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“…adopting a constructive outlook towards the past, the history can be conceived as a course of events which has both, periods of regression and periods of progress…the content of history can thus be realized only as we experience it…and might provide essential intricacies about an immediate future.” Lord Acton

SYNTHESIS OF A CITY AS A PROCESS IN TIME: Kushan Dave 0604

A STUDY THROUGH THE CASE OF BHOPAL

Research guide –Riyaz Tayyibji


Intention The primary intention of the present study is to examine and understand physical content of city and how it has synthesized as a process in time and space.

Objective The settlements are made from a kit of parts and with time these parts either change or imply a change on its direct environment. “Thus settlement is a process in itself with certain forces, institutions and people associated with it.” Spiro Kostof

“..The city embodies the values of man and of the social order. It registers over time the changes in values of society. On one hand it records the constants and on the other change, modification and transformation.” Aldo Rossi

•To understand the occurrence of a city and its urban schema as a resultant of diverse forces. •To understand growth of the city and subsequent assembly of various additions of the city; and understand them in relation to each other; of fabric and the constituent space systems. •To understand the dwelling environment with respect to the changing nature of fabric through time; a study of the smallest component, a ‘grain’ size, of the fabric. •To identify the elements of continuity and change within the fabric for each consequent time period.

Abstract – Aim – Objective – Sequence of Study


Time

Chapter 2: The inceptions

Findings and Discussion

Inceptions

Ph. 3

Growth and Transformation

Ph. 2 Ph. 4

Abstract – Aim – Objective – Sequence of Study

Ph.1

3.1 First phase of urban transformations – 1722-1818 A.D. 3.1.1 Urban structure 3.1.2 Fabric and the space systems 3.1.3 Dwelling Environment 3.2 City in its prime – 1819-1862 A.D. 3.2.1 Urban structure 3.2.2 Fabric and the space systems 3.2.3 Dwelling environment 3.3 Extension of Suburbs - 1868 – 1901 A.D. 3.3.1 Urban structure 3.3.2 Fabric and the space systems 3.3.3 Dwelling environment 3.4 The last phase of British Raj - 1901-1947 A.D. 3.4.1 Urban Structure and the fabric

Re-birth

Chapter 3: Growth and Transformations

Birth

2.1 Bhojpala – The Hindu city of 11th century 2.1.1 Urban Generators 2.1.2 Urban Origins and Structure 2.1.3 The Downfall of Urban Nuclei 2.2 Bhopal Taul – The medieval Islamic City of 18th century 2.2.1 Urban Generators 2.2.2 Urban Origins and Structure 2.2.3 Fabric and its components

Literature Review

Process

1.1 The notion of space against time 1.2 Time as evolutionary: Permanence and Change 1.3 ‘Process’ as a nexus between time and space In Summation

Space

Chapter 1: Premise and perception


SPACE

A frame of reference which has underlying factors of development which emerge with time

Premise and Perception

The spatial organization then defines a unique structure to the system; establishing relations between each set of elements.

The morphological dimension defines ‘mass’ and ‘surface’ elements; attributing the qualities of ‘elements’.

Understanding Space and Time


TIME

- CHANGE

MODIFICATIONS at the level of city The plan of Bhagdad (Iraq) showing the growth of structure of the 8th century schema. Modifications can be seen as an inherent part.

TRANSFORMATION at the level of fabric The Campus Maritus, Rome, demonstrating transformation showing a reoccurrence of elements in a new configuration.

Premise and Perception

Understanding Space and Time


TIME

- CONSTANCY

PERSISTENCE (stability) of form The plan of Herat, defines general idea of the city persists and changing character within it is suggestive of certain perseverance (for example, persistence of the form)

Premise and Perception

PERMANENCE of structure The plan at Santa Croce, Florence; although the built disappears, its imprint defines permanence and acts as base for the next set of change in the fabric.

Understanding Space and Time


Premise and Perception

Understanding Space and Time


Religious Institutes Other Primary & Seconday Institutes Bazaar Axii (space system)

SPACE SYSTEMS The set of institutes/elements (primary and secondary) forming a certain space systems (bazaar) which has obvious repercussions over its surroundings; over the structure, the fabric and surrounding dwelling.

Premise and Perception

Understanding Space and Time


Premise and Perception

Understanding Space and Time


The Inceptions – Bhojapala 11th century & Bhopal Taul 18th century


• Strategic Importance • Topographical Features • Conception of lakes (derived generators)

• Influence of Vedic texts (notion of city as diagram)

Birth of the city of Bhojpala – Generators

11th century A.D.


Birth of the city of Bhojpala – Origins

11th century A.D.


• A conjectural model defining an imposed plan type schema and a monumental axis on which ‘Sabha Mandala’ would have rested. The Bhoja’s fort stood towards the south west. • The city of Bhojapala might have looked like that of Mohan-jo-Daro, defining a grid-iron schema.

The city of Bhojpala

11th century A.D.


Remains of Bhojpur Temple

Remaining Dams sites

Downfall of Bhojpala

11th century A.D.


• Establishment of Fatehgadh citadel. The existing ravaged city and the citadel were separate entities initially; defining the ‘ruler’ from the ‘ruled. The ravaged Bhoja’s fort marks an underlying territory. • The cultural amalgamation in the subcontinent giving rise to a characteristic form in Islamic cities.

Rise of Bhopal Taul - Origins of a Medieval Islamic City

18th century A.D.


• The ‘double cities’ of Fatehgadh and Sheher-iKhas existed in a manner of a typical Islamic city in the subcontinent. The geometric core starts to define a strong axii; gradually developing a bazaar. • The core divided into 4 equal superblocks which are further divided based on social stipulations. The linkage pattern defines the primary secondary and tertiary linkage systems

Rise of Bhopal Taul - Structuring of the City

18th century A.D.


• The fort at Islamnagar served as a base for planning of Fatehgadh. Although no direct repercussion over the city can be seen, the nature of spaces (elements and the lay outing) of the citadel provides essential guidelines for the future developments. • Morphology of the urban block Individual BlockMuhallaMusallaUrban Block • Growth of cardinal street as a permanent bazaar.

Rise of Bhopal Taul - Fabric and Space Systems

18th century A.D.


Growth and Transformations


Phase 1 - Origins

1722 – 1818 A.D.


• Schematic growth of urban structure shows the extension of city walls and the growth of tissue. The citadel still remains a strong power centre dictating the urban form. • To push the wandering afghan troops out of ciity walls, another lake, Chhota Talab, was created; the structure now started to have off-shoots outside the fortifications.

Phase 1 – Growth of the Structure

1722 – 1818 A.D.


• The fabric displays multiple schemata. - Grid iron quadrant - Organic accretive quadrant - Surrounding organic tissue • The core undergoes densification transformations; most essential being development of cardinal market street.

and the

• The new additions tries to dupliate the existing schema – creating irregular axii and an central focus. • Rise of a new axis of development.

Phase 1 – Growth of the Structure

1722 – 1818 A.D.


• Cardinal Bazaar and its immediate surroundings

Phase 1 – Fabric and Space Systems

• Rise of public institutes within and around the fabric

1722 – 1818 A.D.


Phase 1 – Dwelling Environment

1722 – 1818 A.D.


Phase 1 – Typology: Niwas

1722 – 1818 A.D.


Phase 1 – Typology: Niwas

1722 – 1818 A.D.


• The extension of city structure outside the walls can • The characteristic feature of the growth is the rise of be seen. Prominent developments beingpower centres within the fabric namely – the Jami, Jehangirabad, infill of the walled city and chhaharthe Khirniwala Maidan and the Moti Masjid – which baughs (public gardens) on the outskirts. governed the nature of fabric around.

1815 A.D.

Phase 2 – Origins

1835 A.D.

1850 A.D.

1819 – 1862 A.D.


• The social structure further divides the fabric into Chaukis and subsequent Mohallas. Development of auxiliary markets can be seen outside the fortifications.

• The new structure duplicates the old orthogonal structure but in irregular proportions. The primary linkages define the rise of east-west ceremonial spine housing primary institutions.

Auxiliary Markets

Phase 2 – Growth and Structure

1819 – 1862 A.D.


Phase 2 – Fabric and Space Systems – Jami Chauk (transformation of existing fabric)

1819 – 1862 A.D.


• The nature and scale of Jami has obvious repercussions over the surrounding fabric.

Phase 2 – Fabric and Space Systems – Jami Chauk (transformation of existing fabric)

1819 – 1862 A.D.


• Stage 1 – Gohar Mahal and supporting institutions • Stage 2 – Moti Mahal and other administrative institutions

Diwan-e-Khas

Diwan-e-Aam

• Stage 3 – Palatial buildings and Moti Masjid

Phase 2 – Fabric and Space Systems – Khirni Wala Maidan (growth of a new fabric)

1819 – 1862 A.D.


• The Moti masjid acting as a pivot or hinge for the varied orientation of maidans as compared to the old core

• The maidans forms certain nodes with the existing structure and hence containing the activity zones

Phase 2 – Fabric and Space Systems – Khirni Wala Maidan (growth of a new fabric)

1819 – 1862 A.D.


Phase 2 – Dwelling Environment

1819 – 1862 A.D.


Phase 2 – Typology: Niwas

1819 – 1862 A.D.


Phase 2 – Typology: Bhavan

1819 – 1862 A.D.


Phase 2 – Typology: Bhavan

1819 – 1862 A.D.


Phase 3 – Origins

1868 – 1901 A.D.


• The entire composition ‘cascades’ down to the core

• The institutional complex governing the surrounding fabric

Phase 3 – Growth and Structure

• Ceremonial spine – a dynamic way of linking the royal complexes

1868 – 1901 A.D.


• Completion of maidan is characterised by distinct axii for various types of buildings

• The shrunk maidans still continue to serve as activity spaces while the newer palatial buildings continue to respond to space by means of its scale and urban character

Phase 3 – Fabric and Space Systems - Completion of Khrini Wala Maidan

1868 – 1901 A.D.


• The composition contrasts severely to the existing fabric

Taj-ul-masajid

Taj Mahal

Benazeer Mahal

Phase 3 – Fabric and Space Systems – Shahjahanabad Composition

1868 – 1901 A.D.


• The central focus of suburb was organized as a core • Taj-ul-masajid as the most dominant building of of religious, political and social institutions. Bhopal asserting its authority over the fabric

Phase 3 – Fabric and Space Systems – Shahjahanabad Composition

1868 – 1901 A.D.


Phase 3 – Dwelling Environment

1868 – 1901 A.D.


Phase 3 – Typology: Niwas

1868 – 1901 A.D.


Phase 3 – Typology: Manzil

1868 – 1901 A.D.


Phase 4 – Origins

1901 A.D. Onwards


Phase 4 – Origins

1901 A.D. Onwards


Phase 4 – Growth and Structure

1901 A.D. Onwards


• Qasr-e-sultani

Phase 4 – Fabric and Components

• Noor-us-Subah

1901 A.D. Onwards


• Colonial Institutions across the fabric

Phase 4 – Fabric and Components

• Typological changes in the core

1901 A.D. Onwards


Inferences



Morphological Study of an Islamic City_Bhopal