Page 1

Design Realisation| Loop Talk Project Neha Kurrumchand Final Dissertation

Taylor’s University Lakeside Campus

Bachelor of Arts Hons in Interior Architecture


NEHA KURUMCHAND 0316564 March - July 2017

Preface My dissertation “Loop Talk� gives special importance to human interaction through face to face communication in daily life. This issue has become more significant at present due to the phubbing phenomenon and overuse of electronic devices by almost everyone. It considers the case of speech impaired and deaf people and their ways of interacting with normal individuals in society. In this context, the design solution deals with design of a space for the deaf and speech impaired and normal people who are made to come across each other and interact incidentally. I was inspired to consider this concept after observing the phenomenon of phubbing in many situations as well as interactions among speech impaired,deaf and normal individuals. This book cosists of several sections namely the design proposal, programming background research, strategy, creative spatial development and design soultion.

Acknowledgements I would like to express my special thanks and gratitude to my lecturers, Mr. Mohd Redzwan Hisham Bidin, Ms. Nur Diana Mohamed Rosli and Mr. Mohd Romzi Ali who gave me the golden opportunity to do this wonderful project about Face to face communication. This project not only helped me to learn a lot this the issue but also architecture in general as well as helped me to grow my thinking as an individual. I am very thankful for being under the guidance of such amazing lecturers who have always been encouraging. I am indebted to my mentor, Mr. Mohd Romzi Ali for his advices, patience and for never letting me down. I am also grateful to all the institutions which responded positively to all my queries and allowed me to collect some data in order to better understand and solve the issue of this project. A special thanks goes Rika Fajaray for

to my friend her support,

Last but not the least, I wish to express my love and gratitude to my parents, especially my father, Mr.Veerjanand for his patience, understanding and enduring support throughout.

“ I confront the city with my body; my legs measure the length of the arcade and the width of the square; my gaze unconsciously projects my body onto the facade of the cathedral, where it roams over the mouldings and contours, sensing the size of recesses and projections; my body weight meets the mass of the cathedral door, and my hand grasps the door pull as I enter the dark void behind. I experience myself in the city, and the city exists through my embodied experience.The city and my body supplement and define each other. I dwell in the city and the city dwells in me. � -Juhani Pallasmaa,The Eyes of the Skin

Figure a: Quote reflection collage By Neha Kurrumchand, April 2, 2017.

Keywords Face to Face Communication, Emancipation of the deaf and speech impaired people

Abstract The advancement of science and technology has revolutionized our mode of communication by shrinking the world into a global village. However, this had led to a serious moral dilemma whereby everyone is focused on technological devices and we are becoming more and more dependent on these devices to communicate with each other. Certainly the need for face to face interactions with fellow human beings has remarkably decreased and there is almost no personal touch among people in the same place. In this context the situation has become worst for the deaf and speech impaired individuals who are being rejected or isolated to a large extent when it comes to communicating with them. Consequently, this study is focused on the creation of a space which would favour communication between the deaf, speech impaired and the normal individuals as well as enhance personal touch among them. This will also promote the social integration of the deaf and speech impaired people within the society through learning of vocational skills which would in turn make them become emancipated individuals.

Table of Contents PROJECT PROPOSAL Chapter 1








Table of Contents STRATEGIES

Chapter 5





Chapter 6



Chapter 8


Chapter 1


Figure b: Bridging the communication for the Deaf and Speech Impaired collage By Neha Kurrumchand, September 9, 2016.


ISSUE A “Truth”? What’s That Then?

Figure c : Overwhelming power of technology over human relationships collage By Neha Kurrumchand, September 9, 2016.


“ Society exists only as a mental concept in the real world, there are only individuals ” - Oscar Wilde

Figure d: Phubbing and Cell Phone Addiction April 3, 2017. Retrieved from http://beyondwords. life/wp-content/ uploads/2016/04/

Impact of Technology on Human Relationship This quote vividly illustrates the actual situation in our present technological driven life. Despite that face to face communocation has been proved to be the most efficient way of connecting people, the advent of technologies has brought about new changes in the way we choose to convey a message today.A simple click connects us to the whole world instantaneously through texting, email and social media.Though it can be considered as a benefit and convenience to transmit a piece of information in a matter of seconds at any time and any place in the world, this has also led us to create invisible, internal barrier which have worsened our situation in terms of human relationships as well as poor communication skills. Thus people are now facing problems like socio-phobia and overcome phubbing.

With regard to the above facts, it is clear that the frequency of face to face communication has highly decreased over the past few decades.Therefore fewer and fewer people still give much importance to “ face to face” interaction. However among this group, there is a significant number of deaf and speech impaired people who are bound to have face to face communication in order to interact.


The speech impaired and deaf individuals usually make use of sign language as well as technological devices such as Speech Generating Devices (SGD) for the speech impaired and hearing aids or cochlear transplant through surgery for the deaf, in order to improve their communication. The sign language comprises hand gestures and movements to convey their message to the interlocutors. Eye contact and lip reading are considered as significant patterns to follow when it involves communicating with such people. For such individuals, body language or non-verbal cues become indispensable in their daily interactions with others. With the trend of less and less eye contact and use of hand movements nowadays due to the phubbing tendency as illustrated in Figure d, it has become not only difficult to communicate with our non-disabled fellows but harder to communicate and understand the speech impaired and the deaf people. As a result, we tend to remain indifferent towards them due to the misconception that they are disabled and not worthy of our consideration. Thus society often looks down upon them believing that they cannot communicate effectively with others around them. This is mainly due to the fact that there is poor understanding and the lack of awareness on the part of the members of the society, concerning the ability of communication of the speech impaired deaf people, On the other hand, the latter often remain segregated from the main crowd as they do not integrate society easily.



Conflict ? Non-verbal communication is intrinsic in every individual right from birth. Unfortunately we fail to develop this mode of communication further as we grow up. We tend to emphasize more verbal and mediated form of communication. However the deaf and speech impaired people rely to a great extent on non-verbal communication. No doubt there is a communication conflict among the deaf, speech impaired and normal people. Non-verbal form of communication related to the deaf and speech impaired individuals is in the form of sign language. However this form of communication is not given much importance within the society and the hearing people are hardly interested in knowing or learning about such language. This therefore gives rise to a communication conflict which becomes an invisble communication barrier. Figure f: Ilustration of the Current Face to Face Communication situation By Neha Kurrumchand, April 5, 2017.












Deaf and Speech Impaired People cannot be Independent Right? Figure g: Everyday life situation Deaf and Speech Impaired go throughwithin our society By Neha Kurrumchand, April 5, 2017.

Shouted At Bullied Stared At


Ignored Look Down Upon

Wrong There is a lack of understanding among the general population regarding the difficulty faced by the speech impaired and deaf people. The latter are very often faced with discrimination whereby they are neglected,isolated and misunderstaood. There is also discrimination regarding their employability. Consequently they are often bullied, look down upon, pitied and stared at in an unpleasant way. In addition to those problems, these people often have to bear with the normal people who tend to speak too fast, turn away from them while speaking forbidding them any chance for lip-reading. Thus it becomes difficult for them to participate actively in conversations with the normal people.


“Pointing fingers never got anything done.� -David Pratt.


Isolation Deaf and speech impaired individuals are often ignored anfd taken for granted. However, most of the time it is the communication barrier that holds back each, the deaf and speech impaired to interact with the hearing people. The hearing individuals do not know sign language. It is often thought by many that sign language is only meant for the deaf and speech impaired people. Thus it is not given that much importance in our society. As a result the deaf and speech impaired ofen do not get the opportunity to interact with the hearing at large. Thus many of them often feel isolated due to no genuine face to face communication. On the other hand, nowadays due to the phubbing phenomenon and stressful lifestyle, people often feel isolated which lead to anxiety and depression. Misunderstood The deaf and the speech impaired people are often rejected by the society because they are misunderstood for being incapable. Thus they are no always given the chance to express themselves. Some deaf and speech impaired do not know sign language because of growing up within a hearing family and environment.

Figure h: Summary of the overall communication issue expressed as a single word. By Neha Kurrumchand, September 13, 2016.

No Connection There is no connection between the deaf, the speech impaired and the hearing people because there is no way through which they are able to express and exchange emotions and understand each other. There is no common platforms which give them the opportunity to come across each other in order to interact.




This section will consider the trend regarding the issue related to this project. In many situations, behaviour is affected by means to communicate with each other. These involve things like facial expressions, eye contacts and body posture and touch. The speech impaired and deaf have to interact with the normal individuals in their daily encounter with them but they have some difficulty to do so. Individuals often try to mislead them about their true feelings and beliefs because they fail to communicate normally with them. As a result, the speech impaired and deaf develop a poor image of themselves.

Use of Social Media 6.8 billion users

Figure i: Number of social media users from 2010 to 2015

300 million users

316 million users

1 billion users

It is found that people use their smartphones to carry out several tasks and save time as well as access to information instantly. Many of them have even stated that they cannot live without their cell phones. However, the rate of distraction has been increasing constantly and this has led to the development of syndromes like FOMO(Fear Of Missing Out) and Phantom Vibration Syndrome. Some researchers have begun labeling “cell phone checking� as the new yawn because of its contagious nature. Consequently, individuals are becoming more and more isolated and this can easily lead to develop stress, anxiety and depression.


of cellphone users claim they could not go a single day without their devices.



Traditional TV viewing eats up over six days,

67% 144 hours,54 minutes of cellphone users check their phones for messages, alerts, or calls - even when they donnot notice their phone ringing or vibrating.

worth of time per month.

14 A look at the evolution of technology and its involvement in connecting different parts of the world shows clearly its tremendous impact in the field of communication. This can be illustrated through the examples. The trend of face to face communication in the society at large is decreasing and becoming less and ess significant. Taking into account the statistics when it comes to people checking in through their socila media account:facebook, instagram, twitter per minute, we can certainly find out that people are “all ears� to respond and post back by texting medium. Therefore there has been a huge shift of our confort zone with respect to communication.

The use of social media for communication among humans has been increasing and has shown geometric progression. This is because the nmber of platforms to communicate electronically has increased.Thus it has provided better means and opportunities to reach each oter at a superficial level.This has automatically impacted on a decrease in face to face contact amon humans. As a result, we have become slaves of electronic devices making us become isolated and anti-social beings.

Facing Down Phubbing Age = Phone + Snubbing

Figure j: Hopkins,J. 11 November 2011. Paying attention to Distraction. Retrieved from http://archive.magazine. Graphics edited by Neha Kurrumchand, April 9, 2016.

15 The rate of phubbing is on an increase throughout the world. It is adversely affecting human relationships especially that between couples so much so that the rate of separartion and divorce has become very significant and is increasing day by day. Phubbng has led us into a virtual world where we have become indifferent regarding human relationships. We hardly care to rspond to those around us and this attitude has been brought into the real world inthe form of phubbing. Studies indicate some mobile device owners check their devices every 6.5 minutes. The negative consequences of using electronic devices is also significant in our daily lives. Complaints regarding this phenomenon is on an increase and there are studies which point in this direction.

50 40 30 20 10 0

Made it harder to focus on a single task without being distracted

Made it harder to give people undivided attention

Made it harder for people to forget about work at home

Figure k: The usage pattern and attitude of smartphones users accessing the internet has been shown in the study carried by Pew Research center in 2012.

16 Been attacked physically

Been refused to adjustments or differently Figure l: Experiences faced by the deaf and speech impaired people while coming across members of the public.

Been called names

make things

Acted in a hostile or agressive way

Been stared at Due to lack of relevant statistics for Malaysia, data has been taken for Asia, Australia and European countries. However, Sara Bila have investigating the impact of sign language and speech translators on the Malaysian Federation of the Deaf (MDF) Community.

Been talking to you and incorrectly assumed you do not work because of your disability

Been talked to in a patronising way

Been talking to you and did not believe you were disabled

There are approximately 40 000 hard hearing and deaf population registered with the social welfare department of Malaysia by late december 2011, according to a statistical analysis carried by Sara Bilal

The deaf and speech impaired people usually experience problems with the non-disabled ones with respect to their disability when dealing with them. In UK, it has been found that 16% of the normal individuals showed aggresiveness towards the disabled while 4% have even attacked them. It is surprising to know that one third of the people surveyed, stared at the disabled and even talked to them in a patronising way. This clearly shows a lack of consideration and understanding about disability on the part of the normal individuals vis-a-vis the disabled ones. It seems that our education fails to make us appreciate and understand the true value of people around us.

Even if the disbled people are in a position of authority or the responsibility, there are still more than 30% of the non-disabled people who feel uncomfortable to interact with them. This feeling of discomfort spans to other social groups like classmates, team members, neighbours and friends implying something must be done to integrate, adapt and accomodate those with physical and sensory impairments in society.

Sara Bilal (2012) have concluded that:


The majority of Hearing and Speech Impaired people prefer interpreters methods to interact with hearing people.


Hearing and Speech impaired community prefer sign language to communicate among themselves rather than lip reading or writing methods.





Malaysian Population


are Deaf 16.50% 15.70% of Only


Only of the Malaysian Deaf Population who are good at communicating in American Sign Language




good at reading and writing

72.2% and 52.70 %

of the Malaysian Deaf Population

weak at reading and writing who are unemployed are



of the Malaysian Deaf Population who are not good at communicating in American Sign Language

the Malaysian Deaf Population who are employed are


(ASL) are














235224 are

Speech Impaired

“At first, it was quite hard but then we solved these issues and we always have our ways to communicate,” Lioe, of Silver Spring, wrote in an e-mail. “…I can understand when chef speaks slowly and uses simple words and easy words, but chef uses his hands, which are totally different with American Sign Language.” (Quote).

Famous Deaf People Got Bachelor of Science for Biomedical Photographic Communication Conley is a full professor and chairperson of the Theatre Arts Department at Gallaudet University in Wa s h i n g t o n ,


Deaf and Speech Impaired Can! The Executive Chef, Malfati.S at the hotel he works at and him have developped a different way of communicating other than sign language.

American Deaf Photographer, playwright, actor and writer, Age 59

Willy Conley

Heat Lamp to grab attention

Hand Gestures Indonesian Deaf Chef, Age 37

Siau Lioe

Writing down

How do they Communicate? Speaking through a sign language interpreter, Jonsson said being a deaf chef was not all that different to being a chef who could hear, but a shift in focus was required.

Replicating the object description through touch and gestures

Kristofer Jonsson says “I focus on the visual side – you can look at the colour, where things are browning. Sight


Kristofer Jonsson



Deaf DeafCafe Cafe

Fingertalk, located in Indonesia is both a cafĂŠ and a workshop, started with a hope to bring hearing people and deaf community together by creating a cozy and relaxing place.



HYPOTHESIS 4. At the same time, this kind of activity will give them self-confidence and allow them to become independent. This will give them the opportunity to secure a job in the future

3. Using Pastries and Food Photography as a unifying factor to allow the deaf, speech impaired people to come within reach of normal people 2. Moving to a place where words and tone of voice fades away and communication happen through body language.

1. Isolation due to social maginalisation, bullying, anxiety and depression. Supression of emotions.

Figure n: Summary of overall intention and objective of soving the issue of this project. By Neha Kurrumchand, September 13, 2016.

The Solution? As far as the issue regarding face to face communication is concerned, the deaf and the speech impaired can be considered to be a cure for each other. Since we are dealing with several issues implicating sociophobic individuals, people suffering from anxiety or even depression, the deaf and the speech impaired people could serve as a big guidance for the the non-disabled individuals to develop and better expres themselves. At the flip side of the coin, the deaf and speech impaired community may be seen as valuable teachers in the eyes of the society instead of worthless dependents. Thus the society will be more open to them, whereby they can feel wanted, socially accepted and understood. This face-to face communication among these three categories of people can make them learn and understand each other better. Figure n: Collage of deaf and speech impaired and communication. By Neha Kurrumchand, September 13, 2016.




Deaf Gain Deaf gain can become the ice breaker between the deaf, speech impaired and the non-disabled in order to remove this invisible barrier between them. Deaf gain is a perception derived from the deaf community who view hearing loss as a benefit rather than a defect. To be deaf, is to see the world differently from how the hearing community sees it. The deaf can be considered as more imaginative individuals and will often pay attention to the tiny details sich as the intricate way of baking and making pastries. It is a way for them to express themselves. The deaf and speech impaired experience their peripheral surrounding visually in a way that is not normally experienced by the non-disabled common individuals. Being a visual language, sign language can take advantage of space and movement in ways that spoken language cannot.

Figure o: Summary of the overall communication solution expressed as a single word. By Neha Kurrumchand, September 13, 2016.



Several studies have indicated that a change in attitude towards the deaf and speech impaired people and the disabled in general have been the heart of the communication issue. Consequently this study promotes the idea of face to face communication between two parties an emphasizes better education as well as the development of a more positive portrayal of disability issues and thus help to eliminate and tackle the discrimination and stigma of the disbility.Thus the disabled would become more condfident and better understand their worth, employability and usefulness in the society.This would help them to overcome the negative attitudes that they often encounter and build up their self-image and selfesteem. The attitudes of non-disabled people, towards disability and deaf as well as the speech impaired will be more likely improved during their frequent interactions and encounters.


5. People have their edible wanted prints on the cake that they ordered.

1. The customers get to experience and learn the process involved in baking the cupcakes as well as a chance of baking them together with the deaf and speech impaired staffs.

taken 4. Photograph transformed into edible cake products.

photography 3. Learning and explore their creativity through such activity and creating moods for people to have a memorable photograph or food photography.

baking of 2. Learning pastries and exploring their creativity through such activity as well as developing skills required within the hospitality industry. Figure n: Summary of the overall communication solution expressed as a single word. By Neha Kurrumchand, April 13, 2017.

Chapter 2

28 This project or study will be focused on creating a bond between the deaf, speech impaired and the normal people through the making of pastries using edible printing and photography in order to achieve face to face communication. Thus it is about making promoting communication with those having expressive and receptive disorder. The focus will be on the deaf and speech impaired people and making them independent. The deaf and speech impaired will be from the NGOs supporting this project. This project can also be helpful for people such as socio-phobia. However, there are several steps to be taken into consideration in order to achieve its objectives.



INTRODUCTION “Echo is the voice of a reflection in the mirror” of a reflection in “Echo is the voice

Th is q u ot e is by N at hani e l Hawthorne . I t ref lec t s t h e c on c ep t an d in t en t ion of h ow I wan t t o s olve t h is





Ways the deaf, speech-impaired and normal people communicate

Users + Commu nication This diagram illustrates the methods used by the deaf, speech-impaired and non-disabled people to communicate. This has been helpful in understanding the different sensory aspects that are esssential to take into consideration in order to design a space for such individuals.

32 Conclusion:

While analysing how each user of thie space of this project would communicate ,it can be concluded that the design elements of this space would be in the form of reflective materials. If the visual aspect is considered, the user may be able to still connect or communicate through mirror reflection or transparency depite being located at different spots within the space. The sound reflection can be in terms of sound vibration/music vibration in order to feel.

Non-Disabled Users


U n i v e r s i t y Old Aunty Students and Uncle 50% 10%

Workers 40%






lient’s Vision and Objectives: This project will consider two important clients namely, the Malaysian Ministry of Health and Lions Club International in Malaysia. Ministry Of Health, Malaysia The vision of the Ministry of Health is to cater for a nation which works together for better health. Its mission involves leading and working in partnership so as to facilitate and support the people to attain their full potential health wise and consider health as a valuable asset. The ministry’s goal is to lead citizens towards positive and responsible lifestyle. Thus It promotes a system that is customer centered, equitable and affordable. The ministry always supports innovation,efficiency and technological developments which are environmentally adaptable. It lays much emphasis on professionalism, community participation and respect or human dignity. The main objective of the Ministry of Health in Malaysia is to help individuals achieve and sustain a health status which is economically and socially productive.

NGOs In addition to the above clients, there are also few NGOs in Malaysia who cater and support the disabled with visual impairment,expressive and receptive disorder. These NGOs like Malaysian Association for the , Society of Interpreters of Deaf(SID) and Malaysian Association of Speech­ Language and Hearing(MASH), have their vision and purpose which are very much in line with those of this project. Though these cannot provide funds, yet they can easily support this project by supplying relevant resource persons for registration purpose and promulgate the project



Project Aim

The aim of the project is to bring the deaf, speech impaired and the non-disabled individuals on a common platform for face to face communication. However in order to achieve this, there are some steps to be followed. Firstly, some of the deaf and speech impaired who have low self esteem are counseled and go through some psychotherapy in order to boost their confidence and resolve their problems.Thus they are trained to learn vocational skills related to hospitality namely pastry making and photography. This will lead them to meet people and overcome feared interaction. They will therefore develop more confidence, resilience and be able to stand on their own feet.As a result, they will not be seen as a burden on the society and on the other hand this will also raise awareness about the misconconception of the society regarding the differently abled’s capability.






Programming The Operational Hours: Monday to Fridays 8a.m to 5p.m Saturday 8a.m to 1p.m

Training Centre

Sunday & Publeic Holidays Closed

Pastry Cafe P h o t o g r a p hy studio





















PROJECT IDENTITY The sensory studio will be a place which will facilitate communicate in terms of sign language and encourage face to face communication. Therefore, the figure at the right hand side illustrate a symbolic representation of how the deaf and speech impaired perceive and communicate with the world. The Project name is Loop Talk.






40 Opportunity for entrepreneurs to become learn new skills and creativity

This program will allow the deaf and speech impaired community to learn photography, marketing and graphic design, therfore can easily

Moving from traditional way of baking and cake confection to embracing a new way of customised experience to the customer through edible printing. Providing a platform for the deaf and speech impaired to develop their skills as well as creativity and explore their capabalities to become independent.

In order to encourage face to face communication and avoid the “bowing down phenomenon�, the cafe of this project may not offer wifi


Demography • • • •

Race Malay Chinese Indian Foreigners

Age Group • Teenagers • Adult • Middle Age • Old Age


Average Income: Less than RM 5000/ month • Students Teenagers-Secondary school students Adult- University students

The population is a mix of these four categories of people. The Malay and the Chinese largely outnumber the Indian population.There is also a significant number of foreigners mainly in form of tourists.

Income/ Social Class Low Income: Less than RM 2000/ month

• Workers, Entrepreneur or Professionals Adult, Middle Age • Retired Individuals Old Age It must be noted that the above mentioned groups can be either visitors or residents.

High Income: More than RM 5000/ month Lifestyle Economy-minded Couch Potatoes Outdoors enthusiasts Status seekers

Psychological Segmenation The behaviour and attitudeof the customers will vary with age group, gender as well as their lifestyles. Young and less mature individuals will show more enthusiams when it comes to technology while older people tend to pay more attention to their health and diet. Thus my project aims to strike a balance between these two type of lifesyle and attitude.

42 Regardless of the fact that I had the solution to the issue about face to face communication with the deaf and speech impaired people and had the idea of how I was to solve this matter architecturally(product), I realized that more was required in order to achieve a favorable outcome. More? meaning an appropriate business model that will help me achieve the aims and goals of this project. Thus,this led me to review the whole mission and vision of my project, explore and choose the suitable business model in order to make it a success.

“It’s not the product--it’s the business model,.” -Steve Baker

Hybrid Business Model What? Why?


A hybrid business model can be defined as one which sets an equilibrium between the social and commercial aspect of a program or an enterprise.


43 Some traditional non-profits become more integrated

Social Only


Hybrid Organizations

Hybrid Business Model

Social Value

Commercial Revenue

I chose Hybrid business model as it • is exposed and more likely to attract a wider range of investors or capital, therefore acquiring more recognition makes it easier to spread awareness.

Financial Only

Some traditional companies become more integrated


44 • invests in basic research which leads to application of innovative measures and latest trends within my project. • prepares immature markets. • has a promising future prospect. Recently the hybrid business model has proved to be very successful in several companies throughout the world. This new kind of organisation has emerged whereby competition does not depend only on quality of goods and services but relies to a large extent on the ablity of the company to bring about positive social and environmental change. Hybrid organisations are commonly supported by a new and growing demographic of individuals. The latter give much importance to a positive lifestyle emphasizing healthy living as well as environment conservation and social justice. regarding the products and services that they offer.

A significant example of such an enterprise is LOHAS(Lifestyles of Health and Sustainability) in U.S which promotes the sense of social and environmental awareness among entrepreneurs and managers. It promotes goods and services related to health , green buliding, eco-tourism, alternative energy, transport and natural lifestyle. Its market value has sky-rocketed and it is constantly on an increase. In 2001 it has a market of around 15million people and in only 2 years time that is by 2003 this increasedto 68 million. Similarly in 2008, its market value which was 209 billion dollars increased to 290 billion dollars in 3 years time, that is in 2011. Another important feature of the hybrid organisation is that they always look for leadership roles within their industry, unlike other organisation which often tend to influence regualtors and interest groups to reduce standards and regualtions to safeguard their own competitive advantage. Hybrid organisation on the other hand, promote their product

in such a way that other organisations will be inspired to imitate them. In the long run, this is beneficial to society at large. This is due to the fact that emulation of the hybrid enterprise by other organisations lead to the success of their social and environmental missions. More and more organisations will cater for the people with similar objectives as the hybrid organisation. This will result in reaching a greater number of consumer as well as growing market whereby people will take their social missions more seriously. In line with this, There will be the creation of mutually beneficial relationships with consumers as well as other stakeholders. This principle of the hybrid organisation will be implemented and practiced in the orgagnisation being considered in my project. Consequently, one of my values will be to:

“Being influenced by the hybrid model, I want to make a difference using business to make an impact as well as well alleviate the issue regarding face to face communication as well as emancipation of the deaf and speech impaired community within the society.” Very often hybrid organisations have difficulty to generate returns of profits for the investors. Sometimes they may rely on charitable institutions for their finance. Despite the challenges that hybrid organisations face, they can still integrate the industrial, commercial, social as well as environmental aspects in the processing and providing of goods and services. It offers the best opportunities to consumers for sustability.



• Social Investors • Foundation

• Social Investors • Foundation • Social Venture Funds • Banks

• Social Investors • Foundation • Social Venture Funds • Banks • Governments • Corporations

• • • •

Banks Governments Corporations Etc..

Investment Risk Grants Social Loans

Grants Social Loans Commercial Loans

Grants Social Loans Commercial Loans Government Loans Equity

Commercial Loans Government Loans Equity

Low Graph 1: Business Life Cycle of Hybrid Business Model Drawn by Neha Kurrumchand

Embr yonic Stage









• Social Loan • Social Venture Funds

• Commercial Loan • Equity

Foundations • Grants

Social Investor • Equity Foundations • Mission related equity

For-Profit Entity

For Non-Profit Entity

Bakery and Cafe

Training Centre • Grants Hybrid Social Enterprise

47 The non-profit part of my hybrid business model is the training centre for the deaf and speech impaired individuals. However resources are required for its operations. This needs finance which will be obtained from social venture funds and in this context, the main foundation will be Society of Interpreters for the Deaf(SID). This foundation will direct disabled persons to workin the bakery and it will also provide resource persons to conduct training in the training centre.Other subsidary bodies like Malaysian Association of Sign Language (MASH) and The Deaf Academy will provide resources and grants related to graphic design and marketing classes. In addition to the above, the Government will provide grants to spport this initiative. The for-profit section will consist of the cafe and the bakery. The bakery will provide specific product namely edible as well as 3D printed pastries as well as simple snacks and beverages. However coffee beverage also occupies an important role within the cafe in order to provide an olfactory experience to attract customers into my space. Thus it will need financing which will be obtained mostly from CSR of Maybank as well as commercial loan for the set-up of the forprofit entity and supported by social investors.

As per Graph 1,it is observed that as the business grows and develops from its embyonic stage to its maturity, The investment risk decreases proportionallly. This will therefore be an advantage in terms of encouraging and motivating social investors and foundations to support the my project.


Case|01 Study

Hotbread Kitchen Hotbread is a bakery which is located in New York where low income immigrant women are trained and empowered into new product development experts. The CEO, Jessamyn Rodriguez has founded this enterprise through a mix of charity and social basis with the core purpose of increasing women workforce within the baking industry. By bringing women from different countries of the world, there is a blend of culture and way of baking to manufacture products from their origin. In this way, Jessamyn aims at making these women tell their stories through bread making. This is a means by which she is able to raise awareness the social cause of poverty and female unemployment in this industry.

Figure 01: Hotbread Kitchen Products. 2015, September 23. Survey of Arts Management. Retrieved from https://edspace.


Case|02 Study

Starbucks in Malaysia Starbucks is recognized as the leading speciality coffee company in Malaysia where it has more than 190 outlets. It portays mostly the middle class lifestyle of malaysian and has been able to create love between its product as well as consumer. It depends highly on its cafe ambiance as main attraction for its customer. The revenue of Starbucks has been increasing from ear to year during the last decade and it has introduced starbucks cards in malaysian outlets. due to its very high turn over.

Figure 02: Starbucks Coffee. 2017, June 7. Retrieved from http://





Capital resources

Design Aspect Program Design: Men and women are employed by the bakery for one year, during which they are given the skill set to seek employment outside of Hot Bread.

The employees bake breads from their home countries and sell it in the bakery in order to create a consistent source of revenue and operate with a commercial business model while remaining mission focused and applicable for grants and other non-profit benefits. Rely significantly on commercial revenue to sustain operations. 65% of their operating budget is funded through bread sales and kitchen rental. HBK Incubates program, which rents commercial kitchen space to small business owners (female and male), where they can avoid financial instabilities, get financial and marketing assistance.




Brand The company has its own identity. The branding of this enterprise is reflected through the women immigrants telling stories through bread. Its product demonstratedthat authentic purpose every Roster of 14 women single day. (though admission is rolling), Bakers in Training is the Services program Hot Bread Kitchen Make use of online is best known for. For nine blogs and packaging for months, women get the promotion of product. opportunity to bake in the kitchen, as well as spend Product three hours each week This company’s taking classes in English, business strategy looks kitchen math, bakery like an one-stop store science, professional skills, which mean this company and management—and provides a variety of they get paid during all of it. breads from different origins/countries exposing Workmanship Aspect their consumers with new Opportunities for bakers from and mix products that different social backgrounds, they can purchase in level of experience and one time. creativity; which mean innovation is bound to happen through sharing and merging of dfferent ideas.

A company website that has cataloguesof products together with its core purpose where customer can donate online as well, therefore enabling them to reach a greater number of consumers.

STRATEGY FROM COMPANY ANALYSIS Implement a similar programming operation as well as create a similar path branding into my project.







Capital resources

Design Aspect 59% consumers prefer to go to to starbucks because of its cafe ambience. It is said to act as an “escape” and become a third place between home and workplace as it provides a relaxing and cozy environment. In such environ ment customers have a feeling of reduced stress level and have a sense of happy feeling. Stabucks has kept its service of high standard to tally with its mission’s statement. The mission statement is to inspire and nature the human spirit.

Starbucks is a private company whose business id for-profit only. Thus Its capital resourcesis driven by its sales. The sale is promoted by added value of the product and ambiance of its space.

Workmanship Aspect Starbucks is a place for socialisation whereby consumers are made to sit close to each other as they are allocated small chairs and tables. This promotes emotional bonding. There is a mix with personal relationship between baristas and customers which gives an added value to the service offered by starbucks

STRATEGY FROM MARKETING TECHNOLOGY COMPANY ANALYSIS Brand It uses wifi as a Implement a similar A c c o r d i n g t o means to attract way of branding Gonzalez(2014) it has used its consumer. through lifestyle into naturilisation fit which my project. implies ritualisation of brand to customers.In this process it has implemened the diffrent lifestyle of its target consumer for branding Services Provides good quality and taste of beverage together with excellent counter services. 58% of their consumer rely on the quality of coffee and 43% of them have taste changes. The possiblity of customisation becomes a reason why consumer prefer starbucks Product Starbuck’s product include freshly brewed coffee expresso beverages as wellas blended beverages.




Benchmarking The fact that my project quite unique in nature, as it offers a common platform for social interaction between normal people, speech impaired deaf, together with facilities for coffee and pastry outlet.. Since there are no previous case studies relating to such hybrid model organisation, it becomes quite difficult to position my project in the market. that is the positoning of my organisation in the Malaysian market , is liable to fluctuate depending on its competitive edge with respect to branding and services offered.

53 STATIONARY Business Card Packaging



Website and Blog Newspaper, Instagram, Facebook Entrepreneurs Magazines Gallery Space of my project (showcase my cafe and bakery as well as the training) Banners,Event posters

MARKETING STRATEGY include the following factors: • Visibility • Innovation and Technology • Service • Product These factors will be elaborated in greater details in Chapter 5.

Directories include yellow or white pages, union directories, trade directories or local business directories.

Marketing area collaborating with the photography studio of my space for promoting the social cause of my project as well as encourage visibility.


Chapter 3

Site Questions






Site Inventory


? IIII Over View



Program: What is relevant to this design?

S i t e Analysis




Art Printing Works is located at Jalan Riong, Bangsar in Kuala Lampur. This commercial Printing was established in 1952 and was known to be one of the most creative and productive printers in Kuala Lumpur. The building was reconceived in 2013, so as to reprpose the underutilised parts of this printing plant. Now, it host various activities such as exhibitions and cycling community meetups and events. We also have some coffee shops, a hairsaloon, a bar and an exhibition space. The idea to do this was to bring the community together and aspiring creativity through artisans and workshops, as well as encouraging entrepreneurship.


Site Vegetation


Site Activities


Front Part of Site A- Jalan Tandok, Bangsar

Intangible Site Analysis




How would deaf & speech impaired people perceive this site? Art Printing Works Location






Site Analysis



Precedent Studies|01 Gallaudet University Flexible setting for easy eye contact and signing

63 Figure 1: LTL Architects. 2013, August 26. Gallaudet University Residence Hall. Retrieved from https://

This precedent study explores the interaction of the deaf population with respect to the environment. The implementation of the five design elements: Peripheral, Transparency, Reflection, Vibration and Shared sensory reach help the deaf individuals to move about and interact with their environment. This basic dimension of the space between people influences the basic layout of furnishings and bulding spaces. Since deaf people cannot hear, they need to see the whole body in order to identify the person in front or adjacent to them. Thus it requires a wider gap/distance for them to interact by sign languages. While moving about in conversation, the signers have to keep a wider distance for clear, visual communication. This may also allow them to deal with any hazard or obstacle within their surrounding. Improper lighting conditions can affect or hinder visual communication between the deaf people having face to face interaction. Consequently implementation of diffused electric light is used to adjust and “attune the deaf eyes�. This can be complemented with coulours to contrast skin tone and improve the use of sign language to facilitate visual wayfinding.

64 Design Elements

Wide Walkway = Wide distance for clear visual communication

Space Proximity

360 degrees move through space uninterrupted

Light and color consideration

Avoid Poor Lighting conditions

Figure o: Gallaudet University Campus Design & Planning. Gallaudet University, Classroom. Retrieved from https:// Images/Campus%20 Design%20and%20 Planning/serviceslong-range-campusplanning.jpg


Back lights

Shadow Patterns

Instead make use of Penetration of Natural Lights

Diffused Lighting

Contrasting skin for sign language & wayfinding


Figure 2: Gallaudet University Bench. Retrieved from https://cdn0.vox-cdn. com/uploads/chorus_ asset/file/6128767/ untitled-2491.0.jpg

Transparency by using glass windows for deaf and speech impaired to communicate easily


Reverberation caused by small waves reflected by hard building surfaces. This can be a problem for the deaf people who are using assistive devices.

Thus make use of soundproofing materials to reduce this issue.


Precedent Studies|02 Perry & Marty Granoff Center for the Creative Arts Perry and Marty Granoff Center for the Creative Arts, Brown University/ Diller Scofido + renfro recently opened for spring semester classes at Brown University., providing space for performances, exhibitions, installations and an outdoor amphitheatre.

67 Figure 1: Brown University Retrieved from https:// images/2011/03/09/ arts/brown1/ brown1-jumbo.jpg

The visibility inside and outside facilitates the visibility into different spaces from one point of view to another. This therefore allows flexibilty of spaces in terms of circulation and view. Each space is merged with one another to ease collaboration across every level.



Precedent Studies|03 Bernhard Leitner Experiment

Louder sound Feeling through the body

Louder sound Softer sound Vibration Pattern


Literature Review  |01

71 This study explores the relationship between architecture and psychoanalysis whereby the perplexity of surface and depth, interior and exterior, subject and object that distinguish the primary scene within Bergasse 19 which was Sigmund Freud’s office. Vision and Hearing merge in three-dimensional space on the basis of physical and sensory interaction of bodies as they move through Freud’s study and consulting room. The contrast between seen and unseen, audible and inaudible of private and public space is highlighted.

The Psychoanalytical Setting as a Stage in the Consulting (left) and Study (right) room, redrawn based on originals from the ‘Essay Berggasse 19: Inside Freud’s Office’, 1996. &th Decembe 2016. Retrieved from http://webcache.

An Anecdotal Topography of Freud’s desk, drawing by D.Kypraiou. 7th December 2016. Retrieved from http://webcache.

The doors and windows setup make the exterior and interior complement each other and become an extension of each other.


The Bergasse Office There was a mirror setup in a way that the interior space of the office and exterior space of the street became extension of each other. The doors and windows setup of the office was Intriguing in the sense that the exterior of the building could be seen from inside while the interior could be seen from outside. The doors and windows were completely symmetrical with repeated visual motives. The photo documentary of Bergasse 19 had a very specific design which showed spatial arrangements of objects in the interior. This provided a blueprint for later reconstruction of the office museum. Study Desk A particular feature of freud’s desk was the ability to initiate transferential dynamics. When Freud sat at his desk, his head blocked and replaced patient’s image in the mirror. Thus Freud made clinical use of the mirror in the treatment of his patients.

Plan View : Freud’s head His own body

How the patient sees through the mirror looks like Freud’s head with the patient’s own body. The psychology is to make the patient feel like Freud has into his patient’s head to connect with them

Consulting Room The Arrangement on and around the consulting room couch displayed a protected enclave which represented a room within a room which was a private interior space. This gave feelings of safety and security within that space. In the consulting room, the telephone substituted the mirror as the main directing agent of the doctor-patient relationship. He always imagined the patient’s as fellow passenger on a railway journey. He assumed the role of the Blind while consulting his patient and acted as if he cannot see but only listen. This implies that hearing must compensate for any lost of vision. Thus the architectural design of his office consisted of two distinct interior parts which were the space of listening and the space of reflection


November 8,2016. Retrievd from wp-content/uploads/2015/06/03Berggasse-19-Inside-FreudsOffice-with-Diana-Fuss.jpg

The Psychoanalytical Setting as a Stage in the Consulting (left) and Study (right) room, redrawn based on originals from the ‘Essay Berggasse 19: Inside Freud’s Office’, 1996. &th Decembe 2016. Retrieved from http://

74 Formal Visual Analysis Jeremy Gladstein (2014) from ArtSedge in her article entitiled “ Formal Visual Analysis:The elemnts and Principles of Composition” has clarified basic concepts in the field of visual arts. This is being included here because deaf and speech impaired people interact more with their eyes than their ears and mouth. Formal analyisis itself is a technique which organizes visual information whereby what is seen can be translated into written words. The elements of formal analysis consists of buiding blocks that can be arranged to give a larger structure.

Literature Review  |02

Figure:This pictures highlights the principle elements of compostion In this context, the value of the design is the degree of light and dark patches in that design. Shapes are formed by the combination of different lines resulting in formation of figures. Texture is the quality of a surface which can be seen and/ or felt. Movement is the way a viewer’s eye is directed to ove through a composition and this can be guided by lines, constrasting shapes or colours within the art work. Emphasis occurs when the artist contrasts colours, textures or shapes to direct one’s view towards a particular part of the image.

isual Composition based on design principles. December 8, 2016.. Retrieved from http://2.bp.blogspot. com/-D7M0jyXAaB0/T9EVO2sB0NI/ AAAAAAAAAEc/DGheogYoVYg/s1600/ david-horatii2.jpg

75 Texture and Sensory wayfinding Unity occurs when the principle of analyisis in a composition are in harmony. Knowledge of the above allows one to interprete what they into any pieceof work. Marcia Fewerstein and Grey Green ( 2013) have highlighted that there is a marked relationship between architecture and performing arts. They have raised the question about how buildings can act with people and among people in the performance of life instead of being just formal structures. They suggest that buildings can actually play multiple roles instead of being simple functional units. They lead us to reflect on the concept of buildings behaving like actors in a city and performing with and among the people rather than being mere objects.

Some studies have shown that textured materials infact depend on the combined effects of factors like age, vision or task stability. In general, texture enhances perceptual-motor functionality in individuals but this effect also depends on contextual factors like individual environmental/ task constraints. Watnabe and Okupo( 1981) have shown the packing density of the space may also affect this phenomenon. However, in young healthy individuals, the greatest efects of added textured materials occur during upright balance tasks.Thus textured material effects interaction, improve body awareness. Furthermore it has also been found that young athletes wearing socks and shoes with textured inserts could easily discern five different joint positions. The textured materials has also been found to improve and facilitate stability in perceptual-motor performance.In adition to this, there is also the possiility that textured materials can improve performance under constraint where high movement speed decreases the possiblity for visual perception. Figure p: Collage of textural and Sensory wayfinding. December 7,2016. By Neha Kurrumchand

Chapter 4

76 58


Big Idea

Figure q: Big Idea and inspiration. By Neha Kurrumchand, April 20, 2017.

77 From Precedent Studies

Overlapping Linear Space

Transforming the linear lines to curvy shapes

Through my precedent studies, I have learnt that that dynamic form of spaces are more suitable for the deaf and speech impaired as visual plays a very important aspect in how they move about and interact within a space. Applying, the same principles from my analysis of the precedent studies has led me to conceive this idea of how my spaces can be overlapped but using curvy patterns. This can help people to see each other more easily, using this type of space. To obtain intersecting curvy lines which can be overlapped onto another


Design Concept

Design Concept


Final Design Concept


DESIGN + Analysis:

Combination of all the design elements

Combination of all the design elements & patterns from Site Analysis



Figure g: Design Solutions that will help to solve communication issues through space. By Neha Kurrumchand, April 28, 2017.


Wider walkways


Enclosed, opaque space- Cannot easily sign or notice



Curved Corners


Use of Mirrors/Reflected materials


Narrow spaces reduces their visual field

Sharp Corners

Cannot hear /speak if they other person is facing away while talking




Light to grab Attention

Reflected material/Mirror

Reflected material/Mirror






2 Human Figure


No. of pax Operational time: 8a.m - 5p.m


Slot at each side - Focus


81 I made these models and use them as an inspiration for my overall design and space planning. Through these models I was trying to play around with curves, lines, transparency as well as difference in height for visual a c u i t y


Programming Of Space Activities




Zoning Of Overall Spaces N


































Zoning Of Internal Spaces GROUND FLOOR Cafe Bakery & Edible Printing Storage and Office Gallery Reception Toilet Bakery Training Area Counselling Room



FIRST FLOOR Cafe Graphic Design,Crafting,& 3D Printing Chillax Area Graphic Design, Marketing and Sign Language Class Management office, Marketing Area.Photography and Printing Area


Circulation Public Circulation Private Circulation Elevator Staircase




Conceptual Programming VO C AT I O N A L EDUCATION






Space Focus










Lay Down

Body Movement

FRAME Senses











Programming PLANE Space





Focus Question Cheerful Calm Inspire Hope Relax






Lay Down

Body Movement

FRAME Senses





























Loop Talk Training Centre The deaf and speech impaired trainees attend the training sessions to learn about baking of pastry as well sign language. In addition to this, they should also choose one from one of the follwing options: 1.Marketing Class 2.Graphic Design Class 3.Food Photography Class

Operational Time: 8 a.m to 5p.m Operational time per session: 2hrs Days: Monday to Friday Each session consist of 6 trainees.

These training sessions last for a period of 9 months at the end of which each trainee get the opportunity to work in the bakery as well as the cafe.

Bakery Training

The setting of the bakery training should be such a way that there is each eye contact between the instructor and the trainees.

Management Office

Operational Time: 9 a.m to 5p.m Lunch Break: noon to 1 p.m Days: Monday to Friday

Graphic Design Class Marketing Class Operational Time: 8 a.m to 5p.m Operational time per session: 2hrs Days: Tuesday and Thursday Each session consist of 6 trainees.

Sign Language

Operational Time: 8 a.m to 5p.m Operational time per session: 1hrs Days: Monday, Wednesday, Friday Each session consist of 6 trainees.



Photography Studio Operational Time: 1p.m to 5p.m Days: Mobnday, Wednesday and Friday

Photography Class Operational Time: 1p.m to 5p.m Operational time per session: 2hrs Days: Tuesday and Thursday Each session consist of 6 trainees.

Operational Time: 9a.m to 5p.m Days: Mondayto Friday

Printing Area

Marketing Office

The Photography studio,marketing office and printing area work simultaneously and in collaboration. Therefore photography service printing are easily available to the user’s and vistors as well.

95 Bakery Operational Hour: 9a.m to 7p.m Days: Monday to Saturday On Sunday, the bakery operates from 9a.m to noon.

Once the trainees have completed the 9 months of training, these speech impaired and deaf people are then spread to different departments such as bakery,graphic design and crafting, marketing office,photography studio and cafe,according to their preference and ability.They are made to work on a shift system.

The discussion area is used for various purposes such as: 1. Discussing abot theneeds and preference of clients.. for outside order( birthday, wedding occasions) 2. Discussing as a team to about new innovation and development of the business.

Discussion Area


Counselling Area The counselling area is part of the training centre which provides specialised services in the form of psychotherapy which may provide help to some of the trainees to feel at ease and comfortable to fight their low self-esteem. This area will also follow some the design elements from the Bergasse office whereby Sigmund Freud uses visual in the form of photos as well as mirror to interact and understand his patients The counselling room uses mirror reflection as a main design element.Thus those inside can easily see the photogarphy gallery and part of the outside activities through those mirror reflection which act as the visual element needed in the counselling area.This effect also makes the space look like it is part of the gallery.. Operational Time: noon to 2p.m Days: Wednesday and Friday


Operational Time: 8a.m to 5p.m Days: Monday to Saturday

The Gallery is specifically designed for the display of photoragraphs produced by trainees in the food photography studio or during the photography class. It also displays and sells tcoffee beans product which are used by the Loop Talk cafe. The gallery is found adjacent to the bakery, Thus they can taste some of the cakes produced in the bakery. At the end of the gallery there is also a space whereby visitors can experience edible printing. While doing so the normal people behave and act like they are imitating the workers in the bakery. Thus this gives the impression that the normal people are integrating the world of the the deaf and speech impaired instead of the contrary. The overall purpose of the gallery is to raise awareness make the vistors make use of their other senses more than their hearing and speech. This purpose is to also show the deaf and speech impaired are equally competent as normal people.

Graphic design & Crafting

Operational Hour: 9a.m to 7p.m Days: Monday to Saturday On Sunday, it operates from 9a.m to noon.

The graphic and crafting area plays a great role as it is mainly concerned with the design of silicon moulds for cake to produced in the shapes and sizes desired by the clients as well as to produce cake designs which are unique to the Loop Talk Cafe only. It also produces these products on outside orders. The moulds are directly sent to the kitchen through a pulley system which facilitates easy delivery of moulds.


98 Cafe

Operational Time: 9a.m to 9p.m Days: Monday to Saturday On Sundays it works from 9a.m to 1p.m.



Chapter 5


My Inspiration Art Printing Works Art Printing Works (my site) became my inspiration due to the various elements it offers, namely: a place which helps entrepreneurs build and boost up their creativity within a green environment. The main point is that it involves printing. It is often said that sometimes it is best to embrace our shortcomings instead of trying to completely change it into something else. It is a fact that nowadays printing no longer holds the same importance as it used to have in the past. Despite being one of the invention that revolutionized the world, the printing press is slowly becoming extinct because of new innovations technological field. Thus we often draw the conclusion that printing and new technological innovations cannot go hand in hand.

Printing + New Innovation = Conflicting Combination

However I chose to look at this condition in a positive way. Keeping that in mind, I thought that this conflicting combination may be interesting to explore and revitalize printing as well as rewire the way people think about printing today.

Printing + New Innovation = Interesting Combination Food and Printing form an interesting combination as they surprisingly share a good chemistry.

Interesting Combination = Food + Printing

Figure r: Representation of the different elements that led to my Inspiration collage. By Neha Kurrumchand, May 24, 2017.


Development Process How are Food and Printing even related?

Good Chemistry? 3D + EDIBLE PRINTING Thanks to the fast pacing technological advancements, we now have new ways of printing among which include edible printing and 3D printing. Edible printing is the process of recreating food using a set of refillable cartridge with edible inks to print digital images from a computer. The process and way of printing is just the same as printing a non-edible paper, except for the fact that one can consume it. It involves the use of special type of papers known as frosting sheets and icing papers which come into different paper sizes according to the standard required printing dimensions. Edible printing is mainly used for confection decoration. Some examples of such products are cakes, macarons, creams, biscuits, chocolate and and various other similar items. 3D printing, on the other hand has allowed designers to produce food items with different shapes, textures and sizes by linking their knowledge regarding 3D digital manipulation and food art.

The global consumer of 3D food printing market can be divided into major regions which include America,Western and Eastern Europe, Asia-Pacific region, Japan, Middle East and Africa. Europe is said to be the current market leader in 3D food printing. Despite the fact that Edible printing and 3D Printing are acknowledging tremendous success and popularity within the Food industry in many places in the world, it is still paving its way to achieve recognition to meet the day to day consumers of certain other countries such as Malaysia. This concept is brand new and therefore it can give the Malaysian consumers new opportunities to experience Pastry and Printing differently. Besides prodiving something new for the consumers, this type of food production can be easily adaptable or customized according to the geographical context, the people as well as the culture of a region.

Figure s Representation of edible 3D printing collage. By Neha Kurrumchand, May 24, 2017.


Dinara Kasko

Ukranian Pastry Chef

Dinara Kasko is a Pastry chef who pursued her studies in Architecture and Design to become an architect. However soon after she graduated from her architectural school, she followed her cooking passion and decided to incorporate the knowledge and skills of both physical and digital model making to recreate pastry through 3D printing. She uses 3D printing to make her own silicone moulds for cakes of different shapes, sizes and textures she wants. I found her work really inspirational and her interpretation of merging two dissimilar concepts unusual and unique. I choose to incorporate her idea within my project as this approach can help in promoting the influence and benefits of pastry, creative entreneurship and it can also add a different tone to my project through the re-thinking of 3D printing. Last but not least, it will improve the perception of my space. This is because people are more likely to go for new experiences. Thus this can bring the community together, gain more recognition. Therefore easier to raise awareness about face to face communication issue regarding the deaf and speech-impaired community.




Experience My project focuses on providing a sensory experience using a cafe as a ”lieu of rencontre” for interaction among different groups of people. However the sensory experience will be mostly concentrated on olfactory, visual as well as tactile and tasting experience. The reason I choose to focus mostly on those three senses is the fact that I want my space to reflect the deaf and speech impaired people, as they are the ones running this business through my space. This sensory experience will be mostly highlighted within “The Gallery Area” of my space

My overall space planning as well as that of the Gallery Area led me to think about the emotions , behaviours and memories that I want the users of my space to experience. This is shown through Diagram a. whereby I am using each sensory as a wayfinding through the Gallery Area. By providing the users of my space with such experience , I am trying to make them have an understanding and relatable encounter of the day to day life experience of a deaf or speech impaired individual



Can Hear the Can smell the surrounding scent of cake noise but cannot see or hear anything

Sensory Wayfinding

Can smell the scent and see the cake at the same time.

Experience the making process of edible printing

Choose the path they can connect to the most

Tactile Emotion

Behaviours Visual and Tasting

Memories Olfactory

Diagram b. Relationship between sensory and human emotions. Despite the fact that all our senses combined together enhance our overall perception of an object or space, each different sensory response still has an individual importance as to how we relate to our day to day experiences. Diagram b. shows the relationship between each sensory response and to the component to which it relates the most. Diagram a. Experience encountered through the GalleryArea of my space.




1. Open Plan

My research led me to have a better understanding of the important factors to consider when it came to designing a gallery. During the space planning of the Gallery Area, keeping in mind the sensory encounters I want the visitors of my space to experience, I had to take into consideration the various features in order to think about the design of the gallery. These features include: • consideration of the relationship between the Display/Space and the visitor. • • orientation of individual space, the connection with each other and the overall coordination of the whole space. (For example; how scent leads to visual response). • • factors that will determine the interface between the staff and the public.

5. Complex

2. Core + Satelites

3. Linear procession

6. Labyrinth Diagram c: Possible Orientation Configurations of a gallery. Retrieved from Metric Handbook,Planning and Design Data.

4. Loop

105 Complex + Labyrinth Experience Edible Printing + Interaction Visual



Diagram d: My own potential configuration of the Gallery Area of my space

Through the knowledge that I have gained from my research on gallery configuration shown in Diagram c., I have come up with the potential configuration as shown in Diagram d. for the Gallery Area of my space by combining complex and labyrinthe orientations.

Diagram e: My preliminary space planning space- gallery space highlighted


PERCEIVING Architecture To perceive architecture means to draw a meaning through our own internal response with respect to our surrounding space/ environment. Different spaces emit different types of ambience/mood which make us feel different emotions within those spaces. In today’s architecture, much attention and thought are given to visual aspect in designing that we tend to overlook consideration for smell. This is because as architects and designers we tend to “cover up “ or “clean up” scent and progress towards eliminating it without exploring the potential it holds to enhance our design. The accentuation of smell can infact make an occupant experience architecture differently by unintententionally tagging an object or make associations with it and evoke emotions at a deeper level. For example; if we consider a branded stlye perfume such as Victoria Secret, smell has become part of its brand. Thus the sense of smell proves to be a powerful tool when it comes to selling products, and making it part of our product’s brand may become a smart choice. This is because smell is highly associated with memory and and incorporating smell into design can help the consumer to remember our brand.

through olfactory sense

Through my research, I have learnt that in order to incorporate smell within my space, I have to think about the:

• emotion I want to evoke within the occupant • • occupants behaviour and • • memories I want the occupant to associate with, to tap into the realisation of my design intention.

Despite being invisible, olfactory sense that can leave the longest lasting and most emotional impression upon the user of a space. Scent can be used to enhance our visual sense to produce a more effective design. This made me think about ways to enhance smell within my space and this will become a determining factor for the choice of material I will be using. I will also consider about how I will preserve that smell within my space. This will be elaborated in greater details at a later stage.

“Our Printing Press is the Internet. Our coffee houses are social networks.� - H e a t h e r Brooke

107 This quote gives a very good insight of most of our coffee houses today. Everyone is so busy being connected to his/her social networks through his/her phone or working on their laptop because of the availability of wifi connection in our coffee houses. The function of coffee houses have been morphed from what it was in the past. Formerly our coffee houses used to be a place where active conversation was happening, unlike how it is nowadays.


Coffee in Malaysia: Coffee houses have always been an integral part of the malaysian culture for several decades in the past. Due to Malaysia’s location and geographical features, two types: the canephora and liberica species, of coffee beans are best suited to be grown on a large scale which make up the overall coffee production in Malaysia. Siti Nurbaya binti Abdul Rahman(2010), has stated that coffee used to play a significant role in the malaysian economy. Since rubber plantation proved to be more profitable than coffee production, it has taken over the latter in the malaysian economy. This was due to high demand of rubber in the development of the automobile industry. Nevertheless it must be noted that coffee consumption has always been an important aspect of malaysian culture. In the late 1990s, coffee shops were in the form of kopitiams which evolved to mama stall and later into a more commercialized and westernized outlet in the form of a cafe. These changes happened with the upgrading of services provided by the coffee shops as well as the integration of technology into the food and beverage industry in order to attract younger consumers. Thus nowadays the coffee shops have developed their own trade names and identity in order to suit the present day lifestyle of malaysians.

Then and Now Through the history of coffee in Malaysia,we get to know that it was actually the immigrants who brought in this plantation. In early 1890’s, the main centre of coffee planting was between Kuala Lumpur and Klang. There was a coffee shop requisition for the establishment of a coffe house in 1895 in the Holland street of Kuala Lumpur. The coffee shops clientele were mainly coolies, workers and labourers. During those times most kopitiams and food stalls were seperated by ethnicity, type of food consumption and culture. However , this way of life has highly changed today in Malaysia. Kopitiams are not only a place to sit and eat and have a normal conversation,but also a place where discussions and meeting with the clients can take place, a place where one can be within one’s own world despite being surrounded by people. This is because in today’s coffee houses , there is the availabillity of free wifi in order to attract younger customers. This is now a branding strategy to provide the consumers with a new, cosy environment with the classic look of a kopitiam.

The social aspect within the malaysian community has also highly changed which consists of having ethnic and cultural barriers unlike before. This is also because most people are highly educated and can afford to pay for a branded product. Many people feel that brand is an inegral part of a lifestyle. Popular Cafe such as Starbucks and Coffee beans are known to have achieved fast growth in the food and beverage industry by adapting the above values. These coffee houses have used the branding strategy of satisfying malaysian’s social needs of acceptance which serves as an escapism to create a “third place feeling”




in My Space Drawing out from the history of coffee and coffee houses in Malaysia, I have learnt that nowadays cafe occupies quite an important aspect of the lifestyle of the malaysian community. However when I think about the best strategy to adopt in my space is to mix up few elements from the history and merge it with the present lifestyle. I can also adopt the branding strategy of providing high quality services, including escapism in order to build a warm relationship with the customers. My cafe space will be a place where face to face conversations may happen with enhanced sensory experience.


I am using brewing of coffee as a business strategy to attract customers into my space. The first thing that they will experience as they enter my coffee area, the scent of freshly, roasted, local coffee beans. Smelling of coffee is known to provide some antioxdidant benefits to our body and reduce stress as well as keeps us awake, as it is a stimulant. Another strategy I thought of adopting is to incorporate the coffee barrel‘s material within the material of my space. This can make my space unique as it contributes in its identity and branding. It will thus make people remember my cafe through its scent. My cafe will be designed in such a way so that it has a lower ceiling height so that smell of the coffee becomes more acute as it is concentrated within a smaller volume/space.



Space planniing of my coffee preaparation area for my cafe, I had to explore the working flow of the workers in order to make a functional and effective workspace for them.. Implementing the golden triangle rule while designing the kitchen area helped me in achieving this.



BENEFITS OF BAKING It is a universal truth physical activities keep our body healthy. Furthermore during such activities the body produces various endorphines which change negative feelings into posituve ones. Research has shown baking is one of the activty which is beneficial to combat anxiety, depression and improve mental health in general. The therapeutic effects of baking has been found to be wonderful in several cases. This is all related to the activities involved in the whole process of looking for the proper equipments and the right raw materials like whole meal flour, unrefined sugar butter and dairy for vegetable oils sothat the product is more suitable for physica; and emotional needs of the individual.Thus the best product is prepared and baked which brings peace and happiness to self and to those whom this product is served. For example; it has been found that kneading the dough , mixing the flour and decoratingthe cake manually helps to release stress and negative energy. This is accentuated by use of healthy ingredients and ecofriendly apparatus and equipment together with the hands.Thus it gives a sense of gratification which converts our negativity into positivity.


BRANDING Branding of my coffe space will be based on the idea of storytelling derived from the history of coffee in Malaysia. Since coffee has always occupied a central position in malaysian culture, the branding also denote evolution of coffee selling and its dependence on use of technology Emphasizing the use of scent within my space, leads one to “ Relive the old good days through whole new ways � The design of the products of my space namely: cake,pastries and coffee, are original and creative as they assemble various techniques, thinking processes and creativity. The products conform to high quality products in relation to their colour, form, texture and pattern without altering them much from their organic state.

Reflecting the deaf and speech impaired individuals


Face to face communication

Relive the old good days through whole new ways


Business Strategy My business strategy will focus the use of a photography studio as well as a marketing class. The photography studio allows users to avail themselves for a photography service for special occasions. This studio takes snapshots of the products such as cakes and pastries produced with the bakery of my space and advertises them through the use of elctronic media/Apps. It also works in close collaboration with the marketing class to promote the sale of the products by using an active marketing strategy. In this context it is worth noting that the deaf and speech impaired people are given opportunities of how to market their products through learning of graphic-making photo and video editing as well as online marketing.

Sustainability This space caters for the speech impaired and deaf people by providing them with the neccessary facilities in order to be able to stand on their own feet and become independent. The overall design results from a mixing of all elements needed to satisfy the objectives of my space. It takes into consideration for both the form as well as functions required for my space while using and innovative sustainable materials for building each space. This will thus allow people to have a better experience Since my products will be mostly made from 3D printing. it will lead to sustainability by being an environmental friendly alternative to more common food cooking and dining practices A significant element of my product includes the use of proteins food such as algae or carrot which can be swallowed and digested more easily by old people or any health patients.


INNOVATION Starting and growing a business is as much about the innovation, drive and determination of the people who doing as it is about the product they sell. An innovative concept integrated in my space is the use of a pulley system which very easily conveys moulds prepared from the graphic and crafting area which is located on the upper floor down to the lower floor of my bakery area. This is an effective means of saving time and energy. It also allows easier communication among the deaf and speech impaired as they can easily use sign language to communicate. The bakery area of my space has been designed to produce and supply a whole variety of different type of cake and pastries for the cafe space. On any special occasion such as birthdays or weddings, one can choose and customize the flavour,taste and appearance. However it can be achieved by collaborating with another section of my space namely the graphic and crafting space. This area is specialised for digital 3Dmodelling as well as producing physical models in order to create 3D-printed silicone moulds. These moulds are then used to make a whole variety of different sizes and shapes cakes, according to the customer’s preferences. These two areas in my space are therfore linked through a pulley system which carries the different moulds from the graphic and crafting are to the bakery kitchen.

From Another Point Of view


Conclusion While designing my space I have considered all the relevant factors and strategies which satisfy the objectives of this project. From my research I have included innovative ideas to supplement the products I have designed. In this endeavour I have created a space designed to promote and enhance face to face communication among normal and deaf and speech impaired people. Lastly , I want my design to reflect the psychology whereby the normal people are integrating the deaf and speech impaired community instead of vice-versa.



Chapter 6



Spatial Development Warm accent colours of furnitures create cheerful and pleasant atmosphere. The combination of curved and straight lines create harmony. The celing detail draws attention.

Use of different colours to define a space

July 1, 2017. Retrieved from July 1, 2017. Retrieved from pin/488359153314432879/

CHEERFUL This combination of industrial, raw finish style with accent coloured furniture promoted a laid back and easy going feel. July 1, 2017. Retrieved from pin/293578469442056840/

Use of printed element can enhance the fun factor and enhance the graphic purpose of such space.


July 1, 2017. Retrieved from h t t p s : / / w w w.

July 1, 2017. Retrieved from https://par


July 1, 2017. Retrieved from pin/438678819928883509/

July 1, 2017. Retrieved from http://www.adesignlifestyle. net/brass-accents/

Reflective brass kitchen cabinet promotes luxe look and adds warmth and elegance to the interior

Creation of a design involves the selection of various elements and their arrangements. within a given space. This should satisfy certain functional and aesthetic needs so as to have a visaul impact. Though there are no rigid rule in arranging the component or design it should nevertheless depict the expression of the individual.This should consider appropriate arrangement of form, colour,texture of the space being designed. such a creation should have a sense of equal order among the design element of that space. They should give ample consideration through the use and function of the element.



Space Planning Phase 1

While doing my space planning,the most important aspect that I considered has been the optimal use and function of space according to the needs of the ocupants. It also considers the activities,specific equipments as well as any furnitures. Howver I have brought about a few changes like change in staircase type, relocation of counselling room, as well as take into consideration of how i am going to transfer the cake from the bakery to the cafe in a more practical way.. Another change involved converting the packaging area of the space into a specific area for own cake decoration.

119 Phase 2

120 Phase 3

Phase 4



Final FloorPlan



Typology Cafe The cafe area has been designed in such a way that the workers can easily interact wit customers as well as the workers as it in an open plan form for them to see each other. At the second floor of the cafe, there are barrels, with perforations in thei lids which contain local beans. and are kept for stoge purpose. The scent of these coffee beans diffuse throughout the coffee space and this becomes more concentrated due to low ceiling height. The scent acts as a strong stimulus to all those moving around in the space. There is also a main area where bar tables are arranged at different height levels to allow easy eye contact as well as promote incidental interaction. Reflection of mirror through the ceiling design and a wall water fountain facillitate visual prospect.

Design Reception area

The reception area provides a warm and welcoming mood whereby when people come in they have an overall idea of what is the purpose of this centre. It also symbolizes the deaf and speech impaired community through the use of “hand� element representing body language. This is expressed in the form lighting as well as a design element of spread across the parametic wall. The parametric wall also allows peoplet to peep through which allows them to see the adjacent space;



Gallery The purpose the gallery is to make the visitors experience diminished use of their speech and hearing. Thus they are made to use their other senses to a greater extent. This is made effective through the use hanging acoustic panel. The other senses are scent, visual, touch and taste.. The special coffee served at the Loop Talk Cafe is unique in its own kind as it is not avaible anywhere esle. This scent of this coffee is a strong stimulant for the The visual aspect is shown the food photography and graphic design works produced by the deaf and speech impaired people. The photography display will be the form curved cylindrical display whereby photographs can be made to slide to produce . Therefore the vistors het to create their own combination of a given a set of pictures to create a new image. at the same time part of it can

The tasting area provides a wide variety of cake samples produced by the deaf and speech impaired. These are offered to the visitors for tasting purposes and visitors are explained the process of 3d printing used in the production of these cakes. the space leading to the tasting area has a a set of louspeakers. These produce a whole range of sound from low pitch to high pitch within the hearing range. People passing through this area therefore experience diiferent vibrations. This makes them more senitive to their sense of touch/feel.

gallery photographs display



127 Counselling area The counseling area has been derived based on some of the principle of Sigmund’s Freud’s consultation room whereby emphasis is laid upon the use of mirror. I also take into considerartion the fact that the interior can become a part of the exterior and vice versa. Thus I am doing so by using reflected mirror where the patient can see the exteior without being seen

128 Bakery area The design of the bakery consists of passive and active elements. In this context, lighting plays an active role whereby use of blinking light act as an attention catcher for the deaf and speech impaired workers to communicate with each other.. The passive component is the use of mirror element incorporated in the objects or furniture within the bakery as well as the ceiling design..The silicon moulds made by graphic designers move down a pulley system from the first floor th reach the bakery, Here the workers use these moulds during the baking of cakes,

Training Bakery area The training baking area is the a space whereby it provides opportunity to the registered speech impaired and deaf people to learn baking as well as hopitality practices.. Diffrent flooring height make up the design element of this space. This allows easy visual contact.



Chapter 7


Floor Plans



Elevation A & B

Section Y-Y



Section X-X


Detail chillax hammock





DESIGN SOLUTIONS This narrative explores how each space is connected to the other component of the framework which has been designed for this project. The design solutions which have been highlighted and focused upon are: transparency, see-through, mirror reflection, lighting. It is apparent that each of these spaces can easily connect two individuals from separate spaces through eye contact.




The parametric wall of the reception area serves as a see-through barrier.This stimulates the curiosity of visitors to move in the space.




142 This is a particular space whereby there is visible connection between the first floor and the ground floor. Students relaxing on the hammock can easily observe what is happening in the gallery area on the ground floor. Thus eye contact within these aeas occur easily.

The idea of transparency is dominant through this areaas one can easily see adjacent spaes like the waiting/seating area and part of the bakery training space. PART OF THE GALLERY

143 Another important element in the space consists of mirror reflection. This easily allow the individual in the counselling room to see what is happenning in the gallery including the photographs displayed in the gallery.


The main area of the bakery training space is prominent for practical sessions where the speech impaired and deaf people are trained . Here the main element of communication is eye contact and all individuals in this area usually remain in the standing position. The demonstration table is found on a dais for the trainees to observe demonstrations easily.

The bakery proper has appropriate equipments for making bread and pastries. Here it is in the form of an open plan whereby the people can move around and see each other through mirror reflecting materials used on kitchen cabinets and backsplash wall. Here lighting is used as an active design element whereby it can be used to communicate.The blinking light design is used to draw attention of people or call.



147 The cafe has been designed in such a way that allows enhaced sensory experience of its users specially through the scent of freshly roasted local coffee beans. It has a low reflected mirror ceiling which magnifies the concentration of coffee scent. The mirorred ceiling allows one to glance the whole space easily. There is also a mirrorred fountain in this area where water constantly runs down the mirror surface. The sound of this burbling water can easily lead one to feel relax. There is also a main area whereby tables and seating area are placed at different height for easy eye contact among the users. It also promotes accidentally encounters among the users.


Chapter 8


References Abdullah, M, N, L,Y; Eng, T, K. (2012). Perceived communication skills of persons with sensory impairment: a comparison by employment status. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 31, 794-799. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect. com/science/article/pii/S1877042811030722 About us. (2009,14 October). Society of Interpreters for the Deaf. Retrieved from Alex. (2017¬). The 7 Best Cold Brew Coffee Makers in 2017. Home Grounds. Retrieved from https://www.homegrounds. co/cold-brew-coffee-maker-reviews-2016/ Alexandrea. (2017). Dinara Kasko, the 3D printing pastry chef. 3Dnatives, Retrieved from en/dinara-kasko-pastry-chef060420174/ Aiden,H; McCarthy,A. (2014,May). Current attitudes towards disabled people. Scope about disability. Retrieved from Images/Publication%20Directory/Current­attitudes­to wards­disabled­people.pdf?ext=.pdf Arnold, A. (2016). Hot Bread Kitchen’s Jessamyn Rodriguez Gives Women Voices Through Bread. Saveur. Retrieved from Atelier d’Architecture. (2013). ArchDaily. Retrieved from

Battilana, J; Lee, M; Walker, J; Dorsey, C. (2012). In Search of the Hybrid Ideal. Social Enterprise. Retrieved from https:// Bennett, D. (2017). PEOPLE NAME: DEAF MALAYSIANS OF MALAYSIA. imb Global Research. Retrieved from http:// Bilal,S; Shuriye,A.O; Akmeliawati,R. (2012). The Impact of Sign Language and Speech Center for the Blind and Visually Impaired.(2011, August 11). Arch Daily. Retrieved from­for­t he­b lind­a nd­ visually­impaired­taller­de­arquite ctura­mauricio­rocha Counter Culture Coffee Training Center. (2013). ArchDaily. Retrieved from Fantelli, G. The Benefits of Baking Therapy. Mental Healthy. Retrieved from depression/the-benefits-of-baking-therapy.html Finger Talk Café – NET24, (2015).Video. Indonesia: Official NET News. Retrieved from watch?v=51LR_fU01Pw


References Fletcher, J. (2016). Deaf chef Kristofer Jonsson encourages others to break through barriers. The Press. Retrieved from Deaf-chef-Kristofer-Jonsson-encourages-others-to-breakthrough-barriers Gambetta, C. (2016). INSIDE INFRASTRUCTURE. ARPA Journal, Issue 04. Retrieved from inside-infrastructure/

Heller,T; Harris,S.P. (2012). Disability through Life course. Thousand Oaks, Carlif.: SAGE Office for Disability Issues HM Government. (January 2011). Public Perception of Disabled People:Evidence from the British Social Attitudes Survey 2009. Retrieved from attachment_data/file/325989/ppdp.pdf

Gibson, A. (2013). Research finds rising numbers of ‘hybrid organizations’ across sectors. Devex Impact. Retrieved from

Henshaw,V. (2014). Scents of Place: The Power of the Olfactory. Retrieved from https://www.architectural-review. com/rethink/scents-of-place-the-power-of-the-olfactory/8666675.article

Hales,L.(2013, July 25).  Architecture’s First Full­ Fledged Experiment in Deaf Space Design. ArchDaily. Retrieved from­s­f irst­f ull­ fledged­experiment­in­deafspace­de sign

Khalili, O. (2011). Panera’s Nonprofit Model is Working. Here’s Why. Cause Capitalism. Retrieved from

Haigh, N; Hoffman, A, J. (2012). Hybrid organizations:The next chapter of sustainable business. Organizational Dynamics, 41, 126-134. Retrieved from uploads/2015/01/Hybrid-organizations_Organizational-Dynamics.pdf

Kickul, J. Hybrid Models for Social Enterprises. Thesis (PhD). NYU Stern School Of Business. Retrieved from http://c. Models_for_Social_Enterprises_NYU_Stern.pdf Lehman, M, L. (2015). Architectural Smellscape: Designing for the Olfactory Occupant Journey. Sensing Architecture ® Academy. Retrieved from post/architectural-smellscape-designing-olfactory-occupant-journey


References Leo, P, J. (2016). Deaf Cafe Fingertalk: Empowering the deaf for future welfare. The Jakarta Post. Retrieved from http:// Li, Z.Y. (2016). Nonverbal Communication between the Disabled and Nondisabled People: An Intercultural Communication Perspective. International Conference on Humanities and Social Science, 499­502.

Ng, C. (2013). Ministry of Coffee | Mural & Infographic Menu Design. Retrieved from Perry, M. (2017). Best of Panama 2017, a juror’s perspective. Retrieved from Photographic Studio in Warsaw/ Mess Architects. (2016). ArchDaily. Retrieved from photographic-studio-in-warsaw-mess-architects

Light Sheds. (2014). ArchDaily. Retrieved from http://www. Mahon, L. (2016). 3D Printed Food – A Growing Market. 3D Printing Industry, Retrieved from https://3dprintingindustry. com/news/3d-printed-food-growing-market-83916/

Rahman, S, N, A. (2010). MALAYSIAN COFFEE CULTURE: A RESEARCH OF SOCIAL ASPECT, BRANDING AND DESIGN. Thesis (Postgraduate). UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA. Retrieved from doc/49025326/Malaysian-Coffee-Culture-A-Research-of-Social-Aspect-Branding-and-Design

Mahon,L. (2016, June 30). 3D Printed Food, a growing market. 3D Printing Industry. Retrieved from https://3dprintingindustry. com/news/3d-printed-food-growing-market-83916/ on April16, 2017.

Ramos, B. (2009). Smell Coffee For Healthy Benefits. The Coffee Bump. Retrived from blog/2009/09/smell-coffee-for-healthy-benefits.html#.WWtuUVHa6pp

Moore, J; Williams, P. (2007). Solving Starbucks Problems – 2. Loss of Coffee Aroma. Idea Sandbox. Retrieved from https://\

Science and Technology, 2(7), 138­149. Retrieved from h t t p : / / w w w. i j a s t n e t . c o m / j o u r n a l s / Vo l _ 2 _ N o _ 7 _ August_2012/15.pdf

Murugan, S. (2015). Starbucks marketing strategy. Retrieved from

Sugarcraft. (1996). Retrieved from http://www.sugarcraftmy. com/ Szymanski, J; Haefele, T; Agarwal, J; Singh, A; Sharma, A. (2016). 3D FOOD PRINTING Knowledge and Attitudes of Millennials in the GTA.

References Supporting students who are deaf or hearing impaired. (2014). University of York. Retrieved from­students/issues/ disability/deafness/#tab­6 31 Thesis (Postgraduate). Humber College. Retrieved from Translators on the MFD Community:A Statistical Analysis. International Journal of Applied Yi, A. (2017). Digital Printing Project from SGT. Retrieved from Young, L; Priest, C. (2007). Event Mechanics. DAKAR RALLY 07/08 Architectural Design Studio, Retrieved from http:// Zahari, M, S, M;Yusoff, N, M; Radzi, M, R, J, S, M; Othman, Z. (2010). The Employability of the Hearing Impaired Graduates in Malaysia Hospitality Industry. World Applied Sciences Journal 10 (Special Issue of Tourism & Hospitality), ISSN



Appendix Self Exploration Visit to Deaf Centre: APDA In order to understand and come up with a better solution for my project, I visited a deaf centre by the name of APDA( hearing impaired education & rehabilitation institute) situated at Curepipe in Mauritius. I had the opportunity to visit this centre during my holidays. It must be noted that I had contacted several institutions such as Community Service Centre for the Deaf (CSCD) and Y-Self reliance centre for the deaf in Malaysia which cater for the deaf and speech impaired people. However, there were no response or rejected my request regarding observation and dicumentation about such disabled people. My visit to the APDA centre was quite fruitful and enriching as it helped me to understand the needs and aspirations of the deaf and speech impaired people.

Objectives of APDA: 1. Help them become self-dependent 2. Emphasize vocational training 3. Help them to develop self-confidence & positive attitudes towards daily happenings. Special Training is given to them to develop their skills regarding simple works such as repair of mobile phones, table or bench making and gardening, At this centre they did aquaponic. The idea behind this is to prepare them to undertake self-employed jobs later in life. They are also provided with psychologists and occupational therapists who constantly monitor their progress in learning, general growth and development. They give appropriate feedback for any corrective measure that need to be taken for the benefit of the learner.


In general, it has been observed that around 30% of such differently abled children manage to do well in their academic field. However, majority of these children perform quite poorly academically but tend to do better in things related to skills such as handicrafts. The main reason behind such a situation is the fact that such children tend to lose interest easily with respect to formal reading and learning.

Sometimes they are usually grouped with other more abled children and are made to interact with them so tha they can learn by imitating the more abled ones.

Thesis Editorial Design  
Thesis Editorial Design