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Zanzibari Queens - study on women’s conditions and their empowerment in a

society facing globalizing challenges

Janice, Wai Ting KWOK / master thesis / June 2009 / master of architecture / Chalmers University of Technology / GĂśteborg, Sweden


Zanzibari Queens Janice, Wai Ting KWOK Examinator: Ana Betancour Master thesis in Architecture, June 2009 U+A/DD, Urban + Architecture Design and Development Master of Architecture, Chalmers Gรถteborg, Sweden


Abstract The project is about finding ways to give opportunities for women on Zanzibar to show their potential powers. The background analysis includes a study and a four week site visit, a comparison of existing building methods and materials on Zanzibar, a gender study, as well as an extensive phase of experiments with materials. I explored women empowerment through three levels: Social political strategy: Micro-economics My programme identified a series of activities that lead to the formation a platform for skills and social exchange, and possibility of micro-economic growth. Urban strategy: Reclaiming public spaces I linked the social-political strategy with the existing urban situations on Zanzibar. The urban strategy aims to increase the mobility of women in the city. Design strategy: Low tech, low cost; women can build Through research and experiments, I explored the possibility for women to build their own space by using simple building method and low cost materials. The three strategies are interrelated and encourage women empowerment through social networking, education and microenterprises.

Keywords: Zanzibar, women, empowerment, micro-economics, public spaces, low cost materials

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Acknowledgements I would like to thank all the people who have made it possible for me to look at the world and architecture through new eyes and empowered me through the process. In particular: Ana Betancour for striking and empowering me with her strength; Inger Lise Syvenson for giving me a lot of information and references about zanzibar and the project; Mateusz, Carl Johan, Joaquim for critics; Johanna, Lousie and Jakob for sharing information; U+A/DD studio mates especially the thesis group for sharing and listening, Alisa for candy and entertainment support, Maja for endless coffee nights, Luxu and Huang Fang for Chinese songs and tv dramas sharing, Tino for discussions, Caroline, Maja, Linnea and Ylva for health guidance; and Mangold’s family with the sophisticated suggestion with model works; that I could have been achieve a thorough thesis work. During the present on Zanzibar, I was also fortunate to be hosted by Mama Khadija‘s family which I could get a quick overview of the culture and as well as in depth. STAR Ali had helped me accomplished the sensation map and deepened my understanding about the Zanzibari attitude. Farad, Mohammed had given me academic comments and information. I am very thankful to all other friends I met on Zanzibar including Malaika, Malin, Alfredo and Melanine and people I interviewed. At last, I want to show my deepest appreciation for my considerate boyfriend Mikael, for his patience in listening to all my strange ideas; sharing his knowledge towards Zanzibar related topics; his tolerance to my absence at home; his support both physically and mentally during my hard time.

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00

table of contents

preface

(4)

A_background 01_africa and tanzania 02_tanzania quick facts 03_zanzibar nowadays 04_zanzibar history 05_zanzibar architecture 06_zanzibar issues

E_design scope (8) (10) (13) (15) (17) (20)

B_women 01_women in global 02_women in zanzibar 03_women’s role in zanzibar

(27) (31) (32)

proposal introduction C_social-political scope 01_the strategy: micro-economics 02_programming 03_spatial programming

(39) (40) (48)

D_urban scope 01_zanzibar urbanism 02_gender and space 03_stone town structure 04_public spaces in zanzibar 05_the strategy: (re)claiming public space

01_the strategy: low tech; low cost; women can build 02_material research 03_building method research 04_bamboo study 05_material experiments 06_design development 07_design proposals

(65) (66) (70) (72) (74) (78) (80)

F_conclusion 01_summary and reflections

(98)

afterword

(101)

bibliography

(102)

appendices 01_stripe studies 02_sensation map 03_interviews 04_field study diary

(107) (114) (122) (126)

(53) (55) (57) (58) (60)

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empowerment process

oct

nov - dec

jan - feb

feb - mar

mar

mar - apr

apr

apr - may

waterfront city strips study

waterfront city strips study

background study

textile

sensation map

women in global perspective

issue study

women in zanzibar

tyre

programme

material study

bamboo

spatial study

building methods

scaffolding

tent

4

material tests

interventions


00

preface

This project started with a combined study trip in the course U+A/DD studio and a vacation in Zanzibar in October 2008 for 4 weeks. The focus of the field study in the beginning was about the waterfront city related issues. During the visit in Zanzibar, I devoted most of my time simply learning by observation, interviewing people and trying to live like a Zanzibar person. I noted down my experiences and thoughts every day in a diary. After I returned to Sweden, more reflections came while analyzing the field trip, conducting deeper research and presenting in the studio. The visit to Zanzibar brought me not only a cultural shock, but it also made me rethink my academic and personal standpoints. The deteriorating yet beautiful physical structures attracted my first attention. In the end what I remember the most are the colourful culture, passionate people and laid-back (no-worry) attitude. Thus, I decided to work on the master thesis about Zanzibar, a city filled with energy and sensations. There were many interesting issues related to Zanzibar raised up after the extensive research and analysis. I narrowed down the scope and this project is focusing on what I was first struck by when I arrived Zanzibar: women. Being a woman myself, I am curious how different we are, what differences we have and why. Women in Zanzibar are living at the edge of the conventional society boundary. There are deep-in-root traditional perceptions on how woman should be and yet they are receiving ideas of how a modern woman should be every day. The strength and capacity of Zanzibar women tend to be hidden in the society. At this time of globalization, participations of both genders would lead to a sustainable development. Education, economy and creating social network are ways to empower women. The thesis is not going to solve the huge gender related problems in Africa, but to look at, understand and reflect on the gender issue in a conventional society which is facing globalizing challenges. It is on one hand trying to empower the women and on the other hand to create a harmonic atmosphere in the society.

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background

01_africa and tanzania 02_tanzania quick facts 03_zanzibar nowadays 04_zanzibar history 05_zanzibar architecture 06_zanzibar issues

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Mascat Bombay Aden Zeila

Old trading route

Equater with monsoon

Mogudishu Lamu Mombasa Kilwa

Zanzibar

Kingdoms, states and empires in 15th century Sultanate of Zanzibar

Tanzania

Ethiopia Yemen

Sofala

Mameluk Aloa Tundjur Tuareg Mali Mossi

Tanzania

Islam in Africa (1987)

Tanzania

Current Islam in Africa CIA Factbook 70% +

Predomintely Muslim

50% - 70%

SigniďŹ cant Muslim Minority

30% - 50% 10% - 30% 0% - 10%

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A_background

01_africa and tanzania

Colonial Possessions 1930 Tanzania

GDP (PPP) per capita 2008 (internationl dollars) CIA World Factbook2008

French

24,000 - 45,000

Spanish

14,000-24,000

Italian

9,000 - 14,000

British

4,000 - 9,000

Belgian

2,000 - 4,000

Portuguese

1,000 - 2,000

Germany (until 1919)

0 - 1,000

Independent

N/A

Tanzania

Current Christianity in Africa CIA Factbook

Current Traditional Religions in Africa CIA Factbook

equator

Tanzania

Tanzania

40% + 70% + 50% - 70% 30% - 50% 10% - 30% 0% - 10%

30% - 40% 20% - 30% 10% - 20% 0% - 10% N/A

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A_background

02_tanzania quick facts

Morogoro

Area Population

....

... .

... .

..

... .....

GDP (PPP) 2007 estimate Currency

Iringa

Zanzibar

.

Dar es Salaam

...

Lindi

old slave trade route Moshi

r da

November 2006 estimate 40,000,000 41 ppl/km2

Tanzanian shilling (TZS)

........ ...

. ... Mibeya

- Tanganyika December 9, 1961 - Zanzibar January 12, 1964 - Merger April 26, 1964

- Total $48.921 billion[2] - Per capita $1,255[2]

..

Tanga

Dodoma

. .....

Tanzanian

Total 945,203 km2 Water 6.2%

Arusha

.... ..... ............ ..... ...

. .. . .

Swahili (de facto) English (Higher courts, higher education)

kagera

Density

......

Tobora

....

Independence from the United Kingdom

... ..... ...... .. ...

....

Demonym

...

....... .......... .... .

Dar es Salaam

Kigoma

Official languages

Mwanza

..

Largest city

Dodoma

................... ....

Capital

...................... ....... .

za

tan

. . ... . . . . .......

Musoma

.... .......

nia

mwanza

arusha

kilimanjaro

mwanza manyara

tabora

tanga singida

mbeya

aam

sal

mara

shinyanga

rukwa

es

a

mb

pe

dodoma

iringa

morogoro pwani

lindi

density of population

r

ba

zi zan

ruvuma

r

ba

zi zan

mtwara

is a semi-autonomous part of the United Republic of Tanzania in eastern Africa. It consists of lots of small islands and two large ones: Unguja and Pemba, in the Indian Ocean.

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12

ariel photo of zanzibar city


A_background

03_zanzibar nowadays

Population Area

1,070,000 (2004) 984,625 (2002) Census 2.644 km²

Density

350 ppl/km²

Population Growth

3 % per year

Religion

Political situation

98% Muslims Compared to 30-40% Muslims on Tanzania mainland

Zanzibar is politically unstable. Since the bloody revolution in 1964 the Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM) has been the only party in power. An opposing party, the Civic United Front (CUF), have been active from the 1990ties. The contested election in 2000 led to a massacre where police opened fire on protestors (Human Rights Watch 2002).

Tourism

20% of the Zanzibar income is generated through tourisn and has been increasing every year with 7% the last 15 years. 70% of the approved investment projects were for tourism in 2007. Tourism brings income but causes re-evaluation of traditional values and foreign companies are taking a larger space in the society.

Conservation

Over 80% of 1709 buildings in Zanzibar stone town are of poor or deteriorating condition. Late 60s to late 80s approximately one house a month collapsed. 85 of these collapsed between 1982 and 1992. From then the rate slowed down to approximately one building a year. Between the Age Khan survey of 1994 and the STCDA survey in 2004 only 13 new ruins were registered.

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A_background

04_zanzibar history

Swahili culture has developed in East coast of Africa for more than 3000 years. Early Swahili culture existed from 500BC to 1497AD on Zanzibar. The main influences in the early stage of Swahili culture are from Arabs, Indians, Persians, and Indonesians due to the monsoon trading trend. Arabs were the most important visitors. Many Arabs had settled along the coast in AD1000 and joined in the new group of visitors from China in 12th century. Unguja offered a protected and defensible harbour, so although the archipelago offered few products of value, the Arabs settled at what became Zanzibar City (Stone Town) as a convenient point from which to trade with East African coastal towns. They established garrisons on the islands and built the first mosque in the Southern hemisphere. During the European Age of Exploration, the Portuguese gain control of Zanzibar for 200 years until 1698, then Zanzibar fell under the control of Sultanate of Oman and later on became the capital of the empire. Zanzibar City was the main trading port of East African slave trade at the period. European Colonialization continued and Zanzibar was once East Germany colony and later on came into the hands of the Britain. In 1963, the islands gained independence from Britain. After the Zanzibar revolution in 1964, Zanzibar and Pemba was subsumed by the mainland and become semi-autonomous region of the United Republic of Tanzania. Today, spices, raffia palm and tourism are the main income for Zanzibar. The old quarter of Zanzibar city, Stone Town, is listed as World Cultural Heritage by UNESCO.

*reference proposed water front elevation from Bianca, Stefano & Francesco Siravo (1996), A Plan for the Historic Stone Town, The Aga Khan Trust for Culture: Zanzibar,

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16

zanzibar stone town


A_background

05_zanzibar architecture

The architecture in Zanzibar city is influence by different cultures due to its history. There are typical examples of Swahili, Arabic, Persian Indian and colonial architecture and as well as some mixed styles.

A) Typical Swahili house 1. Friendly entrance with benches next to the entrance door 2. Corridor running in the centre to reach backyard (domestic activities happened) 3. Single storey 4. Palm leaves roof 5. Wattle and daub construction, plastered with mud

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B) Shirazi influence (Persian)

C) Arabic influence

1. Woodcarving ornaments especially on balconies 2. Pointed arch, carefully and distinctly cut limestone 3. High level of detailing 4. Front bench is still kept at the entrance door

1. Simple whitewashed square building with coral rock and mortar 2. Flat roof terrace by crenulated parapet 3. Small openings 4. Reception near the entrance 5. Well decorated door with centre pole 6. Courtyard in the middle, enabling evening breeze 7. Openness in the courtyard, but narrow street created


A_background

05_zanzibar architecture

D) Indian influence

E) European influence

1. Shop front row houses 2. Providing covered passageways for pedestrians

1. Colonnades, porticoes and verandas opened the interior of the building 2. Balconies view to Indian ocean and access to cool evening breeze

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01

_01 garbage one of the sense issues with beauty, and smell

Garbage

02

Garbage can be seen quite often in Zanzibar town. Currently there is no free public garbage collection. Local communities organize garbage collection by themselves and they will only take the garbage to a big open dumpster at certain locations in the city. This creates problem of toxins in the water and contaminate several drinkable water spots. Garbage sorting and recycling or re-use of garbage can create jobs and business opportunities.

_02 market one of the sense issues with beauty, and smell Since spices and seafood are famous in Zanzibar, the market is an important spot for both locals and tourists. The markets in Zanzibar are simple in structures, and yet they are colourful, full of fresh food and spices. It is a place with strong sensations in different ways which make the Zanzibar market exceptional and unique from other markets in the world. Market

03

_03 mosque prayer calls one of the sensation issues with sound There are plenty of sonic differences between a western modern city and an Islamic traditional city. With the mosque prayer calls which are 5 times a day and loud noises from the shops Stone Town is a vivid and unique city.

Mosque Prayer Calls 20


A_background

04

06_zanzibar issues

_04 port area one of the architectural planning aspects

Port Area

There is an international port on Zanzibar and it has been an important and significant port to the development of old Zanzibar. Now the port area is comparatively an area for locals where they have fish market, food stalls and national ferry terminals.

05

_05 ruins one of the architectural aspects In Stone Town, a large number of the buildings are so under-maintained that they are deteriorating and even collapsing. When this happens, open spaces suddenly appear. They become the potential land for development in the city and creation of green or open spaces. Ruins

Green Spaces

06

_06 green spaces one of the architectural aspects Stone Town is packed and famous for its winding alleys. There is a lack of open spaces and green spaces in town. However, due to the bad maintenance and the climate, plants grow in buildings or even on buildings. They could make the buildings deteriorate even faster, yet they are almost the only green spaces in Stone Town.

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07

_07 resources one of the social aspects In Zanzibar water is currently being priced, people have to start paying for water. However there are a lot of houses without private taps. The government is not the only agent providing water, there are also a lot of private water dealers. There was a big electricity break down in May 2008 and right now water pipes and electricity lines are hanging across the alleys externally.

Resources

08

_08 density one of the architectural and social aspects There are 18,000 inhabitants living in Stone Town . It is developed in an exceptionally packed way with 2 to 4 storey tall buildings while most of them are in Arabic style. This creates narrow alleys which can be as narrow as 1m in width with bikes and sometimes even motorcycles will go through those narrow alleys. The expansion of the city would be an important issue to be dealt with.

Density

09

_09 security one of the social aspects According to a local interviewee, the police is dangerous and it is a fact that the last two elections were followed by massacres police violence. The opposition party was claiming that the elections were stolen and that they had a majority of the population behind them. In addition, the migration of the people from rural mainland Tanzania also brings unstable security to Zanzibar.

Security 22


A_background

10

06_zanzibar issues _10 tourists one of the social aspects

Tourists

There is a significantly increasing number of tourists coming to Zanzibar for vacation purposes. They bring new modern way of life with them to a traditional society. This creates conflicts and new challenges to the culture. They consume resources in a different way than the locals which leads to environmental problem such as damages to local beaches or coral reefs. The tourists are also symbolized as money in the locals’ eyes.

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_11 beach boys one of the social aspects Man and women are having different status on Zanzibar. It is due to the conventions in the society and the religious teachings. Nowadays, there are increasing numbers of men coming to Zanzibar for career purposes. A number of them stay near the beach to look for opportunities for business with tourists and form a new kind of informal occupations – beach boys. Beach Boys

12

_12 women one of the social aspects Women in Zanzibar wear kanga which makes them very distinctive in the tourists’ eyes. Since Zanzibar is an Islamic city, women are supposed to behave in a conventional way. There is a huge gap of gender equality while comparing to the western world. Women in Zanzibar are hard workers, that there are great potential for them to achieve more.

Women 23


24


women

01_women in global 02_women in zanzibar 03_women’s role in zanzibar

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women 2/3

WORK of the world’s working hours,

1/2

PRODUCE of the world’s food, and yet

10% 1%

EARN of the world’s income and OWN LESS THAN of the world’s property

Walter Kalin eds., The Face of Human Rights, Baden: Lars Müller 2004

BETWEEN

40-60%

of sexual assaults are committed against girls younger than 16. ‘Prevention and response’ to sexual and gender-based violence in refugee situations, UNHCR

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2/3

of the

110 million

children not in school are girls Walter Kalin eds., The Face of Human Rights, Baden: Lars Müller 2004

70% 1,300,000,000

Women constitute

estimated people living in absolute poverty Walter Kalin eds., The Face of Human Rights, Baden: Lars Müller 2004

of the


B_women

01_women in global

Looking at the shocking digits, is there something we can do? In the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by the United Nations, to promote gender, equality and to empower women is one of the eight goals which should be achieved by 2015. For centuries, effort has been made in English speaking countries to improve the lives of women through seeking women’s rights and liberation, from having the right to vote to legal and employment equality. Until recent decades, the stress of gender equality has been carried out in a global perspective. Establishments of Commission on the Status of Women under the Human Rights Division, United Nations, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) and many other NGOs are significant evidence of improvements of women status in the third world countries.

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Recent Evolution of the GEI Components

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*reference from socialwatch.org


55 KENYA

57 GHANA

TANZANIA

ZIMBABWE

ZAMBIA

58 59

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B_women

02_women in zanzibar

With the Muslim background, gender issue is in another dimension than in western world. The countries which have not signed the CEDAW are mainly Islamic states (Iran, Qatar, Somalia and Sudan) and small Pacific Island nations. Even though 98% of residents on Zanzibar are Muslims, Zanzibar is part of the Republic of Tanzania which tolerates all religions and has only 30-40% Muslims in population since 1964. The Republic of Tanzania committed itself to CEDAW without any reservations in 1980. The women of Africa also made the Zanzibar Declaration and the Women’s Agenda for a Culture of Peace in May 1999. Quite different from the other African cities, with the years of efforts fighting for gender equality, the women status on Zanzibar is much changed. The women enjoy education and play an important role in the economics contributions. However, due to the tradition social convention, women on Zanzibar are still bounded by customs that they should play a certain family role, and having restrictions in work and entertainments. The image of a modern woman that they see on TV everyday can only be in their fantasy, never happen in the reality. The documentary movie ‘Zanzibar Soccer Queens’ (2007) presents a fresh insight of the current women status on Zanzibar.

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_01 Mama Noushed (45 yrs old)

00h00

Mama and Sheni go to Market

05h30 Wake Up and Pray

03h00

06h00

Sleep

00h00 JAN

FEB

03h00

09h00 06h30 - 09h00 Preparing food and Breakfast

_02 Mama Khadija (49 yrs old)

Sleep

06h00 APR

05h30 Wake Up 05h30 and WakePray Up

03h00

00h00 JAN

FEB 03h00 Sleep Sleep

15h00

12h30 13h30 Lunch Pray

JUN

12h00

08h00

09h00

06h00APR 05h30 - 08h00 Jogging and 05h30 - 08h00 Yogaand Jogging

09h00 MAY

16h00 Pray

15h00 AUG

JUL

12h30 Lunch 12h30in shopin Lunch

16h00 Pray and 16h00 Relax Pray and

shop

Relax

12h00 JUN

12h00

18h30 19h30 Pray Dinner

18h00

21h00

17h00 - 19h00 Preparing Food

20h00 - 22h00 Relaxing time

15h00

OCT

17h00 - 19h00 Preparing Food

00h00 JAN 00h00 JAN

FEB 03h00 FEB 03h00 Sleep Sleep

MAR MAR

18h00 SEP

NOV

21h00 OCT

Shop Keeping

00h00 DEC Sleep

21h00 NOV 20h00 - 22h30 Relaxing time 20h00 - 22h30 (TV) time Relaxing

00h00 00h00 DEC Sleep Sleep

(TV)

05h30 Pray 05h30

Relaxing time at home Relaxing time

Pray

at home

06h00APR 06h00APR 05h00 - 10h00 Preparing Chapati 05h00 - 10h00 / Breakfast Preparing Chapati / Breakfast

32

Sleep

18h30 19h30 Pray Dinner 18h30 19h30 Pray Dinner

Yoga

_04 Atu (around 27 yrs old) _04 Atu (around 27 yrs old)

21h00

20h00 - 22h30 Relaxing time (TV)

18h00

15h00 JUL AUG 09h00 - 18h00 Shop Keeping 09h00 - 18h00

00h00

18h30 19h30 Pray Dinner

18h00 SEP

13h30 - 17h00 Relaxing or Sleeping at home

10h30 - 12h30 Preparing Chapati and Lunch

06h00 MAR

16h00 Pray and Relax

10h30 - 12h30 13h30 - 15h30 Preparing food and Cooking Relaxing time by Mama, Sheni and Joyce at home

Breakfast 08h00 and shower Breakfast and shower

and Pray

00h00

09h00 MAY

05h00 - 08h00 Preparing Chapati

_03 Izdi (24 yrs old) _03 Izdi (24 yrs old)

12h00

Relaxing time at home

05h30 Pray

MAR

12h30 13h30 Lunch Children come home from school and pray

09h00 MAY 09h00 MAY

12h30 13h30 Lunch 13h30 Pray 12h30 Lunch Pray

12h00 JUL JUN 12h00 JUL Shopping in Food Market in Preparation Shopping Food JUN

Market Preparation

16h00 Pray 16h00 Pray

15h00 AUG 15h00 AUG 13h30 - 17h00 Relaxing Sleep13h30 -or17h00 ing at or home Relaxing Sleeping at home

18h30 19h30 Pray Dinner 18h30 19h30 Pray Dinner

18h00 SEP 18h00 SEP 17h00 - 19h00 Preparing Food 17h00 - 19h00 Preparing Food

OCT OCT

21h00 NOV 21h00 NOV 20h00 - 22h30 Relaxing time 20h00 - 22h30 (TV) time Relaxing (TV)

00h00 DEC 00h00 DEC Sleep Sleep


achings Family

B_women

03_women’s roles in zanzibar

Taking care of children

The role of women in Zanzibar is taking care of their homes including looking after the children, cooking and doing housework the needs for the family. Cooking when man is working outside to provide Housework According to my field study and my observations, women are expected to stay home. On the other Taking of children hand men are supposed to work outside the home. If men do not have a formal job,care they will look for opportunities for business and set up of connections.

[

Cooking

Qur’an teachings Women’s and Men’s Roles in the Family

The majority of the women do not have a formal job. However, they do undertake some minor work at home such as sewing work or bakery to support family with the raising living standard in the city. However, it is not the method to support the family in a sustainable way. Women in Zanzibar are facing the dilemma that they want to find a job, but it is hard for them when the men dominating business market due to traditions and religion.

[

Taking care of children

Cooking

]

Qur’an teachings Women’s and Men’s Roles in the Family

‘Women should give priority to their children and family inside homes’ (s: 33, v: 33), ‘while men work outside the home because they are responsible for providing basic needs and daily living expenses for women and children’ (s: 2, v: 233)

[

Housework ‘Women should give priority to their children and f ‘while men work outside the home because they ar and daily living expenses for women and children’ (

Qu’ran teachings Women’s and Men’s Roles in the Family

Qur’an teachings Women’s and Men’s Roles in the Family

[

‘Women should give priority to their children and family inside homes’ (s: 33, v: 33), ‘while men work outside the home because they are responsible for providing basic needs and daily living expenses for women and children’ (s: 2, v: 233)

33

]


34

empowerment

economics education social network


proposal introduction Based on intensive field study, systematic analysis and research, I tried to understand and reflect the gender issue not only about Zanzibar but also globally. 1) How to let women on Zanzibar enjoy their lives according to their wills? 2) How can they play a more significant role in the community and thus contribute to the society? 3) How women on Zanzibar can empower themselves and also the other women? Through creating urban scenarios, a thorough programme is proposed which links the design proposal to different levels of empowerment. Empowerment is about economy, education, social networking. Proposed Strategies

Social-political Strategy: Micro-economics

– creating platforms for social and skills exchange which also create opportunities for micro-economic growth.

Urban Strategy: (Re)claiming public spaces

– proposing routes and possible ways for increasing mobility for women in Zanzibar, so they could have public spaces for social networking.

Design Strategy: Low tech, low cost; women can build

– using local materials and methods in a way that everybody can build. This attitude brings empowerment and can start spreading and developing.

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36


social-political scope

01_the strategy: micro-economics 02_programming 03_spatial programming

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38


C_social-political scope

01_the strategy:micro-economics

Social-political strategy: Micro-economics The economy of Zanzibar was mainly based on exporting clove however recently the tourism industry keeps on growing bigger. Currently in Stowe Town, there are people from mainland Tanzania coming for tourism business. Both these businesses are dominated by men, a fact which shows that the economy is closely linked to different gender in the society. In Zanzibar, the roles of gender are shaped by social conventions and religious teachings. Looking at earning money in another angle, besides being an employee, an entrepreneur could be a solution. Currently there are NGOs working programmes for women entrepreneurs in Tanzania. In Zanzibar, there are some local initiated cooperatives, such as Moto, Jambiani, and Sasik (Stone Town), which encourage women earn their own money and to be independent. There are a lot of successful female entrepreneurs who started with micro-business. Micro-economics is one of the ways for sustainable economy in Zanzibar.

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The items shown are the possible activties for women on zanzibar based on a mixture of their daily roles and they dreams. They are also suggested based on three way of empowerment : production, education and social network

The items shown are the possible activties for women on zanzibar based on a mixture of their daily roles and they dreams. They are also suggested based on three way of empowerment : production, education and social network

The items shown are the possible activties for women on zanzibar based on a mixture of their daily roles and they dreams. They are also suggested based on three way of empowerment : production, education and social network

*the activities are suggested by personal experiences and perceptions towards what women in zanzibar can do

kanga (traditional women’s clothin in india or mainland tanzania.

programme textil programme programme textile handicraft textile handicr culina *the activities are suggested by personal experiences and perceptions towards what women in zanzibar can do

kanga (traditional women’s is all produced *the activities are suggested byclothing) personal experiences and towards what women in zanzibar can do inperceptions india or mainland tanzania.

are the possible activties nzibar based on a mixture es and they dreams. They ed based on three way of production, education and

ested by personal experiences and hat women in zanzibar can do

omen’s clothing) is all produced tanzania.

there are several beauty salons in zanzibar. it is a good place for creating social network kanga (traditional women’sbetween clothing)women is all produced and in india or mainland tanzania. an opportunty zanzibari chests are the main and biggestfor handicarft business. on zanzibar. light handicarfts for women could be an opportunity.

there are several the local women beauty salons in footballit team is zanzibar. is a good famous worldwide. place for creating there could be social network development ofand zanzibari chests are the main and biggest handicarft between women other similar types on zanzibar. light handicarftsanfor women could be women spend a large portion ofopportunty their time for in the of sports or health an opportunity. business. kitchen. skills could be gathered and produce local care programs. crusines.

zanzibari kanga (traditional chests arewomen’s the mainclothing) and biggest is allhandicarft produced on in india zanzibar. or mainland light handicarfts tanzania.for women could be an opportunity.

there are several beauty salons in zanzibar. it is a good place for creating the local women social network watching tv football team and is between women is a major famous worldwide. an opportunty for entertainment there could be business. for women. women spend a large portion ofdevelopment theirtalk timeabout in of the they similar types kitchen. skills could be gatheredother andbollywood produce local the of or health crusines. orsports mainland care programs. tanzanian tv series.

women zanzibari spend chests a large are the portion mainofand th kitchen. on zanzibar. skills could light handicarfts be gatheredforanw crusines. an opportunity.

the foo fam wom the w have dev is dan oth e sinc of s fo be carc as th p th ther o ente ta wom

ramme handicraft textile handicraft culinary care health c extile culinary beauty beauty care health beautycare care movie health & care tv movie danc& there are several beauty salons in zanzibar. it is women a good the local place for creating football team is social network famous worldwide. between there women could beand an opportunty forof development business. other similar types of sports or health care programs.

the local women football team is watching tv famous worldwide. is a major there could be entertainment development of for women. other similar types talkorabout ofthey sports health theprograms. bollywood care or mainland tanzanian tv series.

watching tv women do not is a major have chances to go entertainment dancing normally for women. since will theythey talk about bethe considered bollywood asorprositutes. mainland there is a lack of tanzanian tv series. entertainment for women.

uty care health care & tv th care movie & tv movie dance 40

women do not have chances to go dancing normally since they will be considered as prositutes. there is a lack of entertainment for women.

dance


C_social-political scope

02_programming

description

‘Kanga’ is a special traditional women’s fashion in Eastern Africa with bright and colourful printings on cloth which contains messages and meaning. In Zanzibar, another common fashion for women is called ‘Bui Bui’ which is a fashion trend from Arab countries. Currently, all the Kangas are imported from India or Dar es Salaam (mainland Tanzania). It is a good opportunity for producing it and its byproducts locally in Zanzibar.

software

hardware

skills learning & education

product design printing and dying cloth fashion design sewing technique

production

cushions carpets kanga handbags

puppets duvet cases clothes

social network

classrooms workshops

work space shops

workshop

forum shops

raw materials suppliers micro-finance investors local skilled women other local women local women support groups local and international customers

meeting / conference room storage space

agents and actors

textile

41


description

In Zanzibar, there are a number of souvenir shops which sell Swahili style handicrafts and accessories with local raw materials. They are popular among the tourists and to some extent to the local citizens. These items could be produced in a small scale and home-made. The exibility of producing handicrafts is suitable for women of creating incomes and a network that not only within the community itself but also international business.

software skills learning & education

production

hardware

handicraft design recycling materials

classrooms workshops

earrings bracelet necklace wind chimes

work space selling shops

workshop design classes

workshop

raw materials suppliers micro-ďŹ nance investors local skilled women other local women local women support groups local and international customers

meeting / conference room storage space

social network

agents and actors

42

handicraft


C_social-political scope

02_programming

description

With Zanzibar known as the ‘Spice Islands’, it’s little surprise that spices play an important role in the cuisine there. Clove, cinnamon, pepper, chili pepper, coconut and lots more other spices are often used in cooking. When women are generally spending most of their time in cooking, there will be a big opportunity for creating business and skill exchange with cookery.

software

skills learning & education

production

hardware

culinary school beverage and catering managment

classrooms kitchen

swahili crusines drinks street food candy / snacks

resturants food market candy / snacks stores

kitchen food tasting session

kitchen food tasting session

food supplier micro-finance investors local skilled women (chef and server) other local women local women support groups local and international customers

meeting / conference room

social network

agents and actors

culinary

43


description

There are a number of beauty salons in Zanzibar which they provide hair dressing, facial, manicure and traditional henna (painting on hands and feet). Most of the women, regardless where they are from are interested into beauty care. In Zanzibar as well, the salon is a place where women can be free from men and gossips. The target groups are not only the local women but also the tourists. The salon is in addition a platform for daily life experience and knowledge exchange.

software skills learning & education

production

hardware

hair stylist henna design manucare facial

classrooms salon shop

hair dressing henna manucare facial

salon shop + beauty care shop

salon meeting points

salon shop

social network

agents and actors

products and machine suppliers local skilled women other local women local and international customers

44

beauty care


C_social-political scope

02_programming

description

There are a number of beauty salons in Zanzibar which they provide hair dressing, facial, manicure and traditional henna (painting on hands and feet). Most of the women, regardless where they are from are interested into beauty care. In Zanzibar as well, the salon is a place where women can be free from men and gossips. The target groups are not only the local women but also the tourists. The salon is in addition a platform for daily life experience and knowledge exchange.

software skills learning & education

production

hardware

football beach volleyball yoga

football court beach (for women)

sports team yoga classes

football court beach (for women)

training sessions meeting points

sports hall dressing / changing rooms

social network

agents and actors

coach / teachers local women women support groups local sports associations national sports associations local government

sports & health

45


description

Zanzibar is the ďŹ rst place in Africa having colour television. May 2007 there was an electricity breakdown for a month due to consumption overloaded for TV. According to the previous study of daily life of women in Zanzibar, they spend quite a large portion of resting time for watching television. Sometimes they visit each other at home and watch television and discuss about the content of the drama series. Movies and television become a media that bring women in Zanzibar together. Currently there is a public space for men watching football match together at Jaw’s corner. Why not have another public space for women watching drama together?

software skills learning & education

production

hardware

scripts writing movie shooting

classrooms movie warehouse

ďŹ lms dramas theatre

cinema theatre hall

watching drama together

television / movie cinema

social network

agents and actors

national movie / tv companies international movie companies local women women support groups local government

46

movie / tv


C_social-political scope

02_programming

description

Dancing in clubs or discos is almost considered as forbidden in Zanzibar. Most of the people interpret those women dancing in public places are prostitutes. While on the other hand, Zanzibar women are eager to go dancing and at the moment the place they can go is taraab dancing hall. Since dancing in the taraab dancing hall will be broadcasted, it is a place to be elegant and show o richness. Suggesting a dancing place for women could give a chance for women for entertainment and to express themselves.

software skills learning & education

production

hardware

taraab

dancing platform / room for women

disco for women club for women

disco club dancing tent

dancing sessions

meeting points

social network

agents and actors

local women women support groups local government

dance

47


hardware comparison

activity

skills learning & education

classrooms workshops

classrooms workshops

classrooms kitchen

classrooms salon shop

work space shops

work space shops

resturants food market candy / snacks stores

workshop shops

workshop

kitchen food tasting session

meeting / conference room storage space

meeting / conference room storage space

meeting / conference room

football court beach (for women)

classrooms movie warehouse

dancing platform / room for women

salon shop + football court beauty care shop beach (for women)

cinema theatre hall

disco club dancing tent

salon shop

television / movie cinema

meeting points

production

social network

dressing / changing rooms

agents & actors

permanent

48

permanent / temporary

permanent / temporary

permanent

enclosed

enclosed / opened

enclosed / opened

enclosed

private

semi - public

public

private


C_social-political scope

courtyard

social room

dance oor

kitchen

food stall

classroom

relax and rest washing functions

workspace

shop

outdoor - indoor

storage

open - enclosed

more private

public - private

03_spatial programming

more public

_hardware compon 49


50


urban scope

01_zanzibar urbanism 02_gender and space 03_stone town structure 04_public spaces in zanzibar 05_the strategy: (re)claiming public space

51


52


D_urban scope

01_zanzibar urbanism

Zanzibar is built as a centre for trading along the coast in Indian Ocean. The building tradition is inspired by the neighbouring cultures as well as the colonial cultures. The Arabic influenced building consists of large internal courtyards and it leads to narrow streets formation and lack of public open spaces. Under British control, the urban development was planned in the similar way as in Western Europe. Straight long roads dividing different zones, with open spaces and parks are found in the southern part of Stowe Town.

gothenburg

zanzibar stone town

hong kong

53


54

jaw’s corner


D_urban scope

02_gender and space

In Gender, Identity and Place: Understanding Feminist Geographies, McDowell wrote ‘while sex depicts biological differences, gender in contrast describes socially constructed characteristics’ (1999:13). UNDP states that gender ‘refers to the comparative of differential roles, responsibilities and opportunities for women and men in a given society’ (2004). In other words, you are born with a sex while the gender is thus constructed and shaped by the external factors. Many times, we dress and behave to meet the gendered expectations in different societies in different time. Since gender is constructed and shaped by the external factors, can we use the same sense to say there is a gender in space? Beall stated in the article why gender matters (1998) that, Traditionally, and almost universally, women have been associated with the private space of the home and men with the public space of urban streets; women with domestic and community work and men with paid employment. We can see that how spaces and places are linked to different genders. And thus spaces and places are given meaning by social practices that one can say who is ‘in place’ and who is ‘out of place’. Ever since the industrial revolution, women in the west have been enjoying a more balanced space. They have been attending the same schools, working at the same place and relaxing at the same square. The current condition as one can observe in Zanzibar is still very much showing the traditional roles for women and men, which is mentioned in the previous chapter, and the religious influences. Both the public and private spaces are strongly shaped into genders.

55


main vehicular traďŹƒc secondary vehicular traďŹƒc main pedestrian and bike roads small alleys parking spaces

0

residential commerial mixed-use cultural / public recreation

entertainment cultural / public recreation ruins

500meters

0

56

500meters


D_urban scope

03_stone town structure

The main roads are at the edges of the Stone Town leaving the inner Stone Town could only accommodate pedestrians, bikes and motorcycles. Most of the big open spaces are at southern side of the town or outside Stone Town. Along the main streets are the commercial area with shops on the ground floor and residents on the floors above. The small narrow buildings are mainly Indian influenced as they are mostly found along the commercial streets. Nowadays there are a number of empty plots in Stone Town due to the collapse of badly maintained buildings. This may allow slight changes to the usage of the plot and immediate surrounding area.

57


58

*reference: Gunnarsson, Ulrika & Emma Johansson (2004), In the streets of Zanzibar : constructions of gender and place : a minor field study, KTH, Stockholm


D_urban scope

04_public spaces in zanzibar

The tradition of open public spaces is not widely spread within Islamic urbanism. With the Islamic background, town grew in an organic way in Stone Town that created a compact environment with a lot of winding narrow alleys. Open spaces and plaza is not commonly seen. The idea of public spaces in Zanzibar is not only the open squares but also extended to all winding alleys. Barazas, stone benches next to entrances, is commonly seen in Swahili architecture. There are lines of barazas outside the residential buildings which form a common space that people will sit and talk to the neighbours. From the reference on the left, we can see that women and men behave differently in the public spaces. They have different style of movement. Men tend to stroll around and spend some time talking with friends and relax in while they enter a public area, while women usually enter the public space with a clear purpose. Women chat with friends and relax at home.

women

men the movement pattern in public space in of women and men in Zanzibar

59


scenario model - the spread of women’s space in the city

Urban strategy: (Re)claiming public space With correspondence to the micro-economics programming strategy, the establishment of different types of activity would create a connection both socially and spatially. From the connection, a route would be formed for women involved in the programming. Thus, it will shape and give the route an identity which is space for women. The growing of the programming and the connections within would help the sprawl of women’s route. The diagram on the right hand side is an example showing the how urban situations could be reclaim for women with connection to existing women’s movement: women’s mosque and central market. It also shows the possible extensions of the route in the city. (Re)claiming public space for women could create a platform for social networking and possible activity development. This will strengthen the sense of belonging of women to the community and society.

60


hani

1

6

11

16

2

7

12

17

3

8

13

18

26

23

9

37

14

10

8

16 10

11

17

4

8

19 1

5

17

15

5

61

7

9

14 11

2

16

8

12

3

15

6

22

7

13

6

2

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4

7

30

14

18

29

23

15

12

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21 1 20

9

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18

19 23

16

28

19

32

21

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3

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20

12

18

10

33 23 31

13

16

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9

11

5

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29

20

30

22

29

25

17

21

31 34

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19

6

7

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4

15

12

AD

14

18

23

13

20

21

22

29

30

op p h s

uare sq

Beauty

25

24

31

11

17

25

35

28

35

28

o

yground pla

ing str ee

s

Smell

10

28

27

15

32 24

25 10

26

20

27

27

in ru

Sound

24

27

36

36

26

26

A N I R O A 2433 34 D

A N I R O A 32 D

36

35

Negativ e

Vibe

19

37

25

FORODH

FORODH

24

wom 37

34

31

Special An notation s

ANI ROA D

32

Beauty

F30O R O D H

Negativ e

Vibe

h

22

29

Special An notations

Positive

Beauty

ing

21

28

36

Negative

Vibe

Special An notations

33

Positive

Smell

king s

27

ue

mosq en’s 35

37 Smell

e, smel l,

34 Sound

could ote the

26

33

Positive

Sound

ents ev

ee (Forod

35

n pe

d ar

ran stau t re

32

plot

Smell

rkshop wo

31

34

merc ury tr ee

e Town

ANI ROA D

i

lc erna ourty t n

Beauty

FORODH

50 meter s

50 meter s

50 meter s

Negativ e

Sound

op sh

STAR

Special An notations

37

Zanzibar Stone Tow Investiga tion Zon n e

Positive

Vibe

36

Zanzibar Stone To Investig ation Zo wn ne

Zanziba r Stone To Investig ation Zo wn ne

ters

05_(re)claiming public space

D_urban scope

t

cen tral m arke t


62


design scope

01_the strategy: low tech; low cost; women can build 02_material research 03_building method research 04_bamboo study 05_material experiments 06_design development 07_design proposals

63


64


E_design scope

01_the strategy

Design strategy: Low tech, Low cost; Women can build The initial design idea is women would have the opportunity to build their own space by using simple building method and low cost materials. By studying and comparing the existing building materials and methods in Zanzibar I came to understand the possibility for alternative materials. The experiments with different materials helped me in developing ideas for structures in different urban scenarios in Zanzibar: narrow alleys, public squares and open plots. The ultimate goal is to find a method to show the power of local low-cost and low-tech building methods as well as the potentials of women’s power.

65


LLL CATALOGUE CATALOGUE CATALOGUE L CATALOGUE 66

airairair air

limewash limewash limewash limewash

scrap scrap tiles tiles scrap scrap tiles tiles

bamboo bamboo bamboo bamboo

cement* cement* cement* cement*

cement cement block block cement cement block block

palm leaves leaves mangrove* mangrove* metal sheet* sheet* palm palm leaves leaves mangrove* mangrove* metal metal metal sheet* sheet* palm

soilsoilsoilsoil

straw straw straw straw

teak teak teak teak


E_design scope

02_materials research

coconut coconut coconut coconut fiber coconut fiber fiber fiber fiber coral coral coral stone coral stone stone coral stone stone

paper paper paper paper paper

plants plants plants plants plants

glass glass glass glass glass

lime lime lime limelime

limestone limestone limestone limestone limestone

reinforcement reinforcement reinforcement reinforcement bar* bar* bar*bar*bar* sand sand sand sand sand plastics* plastics* plastics* plastics* plastics*reinforcement

areThere locally are locally are There produced locally produced are There produced locally areproduced locally produced TheyThey are the They arematerials the are They materials theare materials being They the being materials arebeing the materials being being ThereThere itemsitems canitems be canused be can items used as bealternative can used asitems alternative beasused can alternative be as alternative used as alternati usedused traditionally used traditionally traditionally used or recently traditionally orused recently or traditionally recently or recently or recently construction construction materials. construction materials. materials. construction materials. materials. beingbeing used being used in last used in being few last indecades used few last being decades few in last used decades few in last decades few decades construction Environmentally Environmentally Environmentally Environmentally friendly, friendly, Environmentally lowfriendly, lowfriendly, lowfriendly, lowlow in Zanzibar. in Zanzibar. in Zanzibar. Mostin Most ofZanzibar. them Most of in them they of Zanzibar. Most them theyofthey Most them of they them they and locally cost and locally and produced cost locally produced andcost produced locally areand are produced locally are produced are are are locally are locally are produced locally produced are produced locally but are some but produced locally some but of some produced ofbutofsome but ofsomecost of cost the main the main the suggesting main suggesting thesuggesting main criteria. the criteria. suggesting main criteria. suggesting criteria. criteria. themthem arethem imported are imported are them imported from are from them mainland imported from mainland are imported mainland from mainland from mainland TheyThey can They be canused be can They used for be permanent, can used forThey be permanent, forused can permanent, be forused permanent, for permane Tanzania Tanzania Tanzania or other or Tanzania other countries. or other countries. Tanzania orcountries. otheror countries. other countries. semi-permanent semi-permanent semi-permanent semi-permanent or temporary or semi-permanent temporary or temporary or temporary or temporar * imported * imported *materials imported materials * imported materials * imported materials materials structures. structures. structures. structures. structures.

textile* textile* textile* textile* textile*

used used used tyres used tyres tyres used tyres tyres

water water water water water

alternative alternative alternative alternative traditional traditional traditional traditional traditional alternative

67


The Zanzibar The Zanzibar The islands Zanzibar islands are made islands are made upare of limestone made up of limestone up ofwhich limestone which has which has has traditionally traditionally traditionally been an been important an been important anbuilding important building material. building material. Though material. Though Though it is local it isitlocal isitnot isitlocal is a renewable not it ais renewable not asource renewable source whereas source whereas onewhereas could one could one could argue argue whether argue whether it iswhether a sustainable it is a sustainable it is a material sustainable material or not. material or not.or not. WhenWhen limestone When limestone is limestone burned is burned you is get burned you lime, get you which lime, getwhich is lime, usedwhich isfor usedisfor used for binding binding a mixture binding a mixture of asand, mixture of soil sand, of and soil sand, limestone and soil limestone andinto limestone solid into solid into solid walls. walls. The burning walls. The burning The of lime burning ofand limeconstruction ofand lime construction and construction is a delicate is a delicate is a delicate process process which process which properly which properly done properly takes done atakes done lot ofatakes time lot ofaand time lot ofand time and knowledge. knowledge. Well knowledge. produced Well produced Well lime produced can lime reduce can lime reduce the canthickness reduce the thickness the thickness and material and material and used material inused the in construction. used the in construction. the construction. Reduced Reduced thickness Reduced thickness thickness reduces reduces heatreduces storage heat storage heat in the storage in walls, the in walls, which the walls, which is a problem which is a problem isinathe problem in the in the hot and hothumid and hot humid climate. and humid climate. climate.

Originally Originally a local Originally aZanzibar localaZanzibar local material, Zanzibar material, although material, although duealthough todue thetodue the to the high demand high demand high it isdemand now it isimported now it isimported now from imported the from mainland. the from mainland. the mainland. Mangrove Mangrove poles Mangrove for poles building for poles building take for building about take about 15 take years about 15 to years 15 to years to grow. grow. The ranges The grow. ranges of The theranges of poles the of are poles the about are poles about 2.5-3.5 are about 2.5-3.5 m long. 2.5-3.5 m long. m long. This length This length has Thistraditionally length has traditionally has traditionally set theset width theset width ofthe internal width of internal of internal spacesspaces as thespaces as mangrove the as mangrove thepoles mangrove are poles used are poles to used support areto used support to support floors floors and roof floors andstructures. roof andstructures. roof structures.

Metal Metal roofing Metal roofing is notroofing is annot original an is not original material an original material used material inused Stone inused Stone in Stone Town, Town, although Town, although since although many since many years since ityears many has been ityears has frequently been it hasfrequently been frequently used and usedis and these used is and these daysispart days these ofpart days the of character part the of character the of character Stone of Stone of Stone Town. Town. ThereTown. There is no local There is noproduction local is noproduction localor production recycling or recycling of or metal recycling of metal of metal on Zanzibar, on Zanzibar, on so Zanzibar, all metal so all metal is soimported all metal is imported from is imported mainland. from mainland. from mainland. The metal The metal roofs The are metal roofs simple are roofs simple toare construct, simple to construct, toefficient construct, efficient andefficient and and low inlow maintenance in low maintenance in maintenance compared compared tocompared theto more the to local more thepalmlocal morepalmlocal palmleavesleaves roofs.leaves roofs. One negative roofs. One negative One aspect negative aspect wouldaspect would be thewould be way thebe way the way the corrugated the corrugated themetal corrugated metal gains heat metal gainstoheat gains theto interior heat the to interior of thethe interior of the of the buildings. buildings. buildings.

limestone limestone limestone / coral / coral / coral stone stone stone

mangrove mangrove mangrove

metal metal metal sheet sheet sheet

68


E_design scope

02_materials research

Bamboo Bamboo is a very Bamboo is strong a very and is strong a very lightweight and strong lightweight and construction lightweight construction construction material material and it grows material and itquickly. grows and quickly. itItgrows has some Itquickly. has1250 some It species has 1250 some species in 1250inspecies in 75 genera 75 genera with varying 75with genera varying sizes. with Itsizes. is varying as strong It issizes. as as strong Itmild is asas steel strong mildand steel as mild andsteel and some bamboo some bamboo can some grow bamboo can18grow inches can 18 per inches growday 18per and inches day reaches and per reaches day a and areaches a height of height 100 feet. ofheight 100 A feet. bamboo of 100 A bamboo feet. standAgenerates bamboo stand generates stand moregenerates oxygen more oxygen more oxygen than anthan equivalent an equivalent thanstand an equivalent ofstand trees. ofSince stand trees.the of Since trees. mangrove theSince mangrove the mangrove on the Island on theisIsland running on the is running Island short,isifshort, running a localif production ashort, local ifproduction a local can production can can be established be established this be established could thisbe could a good this be could aoption goodbeoption asa alternative goodasoption alternative as alternative construction construction material. construction material.material.

Textile is Textile a lightis Textile and a light flexible is and a light flexible material andmaterial flexible that has material that been has that beenhas been considered considered as a considered building as a building material as a material building for lastmaterial for fewlast decades. few for decades. last few decades. Generally, Generally, it hasGenerally, been it hasused been itfor has used temporary been for used temporary construcfor temporary construc-construction, installations tion, installations tion, butinstallations notbut as construction not as but construction not as materials construction materials yet. materials yet. yet. Technology Technology is improving Technology is improving everyday is improving everyday and creates everyday and creates bigger andbigger creates bigger potential potential for textile potential for usage textilefor inusage architecture. textile in usage architecture. in architecture. In Zanzibar, In Zanzibar, textile In Zanzibar, is textile mainly is textile mainly imported. isimported. mainly It could imported. Itbe could much be It could muchbe much cheapercheaper to produce cheaper to produce locally. to produce locally. PerhapsPerhaps locally. high technology high Perhaps technology high technology is not suitable is not suitable toisbe notapplied. to suitable be applied. Could to bethere Could applied. be there simple Could be there simplebe simple construction construction methods construction methods with textile methods with which textile with women which textile women can whichcan women can also bealso partbe of part the alsodesign ofbethe part and design of construction theand design construction and teams construction in teams in teams in the architecture? the architecture? the architecture?

bamboo bamboo bamboo

textile textile textile

Tyre is aTyre strong is a and strong Tyrewater is and a strong proof water and material. proof water material. A proof tyre material. A tyre A tyre weightsweights aroundaround weights 10kg. The 10kg. around Garbage The10kg. Garbage Warrior, The Garbage Warrior, Ameri- Warrior, Ameri- American architect can architect Michael can architect Michael Reynolds Reynolds Michael is famous Reynolds is famous for using isfor famous usingfor using the trash theincluding trashthe including glass trashbottles including glass bottles andglass tyres and bottles intyres building and in building tyres in building ‘green-built ‘green-built houses’. ‘green-built houses’. Currently Currently houses’. the oldCurrently the tyres oldintyres Zanzibar the old in Zanzibar tyres in Zanzibar and a lot and ofaother lotand ofAfrican other a lot of African cities other are cities African used areas cities used benches. are as benches. used as benches. It is notItrealistic is not realistic Ittoisuse notold to realistic use tyres oldto astyres use the old construction as the tyres construction as the construction structure structure in stone structure intown stoneconsidering town in stone considering town its packed considering its packed and itsand packed and narrownarrow contextual contextual narrow environment. contextual environment. Could environment. there Couldbe there other Could be there otherbe other ways ofways usingoftyres using waysintyres of building? using in building? tyres in building?

used used tyres used tyres tyres

69


Most of Most the Most of houses the of houses the arehouses using are using are using ƐŚĞĂƌǁĂůůƐLJƐƚĞŵƐŝŶĐĞƚŚĞLJ ƐŚĞĂƌǁĂůůƐLJƐƚĞŵƐŝŶĐĞƚŚĞLJ ƐŚĞĂƌǁĂůůƐLJƐƚĞŵƐŝŶĐĞƚŚĞLJ build with buildbuild limestones withwith limestones limestones / coral/ coral / coral ƐƚŽŶĞƐ͘KŶůLJƐŽŵĞŽĨƚŚĞ ƐƚŽŶĞƐ͘KŶůLJƐŽŵĞŽĨƚŚĞ ƐƚŽŶĞƐ͘KŶůLJƐŽŵĞŽĨƚŚĞ ĐŽŶƚĞŵƉŽƌĂƌLJŚŽƵƐĞƐŽƌŶĞǁůLJ ĐŽŶƚĞŵƉŽƌĂƌLJŚŽƵƐĞƐŽƌŶĞǁůLJ ĐŽŶƚĞŵƉŽƌĂƌLJŚŽƵƐĞƐŽƌŶĞǁůLJ renovated renovated renovated houses houses arehouses having are having are having ƉŽƐƚĂŶĚďĞĂŵƐƐLJƐƚĞŵƐ;ƐŽŵĞ ƉŽƐƚĂŶĚďĞĂŵƐƐLJƐƚĞŵƐ;ƐŽŵĞ ƉŽƐƚĂŶĚďĞĂŵƐƐLJƐƚĞŵƐ;ƐŽŵĞ ƉĂƌƟĂůůLJͿ͘ ƉĂƌƟĂůůLJͿ͘ ƉĂƌƟĂůůLJͿ͘

ĂƚLJƉŝĐĂůŚŽƵƐĞŝŶĂŶnjŝďĂƌ^ƚŽŶĞdŽǁŶ ĂƚLJƉŝĐĂůŚŽƵƐĞŝŶĂŶnjŝďĂƌ^ƚŽŶĞdŽǁŶ ĂƚLJƉŝĐĂůŚŽƵƐĞŝŶĂŶnjŝďĂƌ^ƚŽŶĞdŽǁŶ

shear shear shear wall wall wall dŚĞƐŚĞůůƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞŝƐƚLJƉŝĐĂůůLJ dŚĞƐŚĞůůƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞŝƐƚLJƉŝĐĂůůLJ dŚĞƐŚĞůůƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞŝƐƚLJƉŝĐĂůůLJ foundfound in nature found in nature as in nature wellasaswell as well as as in classical in classical inarchitecture. classical architecture. architecture. Its Its Its ĞĸĐŝĞŶĐLJŝƐďĂƐĞĚŽŶŝƚƐ ĞĸĐŝĞŶĐLJŝƐďĂƐĞĚŽŶŝƚƐ ĞĸĐŝĞŶĐLJŝƐďĂƐĞĚŽŶŝƚƐ curvature curvature curvature (single(single or double), (single or double), or double), ǁŚŝĐŚĂůůŽǁƐĂŵƵůƟƉůŝĐŝƚLJŽĨ ǁŚŝĐŚĂůůŽǁƐĂŵƵůƟƉůŝĐŝƚLJŽĨ ǁŚŝĐŚĂůůŽǁƐĂŵƵůƟƉůŝĐŝƚLJŽĨ ĂůƚĞƌŶĂƟǀĞƐƚƌĞƐƐƉĂƚŚƐĂŶĚ ĂůƚĞƌŶĂƟǀĞƐƚƌĞƐƐƉĂƚŚƐĂŶĚ ĂůƚĞƌŶĂƟǀĞƐƚƌĞƐƐƉĂƚŚƐĂŶĚ ŐŝǀĞƐƚŚĞŽƉƟŵƵŵĨŽƌŵĨŽƌ ŐŝǀĞƐƚŚĞŽƉƟŵƵŵĨŽƌŵĨŽƌ ŐŝǀĞƐƚŚĞŽƉƟŵƵŵĨŽƌŵĨŽƌ ƚƌĂŶƐŵŝƐƐŝŽŶŽĨŵĂŶLJĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ƚƌĂŶƐŵŝƐƐŝŽŶŽĨŵĂŶLJĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ƚƌĂŶƐŵŝƐƐŝŽŶŽĨŵĂŶLJĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ůŽĂĚƚLJƉĞƐ͘ ůŽĂĚƚLJƉĞƐ͘ ůŽĂĚƚLJƉĞƐ͘ look outlook tower out look intower Finland, out tower in Finland, Avanto in Finland, Architects Avanto Avanto Architects Architects

shell shell shell dƌƵƐƐĞƐĂƌĞŐĞŶĞƌĂůůLJƵƐĞĚ dƌƵƐƐĞƐĂƌĞŐĞŶĞƌĂůůLJƵƐĞĚ dƌƵƐƐĞƐĂƌĞŐĞŶĞƌĂůůLJƵƐĞĚ for long forspan long for long structure. spanspan structure. structure. In In In Zanzibar, Zanzibar, buildings Zanzibar, buildings with buildings truss withwith trusstruss ƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞĐĂŶŽŶůLJďĞĨŽƵŶĚŝŶ ƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞĐĂŶŽŶůLJďĞĨŽƵŶĚŝŶ ƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞĐĂŶŽŶůLJďĞĨŽƵŶĚŝŶ ǁĂƌĞŚŽƵƐĞƐĂŶĚŵĂƌŬĞƚƐ͘dŚĞLJ ǁĂƌĞŚŽƵƐĞƐĂŶĚŵĂƌŬĞƚƐ͘dŚĞLJ ǁĂƌĞŚŽƵƐĞƐĂŶĚŵĂƌŬĞƚƐ͘dŚĞLJ can becan metal be canmetal or bemangrove metal or mangrove or mangrove / / / wooden wooden truss. wooden truss. truss.

the Montreal the Montreal the Biosphère Montreal Biosphère in Canada, Biosphère in Canada, Buckminster in Canada, Buckminster Fuller Buckminster FullerFuller

ZŝŐŝĚĨƌĂŵĞƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞŚĂƐǀĞƌƟĐĂůƐŝĚĞǁĂůůƐĂŶĚƌĂŌĞƌƐ ZŝŐŝĚĨƌĂŵĞƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞŚĂƐǀĞƌƟĐĂůƐŝĚĞǁĂůůƐĂŶĚƌĂŌĞƌƐ ZŝŐŝĚĨƌĂŵĞƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞŚĂƐǀĞƌƟĐĂůƐŝĚĞǁĂůůƐĂŶĚƌĂŌĞƌƐ ĨŽƌĂĐůĞĂƌͲƐƉĂŶĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŽŶ͘dŚĞƌĞĂƌĞŶŽĐŽůƵŵŶƐŽƌ ĨŽƌĂĐůĞĂƌͲƐƉĂŶĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŽŶ͘dŚĞƌĞĂƌĞŶŽĐŽůƵŵŶƐŽƌ ĨŽƌĂĐůĞĂƌͲƐƉĂŶĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŽŶ͘dŚĞƌĞĂƌĞŶŽĐŽůƵŵŶƐŽƌ ƚƌƵƐƐĞƐƚŽƐƵƉƉŽƌƚƚŚĞƌŽŽĨ͘'ůƵĞĚŽƌŶĂŝůĞĚƉůLJǁŽŽĚ ƚƌƵƐƐĞƐƚŽƐƵƉƉŽƌƚƚŚĞƌŽŽĨ͘'ůƵĞĚŽƌŶĂŝůĞĚƉůLJǁŽŽĚ ƚƌƵƐƐĞƐƚŽƐƵƉƉŽƌƚƚŚĞƌŽŽĨ͘'ůƵĞĚŽƌŶĂŝůĞĚƉůLJǁŽŽĚ ŐƵƐƐĞƚƐĐŽŶŶĞĐƚƚŚĞƐŝĚĞǁĂůůƐƵƉƉŽƌƚƐƚŽƚŚĞƌĂŌĞƌƐƚŽ ŐƵƐƐĞƚƐĐŽŶŶĞĐƚƚŚĞƐŝĚĞǁĂůůƐƵƉƉŽƌƚƐƚŽƚŚĞƌĂŌĞƌƐƚŽ ŐƵƐƐĞƚƐĐŽŶŶĞĐƚƚŚĞƐŝĚĞǁĂůůƐƵƉƉŽƌƚƐƚŽƚŚĞƌĂŌĞƌƐƚŽ make make onemake rigid oneframe. one rigidrigid frame. It allows frame. It allows maximum It allows maximum maximum interior interior space. interior space. space. ŐŽŽĚĨŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶŝƐƌĞƋƵŝƌĞĚƚŽƐƵƉƉŽƌƚƚŚĞůĂƚĞƌĂůůŽĂĚ ŐŽŽĚĨŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶŝƐƌĞƋƵŝƌĞĚƚŽƐƵƉƉŽƌƚƚŚĞůĂƚĞƌĂůůŽĂĚ ŐŽŽĚĨŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶŝƐƌĞƋƵŝƌĞĚƚŽƐƵƉƉŽƌƚƚŚĞůĂƚĞƌĂůůŽĂĚ on theon sidewalls. the on sidewalls. the sidewalls. dŚĞ͚ƌŝŐŝĚ͛ĨƌĂŵĞŚĞƌĞƐƚĂŶĚƐĨŽƌĂŶLJƐƚĂďůĞƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ dŚĞ͚ƌŝŐŝĚ͛ĨƌĂŵĞŚĞƌĞƐƚĂŶĚƐĨŽƌĂŶLJƐƚĂďůĞƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ dŚĞ͚ƌŝŐŝĚ͛ĨƌĂŵĞŚĞƌĞƐƚĂŶĚƐĨŽƌĂŶLJƐƚĂďůĞƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ ĂĐŚŝĞǀĞĚďLJƵƐŝŶŐĨƌĂŵŝŶŐŵĞŵďĞƌƐ͘/ƚĐŽƵůĚďĞĂ ĂĐŚŝĞǀĞĚďLJƵƐŝŶŐĨƌĂŵŝŶŐŵĞŵďĞƌƐ͘/ƚĐŽƵůĚďĞĂ ĂĐŚŝĞǀĞĚďLJƵƐŝŶŐĨƌĂŵŝŶŐŵĞŵďĞƌƐ͘/ƚĐŽƵůĚďĞĂ ŇĞdžŝďůĞĐĂŵƉŝŶŐƚĞŶƚǁŝƚŚƐŽŵĞũŽŝŶƚƐĂŶĚƐĞǀĞƌĂůŵĞƚĂů ŇĞdžŝďůĞĐĂŵƉŝŶŐƚĞŶƚǁŝƚŚƐŽŵĞũŽŝŶƚƐĂŶĚƐĞǀĞƌĂůŵĞƚĂů ŇĞdžŝďůĞĐĂŵƉŝŶŐƚĞŶƚǁŝƚŚƐŽŵĞũŽŝŶƚƐĂŶĚƐĞǀĞƌĂůŵĞƚĂů members members members or complicated or complicated or complicated domedome structure dome structure for structure green for green for green ŚŽƵƐĞƐ͘dŚĞLJĂƌĞŐĞŶĞƌĂůůLJǀĞƌLJůŝŐŚƚŝŶƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞĂŶĚ ŚŽƵƐĞƐ͘dŚĞLJĂƌĞŐĞŶĞƌĂůůLJǀĞƌLJůŝŐŚƚŝŶƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞĂŶĚ ŚŽƵƐĞƐ͘dŚĞLJĂƌĞŐĞŶĞƌĂůůLJǀĞƌLJůŝŐŚƚŝŶƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞĂŶĚ ŚĂǀŝŶŐĂŐŽŽĚůĞǀĞůŽĨƚƌĂŶƐƉĂƌĞŶĐLJ͘ ŚĂǀŝŶŐĂŐŽŽĚůĞǀĞůŽĨƚƌĂŶƐƉĂƌĞŶĐLJ͘ ŚĂǀŝŶŐĂŐŽŽĚůĞǀĞůŽĨƚƌĂŶƐƉĂƌĞŶĐLJ͘

zŽƌŬƐŚŝƌĞZĞŶĂŝƐƐĂŶĐĞWĂǀŝůŝŽŶĐŽŵƉĞƟƟŽŶĞŶƚƌLJ͕sĂƌŝŽƵƐƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƐ zŽƌŬƐŚŝƌĞZĞŶĂŝƐƐĂŶĐĞWĂǀŝůŝŽŶĐŽŵƉĞƟƟŽŶĞŶƚƌLJ͕sĂƌŝŽƵƐƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƐ zŽƌŬƐŚŝƌĞZĞŶĂŝƐƐĂŶĐĞWĂǀŝůŝŽŶĐŽŵƉĞƟƟŽŶĞŶƚƌLJ͕sĂƌŝŽƵƐƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƐ

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metal trusses metalmetal near trusses the trusses near portthe near in Zanzibar port theinport Zanzibar in Zanzibar

truss truss truss

70

(rigid)frame (rigid)frame (rigid)frame

ŝŶŇĂƟŽŶ ŝŶŇĂƟŽŶ ŝŶŇĂƟŽŶ


E_design scope

03_building methods research

Tent is a shelter ĐŽŶƐŝƐƟŶŐŽĨƐŚĞĞƚƐŽĨ

ĨĂďƌŝĐŽƌŽƚŚĞƌŵĂƚĞƌŝĂůĚƌĂƉĞĚŽǀĞƌŽƌĂƩĂĐŚĞĚ ƚŽĂĨƌĂŵĞŽĨƉŽůĞƐŽƌĂƐƵƉƉŽƌƟŶŐƌŽƉĞ͘ dĞŶƚƐŚĂǀĞƚƌĂĚŝƟŽŶĂůůLJďĞĞŶƵƐĞĚďLJŶŽŵĂĚŝĐ

ƉĞŽƉůĞĂůůŽǀĞƌƚŚĞǁŽƌůĚ͘ƵƌƌĞŶƚůLJ͕ƚŚĞLJĂƌĞƐƟůů Tent is a shelter ĐŽŶƐŝƐƟŶŐŽĨƐŚĞĞƚƐŽĨ ƵƐĞĚďLJŶŽŵĂĚƐďƵƚĂůƐŽƌĞĐƌĞĂƟŽŶĂůĐĂŵƉĞƌƐ͕ ĨĂďƌŝĐŽƌŽƚŚĞƌŵĂƚĞƌŝĂůĚƌĂƉĞĚŽǀĞƌŽƌĂƩĂĐŚĞĚ ĚŝƐĂƐƚĞƌǀŝĐƟŵƐŽƌŵŝůŝƚĂƌLJ͘dĞŶƚƐĂƌĞƚLJƉŝĐĂůůLJ ƚŽĂĨƌĂŵĞŽĨƉŽůĞƐŽƌĂƐƵƉƉŽƌƟŶŐƌŽƉĞ͘ ƵƐĞĚĂƐŽǀĞƌŚĞĂĚƐŚĞůƚĞƌĨŽƌĨĞƐƟǀĂůƐ͕ǁĞĚĚŝŶŐƐ͕ ďĂĐŬLJĂƌĚƉĂƌƟĞƐ͕ĂŶĚŵĂũŽƌĐŽƌƉŽƌĂƚĞĞǀĞŶƚƐ͘ dĞŶƚƐŚĂǀĞƚƌĂĚŝƟŽŶĂůůLJďĞĞŶƵƐĞĚďLJŶŽŵĂĚŝĐ

ƉĞŽƉůĞĂůůŽǀĞƌƚŚĞǁŽƌůĚ͘ƵƌƌĞŶƚůLJ͕ƚŚĞLJĂƌĞƐƟůů ƵƐĞĚďLJŶŽŵĂĚƐďƵƚĂůƐŽƌĞĐƌĞĂƟŽŶĂůĐĂŵƉĞƌƐ͕ ĚŝƐĂƐƚĞƌǀŝĐƟŵƐŽƌŵŝůŝƚĂƌLJ͘dĞŶƚƐĂƌĞƚLJƉŝĐĂůůLJ ƵƐĞĚĂƐŽǀĞƌŚĞĂĚƐŚĞůƚĞƌĨŽƌĨĞƐƟǀĂůƐ͕ǁĞĚĚŝŶŐƐ͕ ďĂĐŬLJĂƌĚƉĂƌƟĞƐ͕ĂŶĚŵĂũŽƌĐŽƌƉŽƌĂƚĞĞǀĞŶƚƐ͘

tent tent

armies all over the world have long used tents as part of ƚŚĞŝƌǁŽƌŬŝŶŐůŝĨĞ͘dĞŶƚƐĂƌĞƉƌĞĨĞƌƌĞĚďLJƚŚĞŵŝůŝƚĂƌLJĨŽƌƚŚĞŝƌ ƌĞůĂƟǀĞůLJƋƵŝĐŬƐĞƚƵƉĂŶĚƚĂŬĞĚŽǁŶƟŵĞƐ͕ĐŽŵƉĂƌĞĚƚŽ ŵŽƌĞƚƌĂĚŝƟŽŶĂůƐŚĞůƚĞƌƐ͘

ŵŝůŝƚĂƌLJ ŵŝůŝƚĂƌLJ

armies all over the world have long used tents as part of ƚŚĞŝƌǁŽƌŬŝŶŐůŝĨĞ͘dĞŶƚƐĂƌĞƉƌĞĨĞƌƌĞĚďLJƚŚĞŵŝůŝƚĂƌLJĨŽƌƚŚĞŝƌ ƌĞůĂƟǀĞůLJƋƵŝĐŬƐĞƚƵƉĂŶĚƚĂŬĞĚŽǁŶƟŵĞƐ͕ĐŽŵƉĂƌĞĚƚŽ ŵŽƌĞƚƌĂĚŝƟŽŶĂůƐŚĞůƚĞƌƐ͘

ǁŽŵĞŶƐƉĞŶĚĂůĂƌŐĞƉŽƌƟŽŶŽĨƚŚĞŝƌƟŵĞŝŶƚŚĞ kitchen. skills could be gathered and produce local crusines.

dŚĞƌĞĂƌĞĞƐƟŵĂƚĞĚϯϬͲϰϬŵŝůůŝŽŶŶŽŵĂĚƐŝŶƚŚĞǁŽƌůĚ͘ dŚĞLJĂƌĞĐŽŵŵƵŶŝƟĞƐŽĨƉĞŽƉůĞǁŚŽŵŽǀĞĨƌŽŵŽŶĞƉůĂĐĞ ƚŽĂŶŽƚŚĞƌ͕ƌĂƚŚĞƌƚŚĂŶƐĞƩůŝŶŐĚŽǁŶŝŶŽŶĞůŽĐĂƟŽŶ͘dŚĞLJ ďƵŝůĚĂŶĞǁŚŽŵĞǁŚĞŶƚŚĞLJŵŽǀĞŽƌƚŚĞLJďƵŝůĚƚŚĞŝƌŚŽŵĞ transportable.

ĐĂŵƉŝŶŐŝƐĂƉŽƉƵůĂƌĨŽƌŵŽĨƌĞĐƌĞĂƟŽŶǁŚŝĐŚŽŌĞŶŝŶǀŽůǀĞƐ ƚŚĞƵƐĞŽĨƚĞŶƚƐ͘ƚĞŶƚŝƐĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐĂůĂŶĚƉƌĂĐƟĐĂůďĞĐĂƵƐĞŽĨ ŝƚƐƉŽƌƚĂďŝůŝƚLJĂŶĚůŽǁĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂůŝŵƉĂĐƚ͘dŚĞƐĞƋƵĂůŝƟĞƐ ĂƌĞŶĞĐĞƐƐĂƌLJǁŚĞŶƵƐĞĚŝŶƚŚĞǁŝůĚĞƌŶĞƐƐŽƌďĂĐŬĐŽƵŶƚƌLJ͘

dŚĞƌĞĂƌĞĞƐƟŵĂƚĞĚϯϬͲϰϬŵŝůůŝŽŶŶŽŵĂĚƐŝŶƚŚĞǁŽƌůĚ͘ dŚĞLJĂƌĞĐŽŵŵƵŶŝƟĞƐŽĨƉĞŽƉůĞǁŚŽŵŽǀĞĨƌŽŵŽŶĞƉůĂĐĞ ƚŽĂŶŽƚŚĞƌ͕ƌĂƚŚĞƌƚŚĂŶƐĞƩůŝŶŐĚŽǁŶŝŶŽŶĞůŽĐĂƟŽŶ͘dŚĞLJ ďƵŝůĚĂŶĞǁŚŽŵĞǁŚĞŶƚŚĞLJŵŽǀĞŽƌƚŚĞLJďƵŝůĚƚŚĞŝƌŚŽŵĞ transportable.

ĐĂŵƉŝŶŐŝƐĂƉŽƉƵůĂƌĨŽƌŵŽĨƌĞĐƌĞĂƟŽŶǁŚŝĐŚŽŌĞŶŝŶǀŽůǀĞƐ ƚŚĞƵƐĞŽĨƚĞŶƚƐ͘ƚĞŶƚŝƐĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐĂůĂŶĚƉƌĂĐƟĐĂůďĞĐĂƵƐĞŽĨ ŝƚƐƉŽƌƚĂďŝůŝƚLJĂŶĚůŽǁĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂůŝŵƉĂĐƚ͘dŚĞƐĞƋƵĂůŝƟĞƐ ĂƌĞŶĞĐĞƐƐĂƌLJǁŚĞŶƵƐĞĚŝŶƚŚĞǁŝůĚĞƌŶĞƐƐŽƌďĂĐŬĐŽƵŶƚƌLJ͘

ǁŽŵĞŶƐƉĞŶĚĂůĂƌŐĞƉŽƌƟŽŶŽĨƚŚĞŝƌƟŵĞŝŶƚŚĞ kitchen. skills could be gathered and produce local crusines.

dĞŶƚƐĂƌĞŽŌĞŶƵƐĞĚŝŶŚƵŵĂŶŝƚĂƌŝĂŶĞŵĞƌŐĞŶĐŝĞƐ͕ƐƵĐŚĂƐ ǁĂƌ͕ĞĂƌƚŚƋƵĂŬĞƐĂŶĚĮƌĞ͘dŚĞƉƌŝŵĂƌLJĐŚŽŝĐĞƐŽĨƚĞŶƚƐŝŶ ŚƵŵĂŶŝƚĂƌŝĂŶĞŵĞƌŐĞŶĐŝĞƐĂƌĞĐĂŶǀĂƐƚĞŶƚƐ͕ďĞĐĂƵƐĞĂĐŽƩŽŶ ĐĂŶǀĂƐƚĞŶƚĂůůŽǁƐĨƵŶĐƟŽŶĂůďƌĞĂƚŚĂďŝůŝƚLJǁŚŝůĞƐĞƌǀŝŶŐƚŚĞ ƉƵƌƉŽƐĞŽĨƚĞŵƉŽƌĂƌLJƐŚĞůƚĞƌ͘

ƚĞŶƚƐĂƌĞǁŝĚĞůLJƵƐĞĚŝŶƚĞŵƉŽƌĂƌLJĨĞƐƟǀĂůƐĂŶĚĞǀĞŶƚƐƐƵĐŚ ĂƐĐŽŶĐĞƌƚ͕ƚŚƐ͕ƚĞŵƉŽƌĂƌLJŵĂƌŬĞƚƐĂŶĚƐŽŽŶ͘ĞƉĞŶĚ ŽŶƚŚĞƐŝnjĞŽĨƚŚĞŶĞĞĚ͕ƵƐƵĂůůLJŝƚƚĂŬĞƐƐĞǀĞƌĂůŚŽƵƌƐŽƌƵƉƚŽ ĚĂLJƐƚŽďƵŝůĚƚŚĞƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞǁŚŝĐŚĐŽƵůĚďĞƌĞͲƵƐĞĂŐĂŝŶ͘

ĂƚĞŶƐŝůĞƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞŝƐĂĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŽŶŽĨĞůĞŵĞŶƚƐĐĂƌƌLJŝŶŐŽŶůLJ tension and no compression or bending. The term tensile ƐŚŽƵůĚŶŽƚďĞĐŽŶĨƵƐĞĚǁŝƚŚƚĞŶƐĞŐƌŝƚLJ͕ǁŚŝĐŚŝƐĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĂů form with both tension and compression elements.

dĞŶƚƐĂƌĞŽŌĞŶƵƐĞĚŝŶŚƵŵĂŶŝƚĂƌŝĂŶĞŵĞƌŐĞŶĐŝĞƐ͕ƐƵĐŚĂƐ ǁĂƌ͕ĞĂƌƚŚƋƵĂŬĞƐĂŶĚĮƌĞ͘dŚĞƉƌŝŵĂƌLJĐŚŽŝĐĞƐŽĨƚĞŶƚƐŝŶ ŚƵŵĂŶŝƚĂƌŝĂŶĞŵĞƌŐĞŶĐŝĞƐĂƌĞĐĂŶǀĂƐƚĞŶƚƐ͕ďĞĐĂƵƐĞĂĐŽƩŽŶ ĐĂŶǀĂƐƚĞŶƚĂůůŽǁƐĨƵŶĐƟŽŶĂůďƌĞĂƚŚĂďŝůŝƚLJǁŚŝůĞƐĞƌǀŝŶŐƚŚĞ ƉƵƌƉŽƐĞŽĨƚĞŵƉŽƌĂƌLJƐŚĞůƚĞƌ͘

ƚĞŶƚƐĂƌĞǁŝĚĞůLJƵƐĞĚŝŶƚĞŵƉŽƌĂƌLJĨĞƐƟǀĂůƐĂŶĚĞǀĞŶƚƐƐƵĐŚ ĂƐĐŽŶĐĞƌƚ͕ƚŚƐ͕ƚĞŵƉŽƌĂƌLJŵĂƌŬĞƚƐĂŶĚƐŽŽŶ͘ĞƉĞŶĚ ŽŶƚŚĞƐŝnjĞŽĨƚŚĞŶĞĞĚ͕ƵƐƵĂůůLJŝƚƚĂŬĞƐƐĞǀĞƌĂůŚŽƵƌƐŽƌƵƉƚŽ ĚĂLJƐƚŽďƵŝůĚƚŚĞƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞǁŚŝĐŚĐŽƵůĚďĞƌĞͲƵƐĞĂŐĂŝŶ͘

nomad nomad

disaster disaster

camping camping

ĨĞƐƟǀĂů ĨĞƐƟǀĂů

slum slum

tensile tensile

ĂƚĞŶƐŝůĞƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞŝƐĂĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŽŶŽĨĞůĞŵĞŶƚƐĐĂƌƌLJŝŶŐŽŶůLJ tension and no compression or bending. The term tensile ƐŚŽƵůĚŶŽƚďĞĐŽŶĨƵƐĞĚǁŝƚŚƚĞŶƐĞŐƌŝƚLJ͕ǁŚŝĐŚŝƐĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĂů form with both tension and compression elements.

71


ĂŵŝƐĂĐŚĞĂƉ͕ĨĂƐƚŐƌŽǁŝŶŐŵĂƚĞƌŝĂůǁŝƚŚĞdžĐĞůůĞŶƚƐƚĂƟƐƟĐƐĂĐĐŽƌĚŝŶŐƚŽƚŚĞŵĞĐŚĂŶŝĐĂůƉƌŽƉĞƌƟĞƐ͘dŚĞĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶƐĂƌĞƚŚĞ ĚŝĸĐƵůƚƉĂƌƚƐŝŶďĂŵĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŽŶƐ͘ ͲĂŵŚĂƐĂƌŽƵŶĚƉƌŽĮůĞ͘ƌĞĂƟŶŐĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶƐǁŝƚŚƌŽƵŶĚƉƌŽĮůĞƐĂƌĞůĞĂĚŝŶŐƚŽĚŝĸĐƵůƚŐĞŽŵĞƚƌŝĐƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞƐĂƚƚŚĞŬŶŽƚ͘ ͲĂŵŝƐŚŽůůŽǁ͘dŚĞƌĞŝƐŶŽŵĂƚĞƌŝĂůƚŽƟŐŚƚĞŶƚŚĞďĂŵŝŶƚŚĞŵŝĚĚůĞŽĨƚŚĞĐĂŶĞ͘ ͲdŚĞĨĂĐĞŽĨƚŚĞĐĂŶĞŝƐǀĞƌLJƐůŝƉƉĞƌLJĂŶĚŚĂƌĚ͘ ͲĂŵŝƐŶŽƚƐƵŝƚĂďůĞĨŽƌůŽĂĚƐŝŶĐƌŽƐƐĚŝƌĞĐƟŽŶ͕ďĞĐĂƵƐĞƚŚĞƌĞĂƌĞŶŽĐƌŽƐƐĮďƌĞƐ͘ ͲĂŵŝƐĂŶĂƚƵƌĂůŵĂƚĞƌŝĂů͕ƚŚĂƚǀĂƌŝĞƐŝŶĚŝĂŵĞƚĞƌƐ͕ůĞŶŐƚŚĂŶĚƋƵĂůŝƚLJĂĐĐŽƌĚŝŶŐƚŽƚŚĞĐůŝŵĂƚĞ͘

ďĂŵƐƚƵĚLJ ͲĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶƐ 72

&ƌŝĐƟŽŶͲƟŐŚƚƌŽƉĞĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶƐĂƌĞƚŚĞĐŽŵŵŽŶĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŶŐ ŵĞƚŚŽĚ͘dƌĂĚŝƟŽŶĂůůLJŶĂƚƵƌĂůŵĂƚĞƌŝĂůƐĂƌĞƵƐĞĚ͗ ͲĐŽĐŽƐͬƐĂŐŽƉĂůŵĮďƌĞ -bast -strips of bamboo ͲƌĂƩĂŶ &ŽƌƟŐŚƚĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶƐŐƌĞĞŶďĂŵƐƚƌŝƉƐĂƌĞƵƐĞĚ͕ƚŚĞ ĮďƌĞƐĂƌĞǁĂƚĞƌĞĚďĞĨŽƌĞƚLJŝŶŐĂƌŽƵŶĚƚŚĞďĂŵ͘tŚŝůĞ ĚƌLJŝŶŐ͕ƚŚĞĮďƌĞƐƐŚŽƌƚĞŶĂŶĚƚŚĞĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶďĞĐŽŵĞƐ stronger. EŽǁĂĚĂLJƐĂůƐŽŝŶĚƵƐƚƌŝĂůŵĂƚĞƌŝĂůƐĂƌĞƵƐĞĚ͗ -iron wire (zinc coated) ͲƉůĂƐƟĐƚĂƉĞƐͬƌŽƉĞƐ

ηϭĨƌŝĐƟŽŶͲƟŐŚƚƌŽƉĞ


E_design scope

04_bamboo study

ŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŽŶƐǁŝƚŚƐĞĐŽŶĚĂƌLJŝŶƚĞƌůŽĐŬŝŶŐĞůĞŵĞŶƚƐ ĂƌĞŽŌĞŶƵƐĞĚŝŶĐŽŶƚĞdžƚǁŝƚŚƌŽƉĞĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶƐ͘/ŶƚŚŝƐ ĐĂƐĞƚŚĞďŽůƚƐŚĂǀĞƚŽƚƌĂŶƐĨĞƌƚƌĂĐƟǀĞĂŶĚĐŽŵƉƌĞƐƐŝǀĞ ĨŽƌĐĞƐ͘/ŶǁŽŽĚĞŶĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶƐƚŚŝƐŝƐĚŽŶĞďLJĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ŬŝŶĚƐŽĨƉƌŽĮůĞƐ͘ dŚĞŵĞƚĂůŶĂŝůŝƐĂƉĞƌĨŽƌĂƟŶŐĞůĞŵĞŶƚ͘/ĨƚŚĞďĂŵŝƐŶŽƚĨƌĞƐŚĂƚĂůů͕ƚŚĞďĂŵŝƐŽŌĞŶƐƉůŝƚďLJƚŚĞ ǁĞĚŐĞƐŚĂƉĞĚŶĂŝů͘dŚĞƌĞĂƌĞƚǁŽĞdžĐĞƉƟŽŶĂůĐĂƐĞƐ͗ dŚĞ'ƵĂĚƵĂĂŶŐƵƐƟĨŽůŝĂĂŶĚŚƵƐƋƵĞĂďĂŵĨƌŽŵ central and southern America.

#2 plug-in/bolt

ŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŽŶƐĞůĞŵĞŶƚƐŵĂĚĞŽĨďĂŵĂƌĞƐƵŝƚĂďůĞ ĨŽƌůŽƚƐŽĨƵƐĞƐ͘ĂŵŚĂƐĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚĚŝĂŵĞƚĞƌƐĂŶĚ ŝƐƚŚŝĐŬĞƌŶĞĂƌƚŚĞŬŶŽƚƐ͘tŝƚŚŝŶďŽůƟŶŐƚŽŐĞƚŚĞƌŽƌ ǁĞĚŐŝŶŐƚŚĞďĂŵ͕ůŽƚƐŽĨŝƚƐƟŐŚƚŶĞƐƐǁŽŶ͛ƚďĞ ƚƌĂŶƐĨĞƌĞĚďLJƚŚĞĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŽŶĞůĞŵĞŶƚ͘ Bambu - Tec solves this problem. Prefabricated ďĂŵƐƟĐŬƐǁŝƚŚĐĞƌƚĂŝŶůĞŶŐƚŚĂƌĞĐŽǀĞƌĞĚǁŝƚŚ ĂĐĂƉĂŶĚĐŽŶŶĞĐƚĞĚǁŝƚŚƐLJŶƚŚĞƟĐƌĞƐŝŶ͘&ŽƌĂƟŐŚƚ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶŽĨƚŚĞĐĂƉĂŶĚƚŚĞďĂŵĂƌĞĐŽǀĞƌĞĚ ǁŝƚŚĐŝƌĐƵůĂƌŐƌŽŽǀĞƐ͘ĞĐĂƵƐĞŽĨƚŚĂƚƚŚĞŐƌŽƵŶƟŶŐ ŵĂƐƐƌƵŶƐďĞƚǁĞĞŶƚŚĞŵĂƚĞƌŝĂůƐĂŶĚĐŽŶĮƌŵƐƚŚŝƐ ĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŽŶ͘

#3 interlocking

ŽƵďůĞƉŽƐƚ͕ŚĞƌĞǁŝƚŚďŽƵŶĚĞĚŬŶŽƚĂŶĚĐŽŶƟŶƵŽƵƐ ŚĂŶĚůĞ͘tŝƚŚŝŶƚŚŝƐĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŽŶƚŚĞƚƵďĞǁĂůůŝƐŶŽƚ weakened bei drillings. dŚĞĂĚǀĂŶƚĂŐĞŽĨƚŚŝƐƐLJƐƚĞŵŝƐ͕ĞŶĐƵŵďƌĂŶĐĞƐŽĨƚŚĞ ƌŽŽĨĂŶĚƚŚĞŇŽŽƌĂƌĞĂďƐŽƌďĞĚďLJĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚƉŽƐƚƐ͘ ĞĐĂƵƐĞŽĨƚŚŝƐ͕LJŽƵĐĂŶĞĂƐŝĞƌĚŽƌĞƉĂŝƌƐŽĨĚĞĨĞĐƟǀĞ posts.

ηϰĐŽŵďŝŶĞĚĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶƐ

73


step1 - remove the metal wire of a bike tyre

step2 - cut the rubber tyre

Material tests Three materials are picked to test the potentials in them with reference to the building method research. The aim of the experiments is to look for a simple way to build both temporarily or permanently, with alternative materials that women can build their own space.

74

step3 - make seve


tyre

E_design scope

05_material experiments

tyre >

step3 - make several pieces of the tyre

inspiration

inspiration

idea

idea

step5 - stitch the pieces together

step6 - stitch up the half of the pieces

step7 - test the form

it doesn’t work very well...

step5 - cut wholes on the tyre

step6 - stitch the pieces together

step7 - test pattern

step1 - plastic and cloth

step2 - iron them, the plastic contracts

step3 - atten it

step4 - the plastic detached

step1 - get the wax out

step2 - spread them evenly on the cloth

step3 - iron the cloth in order to melt the wax

step4 - stitch 2 pieces of cloth together

step4 - stitch 2 pieces of cloth together

step2 - prepare scrap textile

step3 - tie the scrapped textile on the framework

step4 - putting dierent scrapped textile

step4 - cut wholes on the tyre

step4 - cut tyre into little pieces

cloth >

step1 - construct bamboo framework

step2 - iron them, the plastic contracts

step1 - stitch the scrapped textile together

step2 - stitch to become a piece of facade

75


bamboo > step1 - test with cardboard

the structure

the base

split the bamboo

connection between bamboo and frame

step1 - test with cardboard

76

step2 - making grove

group of mo

step2 - fold


E_design scope

05_material experiments

frame

step2 - making grove on bamboo

step3 - tie the structures together

step4 - extension

step5 - shell structure

shell structure

group of modules

module structure

group of modules

add on textile to the structure

test with the light

step2 - folding

step3 - standing structure

step4 - testing with bamboo

step5 - tie the structure

step6 - extending structure

possible facade structure

77


urban situations

78

structure types

narrow alley

temporary

ruins

semi-permanent

square

permanent

outside stone town

large scale


E_design scope

06_design development interventions

79


Appropriation In the preliminary design brainstorming, different materials and building methods were associated with different urban conditions were recognized in Zanzibar stone town for potential of creating spaces of women. The following design proposals has been narrowed down to focus on only one material bamboo and 3 different urban conditions which are alley, square and open plot. The interventions are prototypes which could be fitted into similar urban conditions. The main objective is to explore the potential of bamboo in architecture in different scales under simple building method.

80


o

hand, a

tourist would

would hav rist and ckground a loca e sen and cultuses by comparing l. A lot of the tim e, respon the oth re. er part within theses from a local are sha city. On ped by the oth the er

tween the sensation city, one of a tou

s in the inn ed on stati er city. They see m univer c physica sall l environ positive experie ment mo y calm. There are nce wit re than hin the activities. less moveme calm are Bright or nts in the a. dark, nar inner are row or a due to wide, ruin the s or new , green or sandy

1

6

11

16

2

7

C CR

4

RO

C

K

AD

E RE

6

7

RO

4

6

7

6

2

12

RO

4

7

21

8

22

3

13

20

12

18

10

AD

30

18

29

AD

13

EK

1 20

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square K EE

3

12

15

18

22

15

23

14

mar ket

5

5

9

3

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9

11

21

31 16

28

13

E

9

11

5

CR

29

30

22

21 20

cen tral

29

8

14 11

2

16

8

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10

28

17

19

EK

16

29

17

6

7

12

AD

14

RO

4

15

18

13

20

21

22

na

rrow alley

A

11

15

1

5

32

33 23 31

19

Smell

17

19

25 10

17

32 24

27

15

25

33 30

Sound

16 10

25

24

28

25

Sound

3

8

27

35

31 34

29

Sound

4

24

9

35

23

30

op p sh

Smell

1

10

26

26

20

27

B

14

36

36

26

A N I R O A 32 D

36

28

Vibe

uare sq

37

19

37

FORODH

25

A N I R O A 2433 34 D

27

Negative

Beauty

2

3

8

13

18

24

FORODH

26

31

d ar

lc erna ourty nt

Beauty

1

12

17

23

men 35

32

Special Ann otations

37

34

Beauty

ANI ROA D

Negative

Smell

F30O R O D H

Special An notation s

Positive

Vibe

Special An notation s

33

Positive

Smell

22

29

36

Negativ e

Positive

Beauty

n plot pe 21

28

e

squ ’s mo 35

35

34

Vibe

27

s 34

37

ANI ROA D

Negative

Positive

Vibe

t area. a combin ation. The l Marke brighte t to r colour areas sho tion was the inner part w of usu tions. The ally stronger eiththe residential arethe more favourab a, and the er very le perce ther sma other distincti attracti n to the ption we ve colour ve ll-scale had and local fish area is the sea and sme sea area again. vice ver ing acti ll or ver There vities or front with big open spa y dirty and stin are a number of sa. When looking local you king. The ce and distinct ngsters roads. Wit clusters se contrib games. h open space, it ute to the hig h provide s a gather ing

26

in ru

33

50 meters

FORODH

50 meter s

50 meter s

ury tr ee

(Forodhan i the are a was car ried t and 37 spots wer out in late Nov ember tion was e marke 2008. We d on the closely related broke dow to our exp map to record n our per down our erience ception s and on feelings to every the wal toward place to s res k. As a res ult of this pective places different senses . The : vib reflection, annotation responses from e, smell, us s were added to could note the

32

STAR

Zanziba r Stone Tow Investig ation Zon n e

merc

rcury Tre e

31

37

wo

e and exc lud pac acee of hu e the atmospher e man pe erent fun rceptionin the situation. Wit ctions and h and exp atmosp erience reference to the em heres. Stri . otion ma p C which p by Chr was bet istian Nol ween the d, the Zan Central zibar Sto Market ne Tow (Creek Roa n d) and Me

36

Zanzibar Stone Tow Investiga n tion Zo ne

Zanzibar Stone Tow Investiga tion Zon n e

Special An notation s

i

50 meter s

Sound

ing str ee

t

07_design proposals

E_design scope

alley

open plot 81


A

alley

section

plan

components

textile

82

connection


E_design scope

perspective

07_design proposals

83


perspectives

intervention 1

wider streets

84

intervention 2


E_design scope

07_design proposals

variations

references

market in Zanzibar

the ephemeral forest - workshop levitas

85


B

square section

plan

components

connection

1st layer

plastic stripe

2nd layer

different member length and spacing

86


E_design scope

07_design proposals perspective

87


perspectives

88


E_design scope

07_design proposals perspective

89


variations

90


E_design scope

07_design proposals references

PS1 installation, new york 2004 - nArchitects

bamboo bridge installation - workshop levitas

Office, John Hardy Jewelry (KTI), near Ubud, Bali ‘Three Mountain’ at John Hardy Jewelry in Sibang Kaja, near Ubud, Bali

91


C

open plot

section

plan

structure

surface split bamboo as facade or flooring

bay width

scaffolding width

bracing

92


E_design scope

07_design proposals perspective

93


variations

bridge installation in newcastle, UK

94

scaffolding in cambodia


E_design scope

07_design proposals

preliminary scenario workshop

references

scenario workshop

bamboo scaffolding - Hong Kong

interventions

bamboo house construction in Equador

95


96


conclusion

01_summary and reflections

97


programme

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rod

p ing

ell

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handicraŌ

ints >>

cooking

me

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gp

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>>

meeƟ

educaƟon

>>

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>>

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>>

ng po

>>

od

ng fo

selli

<< <<<

>>

>>

ints >>

>>>>

>

social network

giv

economy

sell ing leŌ ov er m

win

meeƟng points >>>>>>>>>>>>>>

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learning handicraŌs>>>>>>

selling products>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

ng po

rnin

rm

meeƟ

lea

ing /

texƟle

1 st

restaurant

>

>

entertainment

>

workshop / classroom

shop

learning building techniques

2

nd

3

>

money bank

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F_conclusion

summary and reflections

Methodology The contextual approach has been very essential in my work as it brought my knowledge and understanding of issue to a real life level. In the one month field trip, I have been revising the early points of departure of my studies from a more specific focus to widen my senses in all different fields in order to learn as much as I could. After returning to Sweden, I have been looking at the project in a more objective distance. This method has been successful which helped my analysis and organization in the project, as well as prioritizing different issues and resources.

Approach The three levels of proposal brought a more extensive approach to the complicated social issue. As the issue is an intangible problem in the society, it is not easy to be dealt with by a solid building proposal. The three-level approach has given a solid overview and orderly way of tackling the problem. It has also shown how the three levels inter-react and inter-dependent on each other in order to achieve the result.

Proposal The diagram on the left hand side shows the summary of the proposal through all three levels as a possible example. It starts with the social political strategy which encourages inter-reaction between different businesses. This creates the platform for economic growth, skills exchange and social networking. When wealth and knowledge are created physical spaces can be created for women themselves for social networking or other purposes. The creation loops and continues creating wealth and knowledge. The idea spreads and the community grows. The mobility of women in the society increased and the status of women is strengthened. A happy future!

99


100


afterword The thesis does not intend to discuss about gender equality but to look for different methods to show oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s potential contribution to oneself and the community. I have chosen to work with women empowerment in the thesis while empowerment could be, and should be promoted to all aged, all races and all different background people, to everybody. Looking at my background, as a Chinese girl coming from a conservative family in the money-oriented society, I was totally unconfident to work with the gender related issue with the African context. I felt I was lacking of knowledge of the unfamiliar topic as well as I might not be in an unsuitable position to comment other peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s lives. I was carrying loads of fears in the beginning and process of the thesis. When I was working with a thesis related to empowerment, I, myself was also empowered through the process with the support with tutors, classmates and friends around me, fighting against all the fears I had. Quite different from other financially-support thesis, my work was started with the minimal supports. It reflects the same situation with the process of empowerment. The beginning could be tiny and self-initiated. Step by step, with determination, big achievement could be attained. I would definitely want to spread my empowered energy to make real influences. There has been work done about gender related topics and empowerment with NGOs in African context as well as on Zanzibar however there has not been a linkage of the intangible achievement to concrete result. Relating the abstract issue to solid architecture could be a possible way.

101


Books 1) Bianca, Stefano & Francesco Siravo (1996), A Plan for the Historic Stone Town, The Aga Khan Trust for Culture: Zanzibar, The Aga Khan Trust for Culture, Geneva 2) Chalmers (2008), Reality Studio – Zanzibar, Design for Sustainable Development, Department of Architecture, Chalmers, Gothenburg 3) Gould, Kira & Lance Hosey (2007), Women in Green – Voices of Sustainable Design, London 4) Gunnarsson, Ulrika & Emma Johansson (2004), In the streets of Zanzibar : constructions of gender and place : a minor field study, KTH, Stockholm 5) LaNier Royce (1983), The Stone Town of Zanzibar: A Strategy for integrated Development, A Technical Report, United Nations Center for Human Settlements 6) Manal A.M. Al-Bishawi (2008), Women’s Behavior in Public Space and the Influence of Privacy as Cultural Value, PhD Thesis, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, UNB 7) Manelius, Anne-mette (2007), Flydende sten: betons arkitektoniske potantialer, Copenhagen 8) Marks, Robert W. (1960), The Dymaxion World of Buckminster Fuller, New York 9) Norén, Stina (2008), Infil(l)stration_network of marketplaces, Master thesis, Department of Architecture, Chalmers, Gothenburg

102

10) Olsson, Kristina (2003), Earth to Earth and Vice Versa – on perishable architecture, MFS master thesis, Department of Architecture, Chalmers, Gothenburg 11) Oslo school of Architecture (1983), The Old Stonetown of Zanzibar : study project for town renewal and rehabilitation, Oslo 12) Sheriff, Adbul (1995), The History and Conservation of Zanzibar Stone Town, London 13) Tannerfeldt, Göran & Per Ljung (2006), More Urban Less Poor – an introduction to urban development and management, SIDA, London 14) Syversen, Inger Lise (2007), Intension and Reality in Architectural Heritage Management, PhD thesis, Chalmers, Gothenburg 15) Tellechea, Mariano (2007), Wosha Wosha - A reflection on strategies for sustained development, Kisumu, Kenya, Master thesis, Department of Architecture, Chalmers, Gothenburg 16) Thames & Hudson (2006), Design like you give a damn: architectural responses to humanitarian crises, London


bibliography

Movies 1) Ayisi, Florence (2007), Zanzibar Soccer Queens, Documentary Film 2) Reticker, Gini & Abigail E. Disney (2008), Pray the Devil Back to Hell, Documentary Film 3) Reticker, Gini & Charlotte Mangin (2006), Class of 2006, Documentary Film 4) van der Haak, Bregtje (2002), Lagos / Koolhaas, Documentary Film Journals / Articles 1) ActionAid (2008), Hit or miss? Women’s rights report 2) Domus (2008), vol. 916, Fare, in Africa, p 108-112 3) UNDP (2008), Recommendations of the MDG Africa Steering Group – achieving the Millennium Development Goals in Africa, New York 4) Christian Enterprise Trust of Zambia (CETZAM), Microfinance and GenderEquality: Are We Getting There? - Mutalima, Irene KB 5) Sida (2006), (Re)claim Women’s Space in World Heritage – Humoud, Munira 6) Mozingo Louise, Women and Downtown Open Spaces 7) The Ryal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture, Department of Human Settlements (2008), Zanzibar – Tourism in the Shangani Area – Andrea Malmberg, Jule Wittorf,Nina Westerdahl Internet 1) www.socialwatch.org 2) www.ilo.org 3) www.generalizedempowerment.org

103


104


appendices

01_stripe studies 02_sensation map 03_interviews 04_field study diary


106


appendix

01_ stripes studies

B

study based on 5 aspects: 1) background history 2) movement of people 3) activties 4) use of buildings 5) entrances to city / beach

A

C

D

E

F 0

107 300meters


A

B

1) background history - reclaimed land (1920) for new bigger port - Creek road is also reclaimed land =>CAD? GD  - there is continuation of landfill >  ? ?@D I= A on the east side



AA EDG

& CD?  D >  ? ? 2) movement of people (local and tourist, men / DF "D D@G  and women) D G  >D >  E   G  D - A local Dhow port and a local resident ((G%@ >area - No tourists at all, only local resident are  DH GD@E DE  D> ?  around GD G ?ID  - Not so much movement withinGD the area, a G ?EDG G> I G A? very quite area =D? > G ?  G ? = % DGDGD G@ ID?GD =@ >C G = 3) activities (time- related), % DGDID @ I>=  - fishermen start early in the morning and @D?

A@DD? G E IC  @D sometimes go fishing in the evening E >  E - A bloom production workshop% I G E A MDI? - No shops in the inner area norAADD?GG EDG  along the sea % DGD@ D> E DE IDC A side



A=DG>C GDA ?  A A  D?

4) use of buildings (residential, mixed-use or commercial use), >H    G ?  - A few warehouses )   C G# DG=      more  - Mainly 1-2 story residential buildings, 6 ED@DD?G

I  G   contemporary buildings are found closer the  E DE G    

@DD?G

 Creek Road 2DG# A &AD >D   H  - there are mixed use buildings aDDG ?+G D  long Creek road E E A >D @D ' 5     H ?2 = H DG ?  beach 5) entrances to the city/  D@= ? A  ?   J ? D>D >   - Entering Malawi road is entrance to the   normal Stone Town atmosphere 9 D ?  ?DDG  ? G  EDG - Roads are not  paved in the inner part of the % DA/ I D?GD> CD?#@DD?G

 GG stripe

DG  DF ED > GDAGD

DG  DF  ED > GD A GD

 G>  GD G > G = > G   D ?$  G> GDG > G= > G   D ?$ (G> GDG EDGA? ?>>D? AGD   (G>  GD G EDG A? ? >>D? A GD    (G>  GD G ' DI EDG D A? (G> GDG ' DIEDGDA? / D?H E= >?>>  =   P   /  D?   H  E= > ? >>  =   P 

  G>  GD G   EG D@ G D E HG 

 G> GDG   EGD@G  D E HG    ? >     ? >  

108

E


B

B



appendix

01_stripes studies



1) background history - reclaimed land (1920) for new bigger port =>CAD? GD - Creek road is also reclaimed land   =>CAD? GD  >  ? ?@D I= A =/ ? IG @DG= @D - Mnara mosque (1830s) one of the only three conicalAA EDG GG  IEDG @DGD@1 ? shape minarets in East Africa & CD?  D >  ? ? ' ' E  / DF "D D@G  D G  >D >  E   G  D 2) movement of people ((G%@ >

1 ?' E I= G= 66  6DE@D3 8 >GD   D ? ,= - Gated port entrance with guards (borders created-time & G /C GI?  A ?  DH GD@E DE  D> ?  = =,*5 >    DE  ?  related) GD G ?ID  GD   - Almost no tourist, a few around to buy ferry tickets G ?EDG G> I G A?   > G/ ?  D D@G  - Almost no women, a few can be found selling food in =D? > G ?  G ? LG P G = L % DGDGD G@ ID?GD temp hawkers places =@ >C G =   DH GD@E DE  D> ? - A mess with passengers flow and goods at the port area % DGDID @ I>=  GGD G ?ID  - A lot of local people working as selling boat tickets or @D?

A@DD? G E IC  @D 6D GI C DA @DG E >  E ?GDEE ?GG  > guides, hanging around % I G E A MDI?  GG AADD?GG EDG  /  DAG A =D 3) activities % DGD@ D> E DE IDC A D?G  P = >  ? 

A=DG>C GDA ?  A A   @DG - Fish market: most busy time 6am til 10am D? 5E ?=DG H ?? EG - Temporary food stalls ( when there is@@D  IE A G    people, there is small food stalls) >H    G ?  0DG A MDID@E ? G     Cargoes come in every other )   C G# DG=  AA  

- Port: huge day     (International) >H    G ? 6 ED@DD?G

I G    passengers come from Dar es Salaam (every day), Pemba  )  A>H  ? DGD@ E DE G    

@DD?G

 2DG# A &AD >D   H  DA=D?D AI B EG (every other day) D GG E  DG ?+G D  E 2 HG  G >?GJ  DA E A >D @D ' 5   4) use of buildings   H ?2 = H DG ? GG  =D??  > G  DDC A@DGD G - Warehouses underused or not-in used in the sea port

   D@= ? A  ?   J ? D>D >   area  D@= ? A  ?   J ? D>D > 

  - Along Malawi road  to creek road: food stalls, 9 D ?  ?DDG  ? G  EDG   restaurants, hotels, + EDGG D G = ? A DA @DG=  mosque, police station, gas station >D E= >= ? A % DA/ I D?GD> CD?#@DD?G

 GG  / J ?  = ? A I G   ? > D GDE ?  DE / J ? = ? AI G   ? > DGDE? DE

DG  DF  ED > GD A GD

DG  DF ED > GDAGD 5) entrances to the city/ beach DAD?MDD D AD? MDD  /D D>   ?  = ? A  G   EG /D  D>   ?  = ? A G   EG - Entrances the G   D ?$ port (guarded according to time)  G>  GD G > Gto = >

 G> GDG > G= > G   D ?$

(G> GDG EDGA? ?>>D? AGD   (G>  GD G EDG A? ? >>D? A   - Entrances to the Dhow portGD(no guards)  G>  GD G > G = > G   D ?$  G> GDG > G= > G   D ?$ (G> GDG ' DIEDGDA?  (G>  GD G ' DI EDG D A? - Main road as a very public and accessible area,% EDGG D>  G> D?GDG > G  C G little alleys D>

as entrances to the  % EDGG G> D? GD G > G C G / D?H E= >?>>  =   P   /  D?   H  E= > ? >>  =   P  % >D @DG= J I G D> ? GD G ? G inner part more private residence 

  G>  GD of G the   EG D@ G D E HG area %>D @DG=  JI G  D> ?GD G?G  

 G> GDG   EGD@G  D E HG 

P = > ? > GG

P = > ? >  GG   ? >     ? >  

109


D 

 =>CAD? GD  >  ? ?@D I= A AA EDG & CD?  D >  ? ? / DF "D D@G  D G  >D >  E   G  D ((G%@ >  DH GD@E DE  D> ?  GD G ?ID  GD G ?EDG G> I G A? =D? > G ?  G ? = % DGDGD G@ ID?GD =@ >C G = % DGDID @ I>=  @D?

A@DD? G E IC  @D E >  E % I G E A MDI? AADD?GG EDG  % DGD@ D> E DE IDC A 

A=DG>C GDA ?  A A  D? >H    G ?  )   C G# DG=       6 ED@DD?G

I G    E DE G    

@DD?G

 2DG# A &AD >D   H  D DG ?+G D  E E A >D @D ' 5     H ?2 = H DG ?

   D@= ? A  ?   J ? D>D >     9 D ?  ?DDG  ? G  EDG   % DA/ I D?GD> CD?#@DD?G

 GG

DG  DF  ED > GD A GD

DG  DF ED > GDAGD  G>  GD G > G = > G   D ?$  G> GDG > G= > G   D ?$ (G> GDG EDGA? ?>>D? AGD   (G>  GD G EDG A? ? >>D? A GD   (G> GDG ' DIEDGDA?  (G>  GD G ' DI EDG D A? / D?H E= >?>>  =   P   /  D?   H  E= > ? >>  =   P 

  G>  GD G   EG D@ G D E HG 

 G> GDG   EGD@G  D E HG    ? >     ? >  

110

C



1)background history - busy Malindi waterfront (before the new  =>CAD? GD port) (in front of Old Dispensary)=>CAD? GD =/ ? IG @DG= @D  /DG EDGG? A L>G - Old Dispensary was built by Tharia Topan GG  IEDG @DGD@1 ?

? CGG  @DG *D  for Queen Victoriaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Golden Jubilee ' D@9D? ?1 ?)DG ' E  - Central Market was designed by&DG  DA G GDD@;K = J.H Sinclair 1 ?' E I= G= 66  6DE@D3 8 >GD  > G1  )DG= G> >!" (British) opened in 1904  5 DG GI * GD  D ? ,= - inner city Malindi is one of the  G *C G D ?E > I first & G /C GI?  A ? = >D E G ? GD ? G D =,*5 >    DE  ?  settlement     > G/ ?  D D@G  2)movement of people LG P G L

D@G  @DG? GDG II G   " 7? >DG>D)DD?   2CGG  @DG - Tourists walk along sea front and stopped     DH GD@E DE  D> ? at the mercury restaurant GGD G ?ID   DH GD@E DE  D> ? - Mainly young teenage boys around the 6D GI C DA @DG GD G ?ID  ?GDEE ?GG  > little beach area and seafront * A GGD GMDI@D G    GG - Speed boats arrive and departs@DGGDG ,I>D  from new /  DAG A =D ,D= E DE  A AD? passenger terminals D?G  P = >  ? G *D D@9D? ?G  P F   @DG - Not high flow of pedestrian in general 5 DEC E  QA DAG  5E ?=DG H ?? EG G GG A G>GD  @@D  IE A G    3)activities 0DG A MDID@E ? G   AA  

>H    G ? - Fishing activities and a lot of young boys 0 A G@DD? C G= GI 1 ?   doing swim jump at the pier @DG?*D D@9D?  >H    G ?  - Private rental cars and taxi along the  ? ?GDAD AG DA G  )  A>H  ? DGD@ DA=D?D AI B EG harbour and under mercury tree,  looking for GG E  tourists  D@= ? A  ?   2 HG  G >?GJ  DA J ? D>D >    GG  =D??  > 2= >= ? A G  @DG G  DDC A@DGD G 4)use of buildings / J ?  DAG GD GG GI G  DEDG  - Important monumental AD?MDD buildings along sea  D@= ? A  ?   J ? D>D >     front become public building + EDGG D G = ? A DA @DG=   G> GDG > G= > G   D ?$ - Mixed use buildings with residence on top 6  P F I > => DGGD? N  GG G >D E= >= ? A and shops on ground  / J ?  = ? A I G   ? > D GDE ?  DE @D G floor )DG  G G> GD G > G 

G G  @D G )DG G  G> GDG > G

G G  / J ? = ? AI G   ? > DGDE? DE - More local residential buildings in the inner part DAD?MDD

H D>>E ?=>R?DH   DE G  D AD? MDD

H  D>>E ? = >R ? DH    DE   G  /D D>   ?  = ? A  G   EG F  /D  D>   ?  = ? A G   EG  ,I >D    F I G  E G  G ,I>D F I G E G  G  5)entrances to the city/ beach  G>  GD G > G = > G   D ?$ ??  > G D@ G > G D     QA D?  G> GDG > G= > G   D ?$ ?? > G D@G > GD   QAD? An important local entrance to C G the centralG F  E D ?> QAI G DG  market  % - EDGG

D> G> D? GD G road > G

G F  E D ? > QA I G DG  G A G G A G % EDGG D>  G> D?GDG > G  C G D?=> DGGD? N  GEGD@G > G %>D @DG=  JI G  D> ?GD G?G   % ->D @DG= J I G mix

D> with ? GD G D? GD ? N  G An uncomfortable local ? andG tourist and the=>

little DG beach and EG D@ G > G

P = > ? > GG G G  ?D@G GD GED GG D?=> ?DG

P = > ? >  GG G  G ? D@ G GD G ED G G D? => ? DG mercury restaurant GDDG   D>   ?    GD DG  D>   ?   


 I= A

? ?  D@G   G 

> ?

A? G ? D?GD

>= 

IC 

DI?

A  A A

    

G   D?G

  H 

 5   DG ?

>  

EDG

GG



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P E HG E HG 

appendix



 =>CAD? GD =/ ? IG @DG= @D  GG  IEDG @DGD@1 ? ' ' E  1 ?' E I= G= 66  6DE@D3 8 >GD   D ? ,= & G /C GI?  A ? = =,*5 >    DE  ?      > G/ ?  D D@G  LG P G L

  DH GD@E DE  D> ? GGD G ?ID  6D GI C DA @DG ?GDEE ?GG  >  GG /  DAG A =D D?G  P = >  ?  @DG 5E ?=DG H ?? EG @@D  IE A G    0DG A MDID@E ? G   AA  

  >H    G ?  )  A>H  ? DGD@ DA=D?D AI B EG GG E  2 HG  G >?GJ  DA GG  =D??  > G  DDC A@DGD G  D@= ? A  ?   J ? D>D >     + EDGG D G = ? A DA @DG=  >D E= >= ? A  / J ?  = ? A I G   ? > D GDE ?  DE / J ? = ? AI G   ? > DGDE? DE DAD?MDD D AD? MDD  /D D>   ?  = ? A  G   EG /D  D>   ?  = ? A G   EG  G>  GD G > G = > G   D ?$  G> GDG > G= > G   D ?$  % EDGG D> G> D? GD G > G C G % EDGG D>  G> D?GDG > G  C G %>D @DG=  JI G  D> ?GD G?G   % >D @DG= J I G D> ? GD G ? G

P = > ? > GG

P = > ? >  GG

D

01_stripes studies

1) background history - Most important and significant landmarks at the seafront (House of Wonder and Old Fort) - Contain longest history of Zanzibar '#,I&D GD5  *DG

city (Omani Fort =>CAD? GD  =>CAD? GD /DG EDGG? A L>G built circa 1780) 

? CGG  @DG *D  - Shortest war in History (45 mins) Beit al Hukm (the  D@9D? ?1 ?)DG old palace) was completely destroyed), alteration of &DG  DA G GDD@;K = > G1  )DG= G> >!" the sea front due to the war with British 1896 5 DG GI * GD  - Under-construction Forodhani Park at the seafront  G *C G D ?E > I  DH GD@E DE  D> ? >D E G ? GD ? G D GD G ?ID  D@G  @DG? GDG II G  2) movement of people GD GD  DH  DAG = A   " Highest tourist flow from the seafront to the Jawâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s D?? @DGD@*DG  7? >DG>D)DD?   5D  D> E DE  A ADG 2CGG  @DGcorner   - Jobless people hanging around the 1= F  DDC A@DGD House of G  A>DGJ  DH GD@E DE  D> ? Wonder and the little square GD G ?ID  - Shopkeepers sitting along the street>H    G ? the get * A GGD GMDI@D G   E AD>C

 DH @DGGDG ,I>D  customers



,D= E DE  A AD? A DAG   ? G *D D@9D? ?G  P   D@= ? A  ?   F  3) activities 5 DEC E  QA DAG  - Night food market between Old fort J ? D>D >    and House of *DG ?IDC DE G G GG A G>GD  Wonder IG @DG >H    G ? - Guided tour going through this area.D>   ?    G   0 A G@DD? C G= GI 1 ?  EGD@5 A > DD ? DF  @DG?*D D@9D?  4) use of buildings / J ? = ? AI G  DE  ? ?GDAD AG DA G    - Public buildings near the sea front DG AD?MDD DA-  P4D? - Mixed-use along the tourist street with shops on E= >= ? AEDGDO> E   D@= ? A  ?   the ground floor HG EG ?> >

J ? D>D >    2= >= ? A G  @DG  G> GDG > G= > G   D ?$ / J ?  DAG GD GG GI G  DEDG  5) entrances to the DGD@=D? > G ?@D G = >  ? GD,I city/ beach AD?MDD - The little square >D  which branch out to different  > *DG .D> 4  ? > 6H A > D?  G> GDG > G= > G   D ?$ streets from the Fort is the entrance to the city (all .? C5DH   DE,I>D  6  P F I > => DGGD? N  GG G streets are heavily occupied by craft GD and @D G )DG  G G> GD G > G 

G G   ' O> G >>  = G G souvenirs = >  > AD? H

' O> G>>  = GGDG = >  > AD? H  @D G )DG G  G> GDG > G

G G  shops near ? N  >

H D>>E ?=>R?DH   DE G 

H  D>>E ? =the >Rsquare) ? DH    DE   G the 8 middle, I

 G  ? F   E F  - Jawâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s corner, a tiny square with a palm tree in 8 I

  G  ?A? 1= F  E centre A?  of the1=  city, only  ,I >D    F I G  E G  G G ? G DG ? D>    ? >     ? >   ,I>D F I G E G  G  G ?G  DG ? D>  men sitting around the (unemployed) chatting others, 6 stright roads ??  > G D@ G > G D   square   QA D?  0DIwith G>  GD G   EG D@ G  A D 5  0DI G> GDG   EGD@G  A D5  ?? > G D@G > GD   QAD? branch out to different of the city G F  E D ? > QApart I G DG  G A G A ? DG EH ? D? G F  E D ?> QAI G DG  G A G A ?DGEH ?D? D?=> DGGD? N  GEGD@G > G D?it=>

GD ? N  G EG D@ G > G the roads branched out to south is local is theDG end of the tourist point, G G  ?D@G GD GED GG D?=> ?DG G  G ? D@ G GD G ED G G D? => ? DG residential area   GDDG   D>   ?    GD DG

 D>   ? 

111


= G= 8 >GD 

?  A ? DE  ? 

D D@G 

 D> ?  @DG >

=D

 ?

?? EG    G  

=>CAD? GD /DG EDGG? A L>G

? CGG  @DG *D  D@9D? ?1 ?)DG &DG  DA G GDD@;K = > G1  )DG= G> >!" 5 DG GI * GD   G *C G D ?E > I >D E G ? GD ? G D D@G  @DG? GDG II G    " 7? >DG>D)DD?   2CGG  @DG    DH GD@E DE  D> ? GD G ?ID  * A GGD GMDI@D G   @DGGDG ,I>D  ,D= E DE  A AD? G *D D@9D? ?G  P  F  5 DEC E  QA DAG  G GG A G>GD  >H    G ? 0 A G@DD? C G= GI 1 ? @DG?*D D@9D?   ? ?GDAD AG DA G   

G ?  DGD@ B EG

 D@= ? A  ?   J ? D>D >    2= >= ? A G  @DG / J ?  DAG GD GG GI G  DEDG  AD?MDD

?GJ  DA  >

>D >  

@DG= 

 G> GDG > G= > G   D ?$ 6  P F I > => DGGD? N  GG G @D G )DG  G G> GD G > G 

G G  @D G )DG G  G> GDG > G

G G 

H D>>E ?=>R?DH   DE G 

H  D>>E ? = >R ? DH    DE   G F   ,I >D    F I G  E G  G ,I>D F I G E G  G  ??  > G D@ G > G D     QA D? ?? > G D@G > GD   QAD? G F  E D ? > QA I G DG  G A G G A G G F  E D ?> QAI G DG  D?=> DGGD? N  GEGD@G > G D? => DG GD ? N  G EG D@ G > G G G  ?D@G GD GED GG D?=> ?DG G  G ? D@ G GD G ED G G D? => ? DG GDDG   D>   ?    GD DG  D>   ?   

?  DE ? DE

EG EG

G C G G  C G G?G  G ? G

112







E

DG= @D  GD@1 ?

D: Jawâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Corner to Serena Hotel 1) background history, - Serena Hotel is the first 5 star hotel in '#,I&D GD5  *DG

=>CAD? GD 8ADG ? G >GI  =>CAD? GD Zanzibar

 ?DG?? H DE ?  - There is a Roman cathedral built(DE FG  around 1895  8 >GD A? 2 DE  ? > A ? 2) movement of people - tourists only move along the big DH GD@E DE  roads and in  D> ?GD G ?  DH GD@E DE  D> ? front of Hotels GD G ?ID  - Some local people hanging out ID  in Obama /   D> E DE  GD GD  DH  DAG = A square looking for tourist hiring cars or taxi D? D?? @DGD@*DG 

2 DE IDC A DO>   G ADH  G= ? A /D   G   - painting or snacks sellers moving along the I A@D DE G  H > %@ I D> E DE  G  >H    G ? area in day time A   E AD>C

 DH 0DG>DD DH G A DAG   ? 4) use of buildings  DAG = > ED = G ?  D@= ? A  ?   - Hotels and workshops near theGD G G = >  waterfront = ?GG  D  J ? D>D >    Local residential area in the inner part of 0DGD GG

*DG ?IDC DE G  Shangani IG @DG >H    G ? .D>   ?    G   - 1 school and 3 mosques )   

AL =   EGD@5 A - Mixed-use building with shops on the ground

?G  DE G   H  A > DD ? DF  floor along Kenyatta Road  / J ? = ? AI G  DE DG AD?MDD DA-  - public building (post office-private partly) and  D@= ? A  ?  P4D? a church   J ? D>D  E= >= ? AEDGDO> E  >    HG EG ?> >

/  E= >?ADH  GDI ?= ? A 5) entrances to the city/ beach  G> GDG > G= > G   D ?$  G  @DG - a lot of borders created from the beach side %@ I 

 GG? DG  G    DGD@=D? > G ?@D G = >  ? GD,I = ?8 >GD A?  >D  to Jawâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s corner  > *DG .D> 4  ? > 6H A > D? (Beach > Hotel.D>   ?  = ? A G 8ADG   > Local Residence > Travel .? C5DH   DE,I>D  agencies > Landmarks > > G Souvenir >  ' O> G >>  = G GD G = >  > AD?

H road G> GDG > G= > G   D ?$  G>  GD G = > shops G   D ?$ ' O> G>>  = GGDG = >  > AD? H  ? N  >  8 >GD  A?   EG  G ADH  G Jawâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s corner) 8 >GD A?  EG G ADH  G  8  I

 G  ? A?  1=  F   E = ? A   ? D>   ? > 8 I

  G  ?A? 1= F  E - Difficult accessibility to the beach since ground= ? A ? D>   ? > level difference G ? G DG ? D>    ? >     ? >    6  D@ ADH  G DI = ? A = D>C G 6   D@ADH  GDI= ? A= D>CG  G ?G  DG ? D>  Very well maintained garden (Obamaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s square) separated the hotel and local  0DI G>  GD G   EG D@ G  A D 5  G> GD G = >

G> GDG = >

0DI G> GDG   EGD@G  A D5  A residence ? DG EH ? D? A ?DGEH ?D? area 5D  D> E DE  A ADG 1= F  DDC A@DGD 3) activities G  A>DGJ

- Narrow entrances to the inner part of the region Shangani and not paved road


>D)DD?   DG

E DE  D> ? ?ID  MDI@D G   >D   A AD? D? ?G  P 

QA DAG  GD 

 G ? C G= GI 1 ? D@9D?  D AG DA G 

A  ?   >   

G  DEDG 

D ?$ ? N  GG G G 

G G  G

G G   DE G    DE   G

G  G G  G    QA D?  QAD?

DG  G A G G A G

DG 

> G

> G D?=> ?DG D? => ? DG



'#,I&D GD5  *DG

 =>CAD? GD  

F



GD G? A L>G  @DG *D  1 ?)DG G GDD@;K = G= G> >!" * GD 

D ?E > I D ? G D ? GDG II G 

appendix

01_stripes studies



1) background history, - Vuga south district was laid out and developed as European quarter =>CAD? GD =>CAD? GD 8ADG ? G >GI 8ADG ? G >GI - Victoria garden (Peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Garden - charged)

 ?DG?? H DE ?

 ?DG?? H DE ? (DE FG  (DE FG  1920s



8 >GD A? 2 DE  8 >GD A? 2 DE  ? > A ? ? > A ? 2) movement of people (local and tourist, men

 DH GD@E DE  D> ? GD G ?ID  GD GD  DH  DAG = A D?? @DGD@*DG  5D  D> E DE  A ADG 1= F  DDC A@DGD G  A>DGJ >H    G ? E AD>C

 DH A DAG   ?  D@= ? A  ?   J ? D>D >    *DG ?IDC DE G  IG @DG .D>   ?    G    EGD@5 A > DD ? DF  / J ? = ? AI G  DE DG AD?MDD DA-  P4D? E= >= ? AEDGDO> E  HG EG ?> >

 G> GDG > G= > G   D ?$  DGD@=D? > G ?@D G = >  ? GD,I >D   > *DG .D> 4  ? > 6H A > D? .? C5DH   DE,I>D   ' O> G >>  = G GD G = >  > AD? H

' O> G>>  = GGDG = >  > AD? H  ? N  >  8  I

 G  ? A?  1=  F   E 8 I

  G  ?A? 1= F  E G ? G DG ? D>    ? >     ? >   G ?G  DG ? D>   0DI G>  GD G   EG D@ G  A D 5  0DI G> GDG   EGD@G  A D5  A ? DG EH ? D? A ?DGEH ?D?

and women),  DH GD@E DE   DH GD@E DE   D> ?GD G ? - Mainly local people around  D> ?GD G ? ID  - People working in office in the ID  government /   D> E DE  /   D> E DE  buildings D? D? 2 DE IDC A DO>   - More mama then men waiting 2 DE IDC A DO>   for hospital G ADH  G= ? A G ADH  G= ? A service /D   G   /D   G   - A few local people in the greenI A@D DE G  H > area I A@D DE G  H > %@ I D> E DE  G  %@ I D> E DE  G  - Not continuous movement along the beach A   A   (prohibited to enter the beach behind state 0DG>DD DH G 0DG>DD DH G house)  DAG = > ED = G ?  DAG = > ED = G ? GD G G = >  GD G G = > - No tourist at all = ?GG  D  = ?GG  D  0DGD GG

0DGD GG

3) activities (time- related),

>H    G ? >H    G ? - Fishermen selling fish behind the hospital in )   

AL =  )   

AL =  evening time

?G  DE G   H  A

?G  DE G   H  A  

4) use of buildings (residential, mixed-use or

 D@= ? A  ?   D@= ? A  ?  commercial use),   J ? D>D    J ? D>D  >    - Mainly public and government >    owned /  E= >?ADH  GDI ?= ? A buildings near/  E= >?ADH  GDI ?= ? A the sea front  G  @DG  G  @DG - A few small %@ I 

 GG? DG  G   restaurants and hotel in the area %@ I 

 GG? DG  G   = ?8 >GD A?  = ?8 >GD A?  behind Victoriaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s garden .D>   ?  = ? A G 8ADG   .D>   ?  = ? A G 8ADG  

- Local residential buildings in the Vuga south

area  G>  GD G > G = > G   D ?$  G>  GD G > G = > G   D ?$  G> GDG > G= > G   D ?$  G> GDG > G= > G   D ?$ 8 >GD A?  EG G ADH  G 8 >GD A?  EG G ADH  G  8 >GD  A?   EG  G ADH  G  8 >GD  A?   EG  G ADH  G = ? A   ? D>   ? > = ? A   ? D>   ? > = ? A ? D>   ? > 5)= ? A ? D>   ? > entrances to the city/ beach  6  D@ ADH  G DI = ? A = D>C G  6  D@ ADH  G DI = ? A = D>C G 6   D@ADH  GDI= ? A= D>CG  6   D@ADH  GDI= ? A= D>CG  - G> GDG = >

Victoriaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s garden areas local residence G> GD G = > separates the government building G> GD G and = >

G> GDG = >

- The line of government own building blocks the entrance to the beach

113


appendix

02_sensation map

BACKGROUND Common everyday maps typically show static architecture and exclude the atmosphere in the situation. With reference to the emotion map by Christian Nold, the Zanzibar Stone Town Sensation Map attempts to remedy this by mapping the space of human perception and experience. 6 strips were marked over the Stone Town city to show different functions and atmospheres. Strip C which was between the Central Market (Creek Road) and Mercury Tree (Forodhani Road) was chosen as a case study.

METHOD With the help of a local friend, STAR, 2-day intensive study of the area was carried out in late November 2008. We broke down our perception to every place to different senses: vibe, smell, sound, emotion. We walked through every accessible street and 37 spots were marked on the map to record down our feelings towards respective places. The responses from us could be positive or negative towards the same place as the emotion was closely related to our experiences and on the walk. As a result of this reflection, annotations were added to note the important activities, objects and experience.

114


,

13

12

7

2

11

6

1

3

8

18

17

23

28

16

27

26

33

22

32

31

STAR

21

37

36

25

36

FOROD

37

F30O R

35

Zanzibar Stone Investigation Z

26

37

4

26

27

24

25

9

14

36

19

24

32

19

5

17

3

16

10

28

27 15

20

25 10

36

26

I N A H D O 37 R O F

24

29

34

Zanzibar Stone Town Investigation Zone

Zanzibar Stone Town Investigation Zone


appendix

02_sensation map

DISTINTIVE AREA On the map, the overall pattern of dots shows the density of different area. The mixture of senses map shows the summary of senses in a combination. The brighter colour areas show the more favourable perception we had and vice versa. When looking at the entire map, there is a general positive gradient from the Central Market to the inner part of the residential area, and then to the sea area again. There are a number of distinct clusters of bright circles and dark circles. Around the market, the sensation was usually stronger either very attractive colour and smell or very dirty and stinking. These contribute to the high pedestriansâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; density, vivid activities and busy social interactions. The other distinctive area is the sea front with big open space and roads. With open space, it provides a gathering point for the local people and the beach nearby is always active with either small-scale local fishing activities or local youngsters games.

INNER CITY It is also interesting to look at the clusters gathered along the different alleys in the inner city. They seem universally calm. There are less movements in the inner area due to the functions and the winding alleys. The sensation is comparatively based on static physical environment more than activities. Bright or dark, narrow or wide, ruins or new, green or sandy are main influences to the sensations. Discovery of activities generally brings positive experience within the calm area.

TOURIST&LOCAL Apart from the communal partterns, it is remarkable to look at the difference between the sensation of a tourist and a local. A lot of the time, responses from a local are shaped by the memories of the area. As a local person is much more familiarize with the city, one would have senses by comparing the other part within the city. On the other hand, a tourist would take a more global view point and make comparison with a more different background and culture.

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Sound

Sound Sound

Sound

Special Annotations

Special Annotations Special Annotations

Special Annotations

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Negative Negative Negative Negative

Positive Positive Positive Positive

LOCAL

sound smell beauty vibe

TOURIST


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02_sensation map

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Tourists / Foreigners

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Interview Questions

Tourist / Foreigner 1

1) What is your name? 2) How old are you? 3) Where you are from? 4) Purpose on Zanzibar? 5) What places have you been before Zanzibar/ will you go after Zanzibar? 6) Where do you live on Zanzibar? 7) How much do you spend a day? 8) What do you like the most here? 9) What annoys you the most? 10)Who are the most important people here? 11)Who are the most dangerous people here? 12)What is the landmark here? 13)How do you think Zanzibar can be a better place? 14)Will you come again? Why?

1) Malaika 2) 23 3) Germany 4) Internship 5) Some cities in Tanzania: Songea, Anusha, Karatu, Moshir, Dar el Salam 6) Homes-day 7) 10 USD 8) Mixture of cultures, religions, people 9) Some local people doing good to foreigners just for money in the end, crowded tourism places 10)Host Mom, Star (personal) / the Imam 11)Beach boys, Politicians 12)Stone Town, Zanzibar 13)Self-sufficient resources to local people, electricity, water 14)Yes


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03_interviews

Tourist / Foreigner 2

Tourist / Foreigner 3

Tourist / Foreigner 4

1) Stefano 2) 22 3) Italy 4) Vacation 5) Kenowa Island for diving 6) Apartment 7) 10 USD 8) Beach, Living 9) Shopkeepers of souvenirs 10)Chief of Mosque 11)Drug addictions 12)Food market, the smell is strong and special, small alleys. 13)Local people control tourism, instead of foreigners 14)Yes/ swimming and the atmosphere.

1) Astrid, Britta 2) 40 3) Germany 4) Vacation 5) 2 weeks Stone Town, beach â&#x20AC;&#x201C; east coast, safari two days 6) Co Co der namer Hotel 7) 20 USD 8) Beach, diving, friends 9) Beach boys, drugs 10)Karume (the President of Zanzibar) Aga Khan 11)Beach boys, Police 12)Spices and House of Wonders (museum) 13)Improving the garbage collection system, less radical on religion 14)Yes/ warm weather, diving, visiting friends

1) Malin 2) 29 3) Netherlands 4) Learn Swahili 5) A lot of places: Mahaya, Arusha, Lake, Natran, Dar el Salam, Itinga 6) Homes-day 7) 7 USD / day 8) Shangani beach, shopping area, doing Homes-day, lots of coulture 9) People following you, pushing too much 10)Foring investors, hotel owners of the government, hotel owners, government, political leaders 11)People on drugs and alcoholics. 12)House of wonders, Dhow boat 13)Modernization, more money in traditional housing and cultural heritage 14)Yes, visit the family, attending the friendâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s wedding, business

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Local Residence

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Interview Questions

Local Residence 1

Basic information: 1) What is your name? 2) How old are you? 3) Where are you from? Zanzibar or mainland? 4) Job / Work? 5) What is your working hour? 6) Where do you live?

Basic information: 1) Omar 2) 30 3) Zanzibar 4) Buisnessman, Travel Agency Shop 5) 4 - 8 hours a day 6) Outside the Stone Town

Feeling to Zanzibar 7) What do you like the most here? 8) What annoys you the most? 9) Who are the most important people here? 10)Who are the most dangerous people here? 11)Where do you meet your friends? 12)What part of the city you like the most? 13)What part of the city you like the least? 14)What is the landmark here?

Feeling to Zanzibar: 7) Beauty, tourists 8) People annoying people, police doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t care 9) Tourists, big money 10)People from mainland, they attack people at night 11)In the streets, in shops 12)Kenyatta road, good area for business 13)Fish market, very dirty 14)Clove and coconut

Personal Feeling 15)What is your dream? 16)What do you want the most now? 17)What is the most important to you? 18)Where do you want to travel to or live in? Why? 19)How do you think Zanzibar can be a better place?

Personal feeling: 15)Normal person 16)Business, earn money 17)Get my own office, religion is important, than work 18)Live in Canada, Australia / travel in Thailand to see the Elephants 19)Renovation of buildings, clean â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the government should do this


appendix

03_interviews

Local Residence 2

Local Residence 3

Local Residence 4

Basic information: 1) Star 2) 27 3) Zanzibar 4) Unemployed 5) Sometimes part times 6) Stone town, close to the Cathedral

Basic information: 1) Izdi 2) 24 3) Zanzibar 4) Hand craft shop 5) From 9 to 18, 7 days a week 6) Vuga (south part of Stone Town)

Feeling to Zanzibar: 7) Safety, born here 8) People selling souvenirs on the roads, making it even more narrow. 9) My family, my mother, People from Zanzibar 10)No one is dangerous 11)Listening to music, exercises at Vuga park, watching TV 12)Shangani, I grew up there 13)I like all of it 14)House of wonders (museum)

Basic information: 1) Bobman 2) 20 3) Zanzibar 4) Part time shop keeper 5) 6) Outside Stone Town Feeling to Zanzibar: 7) Safety, people helping each other 8) Dumps, rubbish, donkeys mistreatment, drunk people mainly from mainland, abusing people 9) The government, the military 10)The police, during the elections they use violence, resulting in dead people 11)In shops 12)Michenzani 13)I like all of it 14)House of wonders (museum) , Clove

Personal feeling: 15)Working hard, to gain money for the future 16)To be free, relaxed, chill 17)To have a good life â&#x20AC;&#x201C; religion (cannot choose) 18)USA, visiting friends 19)Changing the politics, changing the policies

Personal feeling: 15)Teaching in University, Engineering 16)Rest 17)Nungwi, parents 18)Nowhere else, Zanzibar is the best 19)Decentralization of power, development of industry

Feeling to Zanzibar: 7) Beach and spices, can smell them when coming back from foreign countries 8) People showing off, poor people dressing up and talking about richness 9) Parents, without them I would not be here, future husband, future kids 10)Most dangerous people are men here, they have 2 brains: one up, one down 11)Meet the friends in the shop, while working 12)Stone Town, Forodhani Park 13)Ngâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ambo, for the drugs and thieves 14)Spaces, clove and coconut Personal feeling: 15)Working hard, share money with the husband 16)Good health 17)To have education and money

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thank you asante sana


.............................................................slowly slowly, we walk together to the bright future.............................................................


Zanzibari Queens