to be a rupture of the pipeline. This is a major unreconciled issue for Coldwater
trees on the lot have been removed. Ottawa was among the cities that vied for Amazon"s second headquarters, but was cut from the list of finalists. Toronto is the only Canadian city among 20 North American finalists. Amazon has grown to be the world"s largest retailer, and as of Friday morning it was the world"s secondlargest company by market value, worth US$787 billion, compared to US$931 billion for the world"s largest company, Apple.[Huffpost]
that causes its people a high level of anxiety." Coldwater"s chief, Lee Spahan, has indicated he has no intention of signing a deal with the Texas-based company. "If we have to, it"ll be our Standing Rock," he told APTN. "For us it"s not about the politics, but the future of our community and ensuring we have access to clean, safe water." This story was produced as part of #TrackingTransMountain, a collaborative project from The Discourse, APTN, and HuffPost Canada that aims to deepen the reporting on Indigenous communities affected by Kinder Morgan"s Trans Mountain Expansion
The Story Behind Brian Mulroney"s Adorable Royal Wedding Reaction
Here"s Our Database Tracking How Indigenous Communities Are Affected By Kinder Morgan"s Pipeline Proposal
Here"s Our Database Tracking How Indigenous Communities Are Affected By Kinder Morgan"s Pipeline Proposal
John and Brian Mulroney arriving with Meghan Markle at the wedding ceremony on May 19.
If Kinder Morgan"s Trans Mountain expansion project proceeds, the land, resources and rights of more than 130 Indigenous communities and groups from Alberta"s oilsands to British Columbia"s coast could be affected. Because of this, the Canadian government and Kinder Morgan have a legal obligation to meaningfully consult with them. The pipeline company points to the 43 communities that have signed some form of agreement to show Indigenous support for the project. But many opposed to the project say there hasn"t been meaningful consultation. Six First Nations are arguing consultation was inadequate in court and a single judge ruling in their favour could put the project back to square one.
So, what"s the truth? Reporters across Canada are documenting a range of Indigenous voices that express support, concern and everything in between. These stories sometimes conflict, adding noise to a confusing but important part of the Trans Mountain story and leaving room for industry, anti-pipeline activists and others to make competing claims to support their position. #TrackingTransMountain aims to present a clearer picture of the state of consultation across all of the communities affected. Building from the hundreds of pages of official documents, existing reporting and interviews with leaders and community members themselves, The Discourse, Aboriginal Peoples Television
Network (APTN) and HuffPost Canada hope to offer context to help inform discussions about what"s happening. In a single interactive place, you can explore each Indigenous community along the pipeline and water tanker route to uncover details that you may have had trouble tracking down before: We"re contacting every Indigenous community identified in Kinder Morgan"s most recent report on Indigenous engagement to the National Energy Board. The database aims to include as many perspectives as possible, but not every community has gotten back to us yet. In the meantime, we"re filling it in with official documents from the consultation process. We know there are still holes to fill and perspectives missing. If you have information that to add, fill in this survey. We"ll continue to add information and report on it as it comes in. Texas-based Kinder Morgan has given the Canadian government until May 31 to bring certainty to the $7.4-billion project, but the question of Indigenous jurisdiction and consultation is not going anywhere. Neither are future decisions affecting the rights of hundreds of Indigenous communities. No single story can fully capture what"s really at stake. But we believe reporters can improve coverage of these complex issues by collaborating with each other and the public.[Huffpost]
The Duke and Duchess of Sussex have released three official photographs from their Wedding day. This photograph was taken by photographer @alexilubomirski in The Green Drawing Room of Windsor Castle, following the carriage procession Brian Mulroney, a pageboy at Meghan Markle and Prince Harry"s nuptials last weekend, was the star of one of the funniest wedding photos. And now we know exactly what
caused the 7-year-old to make this excited face as he entered the chapel at Windsor Castle: Brian"s father, Ben Mulroney (who is married to Markle"s best friend,
Jessica) explained his son"s memorable expression on the Canadian show "Your Morning" on Tuesday. "I asked him, and he said he"d never heard a trumpet before," Mulroney
said. "I think when he walked in, he saw all the people there, and the flowers, none of that was there during the rehearsal." Sounds like quite the shock! Mulroney said all of the kids in the ceremony, including Brian"s twin brother John and his 4-year-old daughter, Ivy, who was a bridesmaid, had a great time. "There had been so much talk about getting it right with the rehearsals and these kids are so young," he said. "There was a lot of worry that this wouldn"t get done right, but they"re having so much fun with it. And that,
to me, was the thing that gave me the most pride was that we didn"t put so much pressure on them that this wasn"t joyful for them. It was pretty darn joyful." And all in all, Brian and John did a great job as page boys, waving to royal fans and carrying Markle"s gorgeous veil. John, Brian, Ivy and the rest of the crew of kids also kept their cool while posing for official wedding portraits. The photographer who took the pictures recently revealed that kids in the photos were bribed with candy to look at the camera.
"I could hear the kids started crying in the background and there was some chaos," Alexi Lubomirski, who took the official wedding and engagement photos, told People. "And then I heard this magic word behind me that was Smarties, which is obviously an English candy, much like M&Ms, and they were being bribed with one Smartie here and one Smartie there." He added: "So as soon as the kids came onto the set, I immediately just shouted out, "Who likes Smarties?" and then everybody hands up, smiles, even some of the adults I think put their hands up."[Huffpost]
Here"s Our Database Tracking How Indigenous Communities Are Affected By Kinder Morgan"s Pipeline Proposal
White People Should Never Rap The N-Word, According To A Linguist
Kendrick Lamar performs during the 2013 Hangout Music Festival on May 18, 2013 in Gulf Shores, Ala. At one of his recent shows, the Pulitzer Prize winning rapper and emcee Kendrick Lamar asked a white fan to stop rapping the N-word. The crowd in Gulf Shores, Ala., started booing as the fan used the racial slur. The rapper had invited the fan identified as "Delaney" on stage to sing "M.A.A.D. City" during his set. But he stopped the music and told her, "You gotta bleep one single word." Delaney appeared not to realize why Lamar had stopped her from singing. She asked: "Am I not cool enough for you, bro?" She apologized, saying: "I"m so sorry... I"m used to singing it like you wrote it." A video recording of the incident in Alabama has reignited a controversy that gained wide attention last year. Last fall social media erupted after a video of white sorority girls singing along to Kanye West"s mega hit "Gold Digger" went viral. The lyrics include the word n***a. The students promptly apologized and were absolved of racism by their university and by commentators and journalists — most notably Piers Morgan. Morgan, writing in the Daily Mail,
insisted that white listeners of rap music cannot be reproached for using the N-word. Rather, he said, they are targeted and exploited by Kanye and other Black celebrities, who send mixed messages about whether the N-word is offensive. Morgan wrote: "The only way to stop its use is for everyone to stop using it, including Black people." Though Morgan"s take on the N-word was widely derided, it went viral, and a few commentators endorsed it in whole or in part. As a white fan of rap music and as a linguist who writes and teaches about hip-hop language, I feel compelled to add my voice to others who have countered his poorly informed arguments. Though hip-hop is now consumed by mainstream pop audiences, it is traditionally made for, and by, workingclass Black youth whose "in-group" acceptance depends in large part on their fluent use of Black vernacular English. "There is no question that Black talk provides hip-hop"s linguistic underpinnings," write linguist John Rickford and his son, journalist Russell Rickford, in Spoken Soul: The Story of Black English.
They go on to explain: Nothing thumbs its nose at conformity like the unrestrained African American vernacular. Although white suburban youngsters eat up hip-hop"s edgy tales of money, sexual adventure, ghetto life, and racial injustice (and keep ghetto rhymes atop the pop charts), Black urban youngsters are the genre"s target audience. Now the N-word looms large in the vernacular of many Black youth. In a new linguistic study of "Black Twitter," the N-word stands out as the most frequent distinctively Black form, being used 6.6 million times by Black American Twitter users in a single month. The study notes that the N-word has various uses but defines it simply as "guy." Black emcees, too, generally use the N-word as "guy," with diverse connotations, none of them truly offensive. In Something From Nothing: The Art of Rap, Grandmaster Caz, a hip-hop elder, explores the word in a 300-word freestyle that includes 46 instances of the term. Caz shows that it has dozens of meanings, ranging from peaceful to aggressive, from camaraderie to competition, and from boasting to
"dissing." I"m that top n***a, ... I won"t stop, n***a... I"m that sweet n***a, that never off-beat n***a ... I"m that cool n***a, ran my whole high school n***a ... I"m that proud n***a, that stand out in the crowd n***a ... I"m that smart n***a, always first to start n***a. I think with my head, but I feel with my heart, n***a! A Black man from the Bronx, Caz"s use of the N-word in these lines is in direct opposition to "out-group" racist uses of the term. According to a philosopher of language, Adam Croom, the racial slur describes "a constellation of prototypical attributes," the most derogatory being "subservient," "prone to laziness," "prone to violence," "simple-minded" and "emotionally shallow." Croom explains that slurs are used in non-derogatory ways within countercultures such as hip-hop, to oppose and to subvert entrenched sociocultural norms. Black youth appear to strengthen their solidarity and identity by using the N-word as an in-group term. Linguist Jacquelyn Rahman argues the term may help Black males identify as "resourceful, pragmatic survivors" of racial injustice. "During the period of slavery, n***a became a term that Africans used to refer to themselves and companions in the struggle to survive," explains Rahman. "Using the term highlighted the identity of a speaker as participating in the culture of survival." This is apparent when Jay-Z tells himself in "Holy Grail," "you still alive, still that n***a. N***a, you survived, you still gettin" bigger." The survivor meaning of the N-word has a long history. But African Americans have also developed new meanings and uses of the word in the last few decades.
For instance, its use has expanded from noun to noun modifier. An iconic example is New Orleans" MC T. Tucker who described himself as "the n***a, the n***a n***a, ... the n***a n***a n***a you love to hate." The N-word has also grown from an expression of solidarity among survivors to a term of endearment (as in, "that"s my n***a"). The N-word has even evolved into a meaning-neutral pronoun in the first or third person, similar to "I/me," "we/ us," "he/him," and "they/them." So for instance, KAAN simply refers to himself when he raps, "I"m still rolling by myself, a n***a [I] never had a crew ... you lookin for a n***a [me], you know where to find me ... Lawd knows that a n***a [I"m] feelin" hopeless." Altogether, then, the use of the N-word in hip-hop is about identity and survival. When a Black emcee says the N-word, it is intended without derogation. So can white hip-hop heads — like me — and other non-Black people rap along without being offensive? In my rap linguistics course a few years ago, a student of South Asian heritage made a memorable class presentation titled, "The meaning of n***a." He"d asked a Black childhood friend to join him in class that day, to stand beside him, and to say each instance of the N-word in his stead. My student said that though he is a person of colour and an emcee immersed in hip-hop culture, from a "hood area" in Northeast Calgary, he makes a point of never saying this word, even with Black friends who encourage him to use it. One of his idols, white rapper Eminem, never does, either. Indeed, Eminem and the Black culture
Jay Z performs at the Verizon Center in Washington, D.C. as part of his Magna Carter World Tour.
"고백부부" 손호준 "늘 아내 편인 남편 되고 싶어요"
of hip-hop famously adopted each other. Much of Eminem"s accent, grammar and vocabulary are drawn from Black vernacular English, but he avoids saying the N-word. (He admitted he said it on occasion in his teens but he has been mostly excused for this — as Nas wrote, he"s "not mad "cause Eminem said n***a, "cause he my n***a.") In ""Till I Collapse," Eminem even avoids a euphemism for the N-word — by substituting "wizzle" for "nizzle" in Snoop Dogg"s well-known expression "fo" shizzle, my nizzle." This song (like many others by Eminem, such as "Not Afraid" and "Survival") is about being a "survivor." Because the N-word is deeply rooted in African-American history, Eminem cannot use it to mean "survivor," no matter how integrated he is in the Black culture that is hip-hop. More generally, because Eminem is white, he cannot subvert the N-word as non-derogatory, as Black hip-hoppers can with each other. Only the in-group members that the slur was originally intended to target can perform this "normative reversal." So, for Eminem, the N-word must remain the racist slur that white America has always used and sadly, some continue to use. The bottom line is this: if a renegade rap god, who is one of the most unrestrained artists in hip-hop, won"t rap the N-word, then what might possess mere white listeners of rap music to do so? [Huffpost:Darin Flynn, Associate Professor of Linguistics, University of Calgary This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article]
Self-Driving Uber In Fatal Accident Had 6 Seconds To React Before Crash
National Transportation Safety Board investigators examine the self-driving Uber vehicle involved in the fatal accident. The hardware on Uber"s selfdriving car that struck and killed a 49-year-old woman in Arizona this March worked just fine, a new report found — it"s the software that failed. That"s one of several takeaways from a preliminary report released Thursday by the National Transportation Safety Board, which found Uber"s selfdriving Volvo SUV observed the woman six seconds before the fatal crash, but failed to take any action to avoid her. On-board software initially classified the pedestrian as an unknown object, then as a vehicle, and finally as a bicycle in the seconds leading up to the crash, though the vehicle couldn"t definitively predict the bike"s path and adjust accordingly. 1.3 seconds before the collision, the SUV was traveling at about 40 mph and determined an “emergency braking maneuver” was necessary. No such action was taken, however, as the system is currently disabled “to reduce the potential for erratic vehicle behavior,” the NTSB said. Uber told HuffPost it disables the emergency braking system on all of its Volvo SUVs while the cars are
operating in autonomous mode as it"s a Volvo system, not an Uber system. That aligns with a report earlier this month that concluded the Uber did in fact recognize the woman, but failed to avoid her because of a software setting. A human safety driver who was in the Uber at the time should have intervened and taken control of the car, but didn"t. Video from the accident shows the driver wasn"t looking at the road, and instead was “monitoring the self-driving system interface,” she told NTSB investigators. Uber suspended all of its selfdriving operations after the accident, and permanently ceased testing in Arizona on Wednesday. An Uber spokesperson told HuffPost that when it resumes testing in its two remaining cities of San Francisco and Pittsburgh, it will likely be on a more limited basis. Adding to the confusion, the median the pedestrian crossed prior to the collision features two prominent brick-colored pathways, seen below forming a broad “X”: Despite looking like a safe spot to cross, however, the paths aren"t meant for pedestrians. A spokesperson for the
City of Tempe declined to comment on the median"s design or the intended purpose of the brick pathways, citing the ongoing investigation. The NTSB report also noted the pedestrian tested positive for methamphetamine and marijuana. That information is of limited use ― the Uber should have identified and avoided her either way ― but it does potentially provide insight into why she didn"t cross at the crosswalk 360 feet to the north, and why she was unaware of the vehicle until immediately before impact. Investigators added the woman crossed in a section of road that isn"t illuminated by street lights, was wearing dark clothing at the time, and her bicycle had no reflectors that were visible to the car. “Over the course of the last two months, we"ve worked closely with the NTSB,” Uber said in an emailed statement to HuffPost Thursday. “As their investigation continues, we"ve initiated our own safety review of our self-driving vehicles program.” The company noted it also hired former NTSB Chairman Christopher Hart earlier this month in an advisory
Why Isn"t There A Birth Control Emoji?
If Kinder Morgan"s Trans Mountain In June 2018, there will be 2,823 emoji in the Unicode Standard ― the global specification that ensures characters are interpreted the same across platforms. But nowhere in that list ― which has everything from zombies (both male and female!) to smiling poop ― is there an emoji to signify birth control. At least, not yet. This April, Nora Hamada and her friend Megan Giller, sent in an application to the Unicode Consortium for what they believe is the first-ever emoji to represent birth control (Disclaimer: Giller freelances for Engadget as a copy editor). Hamada came up with the idea earlier this year when she joined an emoji proposal workshop in New York City out of curiosity. The workshop was run by Emojination, a grassroots organization dedicated to making emoji more inclusive. Emojination was created because the Unicode Consortium, the organization that selects and approves of emojis, is mostly comprised of multinational tech companies. There are 12 full voting members, which include Apple, Adobe, Facebook, Google, Huawei, IBM, Microsoft, Netflix, Oracle, German software company SAP and Shopify. The only non-tech entity in this list is the government of Oman. In order to be a full voting member, you have to pay $18,000 a year (There are lower membership tiers as well, but not all of them have voting privileges). Emojination co-founder Jennifer 8. Lee found it odd that just a handful of corporate and government entities decide the world"s emoji. Now, she helps people submit applications for emoji they think is missing from our cultural lexicon. Some of Emojination"s more successful projects include the dumpling (universal cross-cultural food), the hijab (muslim women representation) and the ballet flat (a woman"s shoe that"s not a high heel). Lee happened to be the one leading the Emojination workshop the day Hamada attended. Hamada was inspired by Lee"s story, and was fascinated that anybody ― even you and me ― can submit an emoji application.
She thought about what new emoji she could introduce that would be a positive change to the world. “I immediately came up with the birth control emoji,” said Hamada. “When you search for emoji to represent women and safe sex, the things that come up most often are breastfeeding and babies.” But she feels that there should also be an emoji for women like herself, who have decided not to have children. Giller feels the same way, which prompted their collaboration. Hamada and Giller posit that the invention of the birth control pill in the 1960s also signifies a historical turning point, where women were finally able to take control over their own bodies and subsequently, their own lives. A Smithsonian magazine article in 2013 noted that “the successes of the feminist movement, and the mass entry of women into the workforce, the professions and academia, might not have been possible without the pill"s power of predictability.” As such, Hamada and Giller believe that the birth control pill is also a symbol for feminism and female empowerment. “It stands for equality and the right to choose,” said Giller. “Frankly, I can"t believe a birth control emoji had never been done before,” said Hamada. Well, that"s almost true. Back in 2015, condom-maker Durex applied for a condom emoji to be added to the Unicode Standard. It even ran a publicity campaign on social media and elsewhere to promote the idea, complete with a #CondomEmoji hashtag. “An official safe sex emoji will enable young people to overcome embarrassment around the discussion of safe sex,” the company claimed, adding that it would also raise awareness of protection against STDs. Ultimately though, the condom emoji application was denied. Engadget was unable to get an answer as to why from Unicode or Durex, but through conversations with Hamada, Giller and Lee, there are a few possible reasons. One is that the condom emoji application was spearheaded by a company that would benefit financially from the popularization of said emoji, and that might not have been acceptable. Lee also said that the proposal itself likely was not a very good one (you can study it for yourself here). Another, more official answer, is that Unicode turned it down because industry partners like Facebook and Google didn"t support it, perhaps for not being family-friendly enough. When asked why she thinks there might not have been a birth control emoji before, Hamada says that it could be because Unicode is an international organization, and is therefore
averse to anything deemed too political. “There are groups of people that look down on birth control,” she said. “It"s possible that"s part of it.” “Remember that the emoji are universally implemented on keyboards around the world,” said Lee. “So the emoji have to be things vendors [like Apple and Google] are comfortable putting in all markets and all cultures.” She pointed out, for example, that the same sex family emoji was frowned upon in Russia, and that alcohol emoji like wine and beer was an issue in Muslim countries. Unicode got around the latter issue by calling them “wine glass” and “beer mug” emoji respectively, which was deemed acceptable. Perhaps savvy to this nuance in language, Hamada and Giller titled their emoji “Pills in a circular case.” But it was still clearly defined as an emoji symbolizing birth control, complete with a lengthy description as to the historical importance of the pill and how relevant it is in today"s society. They also included various cases in which it would be suitable, and how it"s frequently requested in social media. The emoji is that of a circular case because of its iconic imagery, which Hamada and Giller say is generally recognized as synonymous with the pill. Using the standard pill emoji is insufficient, they argue, because that"s often used in reference to illegal drugs and parties. On the other hand, using other emoji like eggplant, hot dog and lipstick to talk about safe sex isn"t right either. There are examples of workarounds like a baby emoji followed by a giant X and then a pill, but that"s a little too complex. Hamada and Giller made their case in a lengthy nine-page application, which they compiled and submitted with the help of Lee and Emojination. Lee also matched them with a designer, who created a mock up of what the emoji might look like. After a few weeks, the Unicode Emoji Subcommittee ― which processes all the emoji applications ― came back asking for some revisions. They wanted a different version of the image ― the first one was tilted to the side, so it wasn"t as obvious as to what it was ― along with some statistics that would compare its use against an already existing emoji. They had the designer create a newer, cleaner emoji, and are now working on including those aforementioned stats. Of course, it"s still early days, and the application process is a fairly lengthy one. Unicode says on its site that it often takes up to two years for an emoji to go from application to approval. And even then, each of the vendors (eg. Apple, Google, Facebook) need time to create their own version for their platform. [Huffpost]
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