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okcrdefvIdif 1 may 2012

okcrdefvIdif 1 may 2012

(uREkfyfwdkY t,f'DwmrS ,ckv Story Teller twGuf azmfjyp&m yHk r&SdygaMumif; /)

(uREkfyfwdkY t,f'DwmrS ,ckv Story Teller twGuf azmfjyp&m yHk r&SdygaMumif; /)


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q,fjrL&,fbufuuf^ Samuel Beckett ? 1906 {NyD? 13 &uf rSmarG;(ar 13 &ufvkdYvnf; rluGJ&Sd)/ 1989 'DZifbm? 22 &uf? aomMumaeY? rGef;vGJ 1 em&DwGif uG,fvGef/ 1969 ckESpf pmayEdkb,fqk Nobel Prize for Literature &&Sd/ qkudk vufcH? okdYaomf pawmh[krf;NrdKUrSm usif;ywJh qkay;yGJ tcrf;tem;udk rwufa&muf/ &&SdwJh qkaMu;aiGtm;vHk;udk vSL'gef;/ ydkYpf armf'ef Postmodernism vkdYac:wJh pmaytrsdK;tpm;udk pwifcJhwJhyk*¾dKvf ESpOf ;D &Sw d ,f vkYd urÇmph mayavmurSm todtrSwjf yKxm;Muw,f/ wpfO;D u Borges jzpf w,f/ aemufwpfO;D u bufuuf Beckett jzpfw,f/ (Beckett shares with Borges the distinction of inangurating in literature what has come to be called postmodernism.)

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]tif;tdki0f dkufvnf? NrdKU BuD;wnfjyef 1144 ckESpfu? tr&yl&a&TEdkifiH ... a&csdKwGif;eJY ysHUeef;vSef ... a&Tbdkrif;quf rSefeef;pH ... jrwfbdk;awmf olpDrH ? tif;BuD;awmiforef ...} wJh av .../ eef;awmfa&SUq&mwifu awmiforefudk zGJUcJhonf/ wu,fawmh awmiforefu eef;awmfa&Sq U &mwifro S mr[kwf .../ a&S;a&S;uwnf;u pm qdkrsm; rsufpdusp&mae&m jzpfcJhyg\/ pmqdt k Ekynm&Sirf sm;u awmiforefukd &ifoyf½aI rmcJMh uonf/ jrefrmjynftylyikd ;f a'owGi;f rS v,f,mO,smOf? acsmif;ajrmif;? tif;tdkif? opf&dyf0g;&dyf? aus;iSufom&um? a&aysmfig; .../ omoeduqdkif&m Adokum ...? xkdfYaemuf ... uRef;opfwHwm; BuD; .../ xkdYaMumihf rif;om;armifukwfaw;u ]ZrÁLcGef,l 0SefqljzefYrdk;? tkef;yif tkef;Ncdrfh pkd;ygvkdYav;? omrsdK; omrsdK; NcH&H? awmifwnhf awmiforef} [k zGJUqdkcJhonf/ AsoDq,f&Gmpm; OD;vGef;ajyurl ] uqkef e,kefcsdefcg? jynf BuD;awmifvufsm? aomif;,lZemus,0f if;? awmiforefwnft h if;} [k zGEUJ UJG cJjh yef\/ jyifpnfrif;om;BuD;uvnf; ]awmif*E¨rmeE´rlcsm? rOÆLrmvm? oif; ysaUH rT;? ewfu,fzef uefrif;uazG;? ig;rnfa&TMum? avom ysaUH oG; ...}[k oD uk;kH cJjh yefonf/ udik ;f ... xm;ygawmh .../ jyifpnf rif;om;Bu;D tp ...? eef;awmf a&Sq U &mwiftv,f ... uAsmq&m armifoif;yeftqHk; ... awmiforeftif;ESihf awmiforef 0ef;usifu pmoDzGJUvkdY rqHk;Edkifawmh ... /


wu,fawmh ... obm0ywf0ef;usit f vSrsm;udk pmqdktEkynm orm;rsm;u b0ESihfxyfNyD; cspfcifjrwfEdk;cJhMuonf/ onfae&mrsm;ESihf xd awGq U ufpyfNy;D tEkynmÓPfwdYk uGejYf rL;&Sio f efcMhJ u\/ tck ... awmiforef 0ef;usiaf e&mrSm aEGtcg ... ,mawmudik ;f awm ... prf;a& ...? awmifavaoG; ESifh wHwm;OD;ydet f ay:vrf;avQmufzYkd .../ rd;k tcg urf;pyfr,fZ,fwef;tajc? tif;a&ykwfcwfNyD; &SpfrsufESma&jyifxuf ... tHkYrdIif;rdk;om;? apGzGJrdk;pufMum; ...? OD;ydefwHwm; cspfolvufaEG; ... udk,fhvufaEG;apzkdY .../ aqmif;tcg ... ydef; ydwfESif;xkxJ ...? v,fwJ rD;cdk;aiGUvl ...? awmifol,mtoGm; ...? EGm;aigufoH jcLoHrsm; ,dr;f EGw UJ w H m;tdak y:uoJo h MhJ um;apzkYd .../ 'guawmh omrefcpH m;wwf olawGtwGuo f maygh .../ 'gayr,fh rEÅav;om; &opmayxdawGcU pH m;olrsm; uawmh xdx k akd wmiforeftvSrsm;xuf OD;ydew f w H m;xdyf awmiforeftif; apmif;u awmifav;vH;k ausmif;wku d ?f pma&;q&m udyk nm(tr&yl&)? 0uf om;[if;av;csuf ... wkdY\ t0ef;t0dkfif;udk ydkrdkrufarmMuonf/ uRefawmfwkYdpmayESihf pwifxdawGU MupOfu bm&SdOD;rSmvJ .../ 1970 ausmf0ef;usifumvaygh.../ 1975 qdkygrS vlysdKayguft&G,fomom.../ uRefawmfwdkYrsdK;qufu ]vlxk}t&dyfudk rrSDcJh/ ][Hom0wD} paepmay0dkif;? we*FaEGaeYpmay,Ofaus;rItcsyfydk ... t&dyfcdkcJh&onf/ 1972 EdkifiHwum pmtkyEf pS f txdr;f trSwf "r®Ard mefpmwrf;zwfyJG aemufq;kH xm;Ny;D ... txuf ArmEdik if pH ma&;q&mtoif;\ ewfawmfvqef; 1 &uf pmqdak wmfaeYtcrf; tem;rsm;\ vufqihfurf;tarG[kvnf; qdk&rnf/ xdkpOfumv rEÅav;pm ayt&yft0ef;rSmu ]qifBu;D } rsm;csn;f jzpfonf/ vlxOk ;D vS? vlxak ':trm? a'guw f moef;xGe;f ? ygarmu©csKyf OD;ausm&f if? OD;qef;xGe;f (ref;wuúov dk )f ? OD;csr;f jr (jrauwk)? Munfjr? a&TaoG;? a'guw f mxGe;f a&T? armifomEd;k ? armif pGr;f &nf? wifr;kd ? Munfatmif? udak v;(tif;0*kP&f nf)? ode;f oef;xGe;f ? armif rdk;ol? wuúokdvfarmifapmvGif?armifopfvGif(vlxk)?armifodef;Ekdif? wuúokdvfarmifxGef;a0 ... ponf ponf .../ vlBuD;ydkif;taeESihfu ausmufpm0ef OD;jr? ppfudkif;OD;bdk;oif;? a&TOa'gif;?jrrsdK;vGif? a&Tudkif;om; ... ponf ponf .../ udkif; ... enf;wJhtiftm;vm;av .../ xko d aYdk om yk*Kd¾ vaf usmBf u;D rsm;ESifh qufpyfywfoufaeavaom rEÅav;pmayt0ef;t0dik ;f t&dyaf tmufBu;D jyif;&onf[al om 'kvb ’ w&m; ESi*fh P k yf 'k u f tvGeBf u;D rm;vSonf/ xdaYk Mumihf pmuav;? ayuav; vuf vSrf;rDoavmuf zwf½Iavhvmjzpfaomtcg ]w&m;rif} avaomaMumihf ]yk*¾dKvfcif}csifvmrdonfuvnf; vlY"r®wmjzpfyg\/ xdkYaMumihf rEÅav;pm ayt0ef;t0dkif;tem; wdk;uyfoxuf wdk;uyf ...? em;pGihfrdavaomtcg xdk pOf ... (1975 0ef;usi)f tcgor,u ]OD;Zif; udyk nmausmif;}? ]awmifav; vHk;ausmif;} ]0ufom;[if;av;csuf}qdkonfh pum;oHawG cyfpdyfpdyfMum; vm&\/ xdkpOfu awmiforeftif;apmif; ausmufacwfopf,Ofaus;rI topfwl;azmfawGU&SdrIrsm;t& rEÅav;wuúodkvf ordkif;ynm&Sifrsm;tMum; vnf; xdkpum;oHawG Mum;&onf/ xkdYjyif a&S;a[mif;aypmyk&ydkufrsm;ESihf ywfoufí q&mawmfa&Tuikd ;f om;Ny;D aemuf xdawGEU pYHS yfEikd o f nfah e&mtjzpf vnf; wuúov dk jf refrmpmXme t0ef;t0dik ;f Mum;rSm ... xdt k oHawGMum;&jyef onf/ uRefawmfu a&S;a[mif;okawoeudk 0goemxHkonfhtjyif jrefrm rIyef;csDyef;ykrsm;udkvnf; jrwfEdk;avawmh q&mOD;armifarmifwif(r[m 0dZÆm)wkdY? udk0if;armif(wrÜ0wD)wkdYESihf yk*¾dKvfa&;cifrifrI&,l csOf;uyfav

aomtcg ... xdkxdkq&mrsm;xHrSvnf; 0ufom;[if;av;? awmifav;vHk; ausmif;? udkynm(tr&yl&)[lonfh pum;vHk;rsm;udkom tcgrvyfMum;od vm&onf/ emrnfausmfpma&;q&m owif;pmq&mBuD; tdk;a0OD;ndKjru vnf; 0gacgifvqef; awmifjyKef;yJG tcgor,udk taMumif;jyKNyD; tr&yl& awmiforeftif;apmif;? awmifav;vHk;ausmif;rSm &uf&Snfvrsm; ausmuf csaexdik o f nfo h umv rEÅav;pmayt0ef;t0dik ;f ESifh awmifav;vH;k ausmif; wdkufMum;vGef;xdk;xdpyfrIawG rsm;jym;aeonfhoabmvnf; jzpfyg\/ udik ;f ... 'Dawmh pm½l;ay½l; uReaf wmft h zkYd awmiforefawmifav; vHk;ausmif;okdY ajccscsifvm\/ q&mawmfudkynm(tr&yl&)udk awGUzl;csif vm\/ 0ufom;[if;av;td;k csuu f kd jrnf;prf;csiv f m\/ pma&;q&mrsm;ESifh r,fp,fyif&yd rf mS 0dik ;f zGu UJ m pmaypum;Mum;emcsiv f m\/ pma&;q&mrsm;ESifh OD;ydew f w H m;wpfavQmuf vrf;avQmufum uAsmoH pmoHwiG f &ifcek cf siv f m \/ okdYaomf xdktmoDorsm;u &ifxJrSmyJ odrf;xm;&onfh ]tHkYykef;}rsm;yJ jzpfygonf/ EIwrf S rxkwaf zmf0/hH b,fEh , S f ... ravmufav; ravmufpm;u ... &m&mpp[k rsuaf rSmifusKH U Muacsrnf/ okaYd omf xdt k moDorsm;um; avsmh yg; oGm;jcif; r&SdavyJ wdk;íwdk;íom jzpfay:vmavNyD/ * * *

wu,fawmh awmiforeftif;ESifh OD;ydew f w H m;qDoYdk ra&mufjzpf zl;qkv d Qiyf if wpfEpS f ESpaf cguaf wmh a&mufjzpfonf/ rEÅav;om;awGqakd wmh vnf; onfav;ig; q,frdkifc&D;udk pufbD;udk,fpDESihf oGm;&jcif;u t&om xl;vnf; jzpfonf/ þokdYjzihf 1975 ESihf 1980 ausmfumv awmiforeft aysmcf &D;awG rwlavawmhwm aocsmonf/ 1980 ausmu f mvrSm r,fp,f yifawGatmuf pm;zdaYk omufzYdk 0dik ;f zGzJU ?Ykd wHwm;ay:avQmufzYkd taysmif u S af vS pD;zdYk qdw k mawGxuf awmifav;vH;k ausmif;qdw k m ...? ukyd nm(tr&yl&)qdk wm ... udkyJ tm½Hka&mufaeonf/ b,fae&mqdkwmonfyifvQifrod .../ a&mufzl;? 0ifzl;? awGUzl;? BuHKzl;csifaomfvnf; tBudrfBudrf rsdKodyfcsKyfwnf; &onfh qE´rsm;yJ jzpfcJhonf/ þokdYjzihf xdkxdkqE´awGu 1985 ckESpf 0ef;usifrSyJ jynfhawmh onf/ 1984 ckESpf rEÅav;OD;usm;BuD;0if; rD;BuD;avmiftNyD; rEÅav;ta&SU ajrmufNrdKUe,f pmayvkyfom;tzGJU tpDtpOftjzpf NrdKUv,f"r®omvmcef;r rSm pmaya[majymyGJ usif;yonf/ q&mjroef;wihf? q&mrcifaqGOD; ...? q&mwifrdk;? q&m0if;cufwkdY jzpfonf/ onfa[majymyGJ tcrf;tem;rSm uReaf wmft h pfrjzpfol a':cif0if;EG,u f rEÅav;½d;k &m,Ofaus;rItpOftvm t& wyifwdkiftujzihf zGifhvSpf&ef wm0ef,lcJhonf/ qdkygawmh ...þpdefem; uyfta&mifjzihf uRefawmfonf tpfraemufu vkdufyg&if; ... pma&;q&m Bu;D rsm;ESifh eD;uyfc&hJ onf/ aemufaeY pma&;q&mBu;D awGukd awmifav;vH;k ausmif;wkdufESihf awmiforeftif;? OD;ydefwHwm;rsm;odkY vdkufydkY&mwGif ]tajr§mif}vdkufcGihf&yg\/ awmifav;vHk;ausmif;wkdufokdY a&mufyg\/ udyk nm(tr&yl&)udk zl;awG&U yg\/ emrnfausm0f ufom;[if;av;csu?f i½kyf oD;aMumf? yJESyf? rSefa&mif[if;csdKrsm;ESihf xrif;vufqHkpm;Mu&yg\/ atmif jcif;&Spfyg;"r®m½HkxJ ESD;acsmzsmBuD;awGay: pma&;q&m? q&mrBuD;rsm;ESihf eD; uyfpGmxdkif&if; pmpum;? uAsmpum;awGMum;em&yg\/ OD;ydefwHwm;

wpfavQmuf ausmufawmfBuD;bk&m;txd ... toGm;tjyefvrf;avQmuf&if; q&m? q&mrrsm;ESifh eD;uyfc&hJ yg\/ uReaf wmf ... awmifav;vH;k ausmif;wdu k f ESifh udyk nm(tr&yl&)wk\ Yd tHrh cef;at;jraom pm&dyaf y&dyu f kd tJ'u D wnf; u pGJvrf;cJhygavawmhonf/ at;jr tzdk;wefygavbd/

* * *

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( ASC )

qDG'if ½kyf&SifavmurS urÇmausmftEkynm&Sif(3)OD; ay:xGufcJhonf/

yxrOD;qH;k atmfpumoH;k qk&aomrif;orD;Bu;D tif*&pf-bZfrif; (Ingrid Bergman 1915- 1982) tar&duefokdY a&mufcgpu toHwdwfZmwfum;rsm;eJY aemufydkif;toHxGufZmwfum;rsm;tygt0if Zmwfum;aygif; (24)um; ½dkuful; cJhonf/ aemufwpfO;D rSm rif;orD;Bu;D Greta Garbo olronf tar&duef "mwfykH q&mBuD; William Daniels(ASC) ESifh (22)um; ½dkuful;cJhonf/ wwd,ajrmufwpfOD;rSm qDG'if'g½dkufwmBuD; Ingmar Muonf/

Bergman

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1972 wGif Cries and Whispers Zmwfum; "mwfyakH tmfpumqk &onf/ 1982 wGif Fanny and Alexander Zmwfum;taumif;qH;k Ekid if jH cm; ½ky&f iS f Zmwfum; qk (atmfpum)&onf/ ,if;Zmwfum;onf t0wftpm;? "mwfyt kH ygt0if tm;vH;k atmfpum (3)qk&cJhonf/ xkdESpfum;pvHk;udk 'g½dkufwmBuD; Ingmar Bergman ½dkuful;cJh NyD; ½kyf&Sif "mwfyHkq&mrSm urÇmausmfqDG'if½kyf&Sif"mwfyHkq&mBuD; Sven Nykvist jzpfonf/

"CRIES AND WHISPERS"Zmwfum;

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'g½dkufwmBuD;onf Bergman ESihf Nykvist wkdY vufwGJ nDpGmjzihf emrnfBuD; ½kyf&SifZmwfum;aygif; (12)um; Bergman raoqHk;cif aemufqHk;tcsdefxd ½dkuful;cJhMuonf/ 1967 wGif ½du k u f ;l cJah om Persona rSm olwt Ydk wGJ\ yxrOD;qH;k ½dkuful;cJhaom Zmwfum;jzpfNyD; Fanny and Alexander Zmwfum;onf xkd 'g½u kd Bf u;D \ aemufq;kH um;/ olb Y 0taMumif;udk ½du k af omum;Bu;D jzpfonf/ olwdkYESpfOD;onf ½dkufuGif;ay:ü nD&if;tpfudkrsm;uJhokdY wpfOD;udkwpfOD; av;pm;pGm vufwGJnDcJhMuonf/ Nykvist b0üvnf; olu Y kd Bergmanum; trsm;qH;k ½du k u f ;l cJo h [ l k qdkprSwfjyKMuonf/ þ"mwfyHkq&mBuD;onf vlBuD;qefum Muifemaom rsuv f ;kH rsm; ydik &f iS jf zpfonf/ olonf qDG'ifvrl sKd ;jzpfí t*Fvyd pf um;ajym&m ü qDG'ifav,lavodrf;aygufaeonf/ olonf tar&duefü (ASC) bGJU& um tar&duefZmwfum;rsm;udkvnf; ½dkuful;cJhol jzpfonf/ tar&duef½kyf&Sifum;rsm;udk ½dkuful;&mü ZmwfnTef;wGif pum; ajym(Dialogue)rsm;omygí olt Y wGuf xl;qef;umaeonf[k ajymzl;onf/ qD'G if½yk &f iS af vmuü Oyrm-'g½u dk w f m Bergman ZmwfneT ;f rsm;wGif tcef; wdik ;f ½du k cf suw f ikd ;f ü tcef;wGi;f \ tvif;tarSmiftajctae? rd;k &Gmaeonf? aeylaeonf? ESif;usaeonf paomtcsufrsm; ZmwfnTef;\ tcef;wdkif;ü ygonf[kqdkonf/ olonf ½kyf&Sif"mwfyHkynmudk pmayuJhokdY vlav;pm; atmif tqifjh rifah tmif ½du k jf yEdik o f l jzpfonf/ olu Y kd ynmwwfaom tawG; tac:&Sifoefaom ynm&Siftjzpf owfrSwfMuonf/ tar&duef ½kyf&Sif avmuu olYudk atmfpumqkay;um av;pm;orIjyKjcif; cH&ojzihfvnf; aus;Zl;wifaMumif; ajymygonf/

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1978 - Pretty Baby

1979 - Hurricane

1979 - King of the Gypsies

1981 - The Postman Always Rings Twice

1985 - Agnes of God

1988 - The Unbearable Lightness of Being

1989 - New Yorks Stories

1998 - Celebrity

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