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WAT ER A RCHI TE CTURE OF PATA N PA LACE T HE RE ST ORAT ION OF TUSHA HITI, B HA NDA RKHAL TA NK, THE PAVI LI O N , LO HAN HI T I A ND THE REHAB ILITATION OF THE HI STORICAL WAT E R SO URCE S AT T H E P ATA N R O YA L P A L A C E C O M P L E X – A U N E S C O W O R L D H E R I TA G E S I T E F I N A L R E P O R T | S E P T E M B E R 20 11 SUBMITTED TO T H E E M B A S S Y O F T H E F E D E R A L R E P U B L I C O F G E R M A N Y, K AT H M A N D U , N E P A L


k a t h m a n d u V a l l e y p r e s e r Va t i o n t r u s t

136 west 21st street, 11th floor new york, ny 10011, usa tel: 212 727 0074

info@kvptnepal.org

p.o. box

13349, kathmandu, nepal trust office: patan darbar square tel: (977 1) 55 46 055

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www.kvptnepal.org


table of contents

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kVpt: oVerView of achieVements

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project description and schedule

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project funding

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kVpt approach and working method

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project challenges

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|a|

the restoration of the historic water supply

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|b|

the restoration of the bhandarkhal tank

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|c|

the restoration of the paVilion

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|d|

the restoration of lohan hiti

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|e|

the restoration of tusha hiti

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annex

1: details of water supply line

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annex

2: photographic documentation


project team KVPT EXECUTIVE CO- DIRECTORS Susannah Robinson, Erich Theophile NEPAL PROGRAM DIRECTOR Rohit Ranjitkar SENIOR ADVISORS Niels Gutschow, Eduard F. Sekler DEPUTY DIRECTOR Thomas Schrom ENGINEER Prayag Joshi ARCHAEOLOGIST Sukra Sagar Shrestha PROJECT MANAGER Raju Roka ACCOUNTANT Diwakar Ranjitkar DRAFTSMAN Anil Basukala CONSERVATION SPECIALIST Rajan Shrestha SITE OVERSEER Sushil Rajbhandari SITE ASSISTANT Dinesh Tamang OFFICE ASSISTANT Bishnu Chulyadha, Jagat Lama CONSULTANT SUPERVISOR Suresh Shrestha PHOTOGRAPHY Thomas Kelly, Stanislaw Klimek, Phillippe Pernet CONSERVATION DEPARTMENT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED ARTS, VIENNA Gabriela Krist, Lisa Gr채ber, Martina Griesser, Marija Milchin, Manfred Trummer,

Susanne Leiner, Malgorzata Mozdyniewicz, Katharina Fuchs, Martina Haselberger STONE CONSERVATION CONSULTANT Konstanze von zur Muehlen PHD ARCHITECTURE INTERN Alessandra Fonzi LABORATORY TESTING Integrated Conservation Resources (ICR), New York

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Tusha Hiti (1647) is located in the courtyard of Sundari Chowk (built 1627), one of the three Royal Palaces.

Pavilion (1647) Bhandarkhal Tank (1647) The tank had not held water for over 40 years and is seen here overgrown by weeds. Lohan Hiti (1647) The water spout located at the east side of the tank is completely overgrown. It was once the main water supply for the Palace.

Aerial view of the Patan Royal Palace Complex | July 2005

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3 Bhandarkhal Tank, Pavilion, and Lohan Hiti

6 Stone Gate, Courtyard - North

2 Sundari Chowk

11 Degutale Temple

4 Tusha Hiti

6 Stone Gate - South

9 Bahadur Shah Palace/North Wing

8 Kot Pati

10 Nasal Chowk

13 Patan Museum

7 Court Building

5 Mul Chowk

Patan Darbar Square | Nov 1986 View from the west Photograph by Robert Kostka

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2 Sundari Chowk

6 Stone Gate, Courtyard - North 11 Degutale Temple

4 Tusha Hiti

9 Bahadur Shah Wing/North Wing 6 Stone Gate, Courtyard - South

3 Bhandarkhal Tank, Pavilion, and Lohan Hiti

10 Nasal Chowk

13 Patan Museum

7 Court Building

5 Mul Chowk

Plan of Patan Darbar Square and the Patan Royal Palace Complex | 1996 Compilation by Götz Hagmüller

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kVpt: oVerView of achieVements

e kathmandu Valley preservation trust is the only international not-for-profit exclusively dedicated to safeguarding the extraordinary and threatened architectural heritage of nepal. e trust is dedicated to restoration and to the development of state-of-theart solutions and technology in the conservation of nepalese architecture. e trust, notably nepal’s first private sector team in the conservation area, was founded in 1991 in response to the unesco international campaign for safeguarding of the kathmandu Valley. since then the trust has identified and helped save endangered monuments in nepal and can now claim twenty years of achievement in the conservation field, saving over fifty monuments including temples, rest-houses, monasteries and historic houses. e trust is officially registered in the united states as a non-profit organization and is also registered in

nepal as an ingo. e kVpt team works closely with unesco, the nepal department of archeology and municipal engineers, and has achieved the highest standard in preservation practice. from the outset the trust has been inspired by and to a certain extent modeled on the german aid projects at pujari math (1971–72) and the great success of the german bhaktapur development project (1974–1986). recent kVpt projects supported by the german federal foreign office (kulturerhalt) were the restoration of chhusya baha and itum baha, two buddhist monasteries in kathmandu. e trust’s restoration work has been cited by a unesco monitoring report as “demonstration that the highest international standards can be met in nepal.”

Tusha Hiti Photo by Thomas L. Kelly | 1999

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project description and schedule

in 2006 kVpt requested a grant from the german foreign ministry for the restoration of the historic water supply lines to bhandarkhal tank and tusha hiti, as well as the dismantling, consolidation and partial reconstruction of the bhadarkhal tank walls. restoration of these water architecture elements forms a cornerstone of the kathmandu Valley preservation trust’s ambitious ten year program to restore the royal palace complex and to reopen it to the public as an open-air museum of art and architecture. e tusha hiti and bhandarkahl tank, which sit at the heart of the palace complex, are among the crowning achievements of the malla kings, the great patrons of the arts in the kathmandu Valley during the height of nepalese artistic activity in the 17th century. profusely and intricately detailed, carved with an iconographic program of deities of the hindu pantheon, they represent some of the finest examples of 17th-century nepalese sculpture and water architecture. tusha hiti e tusha hiti, built under king siddhinarasimha malla of patan in 1647, is thought to have served as the king’s ceremonial step well. commonly known as the royal bath, the hiti is a sunken oval form about 2 by 2.5 meters and about 1.5 meters deep, with a stone stair leading down from the courtyard. ree rows of

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carved stone deities line its walls with another row of free-standing sculptures above. e well’s rim is encircled by two snakes of a later date. a miniature temple replicating the krishna mandir, a famous temple on the adjacent square, sits on the hiti’s main axis. american scholar gudrun bühnemann in 2008 completed an article on the historical and religious significance of the carvings of the tusha hiti, citing them as “among the finest tantric sculptures of nepal.” bhandarkhal tank e bhandarkhal tank is the focal element of the gardens behind the palace to the east. its elevated pavilion (also dated 1647) at the northern edge of the tank provides a panoramic view of the garden. e lohan hiti (water spout), on the east side of the tank, once provided the main water supply for the royal palace. lohan hiti features historic inscriptions and is flanked by a series of carved stone deities, two stone guardians, and two stone lions who protect this sacred area. initial condition of the site e royal family abandoned the palace complex in the 18th century when power in the Valley was consolidated in kathmandu. we know little about how the complex fared in the 19th century except

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from contemporary views which show it in a state of disrepair. in the mid-20th century its custody was transferred to the newly formed government agency, the department of archaeology. from 1950 on, however, the decline continued: poorly maintained, it was used only on ceremonial occasions while portions of the complex were misused as a police headquarters, housing for guards and prisoners. it is now owned and managed by the government of nepal department of archaeology. after decades of neglect and makeshift repairs, the palace structures were found to be in poor condition. e pavilion and the entire tank suffered from two decades of poor maintenance, compounded by damaging incompatible repair campaigns. illconceived attempts at conservation of the sculptural pavilion had increased and accelerated damage. cement mortars and the effects of cyclical rising damp had begun to damage the stone, brought salts and plant growth to the tusha hiti carvings, and created an imminent danger of rapid deterioration. project structure e project was structured into five components: a restoration of the historic water supply and drainage system.

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b. restoration of the bhandarkhal tank c restoration and reconstruction of the pavilion located on the north side of the tank d restoration and strengthening of the lohan hiti water spout located at the east side of the tank. e. restoration of tusha hiti project schedule project documentation and research was started by niels gutschow in 2006, and continued by alessandra fonzo in 2006/2007. a preliminary conservation assessment was carried out by konstanze zu der muehlen in april through may of 2008. e german-funded project components, which brought water back to the palace and renovated the bhandarkhal tank, were implemented between may 2008 through december 2010. e u.s. ambassador’s funds were utilized from july 2009 through december 2010. e project was jointly inaugurated by german ambassador he Verena gräfin von roedern and u.s. ambassador he scott h. delisi in march of 2011. by september 2011 students and teaching staff from the university of Vienna put the finishing touches on the fine stone carvings, officially completing the entire project.

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project funding

e trust’s original proposal to the german government was later expanded when funding for additional components was secured from the american embassy. german funding made possible the repair and reconstruction of the water supply’s infrastructure including tapping into new sources, upgrading of the supply line, the complete rebuilding of the bhandarkhal storage tank, repair of the sundari chowk courtyard, and the rehabilitation of the drainage system.

View of Bhandarkhal Tank with the Patan Palace temples in the background | Mar 2, 2009 The ballustrade of the pavilion base and the brick wall surrounding the tank has already been removed. The project team investigated the condition of walls and foundations. Here you can see the pilot holes used for investigation.

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with the additional funding from the american embassy, the project was able to undertake the fine art conservation of three distinctive components of the patan palace water architecture: 1) the restoration of the tusha hiti’s stone relief facade and its miniature stone temple; 2) the thorough cleaning and reconstruction of the stone carved bhandarkhal pavilion base; 3) the professional treatment and resetting of the main water spout (lohan hiti), adjacent stone inscriptions and sculptures.

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to ensure the work was completed to international standards, kVpt partnered with specialists from the conservation department of the Vienna university of applied arts. e university contributed their own resources for travel, including a volunteer program for phd students under the guidance of their professors. each year the trust headquarters in new york holds its own “new york for nepal” benefit, raising private contributions, which contributed significantly to this project including cost of visiting experts, office operations, and project management. in addition, the trust receives noteworthy nepali private and corporate donor support. details of project contributions: german foreign ministry american ambassadors fund university of applied arts,Vienna (including in kind contributions) kVpt office and operations

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kVpt approach and working method

in response to the internationally recognized importance of nepal’s architectural patrimony and of the palace complex, and in the absence of meaningful local standards, precedents and services, the trust has developed its own formula for studying, developing and implementing its conservation projects. key to this work has been the continuity of 20 years of projects implemented in nepal, as well as the continuous dialogue between the local team, visiting experts and apprentices, and kVpt’s network of international experts. is spirit of global dialogue – bringing together young nepalese professionals on the ground and the international leading experts in art history, conservation theory and technology and architecture history from around the world, is in itself a great accomplishment. nepal has a wealth of historic stone monuments and sculpture, but has developed little in the way of standards or pilot projects for stone conservation work. while there are many stone treasures in the kathmandu Valley, the field of stone conservation in nepal is embryonic with a paucity of local knowledge and training in the field—this contrasts with timber conservation for which there are numerous projects and local experts. ere are no trained professional stone conservators in nepal, and to date, attempts at stone conservation have been few and often unsuccessful. for this project the trust developed a close working relationship with the conservation department of the

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university of applied arts, Vienna, austria. is collaboration was proposed and spearheaded by dr. eduard f. sekler, professor emeritus harvard university and omas schrom, project leader of the patan museum project, both austrian nationals. Visiting experts from Vienna analyzed conservation issues and developed appropriate strategies for the monuments’ preservation. under the supervision and guidance of a chief lecturer from the university in Vienna, austrian graduate students worked closely together with nepalese stone carvers and masons on the resetting of the tusha hiti’s carved elements and the reassembly and conservation of the stone-carved bhandarkhal pavilion. follow-up visits ensured a consistency of quality control and backstopping. several visits and altogether five teaching staff and six students worked actively to complete the restoration of the pavillion. e students’ volunteer contributions amounted to eight man-months. original survey of the site and the detailed photographic documentation was undetaken by italian phd student alessandra fonzo as part of her dissertation. technical research on the restoration of the water supply and stone fabric was undertaken over many years by erich eophile and prayag joshi, a leading nepali civil engineer. is work dates back to the “patan development programme” in 1992 which was funded by gtZ (gesellschaft für technische Zusammenarbeit).

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project challenges

e project faced typical challenges caused by difficult work conditions in nepal which include: water shortages, frequent power outages, strikes, and scarcity of timber and other traditional building materials. specific challenges unique to this project included: • negotiation with local authorities and neighbors to allow water supply work which crossed hundreds of properties held in many different types of ownership models • identification and design of a water supply solution for a historical water source at a higher elevation than its original position

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• digging of up to 7 meter deep trenches in narrow alleys without modern machinery • determining the best documentation method of existing conditions • identification of the most suitable preservation methods in view of local skills and available materials • sourcing of traditional construction materials: despite an intensive several months long search stone of matching color could not be found in the kathmandu Valley. appropriate quality stone was finally located in butwal in western nepal.

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Patan city The historic water supply line to the Patan Palace Water originates from one major and three minor sources near the Lagankhel area in the south of the city. Historic research, survey, and drawing by Prayag Raj Joshi

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project component

the restoration of the historic water supply and repair of water outlets

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historic importance e sophisticated water supply system to patan is first documented in an 8th century inscription at mangal hiti (step well north of the patan palace).e water supply originated from aquifers and natural springs, and was supplemented by diverting rivers from the southern periphery of the valley through a 20 kilometers long channel, the so-called raj kulo (“royal channel”). water was collected and stored in large ponds (pokhari) and from those ponds was distributed to the more the 30 step wells (hitis) throughout the city. water travelled by gravity through a complicated underground supply system built of terracotta channels. often hitis were fed from several sources and were interconnected. general maintenance of the water system was community managed and required cooperation of not only the city dwellers but also the communities in the south of the valley where the ray kulo channel originates. e last time this water system was systematically maintained was under king mahendra in the 1950s. at that time the raj kulo was rebuilt and the distribution system in the city upgraded. since then a

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rapid decline of the system can be observed. urban pressure and building of large buildings caused extensive damage to the underground channels. even more damaging has been the acute shortage of water in the kathmandu Valley. in the 1960s farmers in the south of the valley claimed the historic water sources and hence the raj kulo fell into disrepair. today, only a few remnants of the raj kulo can be found in the town of chapagaon. further stress to the system was caused by the increasing numbers of deep wells which considerably lowered the ground water level and caused aquifers and other natural springs to dry up. today, water supply to the city’s step wells has drastically declined, many of them drying up during the spring, and others becoming completely defunct. e water system of the royal patan palace had similarly deteriorated and until this year had not had water flowing for more than 40 years. in december 2010, coinciding with the completion of the restoration of the water architecture, water is again flowing through the historic channels and the bhandrakhal tank is holding water for the first time since the 1960s.

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Historic terracotta water channels | Nov 16, 2009 Such channels dating back to the 17th century were excavated, carefully cleaned, adjusted for proper slope, and then covered with flat brick laid in mud mortar.

Bhandarkhal Tank: looking north Excavation of the trench for one of the water supply lines feeding the Lohan Hiti.

Trenching near Thaina | Mar 22, 2009 The deepest trenches of up to 7 meters are located in sections J–K–L. Trenches were dug 4 meters apart from each other and then connected by tunneling. This process reduced the danger of cave-ins and also saved labor, as tunneling was more efficient than excavation.

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restoration work e tank’s historic water supply from lhagankhel, dating back to the early 17th century, has been interrupted since the early 1960s. e historic water line built of terracotta channels and brick has been blocked in many places due to a lack of maintenance. in later years due to construction of new houses and excavation for utilities the supply channels were severely damaged. before implementation work could actually begin careful negotiations with government counterparts and neighborhood associations had to be concluded. it was particularly challenging to reach agreements regarding excavations in the old city and to obtain permission to tap into historic water sources. e rehabilitation of the historic water system was completed over a three year period and included: • e restoration and new construction of 4 intake chambers from natural springs • e repair and upgrading of the 1.5 kilometer long underground supply line • e complete reconstruction and waterproofing of the bhandarkhal storage tank • e rehabilitation of the drainage line

the south wing of sundari chowk and re-laying of historic pavement. e project goal of restoring the water supply from 4 natural water sources to the tusha hiti and bhandarkhal tank was achieved. for the first time in more than forty years water is available through the golden spout of tusha hiti. out of a total length of 820 meters of the historical water supply system, 118 meters of the original terra cotta pipes were upgraded, 492 meters of new pipes were laid, 140 meters of recently repaired pipes cleaned. for detail of the supply line restoration work, section by section, please see appendix 1. e drain leading from the tusha stepwell to bhandarkhal required complete refurbishment since the original terracotta drain sections had been severely damaged by earthquakes and consequent settlements. rather than replacing this line, the original components were left in place, and a new line of pVc pipe was installed parallel to the original. e main drain from bhandarkhal tank to chyasal required reconstruction 130 meter long piping crossing the palace gardens. is outlet channel which was already refurbished in the late 1970s was again upgraded and cleaned and additional manholes were created to facilitate future maintenence.

e historic supply line between darbar square and tusha hiti was repaired, requiring trenching through

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project component

the restoration of bhandarkhal tank

b that the tank’s walls had been built with hardly any foundations. erefore, over the years the walls had settled unevenly and developed extensive cracks and caused stone elements to dislodge.

e tank’s uneven settlement, bulging of walls and the development of wide cracks in the stone veneer and paving had indicated the possibility of serious structural deficiencies. in july 2006, following heavy monsoon downpours, the tank filled with about 20 cm of water. it took less than 3 hours for the water to drain into the ground indicating that the traditional layers of black clay for the tank’s water-proofing had failed.

after careful removal and numbering of stone elements and the discovery that the foundations were almost non-existent, the tank was excavated to its historic floor level and new brick foundations and retaining walls around the base-level (water retaining area) of the tank were built. e concentric terraces were dismantled section by section and reconstructed with improved foundations. about 90 of the historic stone facing could be saved and re-installed with traditional lime-based mortar (surkhi). approximately 50 of the 5 inch thick edge stones were reused and the rest made from new stone of matching texture and color.

it was not known what condition the walls and foundations were in until they could be dismantled after funding was secured. upon initial evaluation/inspection, the tank walls were found to be completely dilapidated and it was discovered that entire parts of the tank were not supported by foundations. given the importance and antiquity of the monument, such poor construction quality came as a surprise. is required the trust to secure additional funding as construction costs were considerably higher than ever anticipated.

e water-holding area which historically was made waterproof with black clay received a pond liner specially imported from india.

e ground-up restoration of the stone-lined tank provided valuable information about the structural conditions of the entire monument. it was discovered The Bhandarkhal Tank May 20, 2011 View of the restored tank and pavilion from the south with the newly assembled stone guardian in the foreground.

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Bhandarkhal Tank | Aug, 2007 In 2007 KVPT cleaned the tank for a preliminary inspection and started the documentation project.

View of the Patan Palace across the Bhandarkhal Tank Henry Ambrose Oldfield, ca. 1853 Inscribed on reverse: “Rajah Sidhi Nur Singh’s tank and Summer House, in the Garden at the rear of the Darbar, Patan - constructed AD 1647”. British Library, Oriental and India Office Collection, WD 3309, wash 25.3 x 33.6 cm

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Bhandarkhal Tank | Aug 24, 2004 The tank had fallen into complete disrepair and is seen here overgrown by weeds.

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Pavilion

# 09 # 02 Drain line from Tusha Hiti

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Lohan Hiti water-spout # 08

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Historic water supply line in

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Plan of the Bhandarkhal Tank: Location of initial pits dug for investigating the monuments condition. Drawing by Valerio Sestini and Enzo Somigli

terra cotte channel

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lime surkhi mortar

portland cement and sand mortar

wall of hand made ma apa brick laid in mud mortar

infill of broken brick and roof tiles mixed with top soil, leaving large voids pointing of portland cement and sand mortar lime surkhi mortar portland cement and sand mortar

Water channel from Tusha Hiti

Survey of trench #1 at the north-west corner of the tank | Mar 2, 2009 Entry point where water drainage from Tusha Hiti enters Bhandarkhal Tank.

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Wall sections trench #1 | Mar 2, 2009 Two typical examples of unstable walls

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level 03 Portland cement pointing

level 02

Stone edge laid in cement and sand mortar. Most stones are loose or displaced Brick wall laid in mud mortar with large voids and thick joints. earth/clay removed new retaining wall built

Back-fill of yellowish clay mixed with sand and debris such as broken bricks, roof tiles, and pottery shards

level 01

Black clay used for waterproofing the tank Modern (approx. 1995) brick veneer wall (width=10cm) laid in cement/ sand and lime/brick dust mortars. Pointing with cement/brick dust mortar.

Black clay (brick soling and brick on edge paving have been removed) Excavation pit #8 existing conditions January 28, 2009

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Level 01 (base) of Tank March 2, 2009

Level 02 March 2, 2009

The single width 10 cm thick brick facing is poorly attached to the older brick wall behind. Both cement-sand mortars and limebrick aggregate (surkhi) mortars have been used. Because both mortars are weak, bricks were easily removed by hand. The older brick structure (average 40 cm thick) has not been dated. It is in deplorable condition and

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Two layers of brick walls were discovered behind the stone facing. Stones are poorly held in place by portland cement pointing and are not attached to the brick wall behind. The stone edge has been set in poor cement mortar. Two independent brick walls behind the stone

lacks structural integrity. Voids of up to 5 cm wide, and mud beds up to 4 cm thick can be observed. The use of broken and varying size bricks indicates that this wall was built from debris, possibly after an earthquake. A layer of approximately 25 cm thick black clay was used to provide waterproofing for the Tank’s side walls.

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facing appear to date from two previous restoration periods. The approx. 25cm thick brick wall behind the stone facing uses handmade bricks (ma apa) of varying sizes and is laid in a mix of top soil, mud, and coarse sand.

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building debris consisting of broken bricks and roof tiles with large voids

ma-apa wall in mud mortar- not further excavated portland cement and sand mortar

black stone laid in lime surkhi mortar rubble fill in: broken bricks mixed with top-soil

lime and brick aggregate mortar

surkhi (brick aggregate and lime) mortar facing brick: modern brick laid in cement mortar

back-fill of yellowish clay mixed with sand and debris such as broken bricks, roof tiles, and pottery shards

cement and brick dust pointing

machine made brick on edge black clay black clay brick soling black/yellow clay

gravel mixed with mud and sand

Typical wall section Section East–west , existing conditions January 28, 2009

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rebuilt/restored wall fragments

water level

16” (40 cm) ma apa wall in lime surkhi mortar

water-proofing layer (pond liner)

ma apa brick on edge in lime surkhi mortar

8” (20 cm) black clay waterproofing layer

black clay pond liner base layer of 10” (25 cm) river rock mixed with clay

Wall section as built October 10, 2009

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Bhandarkhal Tank and base of the historic Pavilion, looking north Existing conditions | Mar 2008 The brick wall on the upper level was built after the 1934 earthquake to contain debris deposited in the garden. The brick and cement balustrade and steps

on the sides of the pavilion base were built on the occasion of King Mahendra’s coronation in 1955. Photography and digital compilation by Alessandra Fonzo, Based on the survey and CAD drawings by Anil Basukala

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Construction of the new foundations and retaining walls | Jun 24, 2009 The lowest level (water holding area) received a new 80 cm thick foundation wall all around. The western side was by far the weakest section of the tank with hardly any foundations at all.

Some remnants of foundations were found. Later, a new wall was“grafted� to the old one and extended to support the middle plinth (second step).

New foundation and retaining walls were built re-using brick in mud mortar

from far left: Cleaning the stones from cement was a time consuming process. Some cement mortar was extremely hard and needed to be removed mechanically with hammer and chisel. In other areas, cement mortar came off by scraping it with a trowel or wooden spatula and by using brushes. The image on the left illustrates typical damages to a quarter round base stone

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Bhandarkhal Tank, looking south Existing conditions, April 2008 Photography and digital compilation by Alessandra Fonzo

Bhandarkhal Tank, looking west Existing conditions, April 2008 Photography and digital compilation by Alessandra Fonzo

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Bhandarkhal Tank, looking north | Dec 31 2009 The tank after reconstruction of stone walls and stone cladding on the upper two levels. Only the foundations below the pavilion base await repairs.

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First level detail | Jun 24, 2009 Note the severely worn edge stones, and the previous poor repairs made using cement mortar.

Second level detail | Jun 24, 2009 The carved moldings seen here are of poor quality. During a recent repair campaign the steps’ quarter-round base stones were entirely covered with brick.

Third level detail | Jun 24, 2009 Severely damaged and deteriorated stone details.

Installation of pond liner | Aug 12, 2010 The pond liner was custom-ordered from India and fabricated in one piece.

Lining of the tank with mud | Aug 19, 2010 An assembly line of workers bringing in mud to cover the pond liner and support the brick paving

Filling of Bhandarkhal Tank | Dec 20, 2010 Water finally arrived into the reconstructed tank

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The completed water tank and Bhandarkhal pavilion | May 20, 2011 The restoration of the Mul Chowk roof can be seen in the background.

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project component

the restoration of the paVilion

c fortunately, surviving historical 19th century views of the tank provide sufficient documentation to reconstruct the tile and timber superstructure of the pavilion. e monument had undergone several damaging repairs, most likely after it was damaged in the 1934 earthquake. it was also poorly renovated on the occasion of king mahendra’s coronation in 1955, wherein a brick and cement plaster balustrade was added to the north pavilion, replacing what was the timber and tile structure seen in early 19th century views of the tank.

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in the workshop every piece was carefully analyzed, and received a final mechanical cleaning of all mortar remnants. e biggest challenge was the removal of a surface treatment that had been carried out in the 1980s with japanese expertise. judging by the solubility and the macroscopic characteristics, the impregnating material was similar to an acrylic resin or possibly a mixture of an acrylic resin and either silane or siloxane. is was a common treatment at that time, now referred to as the “bologna cocktail”.

e discovery of the lack of foundations led to the decision to completely dismantle the pavilion stone base and to reconstruct it on solid newly built foundations as per the strategy defined by the senior austrian advisor. during the course of their 5 week visit, the students from Vienna worked in conjunction with the nepali craftsmen to dismantle and reconstruct the base of the pavilion.

The Bhandarkhal Pavilion Dec 15, 2010 The newly installed timbercarved pavilion on top of the restored stone carved base. The pavilion’s roof is covered with a traditional terracotta tile roof and a copper finial.

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e structure was documented in great detail and stones were numbered before the time consuming process of disassembly could begin. in a previous repair effort (possibly dating to the 1970s) extremely hard portland cement mortar was used for joint repair. is dense mortar needed to be carefully separated from the stone to minimize any damage to the soft sand stone surfaces. every block was marked with pencil before it was taken away and tagged and stored in the open-air workshop. is was a critical part of the on-the-job- training program for the nepalese craftsmen.

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View of the Palace Complex from the Bhandarkhal Tank Unsigned pencil sketch, attributed to Rajman Singh, ca. 1844 Hodgson Collection of the Royal Asiatic Society

Bhandarkhal Pavilion (detail) | ca. 1853 This early 19th century view confirms a lower grade level around the Bhandarkhal Tank. Henry Ambrose Oldfield, ca. 1853

The pavilion base | 2006 It is not known when the original timber pavilion was lost. The base was adapted for King Mahendra’s coronation in 1955, with the addition of a concrete balustrade with his initial “M” and concrete stairs on either side.

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Proposal for the Pavilion’s restoration Drawing Anil Basukala | October 2008

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e sealed surface trapped water in the stone causing damage such as scaling and powdering. what was intended to be a protection for the surface, in fact accelerated the rate of decay. is could be particularly observed on the finest relief carvings, where unfortunately an even thicker coating was applied. complete removal of the film was not possible, however it was possible to at least slow down decay by reducing the thickness of the film. a detailed account of the conservation treatments can be found in the attached conservation report by the austrian conservator. all cracked soft stones were carefully glued, and a few of the blocks that showed salt efflorescence were treated in a water bath in order to reduce the salt concentration. en all stones received a treatment of biocide. all of these conservation measures were carried out as a hands-on training program by the austrian experts for the nepalese conservators. foundations for the pavilion were built with local brick laid in a lime and brick dust mortar and waterproofed with a special membrane to minimize any future damage to the stone from the tank’s water body and rising damp. e nepalese team then painstakingly

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reassembled the carved stone base piece by piece, again using lime mortar rather than damaging cement. e design of the lost timber pavilion was based on visual evidence from watercolors by henry ambrose oldfield (ca. 1853). e pavilion’s superstructure was built and pre-assembled in the master carver’s workshop allowing installation on site to be accomplished in a mere 5 days. e pavilion received additional reinforcements with stainless steel straps and pins to protect it against earthquakes. e roof was constructed in a fashion customary with the palace roofs. a layer of marine grade plywood was installed to form a diaphragm for earthquake protection. a waterproof membrane was also added below the tile and mud cover to protect the timber against seepage. particular attention was paid to professionally remove damaging cement mortar and acrylic resin coating from the carved stone elements. e stone pavilion received two stone stair cases on either side and the stone-carved balcony in front was repaired and reinstalled. e finial was made of brass by a local metal work shop. in the future the trust hopes that money can be raised to gild the finial.

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The north–east corner of the pavilion base Oct 5, 2009 This photo illustrates the poor condition the pavillion was found in. During the 1950s restoration, the historically valuable relief stones were crudely re-set and mixed with rubble.

Brick | Oct 5, 2009 The bricks are inscribed: “ÏrÍ Pañc Mahendra • 13” The number 13 refers to the Nepali date Bikram Samvat 2013 = AD 1956/57

The south-facing side of Bhandarkal Tank Oct 5, 2009 Only after the tank’s retaining walls and steps were structurally rehabilitated, could work on the stone pavilion base begin.

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Pavilion | Nov 4, 2010 The timber structure just before installation of the terra cotta roof tiles.

Pavilion timber structure | Jul 5, 2010 The master carver Indrakaji Silpakar from Bhaktapur pre-assembled the timber structure in his workshop.

Installation of the timber pavilion | Oct 28, 2010 Supported by scaffolding, the timber pavilion was erected over a five day period.

Pavilion arch | Jul 25, 2010 Photographic documentation of original structure before disassembling the pavilion.

Pavilion north elevation | Apr 26, 2010 Removal of cement plaster and pointing required hundreds of man hours. It was often extremely difficult to remove the very hard Portland cement from the soft sandstone surfaces.

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Decay mapping of the pavilion south facade | Nov, 2008 Existing conditions were identified

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Relief on the north side of the pavilion | Jul 23, 2010 A court scene illustrating the eight Siddhas with a series of wild animals below. Sculptures exhibit severe erosion, exfoliation, and other problems,

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believed to be caused largely by leaching from the balustrade and the use of the incompatible acrylic coating and cement mortar.

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Detail of the relief (seen on left) after restoration | May 20, 2011 The figures after cleaning and removal of the acrylic coating

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Lohan Hiti during restoration | Dec 9, 2010

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project component

the restoration of lohan hiti

d e beauty of this feature can be seen in the variety of statues installed in the wall of the spout, some dating from different periods. e three demi-gods below and flanking the spout, and the image of ganga above, are original pieces from 1647. e image of Vishnu embedded in the wall above the spout dates from the early malla period and predates the hiti by at least two centuries. it is not known where this statue originated from and it was only installed after the 1934 earthquake. it is currently in storage and will most likely be moved to the patan museum. all of these valuable images were removed, cleaned and re-installed under the guidance of the austrian conservators.

e stone facing around the water spout was in equally poor condition. stones were carefully removed and cleaned of layers of portland cement which dated from past misguided attempts to stabilize the walls. similar to the opposite side of the tank, there were practically no foundations found, therefore the retaining walls behind the hiti were reconstructed with newly built foundations. stone elements and paving were reinstalled in a lime and brick mortar. e original 17th century terracotta water line was also reset and made water proof to avoid damage to the statues from water seepage. a new stone base and water channel were installed, allowing water to flow into the tank.

both guardians and lions date from a later restoration period, possibly from mid-19th century. ey were severely affected by the 1934 earthquake and poorly repaired at that time. e pieces had to be numbered, disassembled, cleaned, and reconstructed on new foundations employing stainless steel braces and lime mortar.

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Lohan Hiti stone spout | May 15, 2007 The 17th century intricately carved stone spout was the principal source of water to the tank. Above the spout is a stone image of Ganga, flanked by two Malla period

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inscriptions. An early Malla period image of Vishvarup Vishnu, embedded in the brick retaining wall, is still actively worshiped.

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Lohan Hiti stone spout | Nov 16, 2008 Here large cement patches, uneven and loose stones, and general poor maintenance can be observed.

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Bhandarkhal Tank and water spout of Lohan Hiti, looking east Existing conditions, April 2008 Photography and digital compilation by Alessandra Fonzo

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Lohan Hiti | Mar 2, 2009 Excavation trench # 3: The platform below the water spout was not supported by foundations. Stone paving was placed on a mix of brick rubble, stone, and sand.

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The wall enclosing the water-holding area (level 01) consisted of poorly fitted brick rubble laid in mud mortar. The facing veneer of modern brick laid in cement mortar (added in the mid 1990s) was found to be structurally unsound.

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Trench # 03, detail | Mar 2, 2009 Stone paving had been laid on rubble, lacking any proper foundations.

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Guardian figure | May 1, 2006 Repointing of this figure characterizes the typical nature of previous repairs where portland cement was used.

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Image of Ganga | May 1, 2006 Here, Ganga is flanked by two Malla period inscriptions.

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Detail of Ganga | May 1, 2006 Image of Ganga, Goddess of water, on her vehicle makara is positioned above the spout.

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Vishwarup | May 1, 2006 This Early Malla Period (1200–1382) stele of Vishnu was crudely embedded in a new wall. Note the incompatible mortars used in recent repair campaigns.

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Lohan Hiti | Jun 3, 2010 Restoration of the water tap area included: complete dismantling of the stone veneer and sculptures, careful cleaning of cement mortar, strengthening and partly rebuilding of brick foundations and backing walls, and the reassembly with lime mortar.

The east side under reconstruction | Nov 5, 2009 The two lower terraces had to be completely dismantled and were rebuilt with stronger foundations. Approximately 60 percent of historic

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Lohan Hiti | Jul 5, 2010 The resetting of the stone veneer shortly before completion. Historic stones were used for the paving in front of the spout.

stones could be re-used. Damaged pieces were replaced with new stone of matching color and texture.The two guardian figures were carefully removed and later restored and reassembled.

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project component

the restoration of tusha hiti

e e tusha hiti (step well) is situated in the center of the sundari chowk (courtyard). e courtyard’s poor drainage system had caused rising damp levels and continuous seepage into the unprotected relief carvings of the well, causing extensive damage to brick and stone alike. as a first important step the drainage system was redesigned and a new drain to the garden built. all paving stones were reset in a proper slope using lime surkhi mortar rather than mud. efficient water drainage during heavy monsoon downpours was essential to avoid future seepage to the building’s foundations and the step well. so in the process of repairing the pavement, the hiti’s historic water supply line was upgraded and a new drain to the bhandarkhal tank built (see project component 1).

above: Tusha Hiti plan | 2005 left: Tusha Hiti | Dec 9, 2010 The step well after restoration. All carved elements were re-set in lime mortar. The stone base of the top register of statues was made new, and the court yard paving was repaired with a proper drainage system. This photo was taken before the replica of the bronze water spout was fitted.

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on the recommendation of the austrian stone conservators the entire step well was damp proofed. since the installation of a damp-proof layer around the parameter of the well turned out to be impractical it was decided to remove the stone facing section by section in order to install the waterproof layer beneath it. e relief carved stones and brick foundation wall were removed to a horizontal depth of about 30 cm. en a smooth vertical surface was formed with lime plaster to receive the waterproofing membrane. all stones were reset in a lime base mortar segment by segment. resetting the hiti’s walls W AT E R

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had an advantage as it made cleaning of cement mortar from stones much easier. e visual quality of the monument has been substantially improved by the rectification of damage from past earthquakes (which included wide cracks); the stone elements were then properly secured with stainless steel pins and braces. only severely deteriorated stones were replaced with newly carved ones. e top frieze of the well was rebuilt with new stones, allowing the secure installation of the crowning deities. e small krishna stone temple above the spout also needed reconstruction. e miniature temple probably collapsed during the 1934 earthquake and was later poorly repaired with ill-fitting stone and cement. removing cement patches off the monument took several weeks, where necessary, new stone elements (such as the octagonal pillars) were used. a replica based on photographic and drawn documentation of the stolen gilded waterspout was commissioned and was installed in time for the inauguration of the hiti in march 2011. however, the orginal stolen spout was recovered by the nepal police in september 2011. e question of safeguarding the original in the museum and installing the replica is being discussed with the authorities.

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Sundari Chowk Palace

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W–E section through Sundari Chowk Palace, Tusha Hiti, Bhandarkhal Tank, and Lohan Hiti existing conditions | 2006 This montage of different surveys illustrates the relationship of Sundari Chowk with the Bhandarkhal Tank. Both Tusha Hiti and Bhandarkhal Tank are fed from the same source in Lagankhel. The dotted line indicates the overflow from Tusha Hiti to the tank. Survey and CAD drawing by Anil Basukala

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Pavilion base and Bhandarkhal Tank

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Lohan Hiti The water spout at the east side of the tank is fed by an additional water line that forks off from the main supply just south of the palace.

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Panoramic view of the Tusha Hiti | May 2008 The image illustrates the various defects and threats to the monument such as damp, plant growth, lichen, pigeon droppings, cement mortar patches, damaged moldings, surface deterioration, large cracks and

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open joints caused by foundation settlements and earthquakes. Photography and digital compilation by Alessandra Fonzo, based on the survey and CAD drawings by Anil Basukala

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Sundari Chowk | Oct 11, 2006 View of courtyard elevation from the east

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Tusha Hiti | Oct 11, 2006 Documentation of existing conditions.

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Courtyard repairs | Jan 29, 2010 The supporting walls around the well were inspected and repaired where necessary. The stone pavement was reset in lime mortar with properly adjusted slopes and a new drainage line.

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Courtyard repairs | Jan 29, 2010 The supporting walls around the well were inspected and repaired where necessary. The stone pavement was reset in lime mortar with properly adjusted slopes and a new drainage line.

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Before restoration | Oct 4, 2009 Raised water level caused by the partially blocked drain.

Miniature Krishna Mandir (detail) | Nov 4, 2009 Poorly fitted stone pillars set in cement dating from a repair effort in the 1970s.

Crowning deities | Feb 10, 2010 The top register supporting 24 deities had been badly damaged and repeatedly patched with lime-based and Portland cement mortars. Note the uneven position of the sculptures and stains from pigeon droppings.

Miniature Krishna Mandir (detail) | May 16, 2010 Newly made stone pillars being fitted into the Krishna Mandir

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The restored Krishna Mandir | Nov 4, 2010 The restored Krishna Mandir installed atop the Tusha Hiti

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Dismantling the 1st segment | Feb 14, 2010 The upper layers of brick date from repairs in the 1970s and were set in cement mortar. The relief carved stones and brick backing wall behind were removed to a depth of 30 cm.

Rebuilding of the first segment | Feb 15, 2010 A smooth vertical surface was formed with lime plaster to receive the water proofing membrane.

Rebuilding of the first segment | Feb 19, 2010 The stone veneer was reset segment by segment in a lime-based mortar.

Rebuilding of the first segment | Feb 19, 2010 Very few stones needed replacement, such as this yellow-colored cast stone re-installed at bottom left. The stone was given a patina to match the adjacent stones.

Upper register with snake | Jul 29, 2010 These are the base stones with the mortises upon which the crowning deities will be installed.

Final installation of deities | Aug 3, 2010 University of Vienna Professor Trummer installs the statues.

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Detail after restoration | Dec 9, 2010 Carvings that were completely eroded were recreated, and pieces that were, only partly damaged pieces were retained.

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Compare the band of lotus below the statues: the section on the far left was re-carved whereas the damaged section on the far right was retained.

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Detail after restoration | Dec 9, 2010 Only after the careful removal of surface dirt and the removal of organic growth can the fine carving details be fully appreciated.

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Details before and after restoration | Dec 9, 2010 and May 2008 A few different types of stones were used in the Hiti’s construction. The statue itself is carved from very hard sand stone and did not require any treatment except surface cleaning. The surrounding soft, light colored sandstone shows varying degrees of deterioration: the tree trunk on the left has parts of its original surface missing, and the carved molding on the bottom left had completely eroded. This molding was replaced with a newly carved piece.

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Details before and after restoration | Dec 9, 2010 and May 2008 The two statues each exhibit a different carving style and are made from different qualities of stone. The image on the right might have been a later replacement.

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Faceless deity | Dec 9, 2010 and May 2008 It is unclear how this deity lost her face and three of her arms. Gudrun Buehnemann identifies the goddess as Ugratara, “the fierce� Tara.

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Trenching work | Mar 22, 2009 Cutting trenches for the new water supply line was made difficult by unstable soil and the need to cut around numerous other lines such as sewer and city water supply. This made the use of mechanized equipment impossible.

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Plan of the rehabilitated supply line | May 2010

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ANNEX 1

details of the restoration of the historic water supply line between lagan and patan darbar square section g–h–i: new 1.5" gi pipe was laid in higher gradient for equivalent discharge. space constraints made the use of 3" pipe impossible due to the "spaghetti-like" underground network of city water, drainage, sewer and telecommunication lines. at point h a new "gray water filtration chamber" was built with a connection to the historic step well of saughah hiti.

section tusha hiti – to a: is section dates back to the mid 17th century and was built with terracotta channels. e project excavated the historic lines, cleaned them of sludge and carried out some minor repair work where necessary. e historical manhole at junction a was leaking and thus also repaired. after back-filling trenches the historic brick and stone pavements in the sundari chowk palace were restored to their original condition.

section i–j: no work was necessary since this section was repaired with 3" gi pipe in 2004 with financing from the lalitpur heritage group, the european union, and the patan municipal corporation.

section a – b: about 10 years ago the patan municipality cooperation replaced the historic brick channel with a 1.5" diameter pipe section. e existing line was found in good working order and cleaned by flushing.

section j–k–l: new 3" gi pipes were installed at an average depth of 6 meters. is was the most difficult section to repair due to the depth and unstable soil conditions. near point "l" a 5 meter long and 4 meter deep retaining wall had to be built to protect the foundations of adjacent buildings from settling.

section b – c: ese historic sections of terracotta channels were excavated and cleaned. brick paving was replaced with new bricks. sections c–d–e–f: new supply line of 2.5 diameter heavy pVc pipe encased in m-15 concrete (for protection against damage from the load of macchindranath chariot which is pulled thorough this section every year) was laid. heavy pVc pipes were used instead of gi (galvanized iron) pipes to ease the laying in a very difficult area which has previously complicated networks of drainage, water and telecommunication lines.

section l–o: installation of 3" gi pipes at an average depth of 4 meters. similar to the previous sections all excavation work needed to be carried out manually. due to the large amount of other underground utilities mechanized digging by backhoe was not possible. along the supply lines a total of 13 "gray water filter" chambers were either repaired or rebuilt and filled with special sand and aggregates acting as filter media. two new water sources were found near points n and o. appropriate intake structures were constructed and connected to the supply line."

section f – g: installation of new 3" gi pipes encased in plastic and sand to protect against corrosion.

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Bhandarkhal Tank, looking south Existing conditions, April 2008 Photography and digital compilation by Alessandra Fonzo

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ANNEX 2

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photographic documentation of existing conditions

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Bhandarkhal Tank, looking west Existing conditions, April 2008 Photography and digital compilation by Alessandra Fonzo

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Bhandarkhal Tank and base of the historic pavilion, looking north Existing conditions, April 2008 Photography and digital compilation by Alessandra Fonzo

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k a t h m a n d u V a l l e y p r e s e r Va t i o n t r u s t


Water Architecture of Patan Palace