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Energy Strategy Possible and Water Supply Project


STUDIO Ing. TIZIANA CECCONI – Dott. VITTORIO SPERMAN

Al Buraq Environmental Services

GEOTHERMAL POWER FOR ENERGY, ENVIROMENTAL AND SAFETY

Geothermal power: SILKLAND project Geothermal power provides an answer to the needs regarding environmental protection and sustainable development: it’s a source that works constantly, harnessing the Earth’s natural heat. Azerbaijan energy projects aim to triple by 2020 the share of renewable energy; Sources of geothermal energy, horizontal or vertical, they can solve the problem of new energy infrastructure and to respect the environment and nature. More than one hundred years have gone by since July 4th. 1904, when in Larderello, Tuscany, in Italy five lamps were lit by converting into electricity the power of the steam that came from under the ground.

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HOW IT WORK Steam turbine Alternator Transformer Pump Capacitor Cooling tower Extraction wells Re-injection well

Geothermal power plants exploit the heat of deep Earth, because the temperature of our planet increases as we descend towards the Earth core. This increase in temperature, which is called geothermal gradient, equal to about 3 degrees for every hundred meters of depth but in some areas, where there are geothermal systems, it is much higher, so to have temperatures of 250-350°C at a depth of about 2000-4000 m. Through the fractures of rock strata, heated water and vapour rise to the surface and are intercepted and produced by geothermal wells. The vapour delivered from the wells is then convoyed into ‘steam pipelines’ and sent to the turbine, where the energy is converted into mechanical rotation energy. The axis of the turbine is connected to the alternator which, by spinning, converts the mechanical energy into electrical alternate current that is transmitted to the (AC) transformer. The latter raises the voltage rate (High Voltage) and feeds it into the distribution network. The steam leaving the turbine is taken back to a liquid status in a capacitor, while the uncondensable gases contained in the steam, are dispersed into the atmosphere. A cooling tower can cool the water produced by steam condensation and can supply cold water to the capacitor. The condensed water output from power plants is re-injected into deep rocks from which the steam has been extracted. When the wells provide a liquid phase with a temperature below 180°C circa, the heat of the fluid is used to evaporate, in a special heat exchanger, another liquid at a low boiling point (usually isobutane or isopentane) which, once transformed into steam in turn, will be channelled into the turbine triggering the procedure described above. Geothermal energy is a response to environmental protection requirements and the need for sustainable development: it is a source that works constantly, exploiting natural heat from inside the Earth. Worldwide installed capacity is expected to reach 46 GW by 2035, thanks to an average annual growth rate of over 6%*. Full steam ahead The development of renewable energy sources and geothermal energy in particular is a response to environmental protection requirements and the need for sustainable development, guidelines supported by global energy policies. The global scenario imposes opting for a mix of energy sources that on the one hand allows for a reduction in environmental impact and on the other ensures the security of existing energy supplies, a primary goal together with that of reducing electricity production costs. Within this context, geothermal is increasingly taking on a role as a strategic resource in the energy balance of many countries.

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STUDIO Ing. TIZIANA CECCONI – Dott. VITTORIO SPERMAN

Al Buraq Environmental Services

From geothermal energy to electricity The geothermal development project consists of various phases. The first consists of identifying a site with a promising geothermal reservoir: the subsoil is analysed by means of specific prospecting in order to evaluate its features. The next phase then involves deep exploration; if the indications provided by geoscientific tests are confirmed, the project proceeds with the user phase through production/re-injection wells and the building of geothermoelectric power plants or the transmission of steam to existing plants. The drilling depth limit for economic viability is around 5,000 metres. The deep drilling phase also requires an environmental assessment study to determine the well’s best positioning and optimize extraction operations. Steam is then transported from the wells to the geothermoelectric plant through steam pipelines made of insulated steel pipes. At the plant the steam is allowed to enter the turbine, a rotating machine that transforms part of the steam’s energy content into mechanical energy. Finally the current generator or alternator turns the turbine’s rotating mechanical energy into electricity. At the other end of the turbine, the steam passes into a condenser, where a cascade of water from the cooling towers cools it by means of condensation. A part of the fluid thus obtained is reintroduced into the subsoil via special re-injection wells; the remainder evaporates in the cooling towers and is released into the atmosphere. Both the aqueducts which carry the fluids to the re-injection system and the electrical conductors which carry electricity to the transformer station start at the geothermal power plant. Binary cycle technology is often employed to make use of low temperature geothermal sources (between 120°C and 170°C). In these systems, the geothermal fluid is used to vaporize a second fluid through a heat exchanger, at a lower boiling temperature compared to the water. After passing through the exchanger, the geothermal fluid returns to the re-injection well to be pumped back into the geothermal reservoir, thus contributing to the reservoir’s sustainability.

In harmony with the environment By their very nature the geothermal plants are a physical element of the landscape they inhabit. Indeed, they are born as shared projects within local communities and are an integral part of regional and/or national energy plans. The plants are located in tourism areas or nature parks; this is precisely why for SILKLAND we propose the designs and builds geothermal plants with a plan for their assimilation into the landscape that takes into account all integration aspects of the industrial plant with the surrounding environment. We propose to put the geothermal station near the centre, but in specific area.

Geothermal energy and developing the local area and landscape In the course of history, geothermal energy has always been a resource with multiple uses: at the time of the Etruscans and Romans for instance, geothermal heat was used for thermal baths. Today, through a variety of fortunate intuitions and technological progress, geothermal energy is used for generating electricity as well as activities that allow for the development of new businesses, using low cost heat. Last but not least, the propose project, with an important district heating network, fuels all houses in the surrounding municipalities, providing significant economic benefits and clean heat availability. Today geothermal energy is used for generating electricity as well as activities that allow for the development of new businesses, using low cost heat, attracting businesses and favouring the development of a green economy related to the intelligent use of heat from the earth. In all the world the geothermal energy is used for respect the enviromental and utilities.

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WATER STRATEGY FOR SILKLAND PROJECT Geothermal energy proposal must be combined with a good production of water that will be produced with wind power. In the last years, many industries and group engineers has been working on the development of the wind turbine. This technology has been designed around three major principles:

• To offer a sustainable access to safe drinking water Unlike wells or boreholes, water is always present in the air. The constraint has been to design a reliable technology able to create and collect the water. Thanks to technical expertise and its high quality components, the wind turbine allows people living in remote areas to benefit from access to safe water for a period of twenty years. The device is capable of producing up to 1,200 liters of water a day. • To operating in completely autonomy The Wind Turbine has been designed to produce water without any external power source. Wind is the only energy used. With an installed capacity of 30kW and using air as a source of water, the Wind Turbine is perfectly adapted to supplying remote areas completely devoid of any existing infrastructure. • To preserve the environment This project aims to provide a technology to offer an innovative technology in line with present-day sustainable development requirements. Wind power is the only source of energy needed to run the water production turbines. No CO2 is released, not groundwater or surface water is pumped. The environmental impact is practically nil.

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STUDIO Ing. TIZIANA CECCONI – Dott. VITTORIO SPERMAN

Al Buraq Environmental Services

Wind Turbines That Produce Water From Desert Air

WATER SUPPLY PROJECT FOR SILKLAND One of the most important components of the plant is the use of an desalination process. This solution was chosen as it was the most practicable option from technical and economical points of view. One of the most important components of the plant is the use of an desalination process. Major components of the facility can broadly be categorised into an intake system, onshore interconnection pipelines and a seawater pumping station. Intake system facilities include intake heads for adequate and consistent flow of feed water, as well as offshore seawater supply and brine outfall pipelines. Feed water for the process is taken from two open sea intake heads located around 1.15km offshore. The suction heads are provided with a slow suction velocity of 0.15m/s so the effects of entrainment and impingement of marine organisms can be kept minimal. Corrosion of intake structures is prevented by installing an automatic active cathodic protection system. The two underground intake and one brine pipelines were installed by using the pipe jacking method. The brine outfall pipeline was laid up to a depth of 20m, approximately 1.85km from shore. The pipe jacking method was also applied to install the majority of the onshore pipelines. Two feed pipelines made of concrete were laid from the onshore chamber to the intake pumping station, located 2.4km from the sea shore. The seawater pumping station includes an intake pit, oil monitors, vertical pumps and travelling screens with self-cleansing system. Electricity for the operation of the facility is provided by an independent power producer (geothermal or eolic),which can built on site.

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Pre-treatment and post-treatment at the plant Chemical dosing and a flocculation basin are used for the pre-filtration process. The chemical dosing station consists of two pumps, each supplied with a frequency converter device. This device keeps the pumps’ revolutions each minute and flow rate in alignment with the plant’s real-time needs. The flocculation basin facilitates the process to separate suspended solids. Remaining impurities are removed through dual media gravity filtration. The filtered seawater is then pumped by the low pressure feed booster pumps to the reverse osmosis section for desalination. Post-treatment involves re-mineralisation of the desalinated water followed by final disinfection. Purpose of the Silkland desalination facility project Silkland desalination project is a part of the desalination master plan for Silkand area . Post-treatment involves re-mineralisation of the desalinated water followed by final disinfection. The plan envisages the production of approximately 250 million cubic meters per annum by the year 2025, by building large-scale seawater plants along the coast of the Caspian sea.

Project plants

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STUDIO Ing. TIZIANA CECCONI – Dott. VITTORIO SPERMAN

Al Buraq Environmental Services

Pipelines for water distribution

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EXAMPLE OF SEWAGE PLANT REALIZED IN ITALY

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STUDIO Ing. TIZIANA CECCONI – Dott. VITTORIO SPERMAN

Al Buraq Environmental Services

NOTES

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NOTES

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1555 P.O.BOX Phone 07.2281888 Fax 07.2286292 Ras Al Khaimah United Arab Emirates

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www.kyoss.it

STUDIO Ing. TIZIANA CECCONI – Dott. VITTORIO SPERMAN

Al Buraq Environmental Services

Al Buraq Environmental Services  

Energy strategy possible and water supply project