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Design Thinking Fall 2011 Degree Candidate: Kyle Fant Instructor: Gia Daskalakis Teaching Assistant: Lauren Field


fluctuating equilibriums


Contents Preface

Premise / Introduction

001

Chapter 1

2D + 3D Conceptual Work (sketches, models, diagramming)

005

Chapter 2

Site Documentation

047

Chapter 3

Program Proposal

079

Chapter 4

Precedent Analysis

099

Bibliography

103

Source Citations

107


premise

fluctuating equilibriums

Premise The original prairies of Missouri are conditioned to survive drought, flooding, climate change and outside physical factors. The premise seeks to metaphorically relate the community of the prairie system to the urban context of St. Louis. In a prairie, the species composition remains the same, but different species excel under different types of stresses, growths and reductions. The key is diversity among perennial polycultures, allowing four common plant types (warm-season grasses, cool-season grasses, legumes, and composites) to play different roles under different seasonal and environmental factors to protect and sustain the community. how can the analogy of the prairie make its way into the urban fabric by applying its principals to the built environment? How can a native system of Missouri relate to the urban realm? How can the analogy of the prairie system inform urban production / consumption / shaping of a city? Why do we want a city / building program to function like a prairie?

001


preface

002


introduction

fluctuating equilibriums

Introduction From, Landscape Ecology in Theory and Practice : Disturbance Regime – The disturbance regime of a landscape refers to the spatial and temporal dynamics of disturbances over a longer time period. It includes characteristics such as spatial distribution of the disturbances; disturbance frequency, return interval, and rotation period, as well as disturbance size, intensity, and severity. This relates to the different species of a prairie excelling or receding under different stresses, growths and reductions. Landscape Equilibrium – 1. To be essentially closed, 2. To be self regulating, 3. To possess stable point or stable cycle equilibria, 4. To have deterministic dynamics, 5. To be essentially free of disturbance, and 6. To be independent of human influence. In a prairie, the diversity among perennial polycultures allows the community to sustain itself. From, The Metapolis Dictionary of Advanced Architecture : Cohabitation – Cohabitation is to inhabit together. It represents a contract of non-adherent coexistence: a contingent complicity of interests that implies sharing of (real or metaphorical) spaces of influence. Cohabitation is a plural and heterogeneous architecture based upon diversity and simultaneity and alluding to constant arrangements and negotiations of cohabitation between its par ts: Spatial cohabitation, Urban cohabitation. All of the various elements of the prairie live together for the benefit of the whole, relating to each other without necessarily being directly in contact with one another.

003


chapter 1

004


fluctuating equilibriums

2D+3D Conceptual Work

sketches, models, diagramming

1

005


006 compass plant

asters

goldenrod

leadplant

sensitive briar

cat’s claw

cluster fescue

big bluestem

chapter 1


2d + 3d conceptual work

fluctuating equilibriums

Polyculture Cool season grasses such as cluster fescue come up early and spread their seeds. The fescue then recedes, allowing warm season grasses like big bluestem to thrive the rest of the season. Legumes consisting of cat’s-claw, sensitive brier, and leadplant fix their own nitrogen and fer tilize the prairie when they fall. Composites like asters, goldenrod, and compass plants flower at various times throughout the season. Image left: a sketch resembling the different species of a prairie relating to each other. The growth and reduction of the whole is directly related to how these plants relate directly and indirectly to each other through each season.

007


chapter 1

008


2d + 3d conceptual work

fluctuating equilibriums

A prairie has a number of components that allow for multiple outcomes for varying situations. It is through this diversity that the prairie achieves its success in confusing insects from targeting specific plants, containing the spread of diseases, and adjusting to dynamic climate changes. Image left: Diversity allows for pest and disease resistance / Legumes fer tilize the prairie with their bodies / Timing of growth and reduction protects weaker plants.

009


chapter 1

010


research / publication

residential

skilled labor / craft

education

agricultural relations

service / civic

enter tainment

infrastructure

tourism

industry

2d + 3d conceptual work

fluctuating

equilibriums

community

011


chapter 1

rotation period

time temporal dynamics

disturbance

012


2d + 3d conceptual work

fluctuating equilibriums

Disturbance Regime: The different aspects of the city are related to each other. These want to work as a unit, but often the growth and reduction are seen in extremes. Image left: The disturbances over time of a landscape in relation to its temporal and spatial dynamics.

013


chapter 1

cycle equilibria

deterministic dynamics closed, self regulating

014


2d + 3d conceptual work

fluctuating equilibriums

Landscape Equilibrium: A self regulating, enclosed landscape possessing a stable cycle equilibria. Image left: Overlapping aspects of a city can be seen as a landscape of program, functions, and occurrences. The most successful par ts of this equation are the niches of a city. In St. Louis these niches are seen in their extremes with vacant land consuming the gaps between niches such as Downtown and the Central West End, Soulard, Dogtown, Clayton, etc.

015


chapter 1

space of influence

heterogeneous architecture

urban cohabitation

016


2d + 3d conceptual work

fluctuating equilibriums

Cohabitation: Heterogeneous architecture shares spaces of interests through varying types of influence. Image left: The urban grid contains many contracts of non-adherent coexistence. Programs may function completely different from each other and not interact, yet they still need to share the same community to succeed in sustaining as a whole. The small, non-adherent relationships found in each community have the same ties to neighboring communities, and these neighboring communities relate to the city as a whole.

017


chapter 1

018


2d + 3d conceptual work

fluctuating equilibriums

What are the elements in a city that bring change / stability?

019


chapter 1

in flux

stable

020


2d + 3d conceptual work

fluctuating equilibriums

Tetris, with its grid like input-deletion-filling system can be used as a graphic metaphor to the prairie. In an ideal sense, the prairie resembles all of the aspects that the city encounters, while Tetris is relates to how an architectural intervention should function within this environment. Image left: Analysis of Tetris: fluctuating space formed by a series of disturbances, while a stable base allows for decision making.

021


adjustment based on existing

chapter 1

input, slightly predictable

deletion

gaps

voids, space combinations 022


2d + 3d conceptual work

fluctuating equilibriums

Relationships and predictability are found in a Tetris system that can bring about dynamic changes. These changes are accounted for, but not specified or dependent on cer tain stimuli. Image left: Analysis of Tetris: gaps and deletions are related to the urban grid. The unpredictable aspects of economic change / population, etc. are adjusted and applied to the stable base.

023


chapter 1

intake, suppor ting program

stable, architectural intervention

output, flexible program

024


fluctuating

2d + 3d conceptual work

equilibriums

cycle happening within a context

potential site

some components may already exist

025


chapter 1

deletion

deletion

addition

addition stability

026


2d + 3d conceptual work

fluctuating equilibriums

Actions and their results are dependent upon what interventions have been inser ted into the current layout of program and function. Their reactions are accounted for and cycled back into the reforming of the architectural intervention. Image left: Architecture (building) : action vs. Program : result of action

027


chapter 1

028


2d + 3d conceptual work

fluctuating equilibriums

Destruction leads to diversity, and diversity leads to rebuilding. This metaphor is taken from the burning of the prairie to regenerate its fer tility and growth. Image left: The burning of the prairie allows for its regeneration and regrowth with multiple species emerging from fer tilized soil.

029


chapter 1

prairie

Rome

Chicago 030


2d + 3d conceptual work

fluctuating equilibriums

This relationship of rebuilding after destruction or abandonment has architectural precedent in many cities throughout the world. Image left: The burning of the prairie in relation to The Burning of Rome in 64 CE followed by its reconstruction, and The Great Chicago Fire of 1871 CE followed with its reconstruction.

031


chapter 1

Access

032

Industry

Flexibility


2d + 3d conceptual work

fluctuating equilibriums

The most impor tant characteristics in the prairie related to the components of Tetris could potentially relate to building program. These ideas would be used as a backdrop for finding and analyzing successful, unsuccessful, and transitional sites. Image left: Prairie and Tetris - components do not work without each other, pieces fit together to function as a whole.

033


chapter 1

components

lay out component to come, flexible industry river railroad highway business agricultural relations

education research publications community service history

skilled labor craft trade ar ts

residential housing zoning industry suppor t neighborhood live

tourism revenue publicity public relations

together, they work

034


2d + 3d conceptual work

fluctuating equilibriums

Components of the urban structure and program must relate to each other, but they also must allow flexibility for change, or an unpredictable disturbance. Patchwork, can be filled in and replaced, as this method is applied to the Tetris metaphor. Image left: A patchwork of components and underlying programs that suppor t each other. A Tetris grid formation helps to diagram how these components are connected, while not necessarily being related.

035


chapter 1

036


fluctuating

2d + 3d conceptual work

equilibriums

Where are these components found coexisting in St. Louis?

037


chapter 1

deterministic dynamics

038


2d + 3d conceptual work

fluctuating equilibriums

Communal stability has cyclical aspects. The order and relation from one fluctuating equilibrium to another is tied together through stable / adaptable spaces. Image left: Conceptual sketch of site / program forming process: city relationships.

039


chapter 1

040


2d + 3d conceptual work

fluctuating equilibriums

Concepts of fluctuations in spacial density in relation to time and external factors such as density, dispersal, and diversification are mapped through model form. The shadow that an industry or major architectural intervention casts on neighboring programs can greatly change the environment, linking unrelated city components. Image left: Physical model beginning to form space based on cyclical aspects against a standard linear form.

041


chapter 1

042


fluctuating

premise

equilibriums

Physical model beginning to form space based on cyclical aspects against a standard, linear form.

043


chapter 1

044


2d + 3d conceptual work

fluctuating equilibriums

The concept of diversity, growth, and reduction are communally joined through the shadow of architectural implementation. Linear thought is broken systematically to allow for dispersal over less dense attributes during a negative disturbance.

Image left / above: Physical model and sketch laying out the principles of a systematic analysis of forming the prairie metaphor under grid-like restraints.

045


chapter 2

046


fluctuating equilibriums

Site Documentation mapping, locating, defining

2

047


chapter 2

Industry

048

Rail / River transpor t

Park access

Neighborhood

Highway access


site documentation

fluctuating equilibriums

The ideal site is located in a transitional urban environment, one that is on the border of critical population loss, or loss of development. The site would be a location of former economic and physical density that still has the potential to grow and attract a new wave of occupants to tap into its available infrastructure. Specific aspects obseved are: intact residence / neighborhood, former industry / new emerging business, greenery / park space access, close proximity / overlapping with a major transpor tation network (rail, highway), and close relation to the Mississippi or Missouri river for fur ther interaction and relationships. Image left: Selecting these components and allowing them to fall into place at the appropriate sites in St. Louis.

049


chapter 2

050


site documentation

fluctuating equilibriums

Transitional zones occur on the edge of intact communities created from population decrease and retreating business / economic development. Image left: Mapping zones of programmatic overlap that meet multiple communal attributes.

051


chapter 2

residence, neighborhood

access to green space, communal aspects

former industry, new emerging business

railroad, highway, river

052


site documentation

fluctuating equilibriums

Specific attributes of sites in St. Louis are targeted by using major components as guidelines. Specific sites can be targeted to narrow the fit for remaining components. The components needed will influence the program of the site. Image left: Sketches honing in on areas of the city and their characteristics that make them a desired community for study.

053


chapter 2

Granite City School District 19th Street (Rock Road)

Niedringhaus Ave 054

N


site documentation

fluctuating equilibriums

Potential Site 1 _ Granite City, 1912 Adams Street. Granite City is in Illinois, but still in the St. Louis metropolitan area. WIth a history in manufacturing, it has seen multiple industries come and go. This has created a unique situation in which facilities such as housing, schools, etc. are still in tact and used, but the business that suppor ted them has left. Recently, there has been a push to activate the ar ts in the town because of the low rent and access to large flexible buildings. Image left: Site location in relation to the St. Louis metropolitan area, aerial view, and diagram of active components of site desirability.

055


chapter 2

056


site documentation

fluctuating equilibriums

Potential Site 1 _ Granite City, 1912 Adams Street. Image left: Experiential aspect of the site and current conditions through photographic collage.

057


chapter 2

Manchester Ave

Universal Printing

Adams Park S Kingshighway Blvd

Foremen Fabricators N 058


site documentation

fluctuating equilibriums

Potential Site 2 _ Forest Park Southeast, 1300 South Taylor Avenue. Forest Park Southeast is bordered by I-64 / US-40 on the nor th and I-44 on the south. The location is in an industrial niche between Forest Park and neighborhoods to the south. The site is next to an existing industry, small neighborhood, and has a rail line branching directly into the site, formerly used by an older industry. Image left: Site location in relation to the St. Louis metropolitan area, aerial view, and diagramming of active components of site desirability.

059


chapter 2

060


site documentation

fluctuating equilibriums

Potential Site 2 _ Forest Park Southeast, 1300 South Taylor Avenue. Image left: Experiential aspect of the site and current conditions through photographic collage.

061


chapter 2

Bellerive Park Sister Marie Charles Park South Broadway Freight Rail

CARONDELET

Elwood Street Mississippi River Western Blow Pipe

JW Aluminum N 062


site documentation

fluctuating equilibriums

Potential Site 3 _ Carondelet, 5900 South Broadway / 110 Elwood Street. Carondelet was formerly the headquar ters for processing lead and shipbuilding. Charles Eams established his shipbuilding company here to create the ironclads for the civil war. Since then, the town has seen many of these industries diminish, while the populations have grown in Soulard near the Anheuser-Busch Brewer to the nor th, and suburban Mehlville to the south. The site is unique because it is next to a surviving neighborhood, strung between abandoned and new star t up industry, a rail line, Sister Marie Charles Park, and the Mississippi River. It is embedded in a small bluff adding an interesting sectional aspect, enabling it to interact with rail lines, potential program, and views to the river. Image left: Showing site location in relation to the St. Louis metropolitan area, aerial view, and diagramming of active components of site desirability.

063


chapter 2

064


site documentation

fluctuating equilibriums

Potential Site 3 _ Carondelet, 5900 South Broadway / 110 Elwood Street. Image left: Experiential aspect of the site and current conditions through photographic collage.

065


chapter 2

066


site documentation

fluctuating equilibriums

Which site can best relate to the aspects of the Prairie and Tetris? Which one will allow the best use of these metaphors to influence a flexible / cyclical program?

067


N

068


site documentation

fluctuating equilibriums

Site Selected Site _ 5900 South Broadway / 110 Elwood Street The site is layered from east to west: Mississippi River, Sister Marie Charles Park, rail line, industry, highway, residential. This site is the most promising to implement an architectural program the follows the same strategy. The town of Carondelet is located in the far thest southeast por tion of St. Louis. It was an independent city in 1851, and then annexed with the city of St. Louis in 1870. The current population is approximately 9900 people. The most prominent industries today are Israel Chemical Limited, producing phosphate and phosphoric acid products, and New World Pasta factory. Image left: The site in relation to the river and Illinois, parallel with the Cahokia Chute to the east. The site is uniquely layered from the river to the neighborhood. Experiential aspects of this are shown.

069


chapter 2

+28 +24 +20 +16 +12 +8 +4

450’

070


site documentation

fluctuating equilibriums

Because the existing building (abandoned, crumbling) has a foundation in the bluff, it allows for the oppor tunity to layer program so that potential programs can shift in section. For example, the rail line can now interact directly with a storage component at ground level, while alternative or related program suppor t can access the street and oversee the rail line. Image left: Sectional diagram of components and layering from east to west with elevation change.

071


ig ne

072 hb or h o t od or ive r neighborhood

river

park / green space

rail line / transpor tation

industry

street frontage

chapter 2


site documentation

fluctuating equilibriums

Stratification of components give potential program a more effective ability to shift, adjust, and interchange over time. Image left: Physical model of the components on the site layering from east to west.

073


chapter 2

48

3’

29

3’

24

23

potential site expansion

074

8’

1’


site documentation

fluctuating equilibriums

The size of the actual construction site can vary depending on how many of the layers are incorporated. The site has the potential to stretch from Broadway street, across the park and into the Mississippi. Image left: Dimensions of the site in plan.

075


chapter 2

1860

076

1900


fluctuating

site documentation

equilibriums

1930

2012

077


chapter 3

078


fluctuating equilibriums

Program Proposal

outline, size, document

3

079


chapter 3

080


program proposal

fluctuating equilibriums

Program Program Proposal: Flexible Business Co-op Image left / below: Rendering depicting how the site would function with varying people and programs. The connection to the river is essential in combining the multiple businesses into a functioning ecosystem.

081


chapter 3

flexible industry

082

shared components

park / green space


program proposal

fluctuating equilibriums

A flexible business co-op is similar to the flexible space industry and ar tist co-op. In an ar tist co-op, a kiln, metal shop, and lighting studio would be shared among all of the ar tists, while the par ticular ar tist and their work would change over time around the functioning core. In the business co-op, utilities and major program functions are shared throughout the entire collective. Board rooms, kitchens, lab space, storage, shipping, park space, are all shared while the size and needs of each par ticular business can grow / expand to fit their needs. Retail industry may use vacant shipping industry for storage, while a growing fabricator could rent out small office space for coordinating with clients internationally. Park space could connect all of the programs to each other and attract new people to interact with the businesses. Image left: Flexible industry and shared media are combined. Green space traverses this combination.

083


retail

chapter 3

retail

restaurant

BUSINESS CO-OP

leisure space leisure space leisure space leisure space leisure space leisure

STORAGE

084

shipping


program proposal

fluctuating equilibriums

The strong ties between changing industries, shared components, and the public realm is what will maintain the use of the building and the site over a long period of time. Image left: Depictions of potential interactions and program outlines for the co-op and their shared components are connected by leisure (park).

085


chapter 3

Flexible Business Co-op

Shared / Public

- Board Rooms / Conference Rooms

2,000 sf

- Park / Throughway

30,000 sf

- Technology Center

2,000 sf

- Commercial / Retail

6,000 sf

- Business Atrium

1,500 sf

- Cafe / Kitchen

1,000 sf

- Restaurant

2,000 sf

- Flexible Office Space

20,000 sf

- Core (utilities, bathrooms, storage, HVAC)

2,600 sf

- Lobby for Business Co-op

- Kitchenette / Cafeteria

1,000 sf

- Flexible Venue Space

- Rooftop Venue

600 sf 3200 sf

10,000 sf 42,800 sf 39,100 sf

Shipping / Storage - Shipping / Storage Space

20,000 sf

- Office Space

1000 sf

- Mississippi Bicycle Trail Bike Storage and service station

2000 sf

23,000 sf

086


program proposal

fluctuating equilibriums

Square footage for the overall building and its constant components are documented and show the potential scale and variation of options in square footage for shifting industries. Image left: Proposed sizing of programmed space.

087


chapter 3

shared public flexible business co-op shipping / storage

088


program proposal

fluctuating equilibriums

How the programmatic space relates to the site is also key to its longevity. The location of cer tain sized spaces and their potential occupants should be oriented to infrastructure at the site. Image left: Overlay of programmatic space over the site.

089


chapter 3

shared public flexible business co-op shipping / storage

090


program proposal

fluctuating equilibriums

Because of the unique sectional qualities attributed to the site, how the components are oriented will allow for different type of interactions at various levels from South Broadway, to the rail line and to the river. Image left: Overlay of programmatic space in section across the site.

091


chapter 3

092


fluctuating

program proposal

equilibriums

How does the building and its components shift / change over time?

093


chapter 3

094


program proposal

fluctuating equilibriums

The program itself is flexible, shifting and changing its space to accommodate many different types of business and activities. Using the park as a connection through the site to draw people in, the program would change based on the desires and needs of the people who inhabit the site. Image left: Spaces filled and adjusted to meet the needs of a changing company or industry. The overall space, or building remains the same, while it functions with programmatic shifts in relation to the Tetris metaphor.

095


chapter 3

2015

096

2050


fluctuating

program proposal

equilibriums

2075

2100

097


chapter 4

098


fluctuating equilibriums

Precedent Analysis successful examples

4

099


chapter 4

100


fluctuating

successful examples

equilibriums

Metropolitan Exchange Building, Brooklyn, NY

Ar tists’ Cooperative Gallery, Omaha, NE

Proxy, San Fransisco, CA

101


chapter 5

102


fluctuating equilibriums

Bibliography concurrent research

5

103


chapter 5

104


concurrent research

fluctuating equilibriums

Bell, Bryan, and Katie Wakeford. Expanding Architecture: Design as Activism. New York: Metropolis, 2008. Print. Benyus, Janine M. Biomimicry: Innovation Inspired by Nature. New York: Morrow, 1997. Print. Dreslin, Jimmy. Tetris Explosion: History, Tips and Tricks of Tetris. Print. Feireiss, Kristin, and Lukas Feireiss. Architecture of Change: Sustainability and Humanity in the Built

Environment. Berlin: Gestalten, 2008. Print.

Geddes, Patrick. Cities in Evolution; an Introduction to the Town Planning Movement and to the Study of Civics.

New York: H. Fer tig, 1968. Print.

Hadid, Zaha M. Ubiquitous Urbanism: Total Architecture : The Tokyo Experiment : A Studio in Global Master

Planning. Columbia: Columbia of Architecture, 1994. Print.

Hensel, Michael, Achim Menges, and Christopher Hight. Space Reader: Heterogeneous Space in Architecture.

Chichester, U.K.: Wiley, 2009. Print.

Krononberg, Rober t. Flexible: Architecture That Responds to Change. London: Laurence King, 2007. Print. Marshall, Dr. Stephen. “Urbanism in Evolution: New Urbanism and Beyond.” RUDI - Resource for Urban Design

Information. Print.

Soule, Judith D., and Jon K. Piper. Farming in Nature’s Image: An Ecological Approach to Agriculture.

Washington, D.C.: Island, 1992. Print.

Tomasko, Rober t M. Rethinking the Corporation: The Architecture of Change. New York: AMACOM, 1993. Print. 105


chapter 6

106


fluctuating equilibriums

Source Citations

referrals to borrowed work

6

107


chapter 6

108


referrals to borrowed work

fluctuating equilibriums

In order of appearance: p 10; The Eeb and Flow blogspot p 16; Geotagging St. Louis, ar t by Eric Fisher p 20, 25; Tetris image, by nuerocritic blogspot p 24; Rotating Tetromineos, Superficial Intellegence blogspot p 50; ArchGIS Desktop Education Edition 10 p 54, 58, 62, 68; Google Maps / Aerial View/ Street View p 54, 58, 62, 68; Bing Maps / Aerial View / Bird’s Eye View p 101, Benjamin Norman for the New York Times p 101, Ar tists’ Collective webpage p 101, SocketSite

109


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