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Fish Species Identification

Title: Fresh Water

Species #:1

Common Name: Large Mouth Bass Scientific Name: Micropherus salmoides Class: Animalia

Order: Perciformes

Family: Centrachidae

Genus: Micropherus salmoides

Species: Micropterus

Geography/ Habitat: Bass live in big lakes, streams, creeks, and rivers. They can live in clear and merky water. Largemouth bass were found in the western region of the world for example the Southern United States Life Strategy: The largemouth bass is challenged by other largemouth bass once at birth only ½ of new hatchlings live to adulthood. They maintain a water temperature of about 62 F to 75F

Food/Feed: Strategy:Large mouth bass are carnivores and will eat or feed on shade, other small fish/ small brim insectsand frogs.

Large mouth bass/ Micropherus salmoides

Compressiform

Carangifrom

Terminal


Fish Species Identification

Title: Fresh Water

Species #: 2

Common Name: Rainbow Trout Scientific Name: Orcorhynchus mykiss Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Salmoniformes

Family: Salomnidae

Genus: concorhynchus

Species: mykiss

Geography/ Habitat: Rainbow trout are found in North America, along the Canada United States region. Some are also found in the western united states in streams and rivers and other moving bodies of water

Life Strategy: The rainbow trout go upstream to lay eggs during the spawning season which is in the spring. They swim upstream simple to avoid any predators from eating them or their eggs. A female rainbow trout lays up to 100 eggs. Food/Feed Strategy: Young rainbow trout first eat water fleas and then add aquatic insects, like caddis flies, mayflies, and midges, to their diet. As they grow larger they include small fish, but continues to consume larval and adult insects. The also supplement the diet with other kinds of food, such as snail, leeches, fish eggs side swimmers, and algae

Rainbow trout/Oncorhynchus mykiss

Compressiform

Subcarangiorm


Supraterminal mouth

Fish Species Identification

Title: Fresh water

Species #: 3

Common Name: Alabama shad Scientific Name: Oncorhychus mykiss Class: Actinopterygii

Order:Clupeiformes

Family: Clupeidia

Genus: Alosa

Species: Craniata

Geography/ Habitat: The Alabama is an species that spawns in Gulf of Mexico drainages. In the past, Alabama shad inhabited most Gulf Coast drainages from the Mississippi river east to Suwanne River in Florida. The largest remaining population is the Apalachicola River system below Jim Woodruff. Dam. Each year, shad still eneter thte Choctawhatchee and Conecuh river systems in southeastern Alabama to spawn Adults live in salt water but migrate upstream into free flowing rivers to spawn. Adults spawn in April when water temperatures reach 65F and migrate downstream shortly thereafter. Actual spawning has not been observed , but it probably occurs in open, flowing water over sand bars in the late afternoon or night. Life Strategy: Alabama shad are food or preys to most fish because of their size. They are eaten by largemouth bass, alligator gar, and catfish. Once the shads reach up to full adult hood they measure up to 18 inches in length. When they get ready to spawn they migrate upstream from the saltwater. Food/Feed Strategy: Shad are mostly filter feeders that eat primarily phytoplankton and zooplankton. They eat a lot of other bacteria and have been knowen to eat certain insects.

Alabama Shad / Oncorhynchus mykiss

Compressiform

Subcarangiform


Subterminal Fish Species Identification

Title: Fresh Water

Species #: 4

Common Name: Actinopterygii Scientific Name: Micropterus dolomieu Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: centrachidae

Genus: Micropterus

Species: M. dolomieu

Geography/ Habitat: The small mouth bass is found in clearer water than the largemouth, especially streams, rivers, and the rocky areas and stumps and also sandy bottoms of lakes and reservoirs. The smallmouth prefers cooler water temperatures than its cousin the largemouth bass, and may be found in both still and moving water. Because it is intolerant of pollution, the smallmouth is a good natural indicator of healthy environment, though it can better adjust to the changes in water condition than most trout species. Life Strategy: Small mouth bass tend to spawn in small stream a fish’s activity way be limited to just one stream pool or extent into several. Spawning occurs in the spring. When water temperatures approach 60 F males move into spawning areas. Nests are usually located near shores in lakes; downstream from boulders or some other obstruction that offers protection against strong currents in streams. Mature females mat contain 2000-15000 golden yellow eggs. Males may spawn with several females on a single nest. On average each nest contains about2,500 eggs but nests may contain as many as 10,00 eggs Food/Feed Strategy: Small mouth Bass are Carnivorous and their diet consist of comprised crayfish, insects and smaller fish, the young also feeding on zooplankton.

Small mouth bass/ Micropterus dolomieu

Compressifrom

Carangifrom

Terminal


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 5

Common Name: Blue gill Scientific Name: Pomoxis annularis Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Centrarchidae

Genus: Lepomis

Species: P. annularis

Geography/ Habitat:Blue gill live in big lakes, swamps, and other bodies of water. Slow moving rivers, vegetated ponds and creek pools are also likely bluegill move into deeper waters when the water temperature rises in the summer. Life Strategy: In the late spring 70 F water; the female deposits around 40,000 eggs in the shallow nest near the sandy shore. Two to six days later the eggs hatch and the male the young fry during their first days.

Food/Feed Strategy: Bluegills feed mostly on insects, crayfish, fish eggs, snails, minnows, worms and crustaceans in calm, weedy waters, and are themselves food for larger game fish. Adults feed at different depths depending upon water temperature and feed at the surface most actively at dawn and dusk, and feed at the bottom in deeper water during the day.

Bluegill/ lepomis macrochirus

Compressifrom

Crangiform

Subtermial


Fish Species Identification Title: fresh water

Species #: 6

Common Name: white crappie Scientific Name: Pomoxis annularis Class: Actinopterygii

Order: perciformes

Family: perciformes

Genus: Pomoxis

Species: P. annularis Geography/ Habitat: The white crappie is native to freshwater lakes and streams from the Great Lakes south to the Gulf of Mexico, and the southernAtlantic states (Scarola 1973; Scott and Crossman 1973), north to North Dakota and eastern Montana, and east to the Appalachians (Lee et al. 1980). It is simalar to the black crappie excep the fact that it is white. It has been widely introduced outside this range throughout North America. Life Strategy: The white crappie just like the black crappie spawns anytime from early spring to midsummer, once the water reaches between 62 and 68 degrees. Males will be the first to migrate to shallow water nesting sites, often in water 1 to 3 feet deep. In extremely clear water, they may nest as deep as 15 feet. Females deposit between 10,000 to 160,000 eggs, depending upon age and size, in nests built by males. Food/Feed Strategy: The main component of the white crappie diet is fish, especially small minnows, shad and small sunfish. However, they will also eat plankton, insects, insect larvae, and worms, especially in ponds and sloughs where large baitfish populations are uncommon. They also eat the fry of other fishes.

White crappie/Pomoxis annularis

Compressifrom

Carnagifrom

Terminal


Fish Species Identification Title: Fresh water

Species #: 7

Common Name: Channel catfish Scientific Name: Ictalurus punctatus Class: Actinopeterygii

Order: Siluriformes

Family: Ictaluridae

Genus: Ictalurus

Species: punctatus

Geography/ Habitat: Channel catfish naturally occurred in the central and easter United States and southern Canada. They ranged throughout the Mississippi River drainage to northeast Mexico; to the east from the St. Lawrence River, along the western slope of the Appalachian Mountains to central Florida. They prefer clear, slow moving water but will tolerate muddy water. They live in warm or cool water habitats of large rivers, ponds, or reservoirs. Life Strategy: The channel catfish prefers obscure places to nest. Overhanging rock ledges, undercut banks, submerged beaver and muskrat dens, hollow logs, and even large cans, serve as nuptial domiciles. They spawn from May to July when the water temperature reaches 75 F. Males and females engage in a prolonged courtship before mating. Food/Feed Strategy: The channel catfish is and opportunistic omnivore, gorging itself on nearly any form living or dead material. Being primarily a nocturnal animal, channel catfish must rely on its sensory organs, including the well developed barbells, to find food. Their diet consist of aquatic insects, clams, crayfish, snails, and fish, all of which could be dead or alive.

Channel catfish/ ctalurus punchatus

Subcarangifrom

Sagittifrom

Subtermial


Fish Species Identification Title: Fresh water

Species #: 8

Common Name: Gar Scientific Name: Atractosteus spatula Class: Actinoptergii

Order: Lepisosteformes

Family: Lepisosteidae

Genus: Atractosteus

Species: Craniata

Geography/ Habitat: The alligator lives in environments similar to that of the largemouth bass. These fishes relatives to the alligator. The har are carnivorous fish just like the large mouth however, they have a odd structured jaw that enables them with tons of biting power for their prey Life Strategy: The alligator gars are very fast fish swimming up to 15mph. In the spring the female Alligator Gar will swim along with two or three males swimming in formation with her. As she releases her eggs the males release sperm and the fertilized eggs fall to the bottom and stick to debris there. The female carries an average of 138,000 eggs. Alligator gars are very aggressive animals and are predators to most fish. Food/Feed Strategy: The alligator gar will eat anything it can get its mouth into. The preferably eat on other fish like small bass minnows, shad, ect.

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Alligator gar/ Atractosteus spatula

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Segittiform

•

Carangifrom/ terminal mouth position


Fish Species Identification Title: Fresh water

Species #: 9

Common Name: Black crappie Scientific Name: Pomoxis nigromaculatus Class: Actinoptergyii

Order: Perciformes

Family: perciformes

Genus: Pomoxis

Species: P. nigromaculatus Geography/ Habitat: The black crappie is native to freshwater lakes and streams from the Great Lakes south to the Gulf of Mexico, and the southern Atlantic states, north to North Dakota and eastern Montana, and east to the Appalachians. It has been widely introduced outside this range throughout North America. Life Strategy: Black crappie spawn anytime from early spring to midsummer, once the water reaches between 62 and 68 degrees. Males will be the first to migrate to shallow water nesting sites, often in water 1 to 3 feet deep. In extremely clear water, they may nest as deep as 15 feet. Females deposit between 10,000 to 16,000 eggs, depending upon age and size, in nest built by males. Nest are constructed in colonies over mud, sand, or gravel and located wherever shallow water cover is present. Males guard the nest until eggs are hatches three to five days later. Young black crappie feed mostly on insects and insect larvae unitl they reach 4 to 5 inches. Food/Feed Strategy: The main component of the clack crappie diet is fish, especially small minnows, shad and small sunfish. However, they will also eat plankton, insects, insect larvae, and worms, especially in ponds and sloughs where large baitfish populations are uncommon. They also eat the fry of other fishes.

Black crappie/ Pomoxis nigromaculatus

Compress form

Carangifrom

Terminal


Fish Species Identification Title: Fresh water

Species #:10

Common Name: White Bass Scientific Name: Morone chrysops Class:Actinoperygii

Order:perciformes

Family: Moronidae

Genus: moreone

Species: M. chrysops Geography/ Habitat:White bass are native to the rivers that flow to the Mississippi. They have been widely introduced into rivers that flow in to the Atlantic Ocean, such as the Catawba and Yadkin rivers. White bass often travel in schools, chasing baitfish in the open waters of lakes and large rivers. As a result, they are rarely associated with cover. They also inhabit ponds, reservoirs, streams and rivers with deep pools. Life Strategy:White bass have a strong homing tendency. They are known to find their home spawning ground even if it's moved to a different part of the same lake. They like to spawn in moving water in a tributary stream, but they will spawn in windswept lake shores.They spawn during daylight. Females release 242,000 to 933,000 eggs which stick to the surface of objects.The parents move to deeper water and do not care for the young fish. The young fish live in shallow water for a while until they move to deeper water. Food/Feed Strategy:White bass are carnivores. They eat insect larvae, crustaceans, and other fish. They are visual feeders. When not frightened, they will bite readily at live bait such as worms and minows.

White bass/ Morone chrysops

- compressiform

- crangiform

Terminal


Fish Species Identification Title: freshwater

Species #: 11

Common Name: red shiner Scientific Name: Notropis lutrensis Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Cypriniformes

Family: Cyprinidae

Genus: Cyprinella

Species: lutrensis

Geography/ Habitat:The red shiner lives in: Perennial creeks and small to medium rivers, canals, lakes, ponds, and habitats with high turbidity and few competing species; salty, sandy, and rocky pools and runs, sometimes riffles. Often the most abundant minnow in a wide variety of low gradient habitats, especially backwaters, creek mouths, and medium-sized streams with sand/silt bottoms. Uncommon or absent in clear high-gradient streams. Selects water with legible (or intermittent) flow deeper than 20 cm. Life Strategy:Red Shiners are non migrant aniamals wich means they do not swim up strem to lay or spwan. They spwan in late spring like most fish but are preditors to some like catfish,bass strped bass and some turtles. Food/Feed Strategy:Red shiners eat and feed on bottom bacteria and other small particles. they like to stay in groups of 5 or more when feeding and swimming from place to place.

red shiner/ Notropis lutrensis

Compressiform

Carangiform

terminal mouth postion


Fish Species Identification Title: Fresh water

Species #: 12

Common Name: striped bass Scientific Name: Morone saxatilis Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Moronidae

Genus: Morone

Species: saxatilis Geography/ Habitat: The striped bass or "striper" is native to most of the East Coast, ranging from the lower St. Lawrence River in Canada to northern Florida, and along portions of the Gulf of Mexico. Stripers inhabit the whole coast surf, inshore bars, reefs, tide rips, bays and estuaries. Stripers are particularly active in areas with tidal and current flows and in the wash of breaking waves. Life Strategy: The striped bass is a schooling species, moving about in small groups during the first two years of life and thereafter feeding and migrating in large schools. They spawn the same time the large mouths do and interact with largemouth bass as one of their own however striped bass tend to grow more when entered into adult hood. Food/Feed Strategy: Striped bass eat a variety of foods, including fish such as alewives, flounder, sea herring, menhaden, sand lance, silver hake, tomcod, smelt, silversides and eels, as well as lobsters, crabs, soft clams, small mussels, sea worms and squid. They feed most actively at dusk and dawn, although some feeding occurs throughout the day.

- Striped bass/ Morone saxatilis

- Compressiform

- Carangiform/ terminal mouth position


Fish Species Identification

Title: Fresh water

Species #:13

Common Name: common carp Scientific Name: Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Cypriniformes

Family: Cyprinidae

Genus: Cyprinus

Species:

Geography/ Habitat: Common carp prefer large bodies of slow or standing water and soft, vegetative sediments. A schooling fish, they prefer to be in groups of 5 or more. Life Strategy: An egg-layer, a typical adult fish can lay 300,000 eggs in a single spawning, although carp typically spawn in the spring, in response to rising water temperatures and rain fall, carp can spawn multiple times in a season. In commercial operations spawning is often stimulated using a process called hypophysation where lyophilized pituitary extract is injected into the fish. Food/Feed Strategy: The common carp is an omnivore which means they mostly eat grass like bacteria off of the lake floor and banks. They tend to eat more than 5pounds a day.

Common carp

compressiform

subcrangiform


subterminal mouth position

Fish Species Identification Title: Freshwater

Species #: 14

Common Name: Longear sunfish Scientific Name: Lepomis megalotis Class: Actionpterygii

Order: percifromes

Family: Centrachidae

Genus: Lepomis

Species: Mogalotis Geography/ Habitat: Longear sunfish are primarily found in small streams and creeks. Like other sunfish they are often associated with vegetation, avoiding strong currents by inhabiting pools, inlets and waters off the main stream channel Life Strategy: Spawning occurs throughout late spring and early summer. Males scoop nests out of gravel bars. Females are enticed to lay their eggs on a particular nest by a male who swims out to meet her, swimming around her rapidly and displaying his brilliant spawning colors. After the eggs have been laid, males chase the females away and guard the nest vigorously despite their small size, chasing away all intruders. Males may continue to guard the nest for a week or more after hatching, until larvae dispersed. Insects and even small fish become part of the diet as fish approach adulthood. Longear sunfish rarely exceed six inches in length. Food/Feed Strategy: Longear sunfish eat in schools of 5 to 10. They mainly eat earth worms and small insects but some are human feed with fish food.

Longear sunfish/ Lepomis megalotis

Globiform

Ostracilform

Terminal mouth position


Fish Species Identification Title: Fresh water

Species #:15

Common Name: yellow bass Scientific Name: morone mississippiensis Class:Actinopterygii

Order:Perciformes

Family:Moronidae

Genus:Morone

Species:mississippiensis Geography/ Habitat: The yellow bass is a freshwater fish native to the southern and Midwestern parts of the united states. It ranges from southern Minnesota to Indiana and south to Texas and Louisiana. These fish occur in the Mississippi River, west of Arizona, north of Wisconsin and Iowa and as far east as central Tennessee. The Yellow Bass are small fish. Yellow bass is named for its characteristic yellowish gold body and eye. They occur more frequently in medium to large bodies of water like reservoirs and rivers and in some streams and lakes. Life Strategy: Yellow bass like to stick together in schools. They like to be with other fish of similar sizes and appearances, that’s they feel the most comfortable. The schools travel together in search of the perfect foods. Yellow bass spawn in the spring. They don't create nests for their offspring; the females lay the eggs in no particular area and leave the young to feed for themselves. Food/Feed Strategy: They prefer eating smaller fish of any type and tiny crayfish. They eat in schools because a yellow bass prefer other fish to hunt with them. They scavenge or hunt for food with schools of 5 to 8.

Yellow bass/ morone mississippiensis

Compressiform

Carangiform

terminal mouth position


Fish Species Identification Title: Freshwater

Species #: 16

Common Name: Blue Catfish Scientific Name: Ictalurus furcatus Class: Actinopterygil

Order: Siluriformes

Family: Ictaluridae

Genus: Ictalurus

Species: Geography/ Habitat: The blue catfish’s habitat is similar to that of the channel catfish except that these catfish behave and look different. The Blue Catfish naturally occurred in the central and eastern United States and southern Canada. They ranged throughout the Mississippi River drainage to northeast Mexico; to the eat from the St. Lawrence River, along the western slope of the Appalachian Mountains to central Florida. They prefer clear, slow-moving water but will tolerate muddy water. They live in warm or cool water habitats Life Strategy: The Blue catfish prefers obscure places to nest. Overhanging rock ledges, undercut banks, submerged beaver and muskrat dens, hollow logs, and even large cans, serve as nuptial domiciles. They spawn from May to July when the water temperature 75 F. Males and females engage in a prolonged courtship before mating. Eggs are deposited in a yellow colored, gelatinous mass and are incubated for about 6 to 10 days. As many as 20,000 eggs may be laid in one nest. Food/Feed Strategy: Blue catfish just like channel catfish are scavengers as are all other species of cats. The Blue catfish is an opportunistic omnivore, gorging itself on nearly any form of living or dead material. Being primarily is a nocturnal animal, channel catfish must rely on its sensory organs, including the well-developed barbells, to find food. Their diet consists of aquatic insects worms, clams, crayfish, snails, and fish, all of which could be dead or alive

Blue catfish/ Icatlurus furcatus

Subcorangiform

Sagittiform

Subterminal mouth postion


Fish Species Identification Title: Fresh water

Species #: 17

Common Name: Bow fin Scientific Name: Amia calua linnacus Class: Actinopongii

Order: amiiformes

Family: ammidae

Genus: amia

Species: a. calva Geography/ Habitat: Bow fin prefers quiet, clear, backwater areas, lingering along the margins of aquatic vegetation, in undercut banks, and around branches and other submerged structures. Life Strategy: Bowfin spawns in the spring. Males build nests in aquatic vegetation often near a large log and guard the eggs. Once hatched the male guards the young for about a month. Which is longer than any other species of fish in North America. The young swim in a tightly packed swarm for the period they are guarded by the male. The male will aggressively defend the young attacking anything seen as threat. Food/Feed Strategy: Bowfin can be extremely ravenous and eat a large variety of food, including crayfish, shrimp, adult insects and larvae, smallfish, frogs and large amounts of vegetation. Scent is as important as sight in obtaining food and bowfin has the habit of gulping water to capture their prey. Although bowfin is always ready to feed, they are most active in the evening.

Bowfin/ Amia calua Linnaeus

Taeniform

Subcarangifrom

Supraterminal


Fish Species Identification Title: Fresh Water

Species #: 18

Common Name: tilapia Scientific Name: Class: actionpterygii

Order: perciformes

Family: chichlidae

Genus:Oreochromis

Species:

Geography/ Habitat: Tilapia can be found in lake, wetlands, marine habitats, water courses, Estuaries and marine environments. They prefer tropical environments with water are fairly high temperatures. Very few species can tolerate cold temperatures Life Strategy: Similar to the grass carp, most tilapia species are herbivores that have the Potential to alter aquatic plant populations and ecosystems. Tilapia are mouth brooder, which means eggs hatch in the mouth of the female protects the hatched young from predators by putting them in her mouth. Food/Feed Strategy: In captivity and sometimes in the wild tilapia have been known for eating other fishes waste and their own waste. Just like the carp tilapias are herbivores which mean they feed on vegetation and other self sustain bacteria

Tilapia

Compressiform

Sarangiform

Sub terminal mouth position


Fish Species Identification

Title: Fresh water

Species #: 19

Common Name: Northern Studfish Scientific Name: Fundulus catenatus Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Cyprinodontiformes

Family: Fundulidae

Genus: Fundulus

Species: catenatus Geography/ Habitat: A lively inhabitant of clear streams and backwaters, the northern studfish often prefers shallow waters where food may be abundant. Life Strategy: Reproduction probably occurs over gravel for an extended period but generally peaks from May through June. They spawn on clean gravel substrate rather than on plants. It has been reported that they may occasionally use the nests of longear or other sunfish species as spawning sites. No parental care is give to the eggs or young. Food/Feed Strategy: Northern Studfish eat Aquatic insect Larva and other fresh water invertebrates.

Northern Studfish/ Fundulus catenatus

Sagittiform

Subcarangiform

Subterminal


Fish Species Identification Title: fresh water

Species #: 20

Common Name: Rock bass Scientific Name: Ambloplites rupestris Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family:Centrarchidae

Genus: Ambloplites

Species: rupestris Geography/ Habitat:The current habitat for a rock bass is similar to that of a large mouth bass. The rock bass has similarities to that of the largemouth bass. Native to the northeastern U.S. and southeastern Canada, rock bass have been successfully introduced into southern states via the Mississippi Valley and north to southern Manitoba Life Strategy: Rock bass prefer areas with submerged structures and rocks, or gravel bars with light vegetation. The fish are found near breakwaters and gravelly shorelines in groups near other sunfish. Food/Feed Strategy: Rock bass heavily feed in the evening and morning. Crayfish, insects, smaller fish and other smaller organisms constitute the fish’s diet.

Rock Bass/ Ambloplites rupestris

Compressiform

Crangiform

Supraterminal


Fish Species Identification Title: Freshwater

Species #: 21

Common Name: Gizzard Shad Scientific Name: Dorosoma cepedianum Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Clupeiformes

Family: Clupeidae

Genus: Dorosoma

Species: cepedianum Geography/ Habitat: Gizzard shad mainly occur in the deep open water of medium to large rivers, reservoirs, lakes, and backwaters; adults are also found in brackish or saline water of estuaries or bays, as they prefer calmer open waters. Life Strategy: Gizzard shad occur in schools and are first able to spawn when two to three years old or 7 to 13 inches long. They breed near the surface in freshwater from March through August, when water temperatures range from 50째 to 70째F. The adhesive eggs sink to the bottom, varying in number from about 3,000 to more than 380,000. Gizzard shad prefer warm waters and cannot tolerate extreme cold conditions, which may cause a fishkill of significant numbers. They roam open waters in search of plankton, which occurs at various levels according to the season and conditions. Food/Feed Strategy: Gizzard shad eat zooplankton and filter feed on smaller plankton. Gizzards prefer to search for food in warmer waters then usual so they can find the zooplankton easier.

-Gizzard shad/ Dorosoma cepedianum - Compressiform - Carangiform

-Terminal

Fish Species Identification Title: Fresh Water

Species #: 22


Common Name: Lake Chubsucker Scientific Name: Erimyzon sucetta Class: Actinopetrgii

Order: Cypriiniformes

Family: Catostomidae

Genus: Erimzyon

Species: sucetta Geography/ Habitat: The Lake Chub sucker is primarily a species of the southeastern United States, but is has two main centres of distribution; the lower coastal plain, and the southern Great Lakes basin. In Canada, it is know only from the drainages of the Niagara River, and lakes Erie, St.Clair and Huron in southwestern Ontario. Life Strategy: Lake Chubsuckers prefer clear, still waters with abundan aquatic plants such as marshes, stagnant nays, floodplain lakes and drainage ditches. Their preferred substrates include gravel, sand and silt mixed with organic debris. Spawning season likely occurs between April and early June in Ontario. Adults move into marshes where females will lay up to 20,000 eggs on submerged vegetation. Food/Feed Strategy: Lake Chubsuckers have a diverse diet, feeding on plankton, mollusks and aquatic insects, filamentous algae and other plant matter.

Lake Chubsucker/ Erimyzon sucetta

Compressiform

Subcarangiform

Subterminal

Fish Species Identification


Title: Fresh Water

Species #:23

Common Name: Mud darter Scientific Name: Etheostoma asprigene Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Percidae

Genus: Etheostoma

Species: asprigene Geography/ Habitat: The mud darter inhabits a variety of habitats including bayous of moderate size, overflow pools, creeks, slow flowing streams, and especially quiet, muddy sloughs and the mouths of streams and rivers tributary to large rivers. The mud darter is most abundant clear lowland waters with sluggish to moderate current over substrates ranging from sand and detritus to mixtures of sand, gravel, and silt. Life Strategy: Spawning occurs from mid-May through June. The fish swim upstream and after spawning lay eggs away from predators and other threats. Mud darters are fish that stay at the bottom of muddy surfaces thus named the mud darter. It is very well known for its speedy getaway from predators. Food/Feed Strategy: Mud darters are mainly bottom feeders and filter feeders. They feed on small diatoms and other plankton.

-Mud darter/ Etheostoma asprigene

• • •

Compressiform Carangiform Subterminal mouth position

Fish Species Identification Title: Freshwater

Species #: 24


Common Name: Flier Scientific Name: Centrachus macropterus Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Centrachidae

Genus: Centrarchus

Species: macropterus Geography/ Habitat: Fliers inhabit swamps, oxbow lakes, overflow pools, and slow moving creaks, usually below the Fall line. They occur only sporadically in Alabama and are rarely abundant, and observation that could be influenced by the fact that their preferred habitat is difficult to sample effectively. Fliers frequently seek cover in aquatic vegetation, around submerged tree roots. Life Strategy: Spawn season begins in March, when water temperatures are fairly high. Males construct disc shaped nests by fanning their tails and removing silt and debris from nest sites. Females will lay 20,000 to 35,000 eggs during spawning season. Males guard the nest until the young hatch. Juvenile fliers have large dark spot encircled in orange on the soft rays of the dorsal fin. The spot vanishes with age. Their lifespan is up to five years. Food/Feed Strategy: Insects, snails, worms, leeches, small fish, and phytoplankton from the mainstay of the flier’s diet. Their natural enemies include predators such as larger fish, turtles, snakes, and wading birds. Sexual maturity is reached at one year.

Flier/ Centrarchus macropterus

Depresiform

Crangiform

Supterminal

Fish Species Identification


Title: Fresh water

Species #: 25

Common Name: Common Shiner Scientific Name: Notropis cornutus Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Cypriniformes

Family: Cyprinidae

Genus: Luxilus

Species: cornutus Geography/ Habitat:The Common Shiner can be found in rivers and streams, usually in the faster pools. It can also be found in ponds and lakes. Life Strategy:Common shiners spawn in spring, usually over the nest of a creek chub, river chub, or fallfish, although some males will make their own small nests. Gravel in riffles is also possible. Once the eggs are ready the male guards the nesting site. Predators of the Common Shiner include fish (such as the smallmouth bass and also birds. Food/Feed Strategy:The Common Shiner eats "terrestrial and aquatic insects, vegetation, and other fishes

-Common Shiner/ Notropis cornutus

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Fusiform Subcarangiform Supraterminal mouth Position

Fish Species Identification

Title: Fresh Water

Species #: 26


Common Name: Brown Trout Scientific Name: Salmo trutta Linnaeus Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Salmoniformes

Family: Salmonidae

Genus: Salmo

Species: Linnaeus Geography/ Habitat: The brown trout is normally considered to be native to Europe and Asia but the natural distribution of the migratory forms may be, in fact, circumpolar. There are also landlocked populations far from the oceans, for example in Greece and Estonia. The fish is not considered to be endangered although, in some cases, individual stocks are under various degrees of stress mainly through habitat degradation, overharvest and artificial propagation leading to introgression. Increased frequency of excessively warm water temperatures in high summer, attributed to global warming, cause a reduction in dissolved oxygen levels Life Strategy: Spawning takes place from October to February for the brown trout. They return to the streams where they hatched to spawn. Food/Feed Strategy: Brown trout are carnivorous, bottom feeders and prefer to eat at dusk or night. The young feed on aquatic insects. Food is carried to them by the river or stream current. From a small area, possibly only three yards long and one yard wide, they are able to obtain all the food they require. As they grow in size their diet changes. Adult brown trout are voracious and eat food items such as worms, crustaceans, crayfish, mollusks, and salamanders. Some of the larger fish feed on the younger, smaller brown trout, frogs, birds, and mice, if available.

-Brown trout/ Salmo trutta Linnaeus

• • •

Compressiform Carangiform Supraterminal mouth position

Fish Species Identification

Title: Freshwater Common Name: Small mouth Buffalo

Species #:27


Scientific Name: Ictiobus bubalus Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Cypriniformes

Family: Catostomidae

Genus: Ictiobus

Species: bubalus Geography/ Habitat:The smallmouth buffalo is common in clear waters with modest current. They

tend to remain in slightly shallower waters and most often over sand or silt bottoms. Life Strategy:Smallmouth buffalo inhabit larger pools of higher order rivers with low velocity current

and lower elevation impoundments, and it prefers clean to moderately turbid, deep, warm waters. The bulk of the spawning takes place during normal spring floods of rivers of the Mississippi drainage, and spawning begins when water temperature reaches 60o F. Food/Feed Strategy:Smallmouth buffalo fish are not cannibalistic. The smallmouth buffalo feed

extensively from the bottom, and they ingest innumerable aquatic animals found on the bottom and in the soft bottom soil or ooze. They consume quantities of aquatic vegetation besides collecting from it much animal life, and eat terrestrial as well as aquatic grains and seeds, the young and adults often entering shallow waters to obtain food and abundance.

o o o o

Smallmouth Buffalo/ Ictiobus bubalus Compressiform Carangiform Subterminal

Fish Species Identification

Title: Fresh water Common Name: Freshwater Drum

Species #: 28


Scientific Name: Aplodinotus grunniens Rafinesque Class: Actinopterygii Family: Sciaenidae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Aplodinotus

Species: Aplodinotus Geography/ Habitat: Freshwater drums are distributed across southern Canada, the central United States from the Mississippi basin eastward to the Appalachian Mountains, and southward to Guatemala. This species is known from numerous main-river collections in the Mobile basin, primarily below the Fall Line, and from the Tennessee River drainage. Records of this species are strangely absent from coastal drainages east of the Mobile basin. Fresh water drum Are found in deep cold water of a lake, stream or river. Life Strategy; Spawning occurs from May through mid-summer. Males produce a low-frequency drumming sound during spawning, perhaps to attract females and organize the reproduction activities. Females release large quantities of floating eggs during spawning. Food/Feed Strategy: The freshwater drum is a bottom feeder, consuming aquatic insects, amphipods, fish, crayfish, and mollusks and sometimes eats minnows, crayfish, worms, and smaller fish.

• • • •

Fresh Water Drum/ Aplodinotus Compressiform Carangiform Subterminal

Fish Species Identification

Title: Fresh Water Common Name: Goldeye Scientific Name: Hiodon alosoides

Species #: 29


Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Hiodontiformes

Family: Hiodontidae

Genus: Hiodontiformes

Species: Hiodontiformes Geography/ Habitat: They are especially abundant in Lake of the Woods and Red Lakes. They favor the more quiet areas of turbid (cloudy) rivers and their connected lakes and marshy backwaters or the shallow, muddy areas of larger lakes. Life Strategy: Male and female goldeye usually spawn for the first time at 3 years old. Their spawning season may be as early as late April in southern Minnesota. Spawning usually begins when the water temperature reaches 10째 C (50째 F). In larger rivers, the spawning areas are located in shallow, turbid (cloudy) pools and backwaters. Food/Feed Strategy: The goldeye is an opportunistic carnivore (it eats whatever animals it can). Its most frequent menu items are aquatic insect larvae and fish of every species that live in the same habitat and are small enough to be swallowed.

-Goldeye/ Hiodon alosoides Compressiform - Subcrangiform - Supraterminal mouth position

Fish Species Identification

Title: Fresh water Common Name: Northern Hog Sucker Scientific Name: Hypentelium nigricans

Species #: 30


Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Cypriniformes

Family: Catostomidae

Genus:Hypentelium

Species: Hypentelium Geography/ Habitat: Northern hog suckers are found in relatively clear streams with clean substrates free of silt. They prefer the fast flowing riffles during most of the year but are found in pools during the colder months. Life Strategy: Like most suckers, they often migrate long distances' to spawn in smaller streams in spring. Northern hog suckers are native throughout Ohio and are a common species. Hog suckers spawn in April or early May. A female and often several males stir up the bottom sediments to form a slight depression where the eggs are deposited. Spawning can last for an extended period with the female laying eggs at irregular intervals.

Food/Feed Strategy: Although they eat the eggs of many species of fish, hog suckers seem especially fond of Creek Chub eggs and those from the Sunfish family.

-Northern hog sucker/ Hypentelium nigricans - Compressiform - Subcarangiform - Subterminal

Fish Species Identification Title: freshwater Common Name: Silver Chub Scientific Name: Macrhybopsis storeriana

Species #: 31


Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Cypriniformes

Family: Cyprinidae

Genus: Macrhybopsis

Species: Macrhybopsis Geography/ Habitat: The silver chub appears to prefer sluggish waters of main river channels and large tributary streams, often with increased turbidities. Life Strategy: Spawning occurs from April through June, most likely in open water. Three years is the maximum life span. Food/Feed Strategy:

Eats various insects, crustaceans, and molluscs; feeds mostly at or near bottom (Becker 1983). Adults eat mayfly nymphs, molluscs, DAPHNIA, gammarids, and small fish. Young of year eat copepods, tendipedid larvae and pupae, and DAPHINIA.

Compression

: Carangiform

Supraterminal

Fish Species Identification Title: Fresh Water

Species #: 32

Common Name: Shadow Bass Scientific Name: Ambloplites ariommus Viosca Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Centrachidae

Genus: Ambloplites

Species: Ambloplites


Geography/ Habitat: The preferred habit of this species includes weedbeds, undercut banks, and brush piles of medium to large slow moving streams and rivers. Both members of the genus appear to be intolerant of increased siltation and degraded water quality. Life Strategy: Spawning occurs in late March and early April. The male shadow bass swim were there is more shade to breed and for the female to lay her eggs. Food/Feed Strategy: Food items include aquatic insects, crayfishes and an occasional small fish.

Shadow Bass/ Ambloplites ariommus Viosca

Compressiform

Carangiform

Supraterminal

Fish Species Identification Title: Fresh water

Species #: 33

Common Name: Bigeye Chub Scientific Name: Notropis amblops Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Cypriniformes

Family: Cyprinidae

Genus: Hybopsis


Species: Hybopsis Geography/ Habitat: Bigeye chubs were once common throughout Ohio but today are almost entirely absent from the Northwest part of the state and have disappeared from many other river systems as well. Life Strategy: They require small to medium sized streams and rivers with clear waters and an abundance of silt free sandy bottomed pools. Since this species is highly intolerant of turbid (murky) waters and silt they are an indicator of good water quality. Food/Feed Strategy: The Bigeye chub eats and filter feeds off of photo plankton and other bacteria.

-Bigeye Chub/ Notropis amblops - Compressiform - Subcarangiform - Supraterminal

Fish Species Identification Title: Fresh water

Species #: 34

Common Name: Rock shiner Scientific Name: Notropis suttkusi Humphries Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Cypriniformes

Family: Cyprinidae

Genus: Notropis

Species: Humphries


Geography/ Habitat: The Rock shiner lives in: Perennial creeks and small to medium rivers, canals, lakes, ponds, and habitats with high turbidity and few competing species; silty, sandy, and rocky pools and runs, sometimes riffles. Life Strategy: Rock Shiners are non migrant animals which means they do not swim upstream to lay or spawn. They spawn in late spring like most fish but are predators to some like catfish, bass striped bass and some turtles. Food/Feed Strategy: Rock shiners eat and feed on bottom bacteria and other small particles. they like to stay in groups of 5 or more when feeding and swimming from place to place.

- Rock Shiner / Notropis suttkusi Humphries -Compressiform -Carangiform -Supraterminal mouth position

Fish Species Identification

Title: Fresh water

Species #: 35

Common Name: Yellow Bullhead Scientific Name: Ameiurus natalis Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Siluriformes

Family: Ictaluridae

Genus: Ameiurus

Species: Ameiurus


Geography/ Habitat: The habitat is variable and includes vegetated areas of clear, shallow lakes, reservoirs, ponds, and slow-flowing streams. They are more tolerant of polluted environments than most other members of the catfish family. Life Strategy: Spawning occurs in May and June as a rule, with eggs deposited in a nest usually adjacent to a submerged object. One or both parents take part in building the nest, and take turns caring for the eggs, which may number 2,000 to 4,000 and hatch in five to 10 days. The male guards the eggs and fry. Food/Feed Strategy: Though scavengers, yellow bullheads prefer to feed on minnows, snails, shrimp and crayfish. They also will feed on insect larvae, vegetation and decaying organic matter.

-Yellow bullhead/ Ameiurus natalis - Subcrangiform - Sagiitiform - terminal mouth position

Fish Species Identification Title: Freshwater

Species #: 36

Common Name: Brown bullhead Scientific Name: Ameiurus nebulosus Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Siluriformes

Family: Ictaluridae

Genus: Ameiurus

Species: Ameiurus


Geography/ Habitat: The brown bullhead is a warm-water species found usually near or on the bottom in shallow, warm water situations, in ponds, small lakes, shallow bays of larger lakes, and larger slowmoving streams with abundant aquatic vegetation, and sand to mud bottoms. Life Strategy: The brown bullhead spawns in the late spring and summer, probably May and June in Canada. One or both sexes clear a shallow nest in a bottom of mud or sand or among the roots of aquatic vegetation, usually near the protection of a stump, rock or tree. They will also nest under boards, in hollow stumps, and even inside automobile tires nailed on docks. Food/Feed Strategy: Brown bullheads are opportunistic bottom feeders, consuming a variety of plant, animal,and detritus foods. They feed primarily at night and locate food by brushing theirbarbells, which are equipped with taste buds, along the bottom.

-Brown Bullhead/ Ameiurus nebulosus - Subcarangiform - Sagiitiform - Terminal Mouh Position

Fish Species Identification

Title: Fresh water

Species #: 37

Common Name: River carpsucker Scientific Name: Carpiodes carpio Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Cypriniformes

Family: Catostomidae

Genus: Carpiodes


Species: Carpiodes Geography/ Habitat: River carpsuckers are found in large rivers and backwaters or over flow pools of those large rivers. In Ohio they are found in the Ohio River and its larger tributaries. River carpsuckers tend to stay in deeper water than highfin carpsuckers and do not go in smaller streams like the quillback carpsucker. Life Strategy: River carpsuckers spawn between early April and late May. The eggs are randomly deposited over a sand or gravel bottom. No parental care is given. Food/Feed Strategy: The River carpsuckers are known to eat ground bacteria on rock sediments and other items.

River Carpsucker / Carpiodes carpio Compressiform Subcarangiform Subterminal mouth Position \

Fish Species Identification

Title: Fresh water

Species #: 38

Common Name: American Eel Scientific Name: Anguilla rostrata Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Anguilliformes

Family: Anguillidae

Genus: Anguilla


Species: Anguilla Geography/ Habitat: belongs to the freshwater eel family, Anguillidae. Related species occur throughout the world, but the American eel is the only North American Anguilla eel. Eels are snake-shaped and covered with a mucous layer that renders them slimy to the touch despite the resence of minute scales. Life Strategy: The American Eel spawns in oceanic waters but uses freshwater, brackish and Estuarine systems for most of its developmental life. Sexually mature adults, called silver eels, Migrate from freshwater to the sea in fall. Their destination for spawning is the Sargasso Sea, an Expansive portion of the central North Atlantic Ocean, east of the Bahamas and south of Bermuda. Adults are thought to die after spawning. The largest females produce nearly 20million eggs Food/Feed Strategy: American eels are opportunistic carnivores, feeding on a vast array of animal life depending on the size of the eel and the availability of prey within a given habitat. Larger eels feed primarily on small fishes and benthic invertebrates, including crustaceans, aquatic insects, worms andmollusks.

-American Eel/ Anguilla rostrata - Anguilliform - Anguilliform - Terminal

Fish Species Identification

Title: Fresh Water

Species #: 39

Common Name: Stippled darter Scientific Name: Etheostoma punctulatum Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Percidae

Genus: Etheostoma


Species: Etheostoma Geography/ Habitat: The Stippled Darter lives in brooks near sources of springs. It prefers small, clear pools or recesses beneath cut-banks where it conceals itself near large stones, in hanging roots, or fallen leaves Life Strategy: The stippled Shiners occupy shallow overflow and seepage pools, maintained by ground water, alongside channels of larger streams. This fish probably spawns in April in Kansas. Its reproductive habits and food source are unknown. Food/Feed Strategy: Stippled Darters eat surface bacteria along with many other insects including walker spiders.

-Stippled Darter/ Etheostoma punctulatum - Compressiform - Subcarangiform - Supraterminal mouth position Fish Species Identification Title: freshwater

Species #: 40

Common Name: Orangespotted Sunfish Scientific Name:

Lepomis humilis

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Centrarchidae

Genus: Lepomis


Species: Lepomis Geography/ Habitat: Sloughs, lakes, ponds, rivers, and creeks; in quiet pools in streams; often in turbid water; usually near brush. Eggs laid on gravel in nest (often in colonies) made by male on bottom in shallow water.

Life Strategy: Spawns May to August in north, April to September in south. Eggs hatch in 5 days at 18-21 C. Male guards eggs. Sexually mature usually at age II. Often nests in colonies. Food/Feed Strategy: Eats mainly insect larvae and small crustaceans.

Lepomis humilis

Compressiform

Carangiform

Supraterminal

Fish Species Identification

Title: Fresh Water

Species #: 41

Common Name: Western Sand Diver Scientific Name: Ammocrypta clarum Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Percidae

Genus: Ammocrypta


Species: clarum Geography/ Habitat: The western sand darter is associated with clear to moderately turbid water, slight to moderate current, and substrates of course and fine gravel. Western Sand darters prefer large streams or rivers with light to moderate current with a sandy bottom. Life Strategy: Western sand darters are very skittish fish because they are prey to most. They spawn in early spring in a sand burrow were spawning with the male and female can take place and so the female can lay 1000 eggs

Food/Feed Strategy: Western sand darters eat or scavenge on whatever’ s on the sandy bottom or slope. They mostly filter feed allowing them to eat phytoplankton on the surface and on the bottoms.

-Western Sand darter/ Ammocrypta clarum -Compressiform -Subcarangiform -Suprateminal

Fish Species Identification

Title: Freshwater

Species #: 42

Common Name: Spotfin Shiner Scientific Name: Cyprinella spiloptera Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Cypriniformes


Family: Cyprinidae

Genus: Cyprinella

Species: Cyprinella Geography/ HabitatModerate to large streams and rivers of low to high turbidity, with bottom of sand, gravel, mud or rubble (Lee et al. 1980). Sometimes also in lakes and sloughs (Becker 1983). Most frequently in large creeks and small rivers with clear permanent flow; not typically in larger turbid rivers or intermittent creeks; usually in or near riffles or raceways over gravel in moderate to fast current. They Spawn in rock crevices, on logs having loose bark or crevices, or on underside of submerged logs or roots. Life Strategy: The Spotfin Shiner Spawns in late spring and summer. Eggs hatch in about 5 days. Both sexes sexually mature at age 1 but may not spawn until age 2 (Becker 1983). Most live only 2+ years; some reach 5 years. Produces sounds that may function in spawning activity and/or species recognition. Food/Feed Strategy: Eats mainly insects, both aquatic and terrestrial plants material and fishes also recorded in diet.

-Spotfin shiner/ Cyprinella spiloptera - Compressiform - Subcarangiform -- Supraterminal

Fish Species Identification Title: Freshwater

Species #: 43

Common Name: Quillback Scientific Name: Carpiodes cyprinus Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Cypriniformes

Family: Catostomidae

Genus: Carpiodes


Species: Carpiodes Geography/ Habitat: The Quillback lives in Pools, backwaters, and main channels, clear to turbid waters of creeks, rivers, and lakes. Spawns over sand and mud bottoms in quiet waters of streams or overflow areas in bends of rivers or bays of lakes Life Strategy: The Quillback Spawns in spring and summer. In Manitoba, probably an annual spawner; spawned from mid-April to mid-June at water temperatures of 7-18 C; ova hatched after 13-17 days Food/Feed Strategy: Quillback eat debris in bottom ooze, plant materials, and insect larvae.

-Quillback / Carpiodes cyprinus - Globiform - Subcarangiform - Subterminal mouth position

Fish Species Identification Title: Fresh Water

Species #: 44

Common Name: Blue Sucker Scientific Name: Cycleptus elongatus Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Cypirinifromes

Family: Catostomidae

Genus:Cycleptus

Species: Cycleptus


Geography/ Habitat: The blue sucker fish lives in the Largest Rivers and lower parts of major tributaries. Usually in channels and flowing pools with moderate current. Adults probably winter in deep pools. Young fish stay shallower and less swift water than adults. Life Strategy: The Blue Sucker migrates upstream into riffle areas for spawning. Individuals may move more than 100 miles between spawning and nonspawning Food/Feed Strategy: The Blue Sucker is a bottom feeder and eats insects, crustaceans, and plant material, including algae also clams. Diet of adults and young often include larvae and pupae of midges and caddisflies and plant material.

-Blue Sucker/ Cycleptus elongatus -Fusiform -Thunniform -Subtermial

Fish Species Identification

Title: Freshwater

Species #: 45

Common Name: Threadfin shad Scientific Name: Dorosoma petenense Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Clupeiformes


Family: Clupeidae

Genus: Dorosoma

Species: Dorosoma Geography/ Habitat: The Threadfin shad lives in Lakes, oxbows, quiet pools of medium to large rivers; over soft and sand bottoms. Usually they live over deep water during daylight, in shallower areas at night. They are subject to die-offs in cold water. Occasionally enters brackish water. They spawn in quiet water near protruding or submerged objects, in open water or along shore. Life Strategy: The Threadfin Shad Spawns spring to fall, peaking at different times in different regions. Eggs hatch in 3-6 days. Sexually mature usually in about a year, though individuals hatched in spring may spawn later that fall in some areas. Rarely lives longer than 2-3 years. Food/Feed Strategy: The Threadfin Shad Eats Planktivorous; particulate feeder on larger plankton, strains smaller zoo- and phytoplankton and detritus from water. Some bottom feeding occurs, and may prey on fish larvae.

-Threadfin shad/ Dorosoma petenense - Compressiform - Carangiform - Supraterminal mouth position

Fish Species Identification Title: Freshwater

Species #: 46

Common Name: Lowland Topminnow Scientific Name: Fundulus dispar blairae Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Cyprinodontiformes

Family: Fundulidae

Genus: Fundulus

Species: Fundulus


Geography/ Habitat: The Lowland Topminnow lives In and near shoreline vegetation of clear lakes and ponds, backwaters, overflow pools of large rivers, quiet backwaters with little or no current and shallow depths in smaller streams

Life Strategy: The lowland Minnow is prey to most fish but still manages to thrive in population. The Lowland Minnow migrates to warm waters of about 60 degrees to spawn and stay in groups of about 30 to 50. Food/Feed Strategy: Lowland minnows eat on phytoplankton and other top water insects that they come in contact with.

-Lowland Minnow/ Fundulus dispar blairae -Sagittiform - Subcarangiform - Supraterminal

Fish Species Identification

Title: Freshwater

Species #: 47

Common Name: Warmouth Scientific Name: Lepomis gulosus Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Centrarchidae

Genus: Lepomis

Species: Lepomis


Geography/ Habitat: The Warmouth lives in Ponds, lakes, swamps, and streams of low gradient with mud or debris over bottom; a pool species in streams where it often is near beds of vegetation or other cover; weedy turbid areas of rivers and backwaters. Tolerant of low oxygen levels of polluted waters. They are common in lowlands, uncommon in uplands.

Life Strategy: Eggs are laid in a bowl-like nest made by male often in sand or rubble bottom with thin covering of silt or detritus near a rock, stump, clump of vegetation, or similar object, at depths of 15 cm to 1.5 m. Nests usually are separated from one another. Food/Feed Strategy: The warmouth eats small crustaceans, aquatic insect larvae, and (large individuals) crayfish and fishes. It is also a carnivore.

-Warmouth/ Lepomis gulosus - Compressiform - Carangiform - Terminal

Fish Species Identification

Title: Freshwater

Species #: 48

Common Name: Bigeye Shiner Scientific Name: Notropis boops Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Cypriniformes

Family: Cyprinidae

Genus: Notropis

Species: boops


Geography/ Habitat: Flowing pools of moderately clear creeks and small to medium rivers with large permanent pools over bottom of clear sand gravel. They often live at stream margin in beds of emergent vegetation. Life Strategy: Presumably spawns in late spring and summer. Sexually mature in 1 year. Food/Feed Strategy: Eats small insects captured in mid-water, at surface, or by jumping out of water.

-Bigeye shiner/ Notropis boops - Compressifrom - Subcarangiform - Supraterminal

Fish Species Identification

Title: Freshwater

Species #: 49

Common Name: Northern Pike Scientific Name: Esox lucius Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Esociformes

Family: Esocidae

Genus: Esox


Species: Esox Geography/ Habitat: Northern Pike live Usually in clear small lakes, shallow vegetated areas of larger lakes, marshes, creeks, and small to large rivers. Moves to deeper cooler water in summer. Generally does not do well with low or widely fluctuating water levels. Spawns in shallow flooded marshes associated with lakes or with inlet streams to those lakes Life Strategy: The Northern Pike Spawns in spring as soon as ice begins to break up. Produces a single clutch per year. Eggs hatch in 12-14 days at typically prevailing temperatures. Males sexually mature at 1-2 years in south, at age 5 in north; females mature at 2-3 years in south, at age 6 in north. Food/Feed Strategy: The Northern Pikes Young initially eat large zooplankton and immature aquatic insects. After 7-10 days fishes begin to enter diet and eventually dominate. Adults feed opportunistically on vertebrates small enough to be engulfed. (Scott and Crossman 1973). Sight feeder.

-Northern Pike/ Esox lucius - Sagittiform - Carangiform - Terminal

Fish Species Identification Title: Freshwater

Species #: 50

Common Name: Pirate Perch Scientific Name: Aphredoderus sayanus Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Percopsiformes

Family: Aphredoderidae

Genus: Aphredoderus

Species: Aphredoderus


Geography/ Habitat: Pirate Perch live in Lakes, ponds, marshes, quiet pools, and backwaters of low gradient streams (creeks to large rivers) with abundant aquatic plants, organic debris, and other cover. In both clear and turbid water, often over soft bottom Life Strategy: The Pirate Perch Spawns in spring in Wisconsin and Illinois. Eggs hatch in 5-6 days. Food/Feed Strategy: The Pirate Perch Eats mainly various invertebrates, especially insects. It Is prey to most fish in the ecosystem.

-Pirate Perch/ Aphredoderus sayanus - Compressiform - Subcarangiform -Supraterminal mouth Position

Saltwater


Fish Species Identification

Title: Saltwater

Species #: 51

Common Name: Clownfish Scientific Name: Amphiprion percula Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Pomacentridae

Genus: Amphiprion

Species: Amphiprion percula


Geography/ Habitat: They are found in the warmer waters of the Pacific Ocean and Indian Ocean. They are also found in northwest Australia, southeast Asia, Japan and the Indo-Malaysian region. Clownfish have a symbiotic relationship with sea anemone Life Strategy: Clownfish can grow to be from 2 to 5 inches long. The males tend to be significantly smaller than the females. However, there are various types of clownfish that range in colors from blue to yellow. Food/Feed Strategy: Clownfish have a mucus covering that protects them from the sting of the sea anemone's tentacles. This mucus prevents them from being harmed, and allows clownfish to live in sea anemone. The diet of the clownfish consists of copepods, algae, isopods and zooplankton.

-Clown fish/ Amphiprion percula - Compressifrom - Crangifrom - Supraterminal

Fish Species Identification Title: Saltwater

Species #: 52

Common Name: King Mackerel Scientific Name: Scomberomorus cavalla Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Scombridae

Genus: Scomberomorus

Species: S. cavalla


Geography/ Habitat: King mackerel commonly occur in depths of 40 to 150 feet (12–45 m), where the principal fisheries occur. Larger kings (heavier than 20 lb or 9 kg) often occur inshore, in the mouths of inlets and harbors, and occasionally even at the 600 foot (180 m) dept. Life Strategy: Eggs and sperm are shed into the sea and their union is by chance. Depending on size, a female may shed from 50,000 to several million eggs over the spawning season. Fertilized eggs hatch in about 24 hours. The newly hatched larva is about 0.1 inches (2.5 mm) long with a large yolk sack. Little is known about king mackerel in their first year of life. Food/Feed Strategy: King mackerel are voracious, opportunistic carnivores. Their prey depends on their size. Depending on area and season.

-King Mackerel/ Scomberomorus cavalla - Sagittiform - Subcrangiform - terminal

Fish Species Identification Title: Saltwater

Species #: 53

Common Name: Yellow Fin Tuna Scientific Name: Thunnus albacores Class: Actionpterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Scombridae

Genus: Thunnus

Species: Thunnus


Geography/ Habitat: Yellowfin tuna are epipelagic fish that inhabit the mixed surface later of the ocean about the thermo cline. Sonic tracking has found that although yellowfin tuna, unlike the related bigeye tuna most range in the top 100 meters or the water column and penetrate the thermo cline relatively infrequently, they are capable of diving to considerable depths. An individual tagged in the Indian Ocean with an archival tag spent 85% of its time in depths shallower than 75 meters but it was recored as having made three dives to 578 m, 982 m and 1,160 meters

Life Strategy: Deeper diving and cruising seems to happen more often in the daytime, changing to shallower are swimming at night probably in response to vertical movement of prey items in the deep scattering layer. They are normally a schooling fish and stay in their immediate .

Food/Feed Strategy: Yellowfin tuna prey includes other fish, pelagic crustaceans, and squid. Like all tunas their body shape is evolved for speed, enabling them to pursue and capture fast moving baitfish such as flying fish.

-Yellowfin Tuna/ Thunnus albabcares -Fusiform -Carangiform -terminal

Fish Species Identification Title: Saltwater

Species #: 55

Common Name: Tarpon Scientific Name: Megalops Atlanticus Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Elopiform

Family: Megalopidae

Genus: Megalops


Species:Megalops Atlanticus Geography/ Habitat: Tarpon are found in the western Atlantic, the Gulf of Mexico, the Carribean, the west coast of Central America and the coast of Norwest Africa. They prefer water temperatures in the 74-88F range. Tarpon can be found throughout the coastal areas of Florida. They can be found in large inlets from January to June and alond coastal beaches and inlets during late summer. Life Strategy: Adult female tarpon produce over 12 million eggs at a time, spawning occurs annually. Tarpon are prey for zooplankton during the egg and larval stages and for birds as juveniles in nursery areas. Humans and sharks are the primary predators of adult tarpon; however, they are also consumed by porpoises and alligators. Food/Feed Strategy: The tarpon employs different feeding techniques depending on its stage of growth and development. The larvae absorb nutrients directly from seawater. Older larvae and baby tarpon consume zooplankton, insects, and small fish. As tarpon mature, they prey on fish, particularly mid-water prey such as mulleys , pinfish, marine cat fishes, sardines as well as larger invertebrates including shrimp and crabs. Tarpon feed during both day and night. Because of their small teeth, they generally swallow their prey whole.

-

Megalops Atlanticus

-

Compressiform

-

Carangiform

-

Supraterminal

Fish Species Identification Title: Saltwater

Species #: 56

Common Name: Whale Shark Scientific Name: Rhinocodon typus Class: Elasmobranchii

Order: Orectolobiformes

Family: Rhinocodontidae

Genus: Rhinocodon


Species: Rhinocodon Typus Geography/ Habitat: The whale shark has a very widespread distribution, occurring in all tropical and warm temperate seas, except in the Mediterranean. During the day they spend most of their time feeding near the surface, preferring seas surface temperatures around 70F-86F, they often go deep at night when traveling, reaching depths of more than 2000 feet. Life Strategy: The whale shark was long thought to lay eggs. Recently, however it was discovered that pregnant females carry their pups, numbering in the hundreds, giving birth to live young, Newborns are almost two feet long. It has been calculated that whale sharks reach sexual maturity at 30 years old and may live to 100-150 years but no one yet know for sure, yet. Food/Feed Strategy: The whale shark is a filter feeder sieving enormous amounts of plankton through its gills as it swims. After closing its mouth, the shark uses gills rankers, thousands of bristly structures that clean the captured prey from its gills. Anything that doesn’t pass through the gills is eaten. Prey includes plankton, krill, small fish and squid.

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Whale Shark/ Rhinocoden

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Fusiform

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Anguilliform

-Terminal

Fish Species Identification Title: Saltwater

Species #: 57

Common Name: Jack crevalle Scientific Name: Carnal hippos Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Carangidae

Genus: Carnal


Species: C. hippos Geography/ Habitat: The Jack Carvel is also known to enter brackish waters with some individuals known to penetrate far upstream, however like most euryhaline species they generally do not penetrate very far inland. The salinities the species has been reported from range from 0% to 49%, indicating the species can adapt to a wide range of waters Life Strategy: Jack crevalle is one of most abundant large carangids in the Atlantic Ocean, with at least two systematic studies placing it within the top five most abundant species of that region, namely lagoons in Nigeria and Chiapas, Mexico. Seasonal movements are known from both the American and African coastlines, with both juveniles and adults appearing to migrate. In North America, young individuals that are recruited to northern estuaries are known to move to warmer tropical waters at the onset of winter to escape possible hypothermia. Food/Feed Strategy: The crevalle jack is a powerful predatory fish which predominantly takes other small fishes as prey at all stages of its life, with various invertebrates generally being of secondary importance to its diet. Several studies conducted on the species diet over its range have found other aspects of its diet vary widely, including the specific types of prey the species takes and the change in diet with age.

-Jack crevalle/ Carnal hippos -Globiform -Ostraciform -Terminal

Fish Species Identification Title: Saltwater

Species #: 58

Common Name: Hardhead catfish Scientific Name: Ariopsis felis Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Siluriformes


Family: Ariidae

Genus: Ariopsis

Species: Ariopsis felis Geography/ Habitat: Hardhead catfish are found mostly in the near shore waters of the Western Atlantic Ocean, around the southeast coast of the United States, around the Florida Keys, and around the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Hardhead catfish are also found in brackish estuaries and river mouths where the bottom is sandy or muddy. It tends to move from shallower to deeper waters in the winter months Life Strategy: Hardhead catfish weigh on average one pound and measure ten to twelve inches long. As hardhead catfish grow longer, they increase in weight. The relationship between length and weight is not linear. The relationship between total length (L, in inches) and total weight (W, in pounds) for nearly all species of fish can be expressed by an equation of the form: Food/Feed Strategy: The Hardhead catfish is a scavenger which means that it eats any prey that it comes in contact with.

-Hard head catfish/ Ariopsis felis - Subcorangiform - Sagittiform - Subterminal Mouth position

Fish Species Identification Title: Saltwater

Species #: 59

Common Name: barracuda Scientific Name: Sphyraena Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes


Family: Sphyraenidae

Genus: Sphyraena

Species: Sphyraena Geography/ Habitat: The barracuda is known to be in very clear water to be able to see and scope out prey. Life Strategy: Barracudas are elongated fish, pike-like in appearance, with prominent sharp-edged fang-like teeth, much like piranhas, that are all of different sizes which are set in sockets of their large jaws. They have large pointed heads with an under bite in many species Food/Feed Strategy: Their food is composed of fish of all types. They are attracted to any shiny movements or high pinched sounds as in a Dyeing whale.

-Barracuda/Sphyraena - Sagittiform - Carangiform - Terminal mouth position

Fish Species Identification Title: Saltwater Common Name: Hammer head shark Scientific Name: Sphyrna lewini

Species #: 60


Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Carcharhiniformes

Family: Sphyrnidae

Genus: Sphyrna

Species: Sphyrna Geography/ Habitat: The hammerhead shark is found in the temperate and tropical waters within 40째N - 37째S latitude around the world. The smooth hammerhead shark is the only shark that swims the Canadian waters. They prefer inshore waters less than 20 meters. They are found in the western and eastern North Atlantic ocean and the Indian Ocean. The smooth hammerhead shark is found in the waters of western Atlantic that range from Nova Scotia to Florida. Life Strategy: The hammerhead sharks exhibit an internal mode of reproduction with females giving birth to live young. Like other sharks, fertilization is internal with the male transferring sperm to the female through one of two intermittent organs called claspers. The developing embryos are at first sustained by a yolk sac. When the supply of yolk is exhausted, the depleted yolk sac transforms into a structure analogous to a mammalian placenta Food/Feed Strategy: Hammerhead sharks are known to eat a large range of items, including fish, other sharks, squid, octopus, and crustaceans. Stingrays are a particular favorite. They are also known to eat their own young.

-Hammer head Shark/ Sphyrna lewini

- Fusiform - Thunniform - Subterminal mouth position

Fish Species Identification Title: Saltwater

Species #: 61

Common Name: Red snapper Scientific Name: Lautijanus campechanus Class: Actinoptergyii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Lutijanidae

Genus: Lutjanus


Species:campechanus Geography/ Habitat: Red snapper occur in the western Atlantic Ocean from Massachusetts to Bermuda, south to Brazil, including the Gulf of Mexico. They are uncommon north of the Carolinas. Adult red snapper live offshore on the continental shelf, over deep reefts, banks, and rock bottoms. Adults are found at depths from 66-620 ft. Older, larger fish tend to prefer the cooler, deeper spots. Young red snapper live in muddy and sandy bottoms. As juveniles mature they seek out cover in the form of ledges, rock outcroppings, and wrecks. During winter they move offshore to avoid the cooler, shallow inshore waters. Life Strategy: Spawning occurs from June through August in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico and from August to September off southwestern Florida. Individuals may spawn multiples times throughout the reproductive season. Red snapper spawn away from reefs at depths of 60-120ft over flat sand bottom areas. Food/Feed Strategy: Juveniles and adults are carnivores. Larvae feed on zooplankton, such as copepods and amphipods. Juveniles prey on shrimp, squid, and octopus. Adults feed on smaller fish, crustaceans , and mollusks that they find in flat bottom areas adjacent to the reefs or other structure they live in.

Red Snapper/Lutjanus camechanus Compressiform Carangiform Terminal

Fish Species Identification Title: Saltwater Species #: 62 Common Name: Parrotfish Scientific Name: Sparisoma vairide


Class: Actinoptergyii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Scaridae

Genus: Sparisoma

Species:viride Geography/ Habitat: Stoplight Parrotfish are found throughout the western Atlantic Ocean and Carribean Sea from Bermuda to Brazil. They inhabit warm tropical reefs do a depth of approximately 60 ft. They are normally sited during the day as they spend the night sleeping on the sandy bottom. Life Strategy: Parrotfish are very common throughout the reef systems of the Florida Keys and the Bahamas. They exhibit three unique adaptations that make them very interesting subjects for scientific exploration. Parrotfish have a set of pharyngeal teeth which are used to grind up corals. This adaptation helps them reduce interspecies competition for food resources within the reef community. A second adaptation helps them reduce inter species competition for food resources within the reef community. A second adaption that they exhibit is their hermaphrodite life style. This lets them change sex in response to fluctuations in population density. The third amazing characteristic of parrotfish is at night they surround themselves in a mucous cocoon to protect them when they sleep. Food/Feed Strategy: Parrotfish feed primarily on algae and corals. They use strong beak-like teeth to scrape algae off rocks and dead coral. also to bite off pieces of the hard living corals. The living coral phylops contain symbiotic algae known as zooxanthllae that provide the fish with nutrients.

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Stoplight Parrotfish

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Fusiform

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Carangiform

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Terminal

Fish Species Identification Title: Saltwater Common Name: Bluefish Scientific Name: Pomatomus saltatrix

Species #: 63


Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Pomatomidae

Genus: Pomatomus

Species: P. saltatrix Geography/ Habitat: Usually inshore spring and summer, moving offshore to join adults fall and winter; strong migration of northeast Atlantic stock to Florida east coast in winter. Life Strategy: Bluefish have been found off east central Florida, migrating north. As with most marine fish, their spawning habits are not well known. In the western side of the North Atlantic, there are at least two populations, separated by Cape Hatteras in North Carolina. The Gulf Stream can carry larvae spawned to the south of Cape Hatteras to the north, and eddies can spin off, carrying the larvae into populations found off the coast of the midAtlantic, and the New England states. The bluefish population is highly cyclical, with abundance varying widely over a span of ten years or more. Food/Feed Strategy: Blue fish are carnivores that eat menhaden and other sardine-like fish Clupeid, jacks Scombridae, weakfish Sciaenidae, grunts Haemulidae, striped anchovies Engraulidae, shrimp and squid.

-Bluefish / Pomatomus saltatrix - Fusiform - Carangiform - Terminal mouth position

Fish Species Identification Title: Saltwater Common Name: Lion Fish Scientific Name: Pterois volitans

Species #: 64


Class: Actionpterygii

Order: Scorpaeniformes

Family: Scorpaenidae

Genus: Pterois

Species: P. volitans Geography/ Habitat: Lionfish habitat consist of warm problematic waters. They are usually found in the IndoPacific region and different species around the world. The lionfish habitat consist of rocky regions under the water with a lot of plants and fish. Thus, they are often found near the coral reefs. They like to hide in holes, under the rocks and caverns. Let us see the lionfish habitat according to the species. Life Strategy: The lionfish is slow swimmer that can carry out quick movements. These movements are helpful in catching prey. The lionfish takes a fanned out pose, when it sees a predator approaching. So anything that dares to come close, they will inject the venom from their long spines. The lionfish had really long, separated fins that has a stripped pattern on a white background Food/Feed Strategy: The lionfish eats a farity of photoplankton and other smaller fish like coral fish and so on.

-Lionfish/ pterois volitans - compressiform -ostraciiform -Terminal

Fish Species Identification Title: Salt water Common Name: Puffer fish Scientific Name: Lagocephalus lagocephalu

Species #: 65


Class: Osteichthyes

Order: Tetraodontiformes

Family: Tetraodontidae

Genus: Not given

Species: Not given Geography/ Habitat: The Puffer Fish lives in tropical and sub-tropical marine regions, which includes coral reefs, in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic Oceans. Puffer fish generally occur in coastal areas, although some can even be found in the ocean or the deep sea. Many puffer fish can also be found in fresh as well as brackish waters Life Strategy: About 39 species of puffer fish that inhabit marine waters swim into fresh or brackish waters to breed or feed, while some species of puffer fish live entirely in fresh water, without ever entering the sea. When the puffer fish sets eyes on a predator it inflates its internal valves and puffs up thus known as the puffer fish. Food/Feed Strategy: Diet would seem to be dominated by crustaceans and squids.

-Puffer fish/ Lagocephalus lagocephalu - Compressiform - Subcarangiform - Spraterminal mouth position

Fish Species Identification Title: Saltwater

Species #: 66

Common Name: roosterfish Scientific Name: Nimatistus pectoralis Class: Actinoptergyii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Nematistidae

Genus: Nermatistus


Species: Nimatistua pectoralis Geography/ Habitat: Roosterfish inhabit sandy areas inshore and near shore areas. They also linger around near shore reefs. These fish patrol the shoreline seeking schools of bait fish. The roosterfish can be found from Southern California to Peru. Life Strategy: The Roosterfish gets its name from seven comb-like long dorsal fins spines that stand erect when the fish is threatened or excited. Little is known about the spawing habits of the Rooster fish. Food/Feed Strategy: The Roosterfish is known for chasing bait long distances and sometimes herding prey towards a beach or reef. Roosterfish consume small fish such as mullet and sardines.

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Roosterfish/ Nimaistius pectoralis

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Fusiform

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Thuniform

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Terminal

Fish Species Identification Title: Saltwater

Species #: 67

Common Name: Atlantic Blue Marlin Scientific Name: Makaira nigricans Class: Actionptergyii

Order: perciformes

Family: Istiophoridae

Genus: Makaira

Species: M. nigraicans


Geography/ Habitat: Atlantic Blue Marling are distributed throughout the Atlantic’s tropical and temperate waters; they are more populous in the western parts. It is a blue water fish that spends the majority of its life in the open sea, far away from land. Life Strategy: Blue marlins breed in late summer and fall. Females may spawn as many as four times in one season. They often release over seven million eggs at once, each approximately0.039 in diameter. Few reach sexual maturity. The planktonic young drift freely in the ocean’s pelagic zone. Food/Feed Strategy: The larvae feed upon a variety of zooplankton along with drifting fish eggs and other larvae. They progress to feeding wide range of fish, particularly scombrids such as mackerel and tuna; squid; and also, especially near oceanic islands and coral reefs, on juvenile inshore fish. Studies of stomach contents in both the Atlantic and Pacific have found that smaller schooling scombrids such as frigate mackerel, bullet tuna, and skipjack tuna make up a substantial proportion of their diet. Squid, including the large Humboldt quid, and deep sea fish such as pomfret and snake mackerel, are also important items in certain areas. Blue Marlin have been recorded to take prey as large as while marlin, as well as yellowfin and bigeye tuna in 100 lb range.

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Atlanic Blue Marling/ Makaira nigricans

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Fusiform

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Thuniform

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Terminal

Fish Species Identification Title: Saltwater

Species #: 68

Common Name: Tiger Shark Scientific Name: Galeocerudo cuvier Class: Chondrichuthyes

Order: Carcharhiniformes

Family: Carcharhinidae

Genus: Galeocerdo

Species:Galeocerdo cuvier


Geography/ Habitat: The tiger shark is often found close to the coast, in mainly tropical and sub-tropical waters worldwide, though they can reside in temperate waters. The shark’s behavior is primarily nomadic, but is guided by warmer currents, and it stays closer to the equator throughout the colder months. The shark tend to stay in deep waters. Life Strategy: Females mate once every 3 years. They breed by internal fertilization.. The male uses his teeth to hold the female still during the procedure, often causing the female considerable discomfort. Mating takes place between March and May, with birth between April and June the following year. The tiger shark is ovoviviparous. Food/Feed Strategy: The tiger shark is an apex predator, and has a reputation for eating anything. It also possesses ; the capability to take on large prey. It commonly preys upon; fish, crustaceans, mollusks, dugongs, seabirds, seas snakes, and marine mammals such as bottle nose dolphins, spotted dolphins and sea turtles such as green turtles and loggerhead turtles.

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Tiger Shark/ Galeocerdo cuvier

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Fusiform

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Thunniform

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Subterminal

Fish Species Identification Title: Saltwater

Species #: 69

Common Name: Southern Flounder Scientific Name: Paralichthys lethostigma Class: Actionptergyii

Order: Plueronectiformes

Family: Paralichtlyidae

Genus: Parlichthys


Species: P. lethostigma Geography/ Habitat: The southern flounder is popular sports fish and is the largest and most commercially valuable flounder in the western North Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico. Its range is North Carolina to the Yucatan peninsula. It is a left eyed flounder meaning the left side is pigmented and is the up side. The body color is brown with diffuse spots and blotches. Life Strategy: Spawning activities take place between November and January, with a peak in December. During the two months each female spawns, they will spawn every 3 to 7 days, producing an average of 44, 225 to 62, 473 per spawn. Food/Feed Strategy: Southern flounder are well adapted for ambushing quick moving prey such as fish or shrimp. Their flattened shape allows them to become nearly invisible on the bottom. Their brain has large optic lobes to serve their large eye, and they have large mouths and strong teeth. Typically, they remain motionless on the bottom and wait for their prey to come within striking distance before attacking.

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Southern Flounder/ Paralichthys lethostigma

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Depressiform

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Subcarangiform

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Terminal

Fish Species Identification Title: Saltwater

Species #: 70

Common Name: Speckled Trout or Spotted Sea trout Scientific Name: Cynoscion nebulsus Class: Actionpterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Saciaenidae

Genus: Cynoscion


Species: C. nebulosus Geography/ Habitat: The speckled trout is a common estuary fish found in the southern United States. While most of these fish are caught on shallow, grassy flats, speckled trout reside in virtually any inshore waters, from the surf of outside islands to far up coastal rivers, where they often come for shelter during cold weather. Contrary to its name, the speckled trout is not a member of the trout family, but of the drum family. Life Strategy: Spawning activity, controlled primarily by temperature and salinity, occurs from late March to September with a peak during June through August. Spawning occurs during the night time hours and is signified by the croaking sounds made by males occurring one to two hours prior to sunset. Shallow bays and lagoons as well as deeper channels and depressions close in proximity to grass flat are utilized as spawning event. Speckled trout are spherical with one to four oil droplets, Food/Feed Strategy: The diet of mature speckled trout consists of fish and crustaceans. Prey species include anchovies, pinfish, silversides, mullet, croaker, menhaden, silver trout, snapper, gobies, sheepshead, grunts, toadfish, mojarras and the occasional speckled trout.

-Speckled Trout/ cynoscion nebulosus -Compressiform -Carangiform -Terminal

Fish Species Identification Title: Saltwater

Species #: 71

Common Name: Mullet Scientific Name: Mugil cephalus Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Mugiliformes

Family: Mugilidae

Genus: Mugil


Species: cephalus Geography/ Habitat: This fish is often seen swimming in coastal areas and in some cases are the main fish found in some tropical rivers. With close to 100 species and eleven genera, the mullet is very popular with both sports and commercial fishermen due to their fighting ability, as well as, high commercial value as a tasty fish. These fish are highly adaptable to various different saline levels and have even been found in brackish water conditions. Life Strategy: The mating season for the mullet begins in the later part of spring with the male making a show of his dominance prior to mating with a female and in some species completely changing their coloring before they mate. It is not uncommon for more than one male to mate with a single female. After spawning the female will discard around 80,000 eggs, which are coated with a jelly like adhesive, allowing them attach to any available plant life. Food/Feed Strategy: Schools of mullet have been observed in areas that are rich with plant life feeding with their bodies at a forty five degree angle to soft surface of the bottom. This is an amazing sight, making all the fish appear as if suspended from the bottom and especially since the average length of the mullet is twenty inches or better. This type of feeding has given the mullet their generic name of sucker and is accomplished as the fish sucks up the food which is strained through their gill rakers before being passed to the throat.

-Mullet/ Mugil cephalus - Compressiform - Carangiform - Terminal mouth position

Fish Species Identification Title: Saltwater

Species #: 72

Common Name: Spanish mackerel Scientific Name: Scomberomorus maculatus Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Scombridae

Genus: Scomberomorus


Species: S. maculatus Geography/ Habitat: Spanish mackerel occur seasonally from the Yucatรกn peninsula, Mexico, as far north as Cape Cod, Massachusetts. They are a shallow water species, preferring sand bottom in 10 to 40 foot (6 to 12 m) depths, occasionally found as deep as 80 feet (24 m). Life Strategy: The Gulf groups of Spanish mackerel spawn in batches from May to September off shore of Texas, off the Gulf shore of Florida as early as April in some years. The Atlantic group spawns starting in April off the Carolinas and from late August to late September in the northernmost part of its range. Spanish mackerel mature by age-1 and 14 inch (36 cm) fork length (FL). Females live longer and grow to larger sizes than males. Food/Feed Strategy: Spanish mackerel are voracious, opportunistic, carnivores. They feed mainly on small fishes with lesser quantities of shrimp and squid. Striped anchovies (Engraulidae) and clupeoids such as menhaden, alewives and thread herring.

-Spanish Mackerel/ Scomberomorus maculatus - Fusiform - Carangiform - Terminal mouth position

Fish Species Identification Title: Saltwater

Species #: 73

Common Name: Triggerfish Scientific Name: Rhinecanthus aculeatus Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Tetraodontiformes


Family: Balistidae

Genus: aculeatus

Species: aculeatus Geography/ Habitat: Trigger fish live in Open waters, shallows, exposed reefs, 5–35 meters. Life Strategy: Triggerfish have an oval shaped, highly compressed body. The head is large, terminating in a small but strong- jawed mouth with teeth adapted for crushing shells. The eyes are small, set far back from the mouth, at the top of the head. Triggerfish lay their demurral eggs in a small hole dug in the sea bottom. Off Florida, juveniles of some species of triggerfish’s are found in floating Sargasso, where they feed on the small shrimp, crabs and mollusks found there. Food/Feed Strategy: The Trigger fish Feeds upon small fish and squid. Shrimp, zooplankton, algae, and other marine plant life.

-Trigger fish/ Rhinecanthus aculeatus - Globiform - Ostraciiform - Subterminal mouth position

Fish Species Identification Title: Saltwater

Species #: 74

Common Name: Wahoo Scientific Name: Acanthocybium solandri Class: Actinopeterygii

Order: Perciformes


Family: Scombridae

Genus: Acanthocybium

Species: A. solandri Geography/ Habitat: The Wahoo is found worldwide in tropical and subtropical seas. It is best known to sports fisherman, as its speed and high quality flesh make it a prize game fish. In Hawaii, the Wahoo is known as ono. Many Hispanic areas of the Caribbean and Central America refer to this fish as Peto. Life Strategy: Indiviual females may spawn many times during the season at short intervals. All tuna- like species have high reproductive rates, producing millions of eggs per year to compensate for the large percentage of eggs that do not survive to adults. Food/Feed Strategy: Small to medium size Wahoo eat all types of school baitfish such as Ballyhoo, jacks, houndfish, flying fish and small bonito white more mature Wahoo will seek larger prey like big bonito and tuna. The largest Wahoo can slice and dice a 50lb tuna. Because of their incredible speed, a Wahoo swims up on its prey, grasping it with razor sharp jaws and shaking his head, cutting its prey in pieces.

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Wahoo/ Acanthocybium solandri

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Fusiform

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Thunniform

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Terminal

Fish Species Identification Title: Saltwater

Species #: 75

Common Name: Pinfish Scientific Name: Lagodon rhomboides Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes


Family: Sparidae

Genus: Lagodon

Species: L. rhomboids Geography/ Habitat: The pinfish is found in Bermuda and along the United States coast from Massachusetts and abundantly in Texas, and down along the Mexican Gulf Coast. It is also found along the Norther Yuvcantan coast and some norther Caribbean islands, though it is less common throughout the tropical portions of its range. Life Strategy: Sexual maturity is reached at about one year, when the fish has reached 3 to 4 inches in length. Spawing season takes place in the fall and winter with eggs that are broadcast in the water by the female, and then fertilized by the male. They are in larval stage until they reach about.5 inches in length, then juvenile stage until they reach 3 inches. Because they are eaten by many other species, the life span is generally short. Food/Feed Strategy: Pinfish eat shrimp, fish eggs, insect larvae, polychaete worms and amphipods and plant mutter.

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Pinfish/ Lagodon rhomboids

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Compressiform

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Carangiform

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Terimal

Fish Species Identification Title: Saltwater

Species #: 76

Common Name: European Anchovy Scientific Name: Engraulis encrasicolus Class: Actinoptergyii

Order: Clupeiformes


Family: Engraulidae

Genus: Engraulis

Species: E. encrasicolus Geography/ Habitat: European anchovies are abundant in the Mediterannean and formerly also the Black and Azov seas. They are regularly caught on the coasts of Georgia, Greece, Turkey, Bulgaria, Russia, Ukraine, Romania, Italy, Coartia, France and Spain. The range of the species also extends along the Atlantic coast of Europe to the south of Norway. Life Strategy: Spawning takes place in June and July. The eggs are buoyant and transparent like most fish eggs, but are unusual in being sausage shaped, instead of globular. They resemble sprat and pilchard eggs in having a segmented yolk and no oil globule. The larva hatch two or three days after fertilization, and are minute and transparent. In August young specimens, 11/2 to 3 inches in length. Food/Feed Strategy: During its first year of life, anchovy feeds almost exclusively on plankton. As anchovy grows, copepods are gradually substituted by large crustaceans such as decapods and amphipods.

-European Anchovy/ Engraulis encrasicolus - Fusiform -Subcarangiform -Terminal

Fish Species Identification Title: Saltwater Common Name: yellow fin grouper Scientific Name: Mycteroperca venenosa

Species #: 77


Class: Actinopterygii

Order:Perciformes

Family: Serranidae

Genus: Mycteroperca

Species: M. venenosa Geography/ Habitat: Young yellowfin grouper prefer shallow turtlegrass beds, and adults occur on offshore, rocky beds, and coral reefs They also hold over mud bottom in the northern Gulf of Mexico Life Strategy: As with other grouper, the yellowfin undergoes a sex reversal, transforming from female to male in the latter part of life. Food/Feed Strategy: Yellowfin grouper feed mostly on coral reef species of fish and species

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Yellowfin grouper/ Mycteroperca venenosa

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Compressiform

-

Carangiform

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Terminal

Fish Species Identification Title: Saltwater

Species #: 78

Common Name: Ladyfish Scientific Name: Elops saurus Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Elopiformes


Family: Elopidae

Genus: Elops

Species: E. saurus Geography/ Habitat: The ladyfish occurs in the western North Atlantic Ocean from Cape Cod, Massachuets to the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, and south to Brazil. The Ladyfish is also found in the water surrounding Bermuda. It is most commonly observed south of North Carolina. The ladyfish has been observed in the western Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean. Life Strategy: Ladyfish spawning occurs in offshore locations throughout the year. Off the coast of Florida, spawning is thought to occur during the fall months. Neither the eggs nor the yolk sac larvae have been described for the ladyfish. The metamorphosing larvae and juveniles have been found inshore estuarine habitats. However, it is known that the larvae undergo dramatic changes in body form accompanied by two periods of length increase, interspaced with period of length decrease. Food/Feed Strategy: Larvae do not forage, but instead absorb nutrients directly from the water. As the larvae grow, they feed primarily on zooplankton as well as insects and small fish. This is followed by a dietary switch to small fish and crustaceans as the larvae grow into juvenile fish. Adult ladyfish are strictly carnivorous, feeding on small bony fish, including members of its own species, menhaden, and silversides, as well as invertebrates including crustaceans.

-Ladyfish/ Elops saurus -fusiform -Subcarangiform -Terminal

Fish Species Identification Title: Saltwater Common Name: Bull Shark Scientific Name: Carcharhinus leucas

Species #:79


Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Carcharhiniformes

Family: Carcharhinidae

Genus: Carcharhinus

Species: C. leucas

Geography/ Habitat: The bull shark lives all over the world in many different areas and travels long distances. It is common in coastal areas of warm oceans, in rivers and lakes, and occasionally salt and freshwater streams if they are deep enough. It is found to a depth of 150 metres (490 ft) but does not usually swim deeper than 30 metres (98 ft). Life Strategy: The bull shark experiences live birth and some are known to eat one another inside the female shark. Food/Feed Strategy: Most of a bull shark's diet consists of bony fish and smaller sharks, including other bull sharks. Bull sharks' diets can also include turtles, birds, dolphins, terrestrial mammals, crustaceans, and echinoderms. Bull sharks have been known to use the "bump-and-bite" technique to attack their prey. Relatively calm bull sharks can suddenly become violent and begin to bump divers.

-Bull shark / Carcharhinus leucas - Fusiform - Thunniform - Subterminal mouth position

Fish Species Identification Title: Saltwater

Species #: 80

Common Name: Atlantic Sailfish Scientific Name: Istiophorus albicans Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Istiophoridae

Genus: Istiophorus


Species: I. albicans Geography/ Habitat: The atlantic sunfish is found in the Atlantic Oceans and the Caribbean Seas, except for large areas of the central North Atlantic and the central South Atlantic, from the surface to depths of 600 ft. The Atlantic Sailfish is related to the Marling. Life Strategy: In the western North Atlantic Ocean, spawning mat begin as early as April, but occurs primarily during the summer months. Females swim slowly through shallow water, with their dorsal fin above the water surface. One or more males will accompany her and spawn near the surface. Spawning may also occur in deep waters along the coast of North America and over the continental shelf off the West African coast. Spawning has been observed year-round in the Eastern Atlantic, with a peak in the summer months. A large female may release 4, 500, 000 eggs while spawning. Food/Feed Strategy: They are found near the ocean surface usually far from land feeding on schools of smaller fish like sardines and anchovies, which they often shepherd with their sails, making them easy prey. They also feast on squid and octopus.

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Atlantic Sunfish/ istophorus albicans

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Fusiform

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Thunniform

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Terminal

Fish Species Identification Title: Saltwater

Species #: 81

Common Name: Bonefish Scientific Name: Albula vulpes Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Albuliformes


Family: Albulidae

Genus: Albula

Species: A. vulpes Geography/ Habitat: The bonefish prefers reefs, shallows, estuaries, bays, grass flats, and other brackish areas at depth from 0 to 150 feet. It is found worldwide in subtropical warms seas. In the Eastern Pacific, its range includes waters off California to Peru; the Western Atlantic range stretches from North Carolina to Florida, the Bahamas, the Gulf of Mexico, The Antilles and the rest of the Caribbean. Life Strategy: Bone fish spawning occurs year round in deep water where currents can easily disperse the developing eggs and larvae to other locations. The fish are generally less reproductively active during the hotter summer months. Sexual maturity is reached at two years and near ripe females may be as small as 1 inch. The eggs hatch into ribbon like larvae that transform into more fish-like form once they reach two inches, at which point they move closer to shore. Food/Feed Strategy: The bonefish feeds on benthic creatures such as worms, crustaceans, and mollusks, rooting them out from the sandy bottom. Granular teeth, forming specialized dental plates, cover the bonefish’s tongue and upperjaw, and similar grinders are also present in the throat helping the fish to grind up its prey.

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Bonfish/ Albula vulpes

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Fusiform

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Thunniform

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Terminal

Fish Species Identification Title: Saltwater

Species #: 82

Common Name: Ocean Sunfish Scientific Name: Mola mola Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Tetraodontiformes


Family: Molidae

Genus: Mola

Species: M. mola Geography/ Habitat: Ocean sunfish are found in most of the world's tropical and temperate waters. They are usually found along the coastal areas where wrasse and gulls can rid them of parasites. Life Strategy: Ocean sunfish are the most fertile of saltwater fish, being able to lay up to 300 000 000 eggs at a time. When, where, and how they mate is a mystery. When born, the larvae look like regular fish at 1/10 of an inch in length. The dorsal and anal fins then begin to grow and the body becomes covered with spines. These spines are then lost with only 5 remaining. These last 5 spines shorten until they disappear. Once they are gone, the bulky, disc-shape body begins to form. At this time the baby fish is only 1/2 of an inch long. Food/Feed Strategy Ocean sunfish eat crustaceans, starfish, jellyfish, sponges, mollusks, algae, plankton, squid, and small fish. They will eat basically anything. To eat, the ocean sunfish will slurp in food through its beak, shred the food to pieces, spit it out, and then repeat the process until the food is small enough for it to swallow.

-Ocean sunfish/ Mola mola - globiform - Ostraciiform - Supraterminal mouth position

Fish Species Identification Title: Saltwater

Species #: 83

Common Name: Atlantic Spadefish Scientific Name: Chaetodipterus faber Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Ephippidae

Genus: Chaetophterus

Species: C. faber


Geography/ Habitat: The Atlantic spadefish si the only member of the family Ephippidae to reside in the western Atlantic Ocean. It is in limited range to the Atlantic Ocean from Massachusetts south to southeastern Brazil, including the northern Gulf of Mexico. It is also found off Bermuda and throughout the Caribbean Life Strategy: Spawning season runs from May through September on the inner shelf off the coast of the U.s. A single female may release up to one million eggs each spawning season. The eggs are small and buoyant, hatching after approximately 24 hours. The newly hatched larvae feed on the yolk sac for the first two days of life, after which they begin to actively feed. Food/Feed Strategy: Crustaceans mollusks, annelids, sponges and cnidarians are preyed upon by the bottom feeding Atlantic spadefish. This fish may also feed occasionally on planktons, well as nibble on jellyfish tentacles. Feeding occurs throughout the day with a peak around midday.

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Atlantic Spadefish/ Chaetodipterus faber

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Globiform

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Carangiform

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Terminal

Fish Species Identification

Title: Saltwater

Species #: 84

Common Name: Mahi Mahi Scientific Name: Coryphaena hippurius Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Periformes


Family: Corychaenidae

Genus: Coryphaena

Species: C. hippuras Geography/ Habitat: These are suface- dwelling ray- finned fish found in off shore temperate, tropical and subtropical waters worldwide. They are one of only two members of the coryphaenidae family, the other being the pompano dolphinfish. Mahi Mahi means very strong in Hawaiian. Life Strategy: Mahi Mahi are generalists with prey varying according to season and size of the individual. They feed during the day on small oceanic fish such as flying fish, man o war fish, sargassum, fish, and triggerfish, juveniles of tunas, billfish and jacks. Food/Feed Strategy: Mahi Mahi are carnivorous, feeding on flying fish, crabs, squid, mackerel, and other forage fish. They also have been known to eat zooplankton.

-Mahi Mahi/ Corypgaena hippurus -fusiform -Thunniform - Terminal

Fish Species Identification Title: Saltwater

Species #: 85

Common Name: Florida Pompano Scientific Name: Tachinotus Carolinus Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Carangidae

Genus: Tachinotus

Species: T. carolinus


Geography/ Habitat: The adult pompano is typically found in more saline areas and likes to stay in relatively warm waters, so it migrates northward in the summer, and toward the south in the fall. Despite its name, the range of the Florida Pompano extends from Massachusetts to Brazil, but it is more common in areas near Florida. Life Strategy: The spawning season for Florida pompano is protracted, lasting from spring through late fall, with peaks from April to October. The actual spawning location for pompano is unknown, but it has suggested that spawning occurs, offshore, where the transport and distribution of pelagic eggs and larvae are influenced by prevailing currents Food/Feed Strategy: Limited data are available for food habits of adult Florida pompano. However, gut contents from 19 adult pompanos taken in Tampa Bay area and found that all fish sampled fed exclusively on the scorched mussel, which commonly lives attached to rocks in the deeper portion of Tampa Bay. However, adult pompano caught in the Gulf of Mexico, in the vicinity of oil rigs, fed primarily on shrimp.

-Florida pompano/ Trachinotus carolinus -fusiform -Thuniform -Terminal

Fish Species Identification Title: Salt water

Species #: 86

Common Name: Sailfin flying fish Scientific Name: Columbus Coupons Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Beloniformes

Family: Exocoetidae

Genus: Coupons


Species: Coupons Geography/ Habitat: Flying fish live in all of the oceans, particularly in warm tropical and subtropical waters. Their most striking feature is their pectoral fins. Which are unusually large, and enable the fish to hide and escape from predator, by leaping out of the water, taking short gliding flights through air just above the water's surface. Their glides are typically around 50 metres . Life Strategy: In order to glide upward out of the water, a flying fish moves its tail up to 70 times per second. It then spreads its pectoral fins and tilts them slightly upward to provide lift. At the end of a glide, it folds its pectoral fins to reenter the sea or drops its tail into the water to push against the water to lift itself for another glide, possibly changing direction. Food/Feed Strategy: The Sailfin Flying feed mainly on plankton. Predators include dolphins, tuna, marlin, birds, squids and porpoises.

- sunfish/ Columbus Coupons - Compressiform - Carangiform - supraterminal mouth position

Fish Species Identification Title: Saltwater

Species #: 87

Common Name: blue fin tuna Scientific Name: Thunnus thynnus Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Scombridae

Genus: Thunnus


Species: T. thynnus Geography/ Habitat: Bluefin tuna are among the most valuable fish in global markets. Atlantic bluefin tuna is a highly migratory species that requires high levels of international cooperation for appropriate management and conservation. Life Strategy: Atlantic bluefin tuna spawn in two widely separated areas. One spawning ground exists in the western Mediterranean, particularly in the area of the Balearic Islands. The other important spawning ground of the Atlantic bluefin is the Gulf of Mexico. Pop-up satellite tracking results appear to confirm in large measure the belief held by many scientists and fishermen that although bluefin that were spawned in each area may forage widely across the Atlantic, they return to the same area to spawn. Food/Feed Strategy: The blue fin tuna eats sardines, phytoplankton and other small fishes. The blue fin tuna is usually in schools of 30 or more when feeding.

-Blue fin tuna/ Thunnus thynnus - fusiform - Thunniform - Terminal

Fish Species Identification Title: Saltwater

Species #: 88

Common Name: Atlantic Herring Scientific Name: Clupea harengus Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Clupeiformes

Family: Clupeidae

Genus: Clupea

Species: C. Harengus


Geography/ Habitat: The Atlantic Herring is one of the most abundant fish species on earth. Herring can be found on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, congregating in large schools. They can grow up 17.7 inches in length and weigh more than 1 pound. Life Strategy: At least one Herring stock spawns in every month of the year. Each spawns at a different time and place. Females may deposit from 20,000 up to 40,000 eggs, according to age and size, averaging about 30,000. In sexually mature herrings, the genital organs grow before spawning, reaching about one fifth of its total weight. The eggs sink to the bottom , where they stick in layers or clumps to gravel, seaweeds or stones, by means of their coating mucus, or to any other objects on which they chance to settle. Food/Feed Strategy: Young herring capture copepods predominantly individually, a feeding method also used by adult herring on large prey items like euphausids. If prey concentration reach very high levels, as in microlayers, at fronts or directly below the surface, herring become filter feeders, driving several meters forward with wide open mouth and far expanded opecula, then closing the gill for a few milliseconds. \

-Atlantic Herring/ Clupea harengus - Fusiform -Subcarangiform -Terminal

Fish Species Identification Title: Saltwater

Species #:89

Common Name: Moray eel Scientific Name: Anguilla anguilla Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Anguilliformes

Family: Muraenidae

Genus: Anguilla


Species: Anguilla Geography/ Habitat: Moray eels are cosmopolitan, found in both tropical and temperate seas, although the largest species richness is at reefs in warm oceans. Very few species occur outside the tropics or subtropics, and the ones that do only extend marginally beyond these regions. Life Strategy: When feeding, morays launch these jaws into the mouth, where they grasp prey and transport it into the throat and digestive system. Moray eels are the only animal that uses pharyngeal jaws to actively capture and restrain prey. Food/Feed Strategy: A species of reef-associated grouper, the roving coral grouper, have been observed to recruit morays to aid them while hunting for food. This is the only known instance of interspecies cooperation among fish.

-Moray eel/ Anguilla Anguilla - Anguilliform - Anguilliform - Terminal mouth position

Fish Species Identification Title: Saltwater

Species #: 90

Common Name: Chinook Salmon Scientific Name: Oncorhynchus ishawytscha Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Salmoniformes

Family: Salmonidae

Genus: Oncorhynchus


Species: O. tshsawytscha Geography/ Habitat: Chinook salmon range from San Francisco Bay in California to north of the Bering Strait in Alaska and in the arctic waters of Canada and the Chukchi Sea in Russia. Populations occur in Asia as far south as the islands of Japan. In Russia, they are found in Kamchatka and the Kuril Islands. Their populations have disappeared from large areas where they used to flourish, shrinking by as much as 40 percent. Life Strategy: Chinook Salmon may spend 1 to 8 years in the ocean before returning to their home rivers to spawn. Chinook spawn in larger and deeper waters than other salmon species and can be found on the spawning nests from September through to December. After laying eggs, females guard the nest from 4 to 25 days before dying, while males seek additional mates. Chinook salmon eggs hatch, depending upon water temperature, 90 to 150 days after deposition. Food/Feed Strategy: Chinook feed on insects, amphipods, and other crustaceans while young, and primarily on other fish when older. Young salmon feed in streambeds for a short period until they are strong enough to journey out into the ocean and acquire more food. Chinook juveniles divide into two types: ocean type and steam type. Ocean type Chinook migrate to saltwater in their first year. Stream type spends one full year in fresh water before migrating to the ocean. After a couple of years in the ocean, adult salmon, then large enough to escape most predators return to their original streambeds to mate.

Chinook Salmon Compressiform Subcarangiform Terminal

Fish Species Identification Title: Saltwater

Species #: 91

Common Name: Bluntnose sixgill Shark Scientific Name: Hexanchus griseus Class: chondrichthyes

Order: Hexanchiformes

Family: Hexanchidae

Genus: hexanchus


Species: H. griseus Geography/ Habitat: The species inhabits depths greater than 300 ft, and has been recorded as deep as 6, 150 ft. Like many deep sea creatures, the bluntnose sixgill shark is known to travel surfaceward at night, returning to the depths before dawn. Life Strategy: Very little is known about the bluntnose sixgill shark breeding. I could not find any info on it. Food/Feed Strategy: Because of the bluntnose sixgillls shark’s large and large and diverse range they have a wide variety of prey items. Their diet consists of variety of mollusks, crustaceans, hagfish, and sea lampreys. They also dine on Cape anchovies, Pacific salmon, and various species of hake. This species is also known to scavenge on whale carcasses and other fish that settle to the bottom.

-bluntnose Sixgill shark/ Hexanchus griseus -Fusiform -Thunniform -Subterminal

Fish Species Identification Title: Saltwater

Species #: 92

Common Name: manta ray Scientific Name: Manta birostris Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Myliobatiformes


Family: Modbulidae

Genus: Manta

Species: M. birostris Geography/ Habitat: The manta ray is the largest species of the rays. The largest known specimen was more than 25 ft across, with a weight of about 5, 100 lb. It ranges throughout tropical waters of the world, typically around coral reefts. Life Strategy: Manta rays are ovoviviparous, which means they produce live young, which are hatched from an egg. Food/Feed Strategy: The manta’s diet consists of plankton and small fish. The manta ray has no teeth so his two fins, positioned on both sides of his mouth, pushes water into his mouth that contain plankton small fish and shrimp. The water is then let out his gills and the food remains in the stomach.

-Manta ray/ Manta birostris -Batiform -Rajiform -Supraterminal

Fish Species Identification Title: Saltwater

Species #:93

Common Name: Small tooth Sawfish Scientific Name: Pristis pectinata Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Pristiformes


Family: Pristidae

Genus: Pristis

Species: pectinata Geography/ Habitat: Sawfishes are found in tropical and sub-tropical areas in the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific. They inhabit coastal areas such as bays and estuaries, but frequently ascend far into rivers and are even known from major lakes such as Lake Nicaragua. Sawfishes live only in shallow, muddy water and can be found in both freshwater and saltwater. All sawfishes have the ability to traverse between fresh and saltwater. Life Strategy: Little is known about the reproduction habits of the sawfishes. Each individual lives around 25 to 30 years, and matures at 10 years. Females give live birth to pups, whose semi-hardened rostrum is covered with a membrane. This prevents the pup from injuring its mother during birth. The membrane eventually disintegrates and falls off. The sawfish is estimated to mate once every two years, with an average litter of around eight pups. They mature very slowly; it is estimated that the larger species do not reach sexual maturity until they are 10 to 12 years old. Food/Feed Strategy: The small tooth sawfish is a carnivorous and eats or feeds on a large variety of small fishes and phytoplankton.

Small tooth sawfish/ Pristis pectinata Fusiform Thuniform Subterminal


Fish Species Identification Title: Saltwater

Species #: 94

Common Name: Pilot fish Scientific Name: Naucrates doctor Class: Actinojpterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Carangidae

Genus: Naucrates

Species: N. doctor Geography/ Habitat: The pilot fish is widely distributed worldwide in warm or tropical open seas, usually in company with sharks, rays, turtles, or large fish, juveniles found in flowing weed or with jellyfish. Life Strategy: Spawning usually takes place in mid to late summer and the eggs are set adrift in the open ocean. Food/Feed Strategy: The pilot fish congregates around sharks, rays, and sea turtles, where it eats parasites on these animals and also the bits and scraps that occur when the larger animal is feeding. The baby pilot fish are usually associated with jellyfish and drifting seaweeds.

-Pilot Fish/ Naucrates dector -fusiform -Carangiform -Terminal


Fish Species Identification Title: Saltwater

Species #: 95

Common Name: Remora Scientific Name: Echeneidae Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Echeneidae

Genus: Phtheirichthys

Species: Echeneidae Geography/ Habitat: The Remora spends most of its time eating of paracites and other bacterium off of sharks and rays. The remora is commonly found in warm marine waters and has been seen in the Western Mediterranean, the Atlantic, as well as the North Sea. Life Strategy: It has been suggested that a mating couple may attach to the same host, and have host fidelity.It is not clear when during the year the common remora spawns, and little else is known about the fish's reproductive behavior. Food/Feed Strategy: The remora consumes food scraps from its host, as well as plankton and parasitic copepods.

Remora/ Echeneidae Compressiform Subcarangiform


Subterminal

Fish Species Identification Title: Saltwater

Species #: 96

Common Name: Golden boxfish Scientific Name: Ostracion solorensis Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Tetraodontiformes

Family: Ostraciidae

Genus: solorensis

Species: solorensis Geography/ Habitat: The golden boxfish is found in the Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to the Hawaiian and Tuamoto islands, north to Ryukyu Islands, and south to Lord Howe Island. Life Strategy: The box fish is known from depths of 10 m to 300 m in coastal reefs and harbours. The golden box fish first starts spawning in mid may and ends at the end of July. Food/Feed Strategy: In the wild this boxfish feeds primarily on algae with a compliment of microorganisms, invertebrates, mollusks, sponges, sand dwelling polychaetes, crustaceans, foraminiferans, and small fishes.


Golden boxfish/ Ostracion solorensis Globiform Ostraciiform Subterminal

Fish Species Identification Title: Saltwater

Species #: 97

Common Name: The Tiger grouper Scientific Name: Mycteroperca tigris Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Serranidae

Genus: Mycteroperca

Species: M. tigris Geography/ Habitat: The tiger grouper prefer shallow turtle grass beds, and adults occur on offshore rocky beds and coral reefs. They also hold over mud bottoms in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Life Strategy: Most grouper fish spawn between May and August. They are at a hermaphrodite stage, for example the young are predominantly female but transform into males as they grow larger. They grow about a kilogram per year. Generally they are adolescent until they reach three kilograms, when they become female. Food/Feed Strategy: The Tiger grouper feed mostly on coral reef species of fish and squid.


-Tiger grouper/ Mycteroperca tigris - Compressiform - Carangiform - Terminal mouth position

Fish Species Identification Title: Salt water

Species #: 98

Common Name: batray Scientific Name: Myliobatis californica Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Myliobatiformes

Family: Myliobatidae

Genus: Myliobatis

Species: M. californica Geography/ Habitat: The Bat ray is found in muddy or sandy sloughs, estuaries and bays, kelp beds and rockybottomed shoreline in the eastern Pacific Ocean, between the Oregon coast and the Gulf of California. It is also found in the area around the Galåpagos Islands. The largest specimens can grow to a wingspan of 1.8 m and up and a mass of 91 kg and up Life Strategy: Bat ray reproduction is ovoviviparous. They mate annually, in the spring or summer, and have a gestation period of nine to twelve months. Litter sizes range from two to ten — pups emerge with their pectoral fins wrapped around the body, and the venomous spine is flexible and covered in a sheath which sloughs off within hours of birth. Bat rays live up to 23 years Food/Feed Strategy: Bat rays feed on mollusks, crustaceans and small fish on the seabed, using their wing like pectoral fins to move sand and expose prey animals. They may also dig trenches up to 20 cm deep to expose buried prey, such as clams.


-Bat ray/Myliobatis californica - batiform - ragiform - Subterminal mouth position

Fish Species Identification Title: Salt water

Species #:99

Common Name: Long nosed hawk fish Scientific Name: Oxycirrhites typus Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Cirrhitidae

Genus: Cirrhitichthys

Species: typus Geography/ Habitat: The Long nosed hawk fish is Found in the Western Pacific, from the Philippines to Japan, Samoa, The Great Barrier Reef, and New Caldonia. They mainly inhabit depths of 33 - 60 ft. Life Strategy: The color pattern of this fish helps to conceal it while it rests amongst the corals. It will sit still and wait for a convenient meal to wander by. The Hawkfish has been breeding for over 10 years, although it's very rare. The female lays adhesive eggs, which may be a unique factor among Hawks Food/Feed Strategy: The long nose hawk fish is a carnivore and eats shrimp, plankton, small crabs and other small reef fish.

-Long nose hawk fish/ Oxycirrhites typus - Sagittiform


- Carangiform - Terminal mouth position

Fish Species Identification Title: Salt water

Species #: 100

Common Name: Falco Hawk fish Scientific Name: Cirrhitichtys falco Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Cirrhitidae

Genus: Cirrhitichthys

Species: falco Geography/ Habitat: Found around coral reefs, outer reef flats and slopes to 150 feet in tropical marine waters of the Western Pacific. In Australia it is found from the northern Great Barrier Reef, Queensland south to the central coast of New South Wales. Life Strategy: The family of Hawkfish is a group of bottom dwelling fish that lack swim bladders. This causes these fish to find areas of coral, sea fans, and rock where they can perch and wait for food to float by. They have a curious nature and their eyes will usually follow you wherever you go. Food/Feed Strategy: The Falco hawk fish eats a variety of small invertebrates and shrimp also some phytoplankton.

-Falco hawk fish/ Cirrhitichtys falco - Compressiform


- Carangiform - Terminal mouth position

Freshwater Invertabates


Fish Species Identification Title: Freshwater Invertabrates

Species #: 101

Common Name: Red Swamp Crawfish Scientific Name: Procambarus clarkii Class: Crustacea

Order: Decapoda

Family: Cambaridae

Genus: Procambarus

Species: P.clarkii Geography/ Habitat: The native range of the red swamp crawfish is along the Gulf Coast from northern Mexico to Florida panhandle as well as inland, to southern Illinois and Ohio. It has also been introduced, sometimes deliberately, outside its natural range to countries in Asia, Africa, Europe and elsewhere in the Americans. In northern Europe, the populations are self maintaining but not expanding, while in southern Europe, P.clarkii is multiplying and actively colonizing new territory, at the expense of the native crawfish. Life Strategy: Procambarus clarkia matures when it reaches a size between 2.5 to 5 in. A 4 inch long female may produce up to 500 eggs, while smaller females may produce around a 100 eggs. The eggs are 0.1 inches, notable smaller than those produced by members of the family Astacidae. Food/Feed Strategy: Dead, decaying plant matter constitutes the largest population of the crawfish diet.


-Red Swamp Crayfish/ Procambarus clarkia -Decapod -Crawling/ Swimming

Fish Species Identification Title: Freshwater Invertabrates

Species #: 102

Common Name: Red Nose Shrimp Scientific Name: Caridina gracilirostris Class: Malacostraca

Order: Decapoda

Family: Atyidae

Genus: Caridina

Species:C. gracilirostris Geography/ Habitat: The red nose shrimp is an algae eating species of shrimp native to India. In the wild, it is found in mangroves, rivers and marshes. It is often kept in freshwater aquariums due to its unique red rostrum which gives it an unusual appearance. It has nearly transparent body, and with an elongated red rostrum on its head. This red rostrum is the basis of many of its common names given to it. Life Strategy: Reproduction occurs every 8 weeks. The female incubates several hundred little green eggs. Reproduction is of indirect type. Different larval stages in salt water conditions are necessary to complete growth and become adults. The stage in salt water is an obligation. When mature the larva move to fresh water. Food/Feed Strategy: The red nose shrimp feeds on algae.


-Red Nose Shrimp/ Caridina gracilirostris -Decapod -Crawling/ Swimming

Fish Species Identification Title: Freshwater Invertebrates

Species #: 103

Common Name: Hydra Scientific Name: Hydra viridis Class: Hydrozoa

Order: Hydroida

Family: Hydridae

Genus: Hydra

Species: H. viridis Geography/ Habitat: Hydra are found widely dispersed in the northern temperate zone. It is common organism found in still waters from early spring to late autumn. The characteristic green color comes from cells of unicellular alga Chlorella within the cells of the gastrodermis. Life Strategy: Hydra reproduces asexually most of the time by a process of budding, young polyps becoming detached from the parent when they are fully developed. Seasonal episodes of sexual reproduction also occur, mature polyps developing gonads on the external body wall. Fertilized eggs give rise to tiny planula larvae which swim away, attach themselves and develop into polyps which continue to reproduce by budding Food/Feed Strategy: Hydra are carnivorous and will eat anything they can manage to catch including single celled animals, small crustaceans, worms, insects, and other tiny animals.


-Hydra/ Hydra viridis -Radical Symetry -Sedentary

Fish Species Identification Title: Freshwater Invertebrates

Species #: 104

Common Name: Freshwater Leech Scientific Name: Macrobdella decora Class: Hirudinida

Order: Arhynchobdellida

Family: Hirudinidae

Genus: Marcrobdella

Species: M. decora Geography/ Habitat: This species is found in Eastern North America, from southern Canada to the Carolinas and along the Mississippi River drainages. Freshwater leeches spend the day under rocks and leaves on a lake or stream bottom. Life Strategy: Leeches, just like their earthworm cousins, are hermaphrodites. This means that after they mate, both leeches can lay eggs. They leeches lay eggs inside small cocoons in the muddy bottom. Young leeches hatch from the cocoons when they are ready. It is not known how long Freshwater Leeches live, but it is several years at least. Food/Feed Strategy: The Freshwater Leech is a parasite that feeds on the blood of fish, frogs, turtles, and mammals, including humans


-Freshwater Leech/ Macrobdella decora -Ribbonlike -Vermiform

Fish Species Identification Title: Freshwater Invertebrates

Species #: 105

Common Name: Sheepnose Mussel Scientific Name: Plethobasus cyphyus Class: Bivalvia

Order: Unionoida

Family: Unionidae

Genus: Plethobasus

Species: P. cyphyus Geography/ Habitat: The sheepnose has historically inhabited large rivers such as the Mississippi, Ohio, and Tennessee. Suitable substrates for this species are sand and gravel in water depths up to 15ft. Mussels are longlived animals. They may live for several decades and in some instances, a century or more. They spend most of their lives buried in the bottom sediments of permanent water bodies, and often live in multi-species communities called mussel beds. Life Strategy: Mussels have complex and distinctive reproductive cycle. Males realease sperm into the water, which are drawn in by females through their incurrent siphon. Food/Feed Strategy: Mussels eat by filtering bacteria, protozoa’s, algae, and other organic matter out of the water. They draw water into their body thorugh their incurrent siphon, remove food and oxygen with their gills, and then


expel the filtered water through excurrent siphon. Food particles to the mussel’s mouth by tiny hair like cilia located on the gills.

-Sheepnose Mussel/ Plethobasus -Mollusk -Sedentary

Saltwater Invertabrate


Fish Species Identification Title: Saltwater invertebrates

Species #: 106

Common Name: American Lobster Scientific Name: Homarus americanus Class: Malacostraca

Order: Decapoda

Family: Nephropidae

Genus: Homarus

Species: americanus Geography/ Habitat: The Northwest Atlantic is where the American lobster calls home. From Labrador to North Carolina this lobster is found eating, breeding and roaming the ocean floor. Lobsters prefer to make their homes in rocky areas where they can hide in the crevices from predators. However, young lobsters that have just settled on the bottom may not be able to find gravelly material so they burrow in pebble, sand or clay. Life Strategy: Lobsters must molt in order to grow, which leaves them vulnerable. During the molting process, several species change color. Lobsters have 10 walking legs; the front two adapted to claws. Although, like most other arthropods, lobsters are largely bilaterally symmetrical, they often possess unequal, specialized claws, like the king crab. Food/Feed Strategy: The biggest predator of the American lobster is man! After man, their next biggest predators are ground fish such as flounder and cod, sculpins, eels, rock gunnels, crabs, and seals. The main diet of a lobster is


crab, mussels, clams, starfish, sea urchins and various marine worms. They are also known to catch fast moving animals like shrimp, amphipods (also known as “sand fleas�) and even small fish.

- American Lobster / Homarus americanus - Anthropod - Crawling

Fish Species Identification Title: Saltwater Invertabrates

Species #: 107

Common Name: Tanner Crab Scientific Name: Chionoecetes bairdi Class: Malacostraca

Order: Decapoda

Family: Oregoniidae

Genus: Chinocetes

Species: opilio Geography/ Habitat: The tanner crab, are found throughtout the Northeast Atlantic from Greenland to Gulf to Maine, preferring deep, cold-water conditions. Snow crabs are the most important species of crab harvested in Atlantic Canada and are exploited by commericial and First Nations fishers coast-wide. Life Strategy: The tanner crab is a 8 legged anthropod that is put on the markey year round. The tanner crab is found in clod deep waters in depths of 7 or 10 meters. It likes to scavenge on the sandy see floor. Food/Feed Strategy: The tanner crab is a scavenger and will eat bacteria phytoplankton and small fish eggs.


-Tanner crab/ Chionoecetes baridi -Anthropod -crawling

Fish Species Identification Title: Saltwater Invertabrates

Species #: 108

Common Name: Lettuce Sea Slug Scientific Name: Elysia crispata Class: Gastropada

Order: Sacoglossa

Family: Elusiidae

Genus: Elysia

Species:E. crispate Geography/ Habitat: The lettuce sea slug is found in the South Atlantic Ocean, the Caribbean Sea and Bahamas Life Strategy: Owing to stark similarity between the male and the female members of this species it is difficult to differentiate between the two genders. Food/Feed Strategy: They snails usually feed off green algae. They break it up in their stomachs and dijest the algae.


-Lettuce Sea Slug/ Elysia crispata -Softbodied -Crawling

Fish Species Identification Title: Saltwater Invertebrates

Species #: 109

Common Name: Australian Sea Apple Scientific Name: Pseudocolochrius violaceus Class: Holothuroidea

Order: Dendrochirotida

Family: Cucumariidae

Genus: Pseudocolochrius

Species: P. Violaceus Geography/ Habitat: The Australian sea apple is naturally found in the eastern Indian Ocean and the western Pacific Ocean, according to FreshMarine.com. The Australian sea apple tends to live on hard surfaces like coral reefs at approximately 40 feet below sea level.


Life Strategy: The female Australian sea apple has a tube that is several millimeters long with a gonopore on top that is used for breeding, according to FreshMarine.com. Male Australian sea apples have papillae that are used for breeding. Female Australian sea apples lay eggs that are fertilized by the sperm of the male. Food/Feed Strategy: The Australian sea apple is a suspension feeder that uses its tentacles to trap prey, according to FreshMarine.com. Prey for an Australian sea apple includes shrimp, krill, small fish, algae, detritus and meaty bits of seafood.

-Sea cucumber/ Pseudocolochrius violaceus - Softbodied - Floating or going with current

Fish Species Identification Title: Saltwater Invertabrates

Species #: 110

Common Name: Long-spined Sea Urchin Scientific Name: Diadema antillarum Class: Echinoidea

Order: Diadermatoida

Family: Diadematidae

Genus: Diadema

Species: D. antillarum Geography/ Habitat: The long spined sea urchin is widely distributed in both the eastern and western Tropical Atlantic Ocean. Its habitat ranges throughout the West Indian region from Florida to Surinam and was abundent until about 20 years ago.


Life Strategy: In order for their eggs to fertilized, male and female diadema must release their eggs and sperm into the water at the same time. They realease a chemical and the chemical smell makes all of them realease their sperm. Food/Feed Strategy: Seas Urchins are generally herbivores, cosuming mainly algae or detruitus and sediments.

-Long-spined Sea Urchin -Globular -Crawls

Fish Species Identification Title: Salt water invertebrates

Species #:111

Common Name: Blue maxima clam Scientific Name: Tridacna maxima Class: Bivalvia

Order: incertae sedis

Family: Tridacninae

Genus: Tridacna

Species: T. maxima

Geography/ Habitat: According to The Reef Aquarium, they are found from the Red Sea and East Africa to Pitcairn Island in the eastern Pacific.


Life Strategy: The inhalant siphon on the Maxima has small, fine tentacles. The mantle will sometimes exhibits an undulating shape with tubercles that are light sensitive. Although it is rare, the tubercles are sometimes quite numerous. Food/Feed Strategy: Most clams fulfill their nutritional requirements by filter feeding and absorbing dissolved organic compounds from the water. The Tridacna clams have gone even further than this, using zooxanthellae to manufacture food for them.

-Blue maximum clam/ Tridacna maxima - clam - Sedentary

Fish Species Identification Title: Saltwater Invertabrates

Species #: 112

Common Name: Blood Shrimp Scientific Name: Lysmata debelius Class: Malacostraca

Order: Decapoda

Family: Hippolytidae

Genus: Lysmata

Species: L.debelius Geography/ Habitat: The Blood shrimp is native to the Indo-Pacific region of Bali and Sri Lanka. The blood shrimp can grow up to size of 2 inches. The blood shrimp comes in bright red color with white spots. The blood is harldly


creature that hides behind rocks or caves. They may clean the body of the fishes and eat up the parasites, plankton, and detritus on them. Life Strategy: The blood shrimp is hermaphrodate. Thus, two individuals mate with each other. They copulate every week and the female carries her light green eggs in the finlets below the carapace. Food/Feed Strategy: The blood shrimp is an comnivorous creature and a scanvenger. It will feed on bits of meaty brine shrimp, mysis, squid, zooplankton, and phytoplankton.

-blood shrimp/ Lysmata debelius -Decapod -Crawl/Swim

Fish Species Identification Title: Saltwater Invertabrates

Species #: 113

Common Name: Bat Sea Star Scientific Name: Asterina miniata Class: Asteroidea

Order: Spinualosida

Family: Asterinidae

Genus: Asterina

Species: A. miniata


Geography/ Habitat: The bat star is usually found in the interidal zone at an average depth of 259 ft. Its range extends from Sitka. Alaska to Baja California in the Pacific Ocean. It is most abundan alond the coast of Central California and the Monetrey Bay. Life Strategy: The bat stars reproduces through spawning. The male casts sperm and the female drops eggs; each has pores at the base of the rays of this purpose. The sperm and egg unite at sea and are carried away by ocean currents Food/Feed Strategy: Sea Star has visual sensors a the end of each ray that can detect ligh and note prey. To eat its prey, it covers the prey with its stomach and oozes digestive juices over it; this liquefies the food, enabling the bat star to ingest it. The bat staris omnivorous, eating both plants and animals alive or dead.

-Bat sea star/ Asterina miniata -Star -Creeping Motion

Fish Species Identification Title: Saltwater Invertabrates

Species #: 114

Common Name: Green Abalone Scientific Name: Haliotis fulgens Class: Gastropoda

Order: Vetifastropoda

Family: Haliotdae

Genus: Haliotis

Species: H. fulgens


Geography/ Habitat: Green abalone can be found algae the Pacific coast of North Americva from Point Conception, California. This species is found in shallow water on open/ exposed coast from low intertidal to at least 30 feet and perhaps as deep as 60 feet. Individuals are found inr ock crevices, under rocks and other avaiable cavities. Life Strategy: Green abalone have separate sexes and broadcast spawn from early summer through early fall. Maturity is rea ched at 2.4 to 5 inches length or 5 to 7 years. Lifespan is up to 30 years or more. Food Strategy: Like all abalones, Green abalone are herbivores. They feed mostly on drift algae and prefer fleshy red algae.

-Green Abalone -Clam - Sedentary

Fish Species Identification Title: Saltwater Invertabrates

Species #: 115

Common Name: Protugese Man o’ war Scientific Name: Physalia physalis Class: Hydrozoa

Order: Siphonophora

Family: Physaliidae

Genus: Physalia


Species: P. physalis Geography/ Habitat: The man of war is found in warm water sea floating on the surface of open ocean, its air bladder keeping it alfloat and acting as a sail while the rest of the organism hangs below the surface. Life Strategy: Initially, Man o’ war reproduce sexually- the sperm of one mature colonial hydroid fertilizes the egg of another reproducing a larva. Food/Feed Strategy: Tentalcles of the dactylozooids paralzye other fish with their stings.

-Portuguese Man o’ war/ Physalis -Jelly like -Ocean Floater

Fish Species Identification Title: Saltwater Invertabrates

Species #: 116

Common Name: Coconut Octopus Scientific Name: amphioctopus marginatus Class: Cephalopoda

Order: Octopoda

Family: Octopodidae

Genus: Amphioctopus


Species: A. marginatus Geography/ Habitat: The coconut octopus is found on sandy bottoms in bays or lagoons. It frequently buries itself in the sand with only its eyes uncovered. It is found in tropical waters of the western Pacific Ocean. Life Strategy: Researches from the Melbourne Musuem in Australia observed the creature’s use of tools for defense, and the use of avaliable devris to creat a defensive fortress. Food/Feed Strategy: It commonly preys on shrimp, crabs, and clams.

-cocunut Octopus/ Amphioctopus marginatus -Octopus -Jet Propulsion/ digital

Fish Species Identification Title: Salt water Invertebrates

Species #: 117

Common Name: The Pacific sea nettle jelly fish Scientific Name: Chrysaora fuscescens Class: Scyphozoa

Order: Semaeostomeae

Family: Pelagiidae

Genus: Chrysaora


Species: C. fuscescens Geography/ Habitat: Chrysaora fuscescens is commonly found along the coasts of California and Oregon, though some reside in the waters north to the Gulf of Alaska, west to the seas around Japan and south to the Baja Peninsula. The populations reach their peak during the late summer. Life Strategy: Chrysaora fuscescens is capable of both sexual reproduction in the medusa stage and asexual reproduction in the polyp stage. The life cycle of C. fuscescens begins when females catch sperm released by the males to fertilize the eggs she has produced and is holding in her mouth. These fertilized eggs remain attached to her oral arms, and there they grow into flat bean-shaped planula. Once they grow into flower-shaped polyps, they are released into the ocean where they attach themselves to a solid surface and undergo asexual reproduction. Food/Feed Strategy: In common with other cnidaria, Chrysaora fuscescens are carnivorous animals. They catch their prey by means of cnidocyst or nematocyst -laden tentacles that hang down in the water. The toxins in their nematocysts are effective against both their prey and humans, though it is typically nonlethal to the latter.

-The pacific sea needle jelly fish/ Chrysaora fuscescens - Jelly- like - Ocean floater

Fish Species Identification Title: Salt water Invertebrates

Species #: 118

Common Name: Giant tube worm Scientific Name: Riftia pachyptila Class: Polychaeta

Order: Canalipalpata


Family: Siboglinidae

Genus: Riftia

Species: R. pachyptila Geography/ Habitat: Tube worms commonly found in the intertidal and pelagic zones. Riftia pachyptila lives over a mile deep and up to several miles deep on the floor of the Pacific Ocean near black smokers and can tolerate extremely high hydrogen sulfide levels. Life Strategy: To reproduce, Riftia pachyptila females release lipid-rich eggs into the surrounding water so they start to float upwards. The males then unleash sperm bundles that swim to meet the eggs. After the eggs have hatched, the larvae swim down to attach themselves to the rock. Food/Feed Strategy: With sunlight not available directly as a form of energy, the tubeworms rely on bacteria in their habitat to oxidize hydrogen sulfide, using dissolved oxygen in the water for respiration. They use this reaction for energy in chemosynthesis. For this reason, tube worms are partially dependent on sunlight as an energy source, since they use free oxygen, which has been liberated by photosynthesis in water layers far above, to obtain nutrients.

-Giant tube worm/ Riftia pachyptila - Soft bodied - Lives in volcanic burrows


Fish I.d.  

this is a pretty good project, i worked very hard. it took me a very long time

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