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BERLIN

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Since it became the capital of a united Germany, Berlin has attracted millions of visitors each year. They walk for miles, from the Reichstag through the Brandenburg Gate down the Unter den Linden boulevard; they stroll through the Tiergarten to the Potsdamer Platz where they gaze in awe at this new

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world; and around Kollwitzplatz they search for the legend of Prenzlauer Berg. What makes Berlin so fascinating? This picture guide will attempt to find an answer. It shows the historic next to the new, the big city and the local neighborhood, or “kiez”, where Berliners live unaffected by the

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vast numbers of tourists. Berlin is more than a vast heap of stones; it’s a history book, of the entire country. History is never finished in Berlin. If you live here, you’ll be a part of it. Berlin is a magnet that attracts people from everywhere and gives them the space to realize their ideas and to inspire others.


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ABOUT THIS BOOK InGuide Berlin is illustrated with stunning photographs as you would expect to find in a large coffee-table book yet it is also a highly informative travel guide book. District by district, lots of images and vivid descriptions introduce all the sights, revealing many amazing facts about the city and its

people, about art and culture, about the everyday and the unusual. In “Compact Berlin”, insider tips point out the best restaurants, hotels, and shops, as well as trendy neighborhoods, important addresses, and useful facts. Another chapter introduces all the top museums in detailed descriptions

and photographs. Finally, the City Walks are packed with shopping and dining tips that will inspire you to explore all of the Berlin districts and areas. A detailed, removable city map completes this unique picture travel guide. It makes it easy for you to find all the city’s highlights by grid reference.

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8 BERLIN’S HISTORIC HEART 10 Brandenburg Gate 12 Quadriga 14 Akademie der Künste The Adlon – 5-Star Tradition 16 18 Unter den Linden 20 Frederick the Great 22 Komische Oper 24 Humboldt University 26 Neue Wache 28 Zeughaus/Deutsches Historisches Museum 30 Bebelplatz, Hedwigskathedrale 32 Deutsche Oper, Kronprinzenpalais 34 Friedrichwerdersche Kirche 36 Altes Museum 38 Neues Museum 40 Pergamon Museum 42 Bode Museum 44 Alte Nationalgalerie 46 Berliner Dom 48 Rotes Rathaus 50 Marx Engels Forum, Alexanderplatz

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Fernsehturm Nikolaiviertel Hackesche Höfe Neue Synagoge Kunsthaus Tacheles Friedrichstadtpalast Friedrichstrasse Shopping in Berlin Mitte Gendarmenmarkt

52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68

NEW CENTRAL AREA Reichstag Norman Foster’s Dome Deutscher Bundestag Chancelor’s Office Hauptbahnhof Museum für Naturkunde The Wall Tiergarten, Siegessäule, Strasse des 17. Juni Schloss Bellevue Holocaust Memorial Potsdamer Platz Sony Center International Film Festival Berlin Philharmonie, Kammermusiksaal

70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98

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Gemäldegalerie Berlin’s modern art museums German Resistance Memorial Center

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CHARLOTTENBURG, WILMERSDORF Tauentzien, Breitscheidplatz Kaiser-WilhelmGedächtniskirche Zoological Garden, Aquarium Kurfürstendamm Berlin’s stages Charlottenburg Schloss and Park ICC, Messe, Funkturm Olympic Stadium

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PANKOW (PRENZLAUERBERG, WEISSENSEE) Around Kollwitzplatz Kulturbrauerei Contemporary art Rykestrasse Synagogue

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108 110 112 114 116 118 120 122

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CONTENTS

Links: Als einer der schönsten Plätze Europas gilt der Gendarmenmarkt mit Deutschem Dom, Konzerthaus und Französischem Dom (von links); vorige Seiten: Blick in die Kuppel des Reichstagsgebäudes und die Parkseite von Schloss Charlottenburg.

Jüdischer Friedhof Weissensee

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136 FRIEDRICHSHAIN, KREUZBERG, TEMPELHOF, SCHÖNEBERG 138 Karl-Marx-Allee 140 East Side Gallery 142 Oberbaumbrücke 144 Wall Museum – Haus am Checkpoint Charlie 146 Martin-Gropius-Bau, Deutsches Technikmuseum 148 Jüdisches Museum 150 Turkish Kreuzberg 152 Tempelhof Airport 154 AROUND BERLIN 156 Schloss Glienicke 158 Havel and Havel lakes, Pfaueninsel 160 Grunewald, Wannsee 162 Berlin Modernism Housing Estates 164 Spandau Berlin-Hohenschönhausen 166 Memorial

168 Schloss Friedrichsfelde, Tierpark Friedrichsfelde 170 Treptow Park, Soviet War Memorial 172 Köpenick, Müggelsee COMPACT BERLIN Historic heart New central area Charlottenburg, Wilmersdorf Pankow (Prenzlauer Berg, Weissensee) Friedrichshain, Kreuzberg, Tempelhof, Schöneberg Around Berlin

174 176 188 192

MAJOR MUSEUMS Alte Nationalgalerie Gemäldegalerie Pergamonmuseum Neue Nationalgalerie Deutsches Technikmuseum

208 210 214 218 222 226

CITY WALKS From the zoo to the palace

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From the Reichstag to the Museumsinsel From the Nikolaiviertel to the new central area From Potsdamer Platz to the Tiergarten From the Technikmuseum to Kreuzberg

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APPENDIX Index Picture credits Imprint

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240 244 248

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The Altes Museum by Karl Friedrich Schinkel, opened in 1830, is the oldest museum in Berlin. Visitors often wait on the stairsto be admitted, and not only – as seen here – during the “Long Night of the Museums”.

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BERLIN’S HISTORIC HEART When the Berlin Wall was breached on 9 November 1989, the city regained its historic heart. Much of Berlin had been destroyed during the Allied bombing raids of World War II, and while some of the

city had been reconstructed during the DDR era, a substantial part was in need of renovation. The neoclassical Unter den Linden boulevard again tells of the city’s changing fortunes over the centuries, while

the Nikolaiviertel district is Berlin’s new “old city”, and the Museum Island, which underwent restoration, is a reminder of Berlin’s former glory. Since 2009, all museums have been open again to visitors.

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BERLIN’S HISTORIC HEART The Brandenburger Tor (Brandenburg Gate) is a triumphant finale to the magnificent street of Unter den Linden. Created between 1788 and 1791 by Carl Gotthard Langhans, this massive, 26-m (85-foot) high, 65-m (218-foot) wide, sandstone construction is much more than just a gate to the

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city: it symbolized the strength of Prussia. Twelve Doric columns divide the double portico into five passageways. The central one, 5.5 m (18 feet) wide, was reserved for royal equipages, and the rank and file used the narrower side passageways. The relief on the roof parapet shows the entry


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BRANDENBURGER TOR

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of the gods of peace into the city; the ornamentation in the passageway illustrates the legend of Hercules, with Mars and Minerva in the side halls. The magnificent Quadriga (four-horsed chariot) crowning the Gate was designed by Johann Gottfried Schadow and completed in 1791.

The story of the Brandenburg Gate mirrors the story of Germany. After World War II the structure was badly damaged and the four-horsed chariot practically

destroyed.

After

13 August 1961, the lonely Gate stood amid sections of the Wall. Today it is restored to its earlier glory with an intact chariot (large picture); a photograph standing in front of the Gate is a musthave for all Berlin visitors (top).

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The sculpture of Eirene. the Greek goddess of peace, who is in charge of the chariot driven by the four horses, was designed by Johann Gottfried Schadow in 1789. To produce the 5-m-tall (16-foot) statue during the years 1790 to 1793, Emanuel Jury, a coppersmith from Potsdam, used his niece

After World War II, only the head of one of the horses remained of the original chariot; it is kept at the Märkisches Museum today. To rebuild the sculpture it was possible to use the original plaster models, and the chariot was once more installed on top of the Gate in September 1958. After the fall of the Wall, the chariot (large picture and top right) had to be restored – during the New Year’s Eve of 1989, boisterous revelers had stolen its tack.

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Ulrike as a model. In the classical model the goddess was nude, but the king was not happy about this. The goddess had to be clad with a virtuous cape before driving the chariot toward the palace. She stayed there until 1806, when the Prussians were defeated at Jena and Auerstedt and Napoleon

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pac ked chariot and lady into twelve boxes, took her to Paris, and exhibited her there together with other sculptures. In 1814, the year after the French defeat at the Battle of the Nations near Leipzig, Marshal Blücher ordered that the Quadriga be returned to Berlin; Berliners spoke of the chariot’s


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THE QUADRIGA “comeback”. The goddess of peace now became the goddess of victory, crowned with a wreath of oak leaves, the Iron Cross and the Prussian eagle. The square in front of the Gate was renamed Pariser Platz. During World War II the Quadriga was destroyed, but it was recreated afterward.

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BERLIN’S HISTORIC HEART The Akademie is not a monotonous stone ensemble. Instead the traces of the old Academy of the Arts are still visible behind its glass front – both the Akademie and its architect, Günter Behnisch, fought long and hard. Indefatigably, they pleaded against the obliteration of the past and against pseudo-

Walls tumble (large picture), walkways run every which way through the building (above). Behind the glass façade (top right) the new structure reveals traces of the old halls of the Academy of the Arts.

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history in their surroundings, until eventually they were allowed to build the glass house. During the day, the glass front reveals nothing; however, the unloved surroundings are now reflected with all their pompous stucco, dominating the look of the Pariser Platz. Inside, everything is glass and slanted.


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AKADEMIE DER KÜNSTE

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But is it art? Reflections of an intriguingly playful roof, falling leaves against the blue of the sky. The new Academy of the Arts really comes into its own at night. When the warm light behind the glass façade draws the gaze to the oblique shapes, that’s when the Academy turns into a shining diamond.

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There is certainly no shortage of five-star hotels in Berlin. New ones continually spring up – but Hotel Adlon remains special. Emperor William II called it a “temple of pleasure” and insisted on being the first to cross the threshold when it opened in 1907. The foyer was aglow with magical lights and

It was to look as in “the olden days”, the new Hotel Adlon Kempinski Berlin in its old location. Indeed, the Berlin Senate requested a replica, a building constructed in the historicist style of the founder years (top right). Discreet music in the spacious lobby (large picture) welcomes guests who meet around the fountain for a tea or a coffee.

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there was a distinct hint of raciness if not decadence in the air, along with the clinking of big money. It boasted luxurious bathrooms and fripperies such as bell-pulls with tassels for service or small benches to place one’s purses and handkerchiefs. And another fairytale surrounds Berlin’s most famous

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hotel, that of the carpentry journeyman and cabinetmaker Lorenz Adlon, originally from Mainz, who became the king of hotels as the builder and founder of the classy hotel. The magnificent Adlon managed to survive the destruction of World War II only to fall victim, in May


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THE ADLON: FIVE-STAR TRADITION 1945, to a match dropped carelessly in the wine cellar. After the fall of the Wall, a fund was set up to restore the hotel, and in 1996 the Adlon was the first new building on Pariser Platz. It should prove to be a valuable source of income not just for the city, but also for its 3,500 investors.

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BERLIN’S HISTORIC HEART Berlin’s main road is an elegant strolling boulevard, “2,162 paces or approximately 21 minutes” long, or so it was stated in an old travel guide. By today’s standards you’ll stroll just under a mile (1,390 m/1,520 yds) from the Brandenburg Gate to Schlossplatz. In 1647, when the road was

It’s always pretty, Berlin’s Unter den Linden boulevard, and the equestrian statue of Frederick the Great by Christian Daniel Rauch (large picture) – in summer when the linden trees provide shade for the strollers; later in the year when the leaves turn all shades of the rainbow; and in seasonal costume, with festive golden lights shining through the bare trees (top right), with views up to the merry-go-round at the Rotes Rathaus (above).

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built, “from Hundebrücke up to Thiergarten”, 1,000 linden (lime) and walnut trees were planted along the avenue, six rows deep. In 1741, major construction work was undertaken along the road. Unter den Linden has long since become legendary; the buildings that line it tell of the fortunes and misfortunes


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UNTER DEN LINDEN

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of an entire country. What was created more than 500 years ago, largely lay in ruins at the end of World War II. It was restored or replaced by modern office blocks. Today, the avenue still represents the Berlin of the Great Electors, the Prussian kings and emperors, the DDR, and now the reunited Germany.

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During the reign of King Frederick II (1740–1786), known even during his lifetime as “the Great” and as “der Alte Fritz” (Old Fritz), Berlin became a city ranking among the greatest in Europe. Frederick’s father was the strictly pragmatic “soldier king” who conducted not a single war but bequeathed

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Europe’s fourth-strongest army to his son. I, contrast, Frederick himself, the music lover, started Prussia’s territorial expansion with the Silesian Wars and the Seven Years’ War. His Forum Fridericianum was to transform the small town of Berlin on the River Spree into a royal capital. But he was not fond of the

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city itself and moved to Potsdam, from where he conducted the fate of Prussia. His round table sessions with the philosophers and artists of the day became legendary. He called Voltaire to his court from France. Schloss Bellevue was built, and the Royal Porcelain Manufacture was founded. The


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FREDERIC THE GREAT Frederick-style monarchy was regarded by many as the model of a strong and just state, and the social consequences of his military policy were quickly forgotten in the light of his victories. In the end, Frederick was lonely and plagued by gout. He left an estate-based state, but no heirs to the throne.

The foundation stone for the monument to Frederick the Great, built to a design by Christian Daniel Rauch, was not laid until one hundred years after his ascent to the throne. In 1851, finally, the statue was unveiled. Wearing coronation robes and tricorn, the King rides on his favorite horse, CondĂŠ (above and top). His Majesty is accompanied by 150 bronze figures, including his life-sized generals (large picture).

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BERLIN’S HISTORIC HEART The Komische Oper, the future birthplace of modern musical theater, was founded in 1947, in the Soviet occupation zone in war-torn Berlin. Built from 1891 to 1892 by the Viennese architect Ferdinand Fellner, the Theater Unter den Linden originally had a hotel and a restaurant in the same complex. After

Rigoletto (large picture) is performed in German, just like Der Vetter aus Dingsda (The Cousin from Nowhere, above). Felsenstein wanted the audience to understand everything, a peculiarity in the international opera business. Scenery and theatrical components are linked with the musical aspects. From the outside, the building is rather less enchanting (top right).

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World War II, only the auditorium was preserved. A new stage was built, with its entrance in Behrenstrasse. On 23 December, a new chapter in the story of the building began when Walter Felsenstein opened it with a performance of Die Fledermaus (The Bat), an operetta by Johann Strauss. He remained the opera’s


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KOMISCHE OPER

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stage director until his death in 1975 and ensured its worldwide success. The orchestra, founded by Leo Spies in 1947, was conducted by renowned figures, such as Otto Klemperer, Václav Neumann, and Kurt Masur. In 2007, the Komische Oper was awarded the prize of “opera house of the year”.

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BERLIN’S HISTORIC HEART Among its former students, Humboldt University (known as Friedrich Wilhelm University until 1946) boasts 29 Nobel Prize winners, including Albert Einstein (physics), Otto Hahn (chemistry), Robert Koch (medicine), and Theodor Mommsen (literature). Statutes of Alexander von Humboldt, the great natural

The Humboldt University building has undergone numerous transformations during its 250year history. The outside of the structure was rebuilt after World War II, but today the use of the computer in the historical lecture theaters is just as normal as that of the skeleton during a medical lecture (above and large picture). Unmoved by change, Wilhelm von Humboldt (top right) greets his students today as ever.

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scientist, and his brother Wilhelm, of equal academic renown, guard the entrance, with its well-stocked bookstands and browsing readers. The building, constructed in 1748 to 1765 to the plans of Knobelsdorff, Frederick the Great’s architect, was intended for Frederick’s brother Prince


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HUMBOLDT UNIVERSITY

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Henry, but then became home to Berlin University, jointly founded by Wilhelm von Humboldt. The first vice-chancellor in 1810 was Johann Gottlieb Fichte. Many great names of European scientific history have taught here: Hegel, Planck, the brothers Grimm, Schleiermacher, Virchow, and Sauerbruch.

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BERLIN’S HISTORIC HEART Designated a war memorial in 1931, in 1993 the Neue Wache (New Guard House) was rededicated the “Zentrale Gedenkstätte der Bundesrepublik Deutschland für die Opfer des Krieges und der Gewaltherrschaft” (Central Memorial of the Federal Republic to the victims of war and tyranny). The origi-

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nal building, a royal guard house designed by Karl Friedrich Schinkel in 1818, served as a memorial to victims of World War I. Destroyed in World War II, it was rebuilt in 1951 to 1957. From the early 1960s, the changing of the DDR guards at the then “Memorial to the Victims of Fascism and


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NEUE WACHE

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Militarism” attracted tourists. The communist government altered the interior, adding a crystal cube with an eternal flame in 1969, as well as the remains of the Unknown Resistance Fighter, and two bronze slabs covering “bloodsoaked earth from fascist concentration camps”.

In 1818 Karl Friedrich Schinkel built a small neoclassical temple (large picture) in a chestnut copse where once a canon guard protected the palace. It was his first public commission, and became the prototype of Schinkelstyle neoclassicism. In the Neue Wache stands the Mother with her Dead Son, a bronze replica of the Pietà by Käthe Kollwitz, symbolizing the suffering of all victims of violence (above).

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BERLIN’S HISTORIC HEART The Zeughaus on Unter den Linden is one of the oldest state buildings in Berlin, built as an arsenal between 1695 and 1706 by Johann Arnold Nering, Andreas Schlüte, and Jean de Bodt. Until 1876, the upper floor was stacked with rapiers and muskets, and heavy artillery weapons were stored

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on the ground floor. Schlüter’s main contribution is the sculptural decoration – the carved heads of 22 dying warriors above the windows in the courtyard are examples of some of his most accomplished work. At the end of the 19th century, the Zeughaus ceased to be a weapons store; the rooms were


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ZEUGHAUS/DEUTSCHES HISTORISCHES MUSEUM 7 now used for historical exhibitions. Today, the Zeughaus, featuring a striking new glass building by the architect I. M. Pei, is home to the Deutsches Historisches Museum. Its permanent exhibition covers 2,000 years of German history and includes rare items, such as Frederick the Great’s campbed.

Since reunification, the Deutsches

Historisches

Museum

(German Historical Museum) has been housed in the Berlin Zeughaus (large picture). In summer, concerts are held in the covered courtyard (top). The enormous permanent collection is an absolute must for history fans (above: a 1519 missal from the Meissen diocese; behind: Crucifixion with Saints, an altarpiece that was probably created in Augsburg around 1485).

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BERLIN’S HISTORIC HEART On Bebelplatz (formerly known as Opernplatz) stands the Alte Bibliothek, a baroque building known colloquially as “the commode”. It was built from 1775 to 1780 to plans by Georg Christian Unger and Georg Friedrich Boumann, following the king’s wish that it should be based on Fischer von

Despite its mix of architectural styles, Bebelplatz creates the impression of a harmonious whole. The Hedwigskathedrale (large picture) was designed by Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff. It burned down in 1943, and received a new plain rotunda with a tiered organ (above). The Hotel de Rome (the former Dresdner Bank), located in between cathedral and Alte Bibliothek (top right), fits well into the historic ensemble.

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Erlach’s 50-year-old designs for the Hofburg in Vienna. Only the façade still fits with the historical model. Today the building is part of the Humboldt University. In the middle of the square, covered by a glass plate, is the empty library, a memorial by the Jewish artist Micha Ulmann created in 1994


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BEBELPLATZ HEDWIGSKATHEDRALE

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to commemorate the National Socialists’ book burning on 10 May 10 1933. The Hedwigskathedrale at the front of the square – dedicated in 1778 and the Catholic bishop’s Berlin see – is named after the Silesian national saint. Its dome is reminiscent of that of the Pantheon in Rome.

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BERLIN’S HISTORIC HEART The Deutsche Staatsoper (German State Opera House) was a vision of the young Frederick II. His Forum Fridericianum was intended to unite the sciences, arts, and monarchy of Prussia in an architectural ensemble. His first building was a “magical castle”, an opera house. The architect Georg Wenzes-

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laus von Knobelsdorff started work in 1741, and the opera house became the first selfcontained German theater, located in today’s Bebelplatz. In 1789, the opera was opened to the “ordinary” public. However, only a fragment remains today of Frederick’s dream. The Kronprinzenpalais (the crown


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DEUTSCHE STAATSOPER KRONPRINZENPALAIS

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prince’s palace) at No. 3, Unter den Linden, built in 1663 and redesigned several times, was important not only as the city address of princes, and later as a DDR guest house. On 31 August 1990, this is also where the treaty was signed which reunited the DDR and the Federal Republic of Germany.

The lights on the neoclassical portico of the state opera house (large picture) promise an enjoyable evening. Perhaps Snow White will be performed (above: the

ballerina

Elisa

Carrillo

Cabrera in Angelin Preljocaj’s contemporary choreography of the fairytale). Germany’s last emperor, Wilhelm II, was born in the Kronprinzenpalais (top) on 27 January 1859.

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Inguide - Berlin