shrinking cities: Buffalo, NY
resurrecting the Broadway Fillmore Neighborhood
students: Bryan Hadley + Kyle Mastalinski + Michael Moch + Daniel Nead | supervisor: Elena Vanz | School of Architecture + Planning | State University of New York at Buffalo
what is a good shrinking city?
case study: Muroran history and conditions causes of shrinkage revitalization strategies
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Resurrecting Broadway + Fillmore observing the shrinking city methodology of analysis character neighborhood assets revitalization strategies interventions sequencing
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shrinking cities: Buffalo, NY
what is a good shrinking city? “Is our American obsession with growth so pervasive that a community would rather fail at being large than succeed at being small?” Cities that are shrinking should consider the needs of the population that they actually have, rather than relishing what they once were. While it is clear that there are discernible characteristics of what defines a “good city,” identifying those qualities is effectively specific to each locality. Regardless of the time and place in which a city is built, its form must reflect its purpose of serving the needs prescribed by whichever contemporaneous ideologies belong to those by and for whom the city was made. The built form of a good city begins with good infrastructure. Street structure shall be logical and clear, and facilitate adaptability of other built forms as times change and new needs arise. There shall be identifiable centers and other landmarks within city blocks, to aid people’s orientation in space, while fostering a sense of place. A recently popular topic of discussion in urban and regional planning discourse is that of shrinking cities. A handful of such cities are experiencing rapid population 2 decline (take for example cities such
as Detroit, Cleveland, or Buffalo, which exist in what is commonly referred to as the ‘rustbelt,’ where the original motivating force of industry has evacuated). Abundant presence of swaths of inexpensive land around these cities, coupled with the convention of the automobile, has led to extensive sprawl, wherein metropolitan areas shrink as suburbs expand, things spread out, and the subsequent low density threatens economic and social vitality. Shrinking is imminent and it is imperative that action be taken or these cities will continue to shrivel and eventually starve themselves into extinction. Scare tactics might motivate some, but others will need to be cajoled by other means before being persuaded to join the cause. It will help to acknowledge and adopt the perspective that many opportunities are waiting to be taken advantage of. Shrinking cities offer existing infrastructure -including streets and utilities such as sewer, gas, electric, and water- that save on the cost of development. Because vast regions are sparsely populated, with relatively few people per unit of land area, any infrastructure deemed antiquated can be overhauled or redeveloped in order to better suit the needs of modern times. Land uses can be re-evaluated more flexibly. But the existing population must be encouraged to consolidate
itself within a fairly short time frame if the city is to shrink in such a way that will serve to re-establish its former social and economic vitality. Smart urban designers will make choices that capitalize upon existing assets and the heritage of these cities. A good city is generous in providing a sense of place. A sense of place may be tied to a physical environment or to a psychological and memory-based identity. A key component in creating either attribute lies in the selective preservation and manipulation of the existing built environment. Historic structures provide a physical linkage between the human and the surrounding environment. The human scale and craft associated with the construction and detailing of a pre-modernist structure communicate a fundamental relationship between the human builder and the product. Likewise, the denizen is also provided with a record of his or her city’s and neighborhood’s history. A sense of place is psychologically constructed through a passive awareness of one’s perspective within the evolution of the city. Consequently, it is also important to allow room for new types of built forms and structures to reflect changing societal trends, thereby maintaining a dynamic sense of place throughout the lifespan of a city.
The shrinking city must take advantage of its ability to manipulate the built environment in order to provide a sense of place. A deliberate rationale should be established in order to determine where preservation, demolition, infill or open space creation is suitable. Sites suitable for preservation, re-use, and infill are tangible assets in the strategy of place making. Furthermore, negative space created through demolition and open space designation may also engender a sense of distinct place and community. However, this works best when there is a coordinated scheme for open space creation. Just as a good city will have large central parks and pocket parks in order to serve the public realm, it is possible for the shrinking city to encourage unique and diverse communities within the city by delineating neighborhoods through welcoming park systems and greenbelts. Locations appropriate for park linkages may have an attached value for open space use. It is here where a coherent method must be used in order to determine what is worth saving, what will consolidate municipal services and what is most appropriate for demolition. Cities must provide an opportunity to obtain success through education and employment. Along with providing opportunities to enhance knowledge, cities need to provide ample opportunities to obtain financial wealth by providing a competitive job market. As market demands fluctuate over time an intelligent city will be able to adapt to serve the needs of its
population and continue to prosper. Instead of depending on one major field of employment, such as industry, a diverse job market will allow cities to transcend fluctuations in job demand. Good cities need to be hubs of constant activity to serve the needs of its residents, while attracting and impressing visitors. An ideal city should never sleep, as centers of business and entertainment, there needs to be a variety of activities and events in close proximity to each other at different times of the day. In order to create and environment of constant activity and interaction, an eclectic collection of restaurants, bars, boutiques, and shops should be intermixed with residences, schools and offices. In order for the city to function as a hub, it must be accessible through a variety of means. A multimodal transportation network would effectively allow residents and visitors to access places of employment and entertainment safely and efficiently. A walkable city serviced by public transportation reduces the need for personal automobile traffic while providing convenient options to access destinations outside of a comfortable walking distance. As modes of transportation have historically allowed the boundaries of cities to expand, a shrinking city is able to utilize the established infrastructure to connect residents to their destinations. Diversity is often touted as a characteristic of a good city. Famed urban activist Jane Jacobs went as far to say that diversity
was â€œthe key to a successful city.â€? Most American cities however have limited diversity through mechanisms such as zoning, transit, education, and service distribution. Under these conditions cities have formed separate homogenous neighborhoods void of diverse interaction. Shrinking cities have the opportunity, by working to break these divisions, to be great cities. By seeking diversity through a variety of designs, mixture of uses, and multiple social groupings, shrinking cities can create a dynamic community that can serve all of its residents. In order for their successful survival, the citizens of declining cities must accept the phenomenon of the shrinking city as inevitable; it must embrace opportunities offered by the shrinking city. Acceptance is the first step to planning for consolidation; it is the first step toward the ultimate realization of a sustainable city, planned to balance the waxing and waning of its population as it strives for equilibrium.
Sea of Japan
Sea of Japan
Sea of Japan
muroran Pacific Ocean
hokkaido prefecture | japan
arrested decline: studying the phenomenon of the shrinking city Pacific Ocean
Meiji Regime establishes an industrialization and westernization effort. Settlement of Hokkaido deemed
Muroran invested heavily in Steel Production and Ship Construction
important for economic expansion and national defense.
H- 1947: Hokkaido Agency Established: Manages National Government Public Works Projects: power plants, roads, ports, agricultural output
history and conditions M: muroran: city
H: hokkaido : region M-1872: port established
M- 1894: designated special exporting port
M- 1939: muroran higher technical school established
H- 1945: Food and other shortages in Japan lead to further investment in Hokkaidoâ€™s arable land and natural resources
H- 1900: Hokkaido leads Japanese economy in agricultural output. H- 1904-1907: Major Railway Development in Hokkaido M- 1900: classified as a town
H- 1950: Hokkaido Development Act and Agency established
M- 1922: classified as a city
H- 1920: Heavy industry output surpasses that of agriculture and leads the nation of Japan: mines, paper mills, steel works, and foundations of modern industry are established.
H- 1900: Major investments in agricultural production and techniques
H- 1883: Hokkaido Project Management Bureau established at the Department of Agriculture and Commerce
population peaked in 1970 at 162,000 steady decline: approximately 2% annual reduction in total population the city has an estimated present-day population of 96,724
15 - 64
65 and over
present density of 1,210 people per kmÂ˛ (752 per sq. mile) 1980
continued investment in Steel Production and Ship Construction
Much of the Muroranâ€™s economy is funded by subsidies from the government. Public works projects fail to address the decline in the cityâ€™s economic base.
H- 1978: Fourth-term Comprehensive H- 1962: Second-term Comprehensive H- 1985: Construction on Development Plan Development Plan formulated Hakucho Bridge started. M- 1970: Population M- 1981: Muroran Express H- 1951: Regional Development Bureau Peak s at 160,000 Highway Opens M-1986-1990s: Trade opened established. First-term Hokkaido with Singapore H1970: Third-term Comprehensive Development Plan H- 1964: Construction on Seikan Tunnel Comprehensive Plan H- 1987: Seikan Tunnel formulated Begins, connects Hokkaido with Honshu Completed H- 1960: National Industrial Research Institute established
H- 1988: Fifth-term Comprehensive Development Plan M- 1998: Muroran Highway is opened Hokkaido Comprehensive M-2001: Ministry of Development Plan Land, Infrastructure, has evolved from an industrial production Transport and and upgrading program Tourism established to an eco-friendly and citizen minded economic plan.
migration < 2% of present population are immigrants from other areas the city center has decreased in population density as the suburbs have grown traditional moral obligation of at least one child (typically the oldest male) to live with and care for the parents and eventually inherit the family land
because of low birthrates, children in rural areas are staying at home
increased longevity: citizens are living longer lives, resulting in an aging population
those who do emmigrate go to large metropolitan regions such as Sapporo
very low fertility rates: < 1.17 children per household in recent years most japanese municipalities will provide a one-time payment for the birth of a child
In-migration from other prefectures
Out-migration to other prefectures
causes of shrinkage + aging population + poor transportation connection + switch from labor based economy to a service based economy / reduction in number of jobs available + high cost of residential real estate in city center + shift from seaports to airports as primary mode of shipping of goods
revitalization strategies infrastructure + alternative energy
windpower high speed rail
industrial restructuring + economic development lean manufacturing diversification
high technology deployment + enterprise assistance city-sponsored technical assistance financial incentives
strategic planning sister cities
occupy old wharf seaside fair + jazz festival success of pilot programs encourages economic development
shrinking cities: Buffalo, NY
observing the shrinking city
The semester began with a bus tour of Buffalo in order to be able to understand the city within the context of a shrinking city. From this experience the group was given the task to create a conceptual model of the city that would represent the impressions and observations of the city and its districts. The resulting model sought to represent the unique characteristics of the different areas of the city and the similarities or differences to each other. A grid was used to represent the geographical border of the city. Pegs that varied in length were inserted into the grid in order to vertically represent the perceived quality of life in different areas of the city. Text that highlighted the physical and cultural characteristics was used to represent the individual districts.
A second iteration of the model was developed in order to highlight the selected neighborhood and its attributes as identified by the group. The nexus of transportation infrastructure was seen as a discernable characteristic of the Broadway Fillmore neighborhood and was represented with overlays applied to the original model. An previously developed morphological analysis was applied to the model to further delineate the neighborhood making it identifiable from the rest of the city. This arrangement allowed for the group to identify the relationships between quality of life and transportation within the neighborhood and throughout the city
broadway arrested decline: fillmore studying the phenomenon of the shrinking city
buffalo, ny | usa
methodology of analysis 1. Identify assets and challenges: (site visits, literature research, historical analysis) a)built environment b)social/community 2. Formulate proposals and for assets: (literature research, case studies) develop strategies through lens of energy-economy-community 3. Prioritize proposals with regard to potential and feasibility 4. Develop Initial Recommendations/Proposal: conceptual diagramming identifying target, and rough scope (initial conceptual model) 5. Review/Critique: a)target and identify weaknesses in initial proposal b)incorporate additional, expert, external perspectives
history of decline pre 1950: Early Neighborhood Growth: Polish-Catholic Community Economic Growth and Peak: Heavy Industry and Manufacturing Loss of employment had the most significant impact on the neighborhood.
1950 - 60s Demographics:
27,527 persons/sq.mi. 92.4% white Employment: 55.8% heavy industry Housing:
>5% vacancy source: US Census Bureau, 1950 census
1970 - 80s Demographics:
16,509 persons 11,931 persons/sq.mi. 68.6% white 30.2% black 1.2% other
1990 - present Demographics:
10,631 persons 7,683 persons/sq.mi. 22.8% white 71% black 2.1% asian 3.9% other
Employment: 34% heavy industry 15% unemploymed
Employment: 14% heavy industry 20% unemploymed
source: US Census Bureau, 1980 census
27% vacancy source: US Census Bureau, 2000 census
what does the future hold for broadway fillmore neighborhood?
1925 1950 1980
character The pattern of built structures reflects the history of the neighborhood.
We began by looking at how remaining residents make use of the neighborhood.
European immigrants, primarily from Poland, came to the neighborhood in the late 1800â€™s to work in factories. The neighborhood enjoyed commercial success and grew steadily until it peaked in 1950. It began to decline rapidly in the 1970â€™s after factories closed and were relocated to other regions of the world. Polish residents took up work elsewhere and moved to the suburbs. What remains today is a much smaller population of racial minorities who replaced them.
In a neighborhood characterized by a population that has a history of economic disadvantage, walkability and affordable public transit are essential. Bus routes and ample sidewalks exist along major arterials. There are over 16 bus stops along Broadway within a Â˝ mile stretch.
Today, a huge percentage of the buildings that once stood in the Broadway Fillmore neighborhood have been knocked down, replaced by nothing but empty grass covered lots. Over 40 percent of those structures that remain standing are vacant and have been marked for demolition. Faced with a complex set of challenges, we asked ourselves the question: what do we do in a neighborhood that has seen such deterioration?
Places of worship are multitudinous. Saint Stanislaus and Corpus Christi are among the most prominent structures, with steeples reaching for heaven far above adjacent buildings. Ranging from Catholic and Baptist churches to Ethiopian and Islamic mosques, these anchors mirror the cultural diversity of the neighborhood. Commercial activity in the neighborhood has declined from a gushing river to a mere trickle. Businesses and shops, though sparse, are located strategically along the Fillmore and Broadway corridors, which experience the highest levels of traffic in the neighborhood. The Broadway Market is an important remnant of the Polish heritage of the region and a critical anchor of the
neighborhood. During the Easter holiday, the market sees huge crowds. Although there are several fruit stands, delis, bakeries and a save-a-lot located within the Broadway Market, sources of healthy and affordable food are somewhat scarce throughout the rest of the neighborhood. There are a number of buildings along Broadway and Fillmore that are currently empty but could be marketed as prime candidates for rehabilitation to become inhabited by new businesses. The Eckhard Building on the northwest corner at the intersection of Broadway and Fillmore is being advertised for the same purpose. Public facilities include the Adam Mickiewicz Library on Fillmore Avenue, the Polish Community Center on Paderewski Drive, and the Matt Urban Life Center on Broadway Avenue. Saint Stanislaus School is also located along Fillmore Avenue. Central Terminal is located at the southeast corner of the neighborhood. Construction of the Terminal was completed on June 22nd 1929. The facility experienced its highest volume of traffic during WWII and declined steadily thereafter until its abandonment in October 28, 1979.
Bus stops Dural Uloom Al Madania
community centers places of worship greenspace / parks shops public transportation The Broadway Fillmore neighborhood retains much of its Polish character.
It as has become home also to a variety of immigrant groups from Iraq, Somalia, Bosnia, and Rwanda. A Vietnamese Buddhist Community has acquired the former Police Station no. 8, and converted it into a temple.
Ethiopian Orthodox Church
Revelation Baptist Church Lucky Mart
Fillmore Avenue Baptist Church Mazin Deli
Despite the lack of jobs, affordable housing continues to attract people to the neighborhood. In the last half-century African Americans have become the primary residents.
Lighthouse Gospel Tabernacle
Matt Urban Broadway Market
Faith Chapel Church of God Broadway Lucky Mart Long LD City Line Cash and Carry
Adam Mickiewicz Library Polish Community Center St. Stanislaus School Saint Stanislaus
On Stanislaus street a former 2-storey dwelling serves as an Ethiopian Orthodox Church.
First Holy Baptist Church
revitalization strategies existing strategies rehabilitate buildings
energy housing + vacant land
urban farming concentrate econ. infrastructure re-use of commercial structures parks + gardens
broadway business district preservation + adaptive re-use
aďŹ€ordable housing assistance local business partnerships low interest loans tax incentives
broadway business district
government + policy
broadway market - new image owner occupancy broadway business district
housing + vacant land
land assembly national register status maintain existing pocket parks
housing + vacant land
parks + gardens
preservation + adaptive re-use
Connectivity + Mobility
parkways greenspace light rail high speed rail urban farming market hub pedestrian paths
strategies Housing and Vacant Land Promote home-ownership and owner occupancy, and invest in improvements to housing stock: acquire and rehabilitate abandoned homes, build new homes on empty lots, reduce multiunit properties from 3 to 1, encourage affordable housing for seniors and people with special needs: to occur first around nodes of significance, such as schools, broadway market, corpus christi, saint stanâ€™s, and central terminal. Encourage homesteading, increase regulations to ensure responsible and sustainable owner investments, and advocate public-private partnerships to aid owners with improvement related expenses. As per Buffaloâ€™s 5-in-5 plan (5000 homes demolished in 5 years), preference is that homes slated for demolition shall be located in areas of highest current use: around schools and other anchor points within the neighborhood.
strategies Preservation and Adaptive Reuse Identify places of historical significance and secure them by way of local and national landmark recognition, and by reincorporating their use in contemporary functions. The reuse of St. Mary of Sorrows by King Urban Life Center symbolizes the potential of historic structures to be used to rejuvenate a community. proposal of sale of the eckhardt building at 950 Broadway
strategies Parks and Gardens: Create a green parkway system within the neighborhood by reconfiguring Fillmore avenue. The parkway shall connect MLK Park to William Street, the Central Terminal, and eventually, the Buffalo River. Plant flowers and install better lighting throughout. Facilitate maintenance of existing pocket parks and creation of new ones in contiguous empty parcels. Promote creation of childrensâ€™ gardens and encourage urban farming (like the wilson street farm) parkway = complete street: + express bus lane + dedicated bicycle lane + planted median pros: + walkability + mobility + accessibility + attractive
strategies Broadway Business District Formulate a partnership among local businesses, launch a marketing campaign to attract customers from outside the neighborhood inventory and advertise available vacant commercial and industrial buildings that can be reused by new businesses RIT proposal for the redesign of the Broadway Market.
strategies government and policy supplement public funding efforts with other incentives: develop tax incentives and low-interest loans to nurture homeowners and businesses encourage homesteading and foreclosure and auction sales: waive assumption of responsibility by new owners for preexisting tax debts and other such penalties accrued by former owners to promote future tax revenue encourage utilities providers to consider waivers or reductions of assumption of responsibility for outstanding debts or offer to promote increased future business. continued assistance and affordable housing for seniors and people with special needs.
Proposed Light Rail
Transportation and Connectivity Redevelopment of railroad property within the broadway fillmore neighborhood is considered a priority of the comprehensive plan of the city of Buffalo. + Reopen Central Terminal and investigate existing track for reuse. + Introduce a light rail linkages with downtown Buffalo at main street (linkage to metro), and Cheektowaga (serves town and galleria mall). + potential future tie-in to high-speed rail connection with other major cities such as Toronto, NYC, and Chicago.
proposal phasing residential + mixed use phase 1: Install a parkway system along Fillmore Avenue from MLK Park to Paderewski, this will help raise and stabilize property values strategies to bolster
along a key corridor within the neighborhood
phase 2: Extend the parkway system south and east to existing greenspace at Central Terminal and install greenspace access and outdoor plaza for the Broadway Market, which will foster further investment along parkway and provide a viable multi-modal linkage to assests within the neighborhood
phase 3: Utilize existing vacant rail infrastructure to link the neighborhood with the BuďŹ€alo light rail system and reuse Central Terminal as
highspeed rail hub between Toronto and NYC to provide more eďŹƒcient and attractive linkages to destinations outside of
the neighborhood and convert the neighborhood into a transport and market hub
phase 4: Develop existing networks of ad-hoc pedestrian paths through abandoned and vacant lots, this will redeďŹ ne and revitalize the arterial neighborhood, whether it be providing pedstrian linkages with residences, openspace or urbanfarms
parkway (stage 1) parkway (stage 2) light rail (stage 1) light rail (stage 2) high speed rail pedestrian path residential mixed-use green space
interventions sequencing day zero: current conditions
immediate interventions: 1-5 years to begin immediately
intermediary measures: 3-10 years incumbent upon success of 1st interventions
long term goals: 5-20 years incumbent upon the success of prior interventions + available funding
resources Broadway Fillmore Resources:
Mapping + GIS:
Broadway Fillmore Alive http://broadwayfillmorealive.org/2.0/ 2010 Broadway Fillmore Alive | All Rights Reserved | Powered by WordPress
Intensive Level Historic Resources Survey of Broadway-Fillmore Neighborhood Christine Longiaru, Martin Wachadlo, Francis R. Kowsky, + Clinton Brown Company Architecture, PC 2100 Rand Building, 14 Lafayette Square, Buffalo NY, 14203. August 2004 http://broadwayfillmorealive.org/2.0/intensive-level-historicresources-survey-of-broadway-fillmore-neigborhood/
Aerial Imagery, 1920 + 1951 Erie County Public Works, Division of Highways http://www.erie.gov/depts/community/highways_aerial.asp 2010
Forgotten Buffalo http://www.forgottenbuffalo.com/welcome.html All contents of this site © 2010-2011 by Forgotten Buffalo. Some images and text used throughout the site are protected by individual copyright holders. Broadway Market http://broadwaymarket.org/ Copyright © 2009-2010-The Broadway Market The Broadway Market - 999 Broadway - Buffalo, NY 14212 716.893.0705 Broadway Fillmore Neighborhood Housing Services, Inc. http://bfnhs.org/b/e107_plugins/custompages/welcome.php © 2006 - BFNHS 780 Fillmore Avenue, Buffalo, NY 14212 phone (716) 852-3130 - fax (716) 852-3552 Broadway Fillmore neighborhood in Buffalo, New York (NY), 14206, 14211, 14212 detailed profile City-Data.com http://www.city-data.com/neighborhood/Broadway-Fillmore-BuffaloNY.html City-data.com does not guarantee the accuracy or timeliness of any information on this site. Use at your own risk. Some parts © 2010 Advameg, Inc. Neighborhood boundary data © 2010 Urban Mapping, Inc. National Vacant Properties Campaign: Creating Opportunity from Abandonment http://www.vacantproperties.org/ LISC: Local Initiatives Support Corporation http://www.lisc.org/ © 2000-2010 Local Initiatives Support Corp. All rights reserved.
Buffalo Architecture: A Guide. Francis R. Kowsky, et. al. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1980 RIT Broadway Market Identity Systems Proposal 2010 © Alex Bitterman, Aaron Barber, Lindsay Block, Megan Clegg, Jack Gold, Adam Hasenauer, Andrew Maruska, Cristina Maxon, Christina McAndrew, Stephen Pecoraro, Sarah Wolfsont, and the Rochester Intitute of Technology. All rights reserved. City of Buffalo: Draft Comprehensive Plan Overview: East Side Comprehensive Plan, Office of Strategic Planning, Room 920, City Hall, Buffalo, NY 14202 BluePrint Buffalo: Regional Strategies and Local Tools for Reclaiming Vacant Properties in the City and Suburbs of Buffalo www.lisc.org/buffalo LISC Buffalo, 700 Main Street Buffalo NY 14202, 716.853.1136 Anthony Armstrong, Program Officer, firstname.lastname@example.org Buffalo Housing Conditions and Vacancy Overview www.lisc.org/buffalo LISC Buffalo, 700 Main Street Buffalo NY 14202, 716.853.1136 Anthony Armstrong, Program Officer, email@example.com East Buffalo GPNA Neighborhood Plan, 2007 East Buffalo Good Neighbors’ Planning Alliance (GNPA), Denise HerkeyJarosch and Linda Hastreiter, Co-Chairs, as a Component of The Queen City in the 21st Century: Buffalo’s Comprehensive Plan http://www.ci.buffalo.ny.us/Home/City_Departments/Office_ of_Strategic_Planning/Good_Neighbors_Planning_Alliance/ EastBuffaloGNPANeighborhoodPlan
Digital Orthoimagery NYS Office of Cyber Security and Critical Infrastructure Coordination Geographic Systems Information Clearinghouse http://www.nysgis.state.ny.us/gateway/mg/ 2009 Social Explorer http://www.socialexplorer.com/pub/home/home.aspx ©2010 Social Explorer. All rights reserved. Digital Sanborn Maps http://sanborn.umi.com/ Database and software copyright (c) 2001-2008 ProQuest, LLC. All rights reserved. All copyright in the Sanborn Maps are held by Environmental Data Resources, Inc. or its affiliates City of Buffalo Vacant Parcels ftp://ftp.ci.buffalo.ny.us/Planning/UB/Parcels/ Obtain a reference to interpret its land use codes at: http://www.orps.state.ny.us/assessor/manuals/vol6/ref/prclas.htm
Muroran Case Study Resources:
Bill Parke, AICP Community Planner Office of Strategic Planning City of Buffalo 920 City Hall Buffalo, NY 14202 Phone: 716-851-5123 firstname.lastname@example.org www.city-buffalo.com
Philipp Oswalt. International Research: Japan. Shrinking Cities 1: 81104.
The City of Muroran. Official Website / English Page. City of Muroran Official Website. 10 Feb. 2010. http://www.city.muroran.lg.jp/main/ org1200/english/english_index.html
Anthony Armstrong Program Officer 70 West Chippewa Street, Suite 604 Buffalo, NY 14202 Ph: 716.852.3430 Fax: 716.852.3470 email@example.com Terry Schwarz, AICP Cleveland Urban Design Collaborative 1309 Euclid Avenue, Suite 200 Cleveland, OH 44115 phone: 216.357.3434
Susan Chira. A JOB CRUNCH JOLTS JAPAN - NYTimes.com. The New York Times - Breaking News, World News & Multimedia. 18 Jan. 1987. 14 Feb. 2010. http://www.nytimes.com/1987/01/18/business/a-jobcrunch-jolts-japan.html?pagewanted=1 Philip Shapira. Modernizing Small Manufacturers in the United States and Japan: Public Technological Infrastructures and Strategies. M. Teubal et al. (eds.), Technological Infrastructure Policy. 285-334. © 1996 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands. Andre´ Sorensen. Liveable Cities in Japan: Population Ageing and Decline as Vectors of Change. Department of Geography and Programme in Planning, University of Toronto. International Planning Studies. Vol. 11, Nos. 3–4, 225–242, August–November 2006 John H. Thompson and Michihiro Miyazaki. A Map of Japan’s Manufacturing. The Geographical Review. Volume XLIX, Number 1. January, 1959. Kojima Reikichi. The Population of the Prefectures and Cities of Japan in Most Recent Times. Translated by Edwin G. Beal, Jr. The Library of Congress. Association for Asian Studies. The Far Eastern Quarterly, Vol. 3, No. 4 (Aug., 1944), pp. 313-361
Overview of Muroran Works | Muroran Works - Nippon Steel Corporation. 17 Feb. 2010. http://www.nsc.co.jp/en/muroran/about/ outline.html Ports and Harbours Bureau - Promotion of Port Town Development - Port Town Development Aimed at Revitalization through People-topeople Interaction and Activities (Port of Muroran).” Web. 11 Feb. 2010. http://www.mlit.go.jp/english/2006/k_port_and_harbors_ bureau/16_promotion/muroran.html Profile of Hokkaido Development. 24 Apr. 2010. http://www.hkd.mlit. go.jp/eng/index.html Shrinking Cities : Welcome. Shrinkingcities : Projekt Schrumpfende Städte. Web. 24 Feb. 2010. http://www.shrinkingcities.com/index. php?L=1 People: Yuka Terada firstname.lastname@example.org